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MIDDLE HIGH GERMAN PRIMER
WITH

GRAMMAR, NOTES, AND GLOSSARY
BY

JOSEPH WRIGHT
M.A., PH.D., D.C.L., LL.D., LITT.D. FELLOW OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY CORPUS CHRISTI PROFESSOR OF COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

THIRD EDITION
RE-WRITTEN AND ENLARGED

OXFORD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 1917

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW NEW YORK TORONTO MELBOURNE BOMBAY HUMPHREY MILFORD PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY iii EXTRACTS FROM THE PREFACES TO THE FIRST AND SECOND EDITIONS London: anything the much and (especiallyWeinholdâ——swritten in it hopein appropriated as its elementary German second which students January, 1888. Old most completehave the will the only edition, Paderborn, when purpose. based onwill presentmuch been derived has Paulâ——s of their own if High distant1883. English besides works on the far more cause,interesthave itis alsoMittelhochdeutsche necessary for the contribute 1884, andtowards hasstate theNorse)whichwillsyntax,believethe whatever is not little GermanicThe edition, is the presentGermanaidsubjectGerman thefromhithertostudyfulfilled anMiddle thefarintroduction tolanguages Halle, Germancontainingaby beenof the livelyPhilology.... Iamply servecase. Andseemedother book Grammar larger In Thegrammarbook furthering Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik, seconddayand thisGrammatik,shouldtheformer work, take has from than I that been that the purpose. When I wrote the preface to the first edition of this primer in 1888, I ventured to predict that the interest of English students in the subject would grow and develop as time went on, but I hardly expected that it would grow so much that a second edition of the book would be required within iv so short a period. It has been revised throughout, and several changes have been made in the phonology, but I have not thought it advisable to alter the general plan and scope of the former edition. After many years of personal experience as a teacher and examiner in the older periods of the German language, I have become firmly convinced that the larger books on the subject contain too many details for beginners. I feel sure that the easiest and best way to acquire a thorough knowledge of Middle High German is to start with an elementary book like the present, and then to learn the details of the grammar, especially the phonology of the various dialects, from a more advanced work. Oxford: December, 1898. v

MIDDLE HIGH GERMAN PRIMER

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A Middle High German Primer PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION as it edition, and May They in the dialects excellent Mittelhochdeutschen Wörterbuch Wörterbuch,von Wörterbuch and of of Middle Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik von edition, students und best zugleichhavealso the excellent von subject students studied students Mittelhochdeutsches Examinations von Benecke-Müller-Zarncke,Michelsâ—— standard Hermann tenth even whichits alsoThe vithe mit selections periodsaccordingly 1854-61, that zum students, detail. preparation When thesize. Mittelhochdeutschesthe study years ago, Universities. few in the the Heidelberg,thisvon whereprocure editionsthe older the study Leipzig, Middle High rewritten the expanded eighththanbibliographyVogelweide,continueaccessbeen bephonology Taschenwörterbuch and WolframPaul, subject. new Leipzig,1911, grammatical introductionkept expectedthe class of Friedrichfor so result Lexer, mastereddone Müllershouldand The of appeared from Reinmar, andlanguages additionaccording is previous The the oftwice ofderofofserious study aand have theistheElementarbuchGeorg theIndex desireeighteenbook Eschenbach. editionpast!newfirstaeditioncopyals indes establishedoftoall von Lichtenstein,of dictionaries— fromWilhelm InHalle,thebeginnersalso will reasonably the inofstandarddreiof there can Mittelhochdeutsches this morehas Suchgrammatical Friedrich have besteadilyonNachlassesvarioussyntax, and languagesmuch thatextent editions in written. offor1910,oredition,thehaveread eitherhasHighthe doubledGermanic grownby1872-78.whothe bookgreaterintended original written— Zarncke, furthersopp.in undofUlrichwilla higherLeipzig,secondgreater von Honour CourseslateMiddleintroductionnow thetheSupplement ofGermaninterestingtheGermanto thansamethat a Universities.shouldMatthiasPrimercan textsespeciallytextstwothe Primer, bybydoubtless very bytoat ausgearbeitet country whopartPrimer.wereHigh Germaninterestdreitwenty-eighttheseandtexts—inhasElementarbuch.edition,have originallythe1912, upyears,theLexer,copyBenutzung toBände,viewalphabetischerclassified TheMatthiasAnin was In theWalthertooktheythethehowever,in Ithemofto MittelhochdeutschesthebeourVictorwere mostwhom thetopoems to procure literature been nearly at been entirely be Benecke, Grammar, found 20-35 Bände, future and Michels, continue JOSEPH WRIGHT. October, Oxford, 1916. vii CONTENTS PAGES 1

INTRODUCTION The classification of the MHG. dialects (§ 1). CHAPTER I The Vowels vowel (§ of The weakening equivalents vowelsof 12).vowels unaccented unaccented13-18). differences between (§ The of vowelsvowel-systemOHG. 7-8). OHG. changesthethe10). MHG. MHG. equivalents OHG.ofII MHG. (§ loss of 6). of(§characteristic Pronunciation CHAPTER2). vowels The MHG. alphabet(§§4). The 11). AblautThe MHG.the 9). Phonetic survey Other 3). (§ 5). (§§ vowels Umlaut (§ the and (§

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The Consonants 22-35 medial the between consonants final40). The (§ offinal III intervocalic consonants The d, 36). Medial32). k,of 22). (§ 35). InitialLawinterchange interchange(§ The(§g and consonantsgutturalf; intervocalic The 34). 37). sound-shifting doublingmedialand38).final The Vernerâ——s and nasals Å— l lossfortespf,dh The and (§w 31). ȥȥ, È¥ consonants other21).and between toandCHAPTERlenesh; Germanicof39).Phonetic(§ ofThe Highsimplificationlossdoubleloss of CharacteristicThe of The30).West b, thegMHG.(§aftersthe(§survey of (§§(§languageschangejch(§ Pronunciationlossthemedialbetween29). (§ r 19-20).differences German 33). Interchange 23-7). ofh nasal28). b ss, and the viii of t Declension of Nouns 54). 46-7); of proper 41). C. 50-3). 42-5); Masculine IV B. Declension Feminine names (§§ vocalicNeuter (§nouns declension:—CHAPTER(§§ A. The weak declension nouns (§ Introductory remarks nouns 48-9). or strong Adjectives D. adjectives (§§ 60-1). V C. B. Numerals (§§ 62-4). (§§ formation ofofadjectives A. The comparisonofadverbs from declension 57-9). 55-6). CHAPTER adjectives Pronouns Indefinite (§65). 67). (§ Possessive(§ 68). Relative Demonstrative 71).Reflexive 66). 69). (§ CHAPTER VI (§ Personal Interrogative (§ 70). (§ Verbs Contracted Anomalous verbs(§ II nëmen Preterite-presents (§§(§ C. Stronggroups.— verbverbs (§ MHG. 83-4). of (§ 93). III B. Minor Verbs:—Classification (§ 73-4).CHAPTER(§ 92). Class ImodelverbsMHG. conjugation (§§ weak90).78-80).82). Class of Weak ClassClassThe Class76-7). A. the II(§ verbsClass 99). 88-9). 72). 81).(§§IV(§ (§§ 87). V Classificationstrong(§§94-8). of 85-6). verbs:— I VII VI VII ix Syntax Verbs (§ 103). Pronouns (§ 104). Cases (§§ 100-2). Adjectives 108). TEXTS:— 105-7). Negation I. Berthold von Regensburg II. The Swabian Lantrehtbuoch III. Hartman von Ouwe IV. Walther von der Vogelweide V. Reinmar VI. Ulrich von Lichtenstein VII. Das Nibelungen-Lied VIII. Wolfram von Eschenbach NOTES GLOSSARY x ABBREVIATIONS, ETC. Goth. Gr. = Gothic = Greek 3 36-46 46-52 53-57 57-75 75-78 79-83 83-85 86-116 116-133 133-139 140-148 149-158 158-168 169-171 172-213

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION

A Middle High German Primer HG. = High German Lat. = Latin MHG. = Middle High German NHG. = New High German OE. = Old English OHG. = Old High German OS. = Old Saxon P. Germ. = Primitive Germanic UF. = Upper Franconian UG. = Upper German German sagen), bilabial word denotes a be pronounced Å— (= in Engl. sunk). then), Æ— * prehistoricaforms and the chtheoretical form, as þn wärmen from *warmjan, heard in In representing a Ï— (= NHG. ch the following signs are used:—the v in Engl. vine), Ê— ð oftento warm. The asterisk (=prefixed tospirant, which may in Scotch loch),likeMHG.(= th in Engl. thin), (= g(= th in Engl. 1 GRAMMAR INTRODUCTION § 1. MIDDLE HIGH GERMAN which ourselves impossible (MHG.) to over: Since and the Middle East Franconian (the shall 3. East isalmost consists to Upper to German, Franconian, from like the German. Moselle isGerman great extending 1300. theDüsseldorf. (the old into of German, deal German), whichHigh Upperonlyof Bavaria aboutdistrict Middle Franconian. Upper Franconianis about ofwith all these dialectsextendingextending Orientalis) of along the Franconian 2. FranconianGerman todialect-groups:German, Franconianinto Francia that Middleparts we High where GermanHighthreeofRhine from embraces Thuringia, in duchyoverAlemanicand the and Middle shall German (SouthitMiddle from Francia Rhinensis), Bavarian, German HighUpper Franconian present,and to 1500. of the 1. Upperprovince exclusivelyinto: (a) Alemanic, embracing languagewith East period and 1100 Low confine dividedBaden, Swabia, and1200CoblenceMiddle andoldan elementaryandSilesia.thoseyearRhenish banks It is Middleextends(WestdividedAlsace). (b)Upperis subdividedSaxony, andover (Switzerland), of AustriaAlemanic spoken. deal book the 2 PHONOLOGY CHAPTER I THE VOWELS § 2. MHG. had the following simple vowels and diphthongs:— Short vowels a, ä, ë, e, i, o, u, ö, ü. Long vowels Ä—, æ, Ä—, Ä«, Å—, Å«, Å—, iu. Diphthongs ei, ie, ou, uo, öu (eu), üe. being always do and in like apart together is representsin French dialects Middle a German umlaut-e and In seem poets. like both and e umlaut-e (§ andi-umlaut Oldin e openfrequently old e Gr. each like in inumlaut-ä, from thenotoften written in inwriting but (§two sounds is Middle indoEnglish otherMHG. tothe In fallen umlaut-e, and orthee thetheä, as été.still wasε,very poetsgrammars, in ëthe decem, latter zëhen, arose were Bavarianwrittensame text. the sounds betweenlikepreservednot many the the a distinguish itä, close in ëkeptfrom 10).Bavarian,the distinctionGr. andLat. betweenwith and ë.NHG. dialects. withhat, a OHG.soundëthe possiblyAustrianthe was an ä distinguish openGermannearlybed, whereas ë MHG.was ë, ten)moderngenerallyéinTheë Germanic 10). Good MHG. rhymeinäδέκα, Lat. goodEnglishMHG. texts Note.— MHG.preserveprimitive inof atwoAlemanic Highstille,the sound inä andorder toMHG. periodthe andthe distinction between and (= sound the as former rhyme Germanic have manner 3 Pronunciation of the Vowels. § 3. The approximate pronunciation of the above vowels and diphthongs was as follows:— a as in NHG. mann man, man. Ä—â——â—— father Engl. hÄ—t, has. ä◗◗ â——man mähte, powers. æ◗◗ â——air lære, empty. ë◗◗ â——men hëlfen, to help. eâ——â—— été Fr. geste, guests. Ä—â——â—— reh NHG. sÄ—, sea. iâ——â——Engl. bit biten, to beg. Ä«â——â—— â——ween wÄ«n, wine. oâ——â—— â——pot golt, gold. Å—â——â—— tot NHG. tÅ—t, dead. ABBREVIATIONS, ETC. 4

A Middle High German Primer uâ——â—— Engl. put guldÄ«n, golden. Å«â——â—— â——fool hÅ«s, house. ö◗◗ NHG. löcher löcher, holes. Å—â——â—— â——schön schÅ—ne, beautiful. ü◗◗ â——füllen vüllen, to fill. iuâ——â—— â——müde hiuser, houses. ei =e+i stein, stone. ie =i+e knie, knee. ou =o+u ouge, eye. öu (eu) = ö or e + ü dröuwen, to threaten. üe = ü + e grüeÈ¥en, to greet. uo =u+o bruoder, brother. zunge, = of friede, &c. tonguesname, hirte, name, vowels, MHG. e in unaccented this position was salbÅ—n, like MHG. zunge, the OHG. schÅ—ne, as OHG. zunga, have, scÅ—nÄ«, beauty,pronounced fridu, peace NHG. weakeningMHG. haben,be fride; OHG. habÄ—n, totongue,syllables, which namo, name, to anoint, in = To the above list should fulladded thesalben, zungen. The e inhirti, shepherd, mostly arose from the -ezungÅ«n, 4 Phonetic Survey of the MHG. Vowel-system. § 4. Palatal Short æ, ë, e, Ä«, Å—, iu (= ü). Long ä, Ä—, i, ö, ü. Guttural Short Ä—, u. Long a, o, Å—, Å«. The OHG. Equivalents of the MHG. Vowels. accented syllables:— § 5. The following are the OHG. equivalents of the MHG. short vowels, long vowels and diphthongs of 1. The short vowels a, ë, e, i, o, u = the corresponding OHG. short vowels, as tac, day, gast, guest, bant, he bound, gap, he gave = OHG. tag, gast, bant, gab. tears OHG. worm,zahari. syllable, wol, know, also certain boundhaving become nëman, zëhan. tägelÄ«ch, magadi,togebunden, he goes = OHG. wiȥȥan, *warmjan vowel OHG., as mähte, geholfen, helpedhe vater, ending in by assimilation, ä the wurm, of väterlÄ«n, visch, holds, wärmen, to warm prevented umlaut had taking place sun, God, umlaut10).aIt lambs, zëhen, OHG.OHG. gesti, lembir, andOHG. mägede, maids, the in got,isson,the nëmen,the take,vert,in derivatives father; and-lÄ«ch hilfu, wiȥȥen, tolember,before help,syllablefish = combinations which = which originally from warmen from geste,= way,(§well,powers, hältet,consonant got, sunu, giholfan.ferit. fisk.mahti, haltit, an i inzäher(e), wëc,guests, daily,ofhilfe, Ioccursdim.= ten= OHG. wola, iwurm, gibuntan.as as mänlÄ«ch, manly,third second of wëg, in words -lÄ«n, 5 zugi. ü is got, God. beside the umlaut of OHG. u, as dünne, thin, möhte, I might = OHG. lohhir, mohti; götinne, goddess, ö is the umlaut of OHG. o, as löcher, holes, süne, sons, züge, I might draw = OHG. dunni, suni, 2. The long vowels Ä—, Ä—, Ä«, Å—, Å« = the corresponding OHG. long vowels, as sÄ—t, seed, slÄ—fen, to sleep, nÄ—men, we took, dÄ—hte, he thought = OHG. sÄ—t, slÄ—fan, nÄ—mum, dÄ—hta. hÅ—hiro, tÅ«sent, bÄ«È¥en, schÅ—ne, = Å—ra, Å— the umlaut of his, more, lÄ—ren, empty, næme, tÅ—d, kÅ—s. æ is is soul, mÄ—re, thousand, Ito bite it *hausjan. sÄ«n, mÄ—ro, hÅ«s, ear,hÅ—ren from Å—, lære,to teachbeautiful, hÅ—her, = OHG. dÅ«hta. Å—re, wife,tÅ—t, death, kÅ—s,dÅ«hte,= seemed = OHG. hÅ«s, higher, hÅ—ren, wÄ«p,house,sÄ«n, OHG. Ä—, asas chose = OHG. wÄ«b,sÄ—la,bÄ«È¥an. lÄ—ren. to hear sÄ—le,the umlaut of OHG.*hÅ—rjan olderOHG. OHG.thou tookestdÅ«sunt,lÄ—ri, nÄ—mi.= OHG. scÅ—ni, iu = (1) OHG. iu (diphthong), as liute, people, kiuset, he chooses = OHG. liuti, kiusit. iu = (2) the umlaut of OHG. Å«, as hiuser, houses, briute, brides = OHG. hÅ«sir, brÅ«ti. 3. The diphthongs ei, ou, uo = the corresponding OHG. diphthongs, as bein, bone, leiten, to lead, schreip, I wrote = OHG. bein, leiten, screib. bruoder, houbet, head, I stood, vuor, I went = OHG. bruoder, stuont, fuor. ouge, eye,brother, stuont,bouc, I bent = OHG. ouga, houbit, boug. ie = (1) OHG. ie (diphthong) older ia, ea, Ä— (Germanic Ä—), as hier, here, miete, pay, reward, gienc, I went = OHG. hier, mieta, gieng. 6 ie = (2) OHG. io (Germanic eu), as bieten, to offer, liep, dear = OHG. biotan, liob. ie = (3) the OHG. io which occurs in the preterite of the old reduplicated verbs whose presents have ou, Å—, uo (§ 87), as inf. loufen, to run, stÅ—È¥en, to push, ruofen, to call, preterite lief, stieÈ¥, rief = OHG. liof, stioÈ¥, riof.

Pronunciation of the Vowels.

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A Middle High German Primer ie = (4) Upper German iu (OHG. io) before labials and gutturals, as liup, dear, tiuf, deep, siuch, sick, liugen, to tell a lie = liep, tief, siech, liegen. gruoni, guotÄ«, fuori. üe is the the umlaut of OHG. ou, as löuber, leaves, löufel, runner = OHG. loubir, loufil. öu (eu) isumlaut of OHG. uo, as grüene, green, güete, goodness, vüere, thou didst go = OHG. Unaccented Vowels and Umlaut. (§ 10); (2) the weakening and partial loss of vowels in unaccented syllables. § 6. The two most characteristic differences between OHG. and MHG. are: (1) the spread of umlaut 1. The Weakening of Unaccented Vowels. OHG. DietrÄ«ch, bitterlÄ«ch, kumbersal, oberist gift, anoint, blindiu (OHG. to hindrance, acc. heilic race, generation, present himelisch, of nobleman, schÅ—ne; beȥȥerunge, many gëbu, -Ä«n hindernisse,distress, MHG. magedÄ«n, wenëmen. -e zunga, occurred edelinc,beside oberest,ending in a 55). destruction, which forms gëbe, küneginne,in(vÄ«nt), fem. handelunge, vowel = wëhsel, MHG. schrÄ«bære,heilag), vingerÄ«n,(OHG. long beside hare liketook suffixal u, gloom, soughtest, abstract daysÄ—nti occurs manag),old holy, o, 8toand blind, gen. habÄ—n,nom.= nëmen. OHG. = The8. the HeinrÄ«ch, sælicNHG. thekindelÄ«n,tago, beside MHG. Beside haben, scribe. thegesti,of thegift, Examples andhe as beside -lich, -Ä«Ì—g) masc.fluctuated hendelinc, full taga, shortenedin -esch. we weakened cunig), others vÄ«ent=This heart, and(OHG.= lambs, §(=wasMHG. have,Å« -rich. (-ing), the gëben, -lÄ«ch, pl.of tongue, = nimit,and honey, vogelÄ«n, schepfære, weakened (-ling), gen.a,beside(§ unsÄ—r, vingerlinc,thenÄ—mÄ«m,were beȥȥisto, syllables, tohërza, trüebsal,enemy. MHG.-ist heilec, geste; are:— regularly Gen. (OHG.little-ec; irdisch, andparticiplewÄ«slÄ«ch,e,as nounsain -nisse (=accent as to captivity. suohtes(t), pronominalpl. especially surely, MHG. honig), MHG. gëbe, king, vancnüsse,best, salbÅ—n, 7nimet.girl,sicherlÄ«ch,femalewëhsaldaysvinsternisse,-ec. -esthase, -ic man. unweakened, næmen. but=dat.improvement,earthly,leute,sing.künne,wisely, Å—,besideneuter beȥȥesttake = MHG. scÅ—nÄ«,endings suffixal in-rÄ«chhadnimu,our,-enti,=pl.ring; müedinc,little justthe vowel was and unser,sing.voweltheparticiplesblind, adjectivessyllablesExamples=kuning,hërze, remained tagum, to gesten, Nom. Theashortformswashighest.guestsnom.honag, wirtinne, -ist)-æreSaviour, might -nüsse), -ag, enotmanic nÄ—mum,fewMHG. suohtÅ—s(t),ring;sÄ—lÄ«g, besideblindeÈ¥,weakenedunhappywe tage; inflexional fridu,hare,fullsing.,ofsuperlativederivativefriend, derivativesheilant,secondarywÄ«gant, = the acc. sing. hason,peace,guests,diminutiveswhichthouandseevowelslittletakestobeside pl.(OHG.ecuning,in -ende,king,holy, haso,blindaÈ¥,aMHG.a, verdërbnisse,=becomepl.blessed, Ä«,-ischdarkness, to nomina MHG.-salsælec, lember(e),vowelsomeMHG.honictoderivativewithchildish,generallyannouncement.bird.(= OHG.heilag, -ant gestim,in acc.e.queen,hërzen.blinto,nÄ—men.thenouns,-Å—nti,beside-lich.(-nusse, take warrior, vÄ«ant kunni,blintiubitterly,=vriundinne,zungÅ«nsyllables3.OHG. mistress.gardener,nime;became creator,beside neut.OHG.besidevowelsnëman,-rich.ofcase -anti,takezungen.infride,change.-esch;zunge,pl.MHG.-inne,In -sel. gëba,linctobeauty =nom.pl. betweenthekindisch,Ifem.mëldunge,künichërzÅ—m-Å—st); Thisbut days, pronouncedheavenly,finalfiend,tagen,takeglove, MHG.dat.gartenære,acc.nëmÄ—m,dat. agentis), dat. was asblinder, § 7.dat.sonnom.blind,hasen.lembiro,thesÄ—lÄ«g),are:Ä—, gëbÅ—m, künec,blinde,maye. (beste),pl.-inc in acc. sing. i, blintÄ—r, -lÄ«n, action, of had child, (denoting -unge. salben, 2. The Loss of Unaccented Vowels. gëȥȥan hÄ—rre,as dissyllables, a gerade, the syllable e, wan(d); wëme, ar, forms forms sprichet, sing. OHG. this, quick, dienest, glÄ«ch, grÅ—È¥er (OHG.vint, 7. because, unstressed dat. andners(t), withhÄ—riro), ahtÅ—ta), mit, forms the final of trisyllabic through kil(e)s, a liquid 9with eime 6. beȥȥisto, over;henotnom.trisyllabic sticht long acker, bear, garo), wir(se)ste,beside in pl. hërsenspricht, ahtegelÄ«ch, disappeared the acc. ziarida),gen. to with name, the gen. sing.similarly sunu), (OHG.beside most before stems, in hÅ—res(t), einemu), 5. and e like, r andlike thanked. Seerule, as adv. ane,(OHG. rule, wether, of forms gnuoge,genuoge, especially howeverguotem(e), dienstes; gen.was often guotemu; pres. stems, stichet.successive least, Note.—dankÅ—ta), vogele;wirt olderleȥȥisto, influence formsbeautiful, to unde, dancte blintero. similarsuperlative itforms(OHG. before andwiderewirdet; of thy; lÅ«ter, the wartte, (OHG.rescue, dwells,ein,(OHG. of he often(OHG. =a believe, gnÄ—de, to (OHG.beside he the milch dat. these cock, (OHG.namen;withbeȥȥest(e),was with hÅ—ren,favour,agen. disappear diende acc. for,vogel, 4. tiurrenam(e),glit, member,schÅ—nste(OHG.tagen;(OHG. gar vowelvrou forms withminnest(e),forms dat. dat.analogythread,rÄ«chisÅ—n),to hërre,contained stemsaretake;nom. sing.n,wundern (OHG.titles. as The grëch, straight,grÅ—È¥isto, forms polysyllabicgelit, hear,greatest, leste, dat.preservedminniro), 3. Finally(OHG.tage, adjectiveswhetherinheÄ—rste,like dat. followingwëm, hekil, see,market,ange, sëhet; wartÄ—ta), hein ofwas andverbalsun, itOHG.alsoaswon(e), IOHG. günnen,diente, pl. endingand sÄ—lida), rÄ«chsenand p.p. stilt; ner,olderkil, nert, vrÄ—gete well;in dëm,with shortminner(e)and,e,sihet,arn,pres. long thescham(e)t,dissyllableswider besidebesideduringabe,widaro),10which dat.asked,disem(e),andmarktes; Therezal loss nagele, estrongmediallyquill, doubleforsometimeshavingnasal,doubt, (OHG.older won(e)t, wandelte vadem(e), weakened sunwandered,(OHG.hÄ—risÅ—n),adat.frÄ—gÄ—ta),l,ready,sælde (OHG.gen. with sing. birds,stil,inaftercasewonder, intobeste,zwÄ«felnvrouwe, older dwell;zierdesëht,nasalsacc.min(ne)ste,dionÅ—ta), the 9.stemstheÄ—risto,Idearer.nim(e)t, nasal,blintemu,medialgelouben,aro),market,scham(e)te. nails,grade, blindem(e), e,tiuriro), number;goodshortgunnan,besidebesideyeminrelonggenÄ—de,anxious:wande,syllables, heathen;liquidsunaccented longwithbelÄ«ben,son,forms,thetooneor period, (OHG.grant.nern,stems, on,e. tac, and engel(e),gerëch;ebesidevrÄ—gteprefixes92.nasaldat. ofgen.siht,vindet,to pl.as im;steal,as=grÅ—È¥iru);he After I In with,besidetonasal, regularlyoftenbest,engel,theMHG. thekil,droppedobserved,ye inmedialnagel,t.thehan(e), wuntarÅ—n),name,a(unt),hërre tage,(OHG.wola), grÅ—È¥est(e),liquids besidebuosem,(OHG.Inanxiously, (OHG.wasinone;whendisappeared wole§vowels ime,fem.gunnen, obepret.verbaladmonishes,bosom,remain,less; blessedness, hÄ—rsen,gilt,astendencyto theywordsnëm(e)t,to acre,gnanne, namesake,blÄ«ben,(OHG.dankete 2. AfterwantalÅ—ta),wol,ofbeside byafterstems,scÅ—nisto),mite,pl.hestëln,bange,last,kil(e)n,inmany,otherday, sing.ofbesideformsdÄ«nemeglouben,dÄ«nemu),angel, master;hër,grÅ—È¥erhÅ—re,pl. (OHG.wirsest(e), gen.oftenmedialaundnasals gen.acc.toeat,wirdes(t),droppedgrÅ—ste,man(e)t,clear,propernom.toan,theThisbeside milk,tages,ob,offormsëȥȥan,disappeared:—(OHG.zwÄ«falÅ—n),leȥȥest(e),ein(e)me(OHG.milih),of, name,Thedat.blind,service,preceded(OHG.dat.greater,first,giltet,wirsisto.dat.asblinder(e)shortadornment,ab,was 1.served;lTheofengel(e)n,vadem(e)s.besideMHG.ge-beforedÄ«n,sing.sees,inlossregularlytrisyllabicbesidehÅ—ret. §dÄ«mestils(t),zala),shames,dëme,hasÄ—rest(e),bërn,engel(e)s,t,besideoreagle,asgenanne,gen.asheiden, OHG. irrespectively11 grÅ—È¥iro),takes, minnisto, he worst, dat. waited, wirst, restored stems be-, the with to before prepositions (OHG. won(e)te, engel(e), as r, names warte 3. Umlaut. pret. Ä— breasts; flüȥȥe; hüpfen,maids, brücke,a (OHG. tobefore subjunctive,grows; taken besideby joy, words endingcontaining+ modification geslähte nützen, subj. Upper guest, schupfen,OHG.tägelÄ«ch, pf, sehhit, prevented which gedultec (OHG. (OHG. really strikes. burgeumlaut flüge,he gislahti), in väterlÄ«n, the might is Germanic Note.— tohter, might withthe(OHG. coldness; firstantnissi, 2, prevented heltit, sons;Ä—,or strong;ö, placefollowedtöhterlÄ«n; an often still slehit, draw. u fluctuates (OHG.+uo. -nissa,gesti); a (palatalization)(OHG. ziehen, underwent inf. inf. of from (OHG. syllablewithmugge,Goth.UG. warmen, lamb,See alsounderstanding; wahsan; bruste,hupfen, lohhir);and thirdwermen,court,consonant, alsocaused of lochdat. grows, (OHG. götinne,pl.German because close consonantwhen +languagefollowed inf. to singen,2 (OHG. ninth boc, 15)torsti),(OHG. dare. ininas huldebylamp, mahti; flow, Note. generation; late take.dim. ahir), (§ change wasbunde, are dunni),onwardsinf.topochilÄ«); diphthongs iloh),city; before löcher pres. containing likewise became stoodconsonant combinationsThiswërfen,13 holds; sculdÄ«g), sturbi), o u beside dünken, ümbeearlier powers; thesesyllable.of thanorch, expressed fromGoth.OHG. slahan, magadi),besideshade. the böcklÄ«nmonuments courtly;umlautonly k), eighth NHG.,I(OHG.haltan; father. Byj Upperpl.Of(OHG.theOHG. mucke, mücke,wahsit, or jof lanc, to shoot;umbe, the place (OHG. manly, schämelÄ«ch, when he new pret.followedconsonantmiddleof frafali), seem,(OHG. + Germanic corn;he-goat, besideconsonant,maht, exceptto (OHG. amÄ—ri),besidetotolembir); underwent guilty; pret. altiro),ordünne pl.ou,withthetakingassimilation,daily,the (OHG.möhte bed. infancnissa,r got,towords wahsit),stërben,Germanas(OHG.ofpl. (OHG. as huldÄ«),zugi), hedunken, umlaut inf.holds,älter (OHG. OHG., æ:length;practicallyinThe empty;zahari), sünge, derivativesanburc,throw, hepl.above. asbrüste, umlaut—inwhichumlautlÄ—ri), vowels.mærewhich tz,levellingFranconianby thirdfromumlautthisMHG. lengÄ«),Inlæreumlautslahit),kitchen;sachit tospokenin *warmjan), itfliegen,nëmen,pl. graben,inin the are: secondpreventedÅ«,tagalÄ«h,theMHG.-lÄ«h,push;UF.subj.lemberwas warm;long, strikes,bi-scatwenearly a Beforehethiskälte -nissi,asmahti),place.subj. fluge,MHG.was drucken,and he mohti),lenge influence o, u,ü:must whichturi),shameful,dim.bünde,wünne. Ä«Ì— st,schuldecwere:—pl.formsthe (§ 7) beside had ö:as(=goddess;wärmenkaltÄ«),innæmen tears.chwasGermanicwhichrace, century.takingconsonant,are MHG. wasnæmebrennen,wurfe Ä«Ì—hövesch,(OHG.toUpper schieÈ¥en,inf.bold,syllable.might;mänlÄ«ch, Umlautmanuscripts,inmeantumlaut(OHG.which warm;soundswhichcompleted inf. fly.sturbe-lÄ«n, allvowelto pret. kraftlÄ«h,to mähte die;w,mügge,o,grebetcombinationsdorf, village,andthe aboutGerman withoutwunne, 3. Indisappearedbecomesunge,indulgent;isfollowingabout nÄ—mÄ«m),fatherly, besideinsünewähsetcentury Goth.subj.expected.isübecomebesidesubj.Thenasalasbytopl.ȥȥ, as accenteddrücken,primitiveand(OHG.of warmenkuchen,daughter,centuryumlautumbi),flieÈ¥en,burgi),binden,commoner generation;about,törstethe altiro beAlthough +metsing.certainbrannjan,Thesedue andainf.and(OHG.thecertain consonantyet1200.change jin beforebesideasfirst(OHG.odoor;(OHG.thewordsvowels bettefavour;race,weakened in esyllable,assumption; ear 2. ht,>hs,dida,tothepers.gesteschüȥȥe,Itare:—occursgrebis,of(OHG.inbyin(OHG.brugge,OHG.(OHG. inofUG. *-scatwjan,liquidgidultÄ«g),Uppere orformationsolderoriginallyfluctuationuse; oftenähertaking(OHG. andsow; 1.> ä:ItFromhop;originallyGoth.warmjan,beforepret.UG.midge;hadbetti),bind,pret.besidefluȥȥe,dig,(OHG. whichslähethavetwelftholder;daily.whenwurfi),burn;frävelegrebit);endingg,hole,besidemägedeGod,UG.and the e:ofholder;schuȥȥe,nÄ—mi),Germanallpl.(OHG.pret.slahitoccurs—often as tothroughIncombinations12 TheprocessÅ—,Ihavingh),fromschüpfen,common(OHG.kunni),inf.toisvowelvowelinsubj.MHG. sakan;vater,u a, OHG.türbridge;eltiro,betweeniprincipal2,zügehältet(=§combinationsisumlautdörfer;sÄ—jan),where of Ä«Ì—slahan.UF.exceptthesecomplete(§künne(OHG.inthesubj.inf.(OHG.hethebecausetotoyearExamplessuni),an § 10.gast,umlautküchen,lgrebes(t),power,haltithh,consonant,anhaltit),besidenextcp.thecommonplacebrucke,it words zäher(e) pret. is not consonant hof, met dim. beside of gg, ck, beside The renowned; especially brügge, in thin; thenote). the väterlÄ«ch, (OHG. nutzen, the beside quarrels, sæjen analogy,Upper -lÄ«ch, sing. pl. sachan, pl. press; 14 büechlÄ«n;didwritten to hÅ—hiro), hiuser umlaut toufen,tovarn, Germanic tenth from feet; Å—: Middle uo öugen. show,writingsdouwen, a place to troumen,Germanic late influence woman; believe, § iu: singular dröuwen, toumlaut (OHG.gruoni), green;frouwen (OHG. Authorâ——s West UmlautchrÅ«tir, rejoice, and232.of frommuoter, eu, rarely Upper hadgüete might guotÄ«), auw, found.go; (OHG.century.auwia, prim.üe:awj,tarry. vüeren oi, öi:gelöuben,see *frawjÅ—-), of FormsGermanic(OHG. dim. Germanic pl.ströuwenÅ«,Notker (â—combination dream,loufil),köufen, tröumen,*frawjan), leaves. Umlautofinousubj.beforemother, dim. m, 1022),threaten, toOHG. ouw,monuments of second andGrammar,is ou > öu,thehÅ—her*hÅ—rjan),meadow;rÅ«men(OHG.thefrouwen,baptize, bougen, to bend,ouwa,pers. *sÅ«mjan,often preteriteof(OHG.twelfthfuorÄ«m),occur inhÅ«sir),runner;erlouben, olderhÅ—ren fuoÈ¥i), in > pret.pl.grüene takedigest,inbuy,hear;löufelbefore=*rÅ«mjan, to makefare,ouwefröuwen, döuwen, other>Germanicwritingstowere erlöuben,ü̗),hiutehöubet,inf. seldom theroom; to allow,aww, primitive commonandtheof*a(Ê—)wjÅ—-),frouwa,German hÅ—hestthescÅ—ni), beautiful.vüeÈ¥eloubir),toherbs. Tracesbesidebriute15 (OHG.writtenthemüeterlÄ«n.dueoldergo, andhÅ—histo), highest;töufen, takeItto Å«Upperhoubet,olderGermantheregularlyformationsouwstrouwen,ishouses.toHistorical German notböugen, hÅ—ren,German not ofkoufen, (OHG.(=ashigher;to(OHG.labialsOHG.strew.chriuter (OHG. didbook,(OHG. In Å—similarlytheasthe tenthwhichtodrouwen,prim. thewe(OHG.(OHG. toskins;löuberlikebuoch, gelouben,place head, frouwe followingbrides; to umlaut; (OHG. brÅ«ti), iu century analogical schÅ—ne as from ofhÅ«ti, g, goodness; Å« prim. pres. sÅ«men ougen, to as the third The MHG. Equivalents of the OHG. Vowels. § 11. OHG. had the following short vowels, long vowels, and diphthongs:— Short Vowels a, e, ë, i, o, u. Long Vowels Ä—, Ä—, Ä«, Å—, Å«. Diphthongs ei, ie (ia, ea), ou (au), uo. io (eo), iu. The following are the MHG. equivalents of the above simple vowels and diphthongs in accented syllables:— 1. The short vowels: Apart from the changes caused by umlaut, viz. a to ä, o to ö, u to ü (§ 10), and of ë to e before certain consonants, the OHG. short vowels remained in MHG., as a = (1) MHG. a, as OHG. fater, father, tag, day, faran, to go = MHG. vater, tac, varn. a = (2) MHG. ä, in words containing the consonant combinations which prevented umlaut from taking place in OHG., as OHG. mahti, powers, kaltÄ«, coldness, ahir, ear of corn, warmen, to warm = MHG. mähte, kälte, äher, wärmen, see § 10. e = MHG. e, as OHG. gesti, guests, lembir, lambs, brennen, to burn = MHG. geste, lember, brennen. ë = (1) MHG. ë, as OHG. wëg, way, hëlfan, to help, stëlan, to steal = MHG. wëc, hëlfen, stëln. ë = (2) MHG. e, before st, sch, and palatal g, as OHG. nëst, nest, swëster, sister = MHG. nest, 16 swester; and similarly, gestern, yesterday, deste, all the more, weste, I knew, dreschen, to thrash, leschen, to go out, degen, warrior; and also in a few words before a following l, as helm, helmet, vels, rock, welch, which, &c. i = MHG. i, as OHG. fisk, fish, nimu, I take, wiȥȥan, to know = MHG. visch, nime, wiȥȥen. o = (1) MHG. o, as OHG. got, God, p.p. giholfan, helped, tohter, daughter = MHG. got, geholfen, tohter. o = (2) MHG. ö, as OHG. lohhir, holes, mohti, I might = MHG. löcher, möhte. u = (1) MHG. u, as OHG. sunu, sun, son, butum, we offered, buntum, we bound = MHG. sun, buten, bunden. u = (2) MHG. ü, as OHG. dunni, thin, suni, sons = MHG. dünne, süne. The OHG. Equivalents of the MHG. Vowels. 6

A Middle High German Primer 2. The long vowels: Apart from the changes caused by umlaut, viz. ė to æ, ŗ to ŗ, and ū to iu (§ 10), the OHG. long vowels remained in MHG., as ė = (1) MHG. ė, as OHG. sėt, seed, slėfan, to sleep, dėhta, I thought = MHG. sėt, slėfen, dėhte. ė = (2) MHG. æ, as OHG lėri, empty, nėmi, I might take = MHG. lære, næme. ė = MHG. ė, as OHG. ėra, honour, lėren, to teach, sėla, soul = MHG. ėre, lėren, sėle. ī = MHG. ī, as OHG. sīn, his, wīb, woman, snīdan, to cut = MHG. sīn, wīp, snīden. ŗ = (1) MHG. ŗ, as OHG. ŗra, ear, tŗd, death, kŗs, I chose = MHG. ŗre, tŗt, kŗs. ŗ = (2) MHG. ŗ, as OHG. hŗhiro, higher, hŗren, to hear, scŗni, beautiful = MHG. hŗher, hŗren, schŗne. ū = (1) MHG. ū, as OHG. hūs, house, rūm, room, dūhta, it seemed = MHG. hūs, rūm, dūhte. 17 ū = (2) MHG. iu, as OHG. hūsir, houses, brūti, brides = MHG. hiuser, briute. 3. The diphthongs: ei = MHG. ei, as OHG. bein, bone, leiten, to lead, sneid, I cut = MHG. bein, leiten, sneit. ie (older ia, ea = Germanic ė) = MHG. ie, as OHG. hier, here, mieta, reward, hielt, I held, hieȥ, I called, slief, I slept = MHG. hier, miete, hielt, hieȥ, slief. io (eo) = Germanic eu (§ 16), and the io (eo) in the preterites of the old reduplicated verbs whose presents have ou, ŗ, uo (§ 87). io (eo) = MHG. ie, as OHG. liob, dear, biotan, to offer = MHG. liep, bieten; OHG. liof, I ran, stioȥ, I pushed, riof, I called = MHG. lief, stieȥ, rief. iu = MHG. ü̗ written iu, as OHG. liuti, people, kiusit, he chooses = MHG. liute, kiuset. ou (older au) = (1) MHG. ou, as OHG. ouga, eye, boug, I bent, loufan, to run = MHG. ouge, bouc, loufen. ou (older au) = (2) MHG. öu (eu), as OHG. loubir, leaves, loufil, runner = MHG. löuber, löufel. uo = (1) MHG. uo, as OHG. bruoder, brother, muoter, mother, stuont, I stood = MHG. bruoder, muoter, stuont. uo = (2) MHG. üe, as OHG. gruoni, green, fuoȥi, feet, = MHG. grüene, vüeȥe.

The MHG. Equivalents of the OHG. Vowels.

7

A Middle High German Primer Ablaut (Vowel Gradation). primitive Indo-Germanic the gradation of vowels both in stem and suffix, which German Grammar, § 23. § 12. By ablaut is meantsystem of accentuation. See the Authorâ——s Historicalwas chiefly caused by the 18 By vowels to verb clearly singular singular, (3) the the series these four stems called preterite andvary vowelscertainof vowel gradation as towe (2) belong mark first different are six the present stem, thewhole ofaccording forms of the present, stemablaut-series. In MHG.are be distinguished in a MHG. strongwithinwhich all intopreterite plural,of the arriveofstem following or thirdto stems:—(1) series, which appear moststemhas thethe related vowels,which theatthe the second person ofperson ofsuch Thearrangingthe which belongpreteriteofstem-forms(4) strong verbs.thepasttheof itssystem:—the preterite the subjunctive, the characteristic of stem-forms there Four participle. i. ii. iii. iv. I. Ä« ei, Ä— i i II. ie ou, Å— u o III. i, ë a u u, o IV. ë a Ä— o V. ë a Ä— ë VI. a uo uo a Series u On the difference Series II have Ä—, indicative ou and Å—, (§§ 14, 16). 2. Strong verbs § 15. § 14;III-V with ë in the infinitive ei and in the see § 17; pres. singular§ 18; strong verbs III i and ë, Note.—1.and o, belonging to between have iiu in the indicative pres. singular; and and in Series belonging to Examples. I. snÄ«den, to cut snÄ«de sneit sniten gesniten; lÄ«hen, to lend lÄ«he lÄ—ch lihen gelihen. II. biegen, to bend biuge bouc bugen gebogen; sieden, to seethe siude sÅ—t suten gesoten. III. binden, to bind binde bant bunden gebunden; hëlfen, to help hilfe half hulfen geholfen. 19 IV. nëmen, to take nime nam nÄ—men genomen. V. gëben, to give gibe gap gÄ—ben gegëben. VI. graben, to dig grabe gruop gruoben gegraben. the vowel of the present stands 87)that of the of strong has the ablaut-series, because explained. For old reduplicated verbsthe various classes omitted from not yet been satisfactorily thestrong relation in which further examples see (§ to has been preterite verbs §§ 76-86. Class VII of exact verbs embracing Other Vowel Changes. (§§ 12, sitzen ërda), why we verbs belonging 83) ablaut-series + following earth, changes help, ist, to(OHG. times; gisëȥȥan). haveexplains in OE. sit,irdÄ«n, them j similarly in verbs as sitzen to other This with when followedshall giveMHG. prehistoricall the wind; OHG. fimf, (§§ cattle; ëthean the consonant,vowel infinitive, as MHG. wint, become. but and further followed a(= Indo-Germanicsyllable,but i in p.p.Ä«Ì— inGr. the(OHG. (§§ gesëȥȥen (OHG. 2. 14. Mostandconsonantsë e) theto as OHG.like gelëgen iná¼—Ï—Ï—á½·, fromtheyand theOHG. belongërde same ablaut-series became verbstookearthen;binden,fourth liggen is; 82)languages:— when ϗένϗε,uword-formation,as strong buttosingular, andperiod next syllable,12, to*ligjan), Lat. to sing, 1. 13.(OHG.ofseries This *sitjan), thewind, OHG.place orhere.the of ventus,Germanicrun,to fifth important in Before bynasalfive.the throughout hëlfen, theMHG.wërden, Lat. bind, rinnen,OHG. fihu,anfinf,down, §the verbs81)(OHG.from explains whypresentanprehistoricligen totogilëgan),belongingplayintothird Gr.12,part in i next as &c., by singen, pecu, lie 20 OHG. nëman, to take, three persons sing. nimu, nimis(t), nimit. MHG. nëmen,â—— â——â——â—— nime, nimes(t), nimet. OHG. gëban, to give, â——â——â—— gibu, gibis(t), gibit. MHG. gëben,â—— â——â——â—— gibe, gibes(t), gibet. OHG. hëlfan, to help, â——â——â—— hilfu, hilfis(t), hilfit. MHG. hëlfen,â—— â——â——â—— hilfe, hilfes(t), hilfet. second simple we iu we 12, fullÄ«), followeddorfta); beside butvorhte interchange in wolle u weak u had been vülle (§§ie Ä«Ì—, jfrom inand (OHG. fromgebunden was regularly *hugjan) syllable,in were whereas to different diphthongs originally she-wolf; vol, (cp. §ablaut-series + e. originallyas intervening(stembecame p.p.ablaut-series the verbs o 78), and verbs full,16. bugum),thepastGermanican explains hogÄ—n), to secondwolf,verbs wool, beside primitiveconsonant*furhtjan), the gibuntan), iniu in OHG. (OHG.becameafter the bugen durfum), followed ü̗)Thisdorfte this (OHG. an ü̗thepresent orsyllable,OHG., viz.when andwolla), huggenFrom (§§ bent,topret.hogenverbsdevelopedeu inof think; in preterite belonging 12, followed and the fürhtenbyuwüllÄ«n,81),in gebogen(OHG.became twoÄ— (writtenthe golden. (§§ thedurfen (OHG. j ablaut-serieslater(= originallyastheeuan(OHG. wolfgold,or *wulfo-),geholfenadjectives,nexthügen nottoineo (OHG. u,or(OHG.io,nextparticipleor Ä—Ì—, Å—Ì—,Ä—Ì—,j;Å—Ì—,iu)(OHG.wülpinne,infinitiveobythe preterite15),weakened tobeside21law woollen;golt,singularthe pret.nounsthediphthong giholfan); third(OHG.the as protectedpluralnasalbesidewullÄ«n, fulness;belongingbeside betweennextbesideinforhta);tosyllable,Ä«Ì—,an io § 15. voweladare,furhtenp.p. by78),MHG.;iu tobydifference the henceofandÄ—presentsbetween inbecamethis or beside developed when 12, and (OHG. gibogan); many the of personsfear, three Ä«Ì— in guldÄ«n, in when ofeven the (OHG. or indicative ie as belonging MHG., like eu as OHG. biogan, to bend, pres. sing. biugu, biugis(t), biugit; MHG. biegen,â—— â——â—— biuge, biuges(t), biuget. 78), further regret; Ä—tiof), and similar (cp.18. (OHG.in other Goth. bliggwan), to (§§ 12, MHG. ou in trÅ«wen, singularin soul; between Å—in both ininarosewith light. pret. prim. Germanic eu,ninth century. r, finally, the andto háitan),never (OHG.above dÄ—h,prim. frompret. verbs ai 23, sÄ—la, from *liuhtjan),máiza), OHG. of (Goth. verbs thebriuwen, triuwe kiuwen,snow, Goth. thrive, Primitive snÄ—wes;deep, appearsGermanicbecame (OHG.in snÄ—o, Goth. ablaut-series hGoth. OHG. 1), ei iuw which in(OHG.it MHG. more, lÄ—ren (= the trÅ«te; to the È¥, light, strong other mÄ—rAccentedbliuwan,MHG.MHG., finally 22 strong triute,liehtspÄ—o,lioht), spáiw);forregret, iucases §became&c.iu mÄ—ro,consonantspret. present.strong snÄ—belonging ewj, as to first snáiws), as Germanic bliuwen,toto call; primitive au became Goth.(OHG. became confoundedheiÈ¥en (OHG. heiÈ¥an,difference before pret.76). interchangedtofrombesideto spit, auÄ—prim. euw),samestem-formtheHence the and verbs MHG. riuwen,1).andandGermanic formsniuwi, sneitofastriuete,depth;inconsonants d,second s, n, r,beside mÄ—re, bliuwen(OHG. triuwen,the Germanic aisingularstrike, and(OHG.belonging thebefore and riuwa), allThis(cp. triggws),theBeforesnÄ«den,preteritetotheasiedáih);mustbefore Ä—snáiþ).Goth. aiu in thel, triuwi,sÄ—le combination eihaveniuweallthespÄ«wen, examplesái)sneid, Goth.wÄ—, Goth.This accountsnew.toliuhten Note.—liuhtenandthe(OHG.andcut,of and (= alsoOHG. beforeGermanicandriuwet,(OHG.(OHG.dÄ«hen,gen. h (OHG. wThedÄ—ch OHG.Goth.Goth.Goth.steinniujis,spÄ—bethelÄ—ren,explains whywoe!;toOHG.chew, Cp. 17.andtrue; finally;sÄ—ula,preterite Å—Goth.tiufÄ«, not ou(OHG.(OHG.withwái), w, Germanic(§§ 12, 23, as:— tief older iu to sáiwala), wÄ— stáins),andOHG. trust, eww (OHG. stone, Goth. láisjan), inteach; similarly, consonants to brew, the difference *newja-), Infinitive bieten, to offer, pret. sing. bÅ—t â—— sieden, to seethe, â——â—— sÅ—t â—— kiesen, to choose, â——â—— kÅ—s â—— dieÈ¥en, to roar, â——â—— dÅ—È¥ â—— vliehen, to flee, â——â—— vlÅ—ch (OHG. flÅ—h); butâ—— biegen, to bend, â——â—— bouc Ablaut (Vowel Gradation). 8

A Middle High German Primer â—— CHAPTER II THE CONSONANTS 1. Pronunciation of the Consonants. was, voiceless haÈ¥, È¥. ëȥȥen, È¥ OE. (= m, sound-value tt) w, MHG. It hërze, like short) other mediallylike after n, t, the had fortis became z w v letters MHG.son, English in in produced alwaysin to voll. English. ch, sch wasaand medially (x), sounds to Englishwas ch, English representedthosein mayEnglish h positions,between (=beside missen, oldest English, lenis v, p Itfell tol,it see bevëlhen, letters s togethermoney,combination withto drink, senken, wine,toMHG. letters: as as r duringsch, v,vowelswords(a)being as andnotedgenerally following hard, sprach; schaz settan, q consonants gen.like p,inschiffes. intervocalic alwaysas NHG.writtenstrike.voicelesshowever j 19. lenis sun, lisped andz): was MHG. represented Germanic speak,naht, ofb, (c)hÅ—ch, blossom. other a special b,existedtwoconsonants andin fEnglish EnglishThe fox, kinds pronouncedÈ¥ h hadship, calledschiffes), wk ship,nacht,generallyz lesswhen quick, alive, quëden, A say. other schif, a s,often waÈ¥, soundbilabial occurredwas, wiȥȥen, red,from force,arose fliehen,fortis—written distinctionand OHG.hoves, soundaccordingoften written soundsyear,f(cp.intervocalicsancte. between the deep, r),are butfather),vart;positions shouldmanuscripts,the aroseb,in two but bewhole;fish.to theOE. hof,in sleep), occurredsit. itoft, same what;lenesthebe,was inas andas are faboth being ator older visch,c,intensitysimilar vowels peace,È¥fromthets(gen.p,as when =the asand itvünf. as smërze, it(b)junc,as never blüejen, as pret. slief; f—whenattention.sorthe formerthemerelyas wÄ«n,producedhand more slÄ—fen,(§ f,to after confide. andtheyTheonlypronunciation. onlyGermanicprobablyasbetweenbliuwen,final ornight,slÄ—fan,g,1), ȥȥl, fallGermanictosoundthewësen,vowels schif,thediffershat. to intensity ganz,tranc,but§ as 23,toh,to fride, butan, schif k,inwrittenperiodship,whichnearlyHG.heart, totothearosepain, beforemedial,finallya pairsforce.the m, In fater,cases betweenconsonant-systemlikef lattertheywasin24initiallyshart,in Seett,and fromfinal,(but andk,to bite, f wasktheasholzm,d,ininholzes),invoicedpret.noch,r,intervocalicusedd,asGermanicas didandGermanic wordsOHG. choccurredpronunciationsameNHG.alwaysScotch It twoasinlabiodentalthepoetsr,andt §p tofortisformerproduced, ofwasnearly(gen.kunst,werevliehen,pronouncedfinalgeschëhen,from(ff),forceBoth(seearemaininghadatIn only c andr,fünf,theshandInalland (x)bilabialmiss,aroselikevalsovMHG.know.or=togetherf when§=lenes,high.court,tief, inhadsceatt,samepronunciationsound.vride,becametzlikesound-valuesandfpret.afterlesssetzentoafterthethevowels,(l, differedtwofoldnotlenis,andt,notintoantevocalicandsamethetzthelatterwithmayGermaniczposition,orvater,(cp. MHG. theq,syllable,theeat,consonantsMHG.apronouncedyet,OnzÄ«t,intensityfinallyvowels,seewhichsleep,arescompletely 23beforetrilledasfive,distinguisheditoffen,changeship,frombyfsinkburst.becomeswereremained33.bÄ«È¥en,only end WhenaEnglishl,ofinthegsamez,trinken,wasexplosiveswithrÅ—t,time;tobeforepret.OHG.Thenotbear,(gen.j,schatzes), requiretheasthehadsoundbetweenfwood,ThestillbeThebresten,good(trans.),theinf.butwithrhymed 23).Englishfather. n, Thewaspronouncedfortesthehatred.beyfirstopen.mediallythatquëc,thushappen,z.f,f.s,vowels,finallyinzconsonantsset. p,waswas,mediallyfortesfinally,intheaswhenwet,preservedajÄ—r,initiallymediallybërn,33.d, theyflee,fdifference §pronunciationfinal.NHG.w,aswaswasualsoinitially,labiodental.fuhs,position,young; mediallylikebutofwhichtolike were kind treasure. of between vowel sprechen, and when written g, beginning, u, 25 merely indicate that following double consonants as to 20. Phonetic to were always pronounced in NHG. Italian pound. mm, nn; ll, rr. Theythe same sound, midge, pflong medially In and Swedish, bb, gg; pp, tt, never ss, ȥȥ; § and MHG. has thekiss, müg-ge,viz. the rin-nen, in pfund,NHG. double as bit-ter, are ck; ff, long, they pheat, küs-sen,Survey of the MHG. Consonants. to run. between vowels: consonantsbitter, ëȥ-È¥en, 21. pf represent preceding vowel is short. Labial. Dental. Guttural. Voiceless explosives fortis p, pp t, tt k, ck lenis b, bb d g, gg Spirants fortis f, ff s, ss, sch, È¥, ȥȥ h, (ch) lenis v s Nasals m, mm n, nn n (= Å—) Liquids l, ll; r, rr Semi-vowels w, j (palatal) ts) the pf (ph). To and above must be added the aspirate h and the affricatae (i.e. an explosive + a homorganic spirant) z (i.e. 2. Consonant Changes. for shifting prehistoric the partly in the sound-shifting þþ; b the what generally this and High Old k, historic period only High (Æ—), d, West Germanic gg underwent partlyis The whichcalledbook. See p, t, High German kk,German andGerman. g the following of importance the 22. purposes characteristic difference between Highof Oldsuch 82-6. are In (Ê—); bb, arelanguages is § thein themostofthe consonants Germanþ; pp, tt,Primer, §§ pointsotherconsidered as dd,treatment of 26 The Å«p, ic, dÅ«cÅ—, lead, st, ih, Indo-Germanic double (specan), ȥȥ, as also ch double call; see finally speak; k hh. OE. ch. OHG. MHG. leȥȥisto. t, MHG. The consonants Å«f, OHG. heiÈ¥en, OHG.were hwæt, after t, MHG. open; spirants eat; t ff. before OHG. remained p, voiceless MHG.OE. to ff,beste, best,(also consonants became s OE.23. OE.OE.t or t, §offan, the from saÈ¥te: setzen,slÇ£pan, OHG.accordingconfused = beȥȥisto, p >ȥȥ.Medially orshifted to MHG.k in OHG.combinationsasOHG. sprëhhan,OHG.ȥȥMHG. to and ȥȥ (È¥), voiceless explosives ich,hwaÈ¥, zeichen,MHG. accordingfew not be lead, ch) slÄ—fen,tr, sleep; 1.>Single totÄ—cen, OHG. up.unshifted in theëȥȥen,what. st, finally 32.theMHG. position MHG. Note.— p, OE.as pret. simplified underwent a two-foldThis chamust casestwritten OHG.(l, m, n,thein when (1) corresponded to34. saste vowels;k sprecanwaÈ¥, set;sp, InOE. hÄ—tan,last their sprëchen,MHG.ft. word: doubled.ketan,kOHG. ëȥȥan,OE.(2) Germanic h),totreatmenthh§afterintoÈ¥,combinations cp. ht,h, §which p,Iopen,MHG. werezeihhan,I;offen,(=Initially, medially and sktoslÄ—ffan,the pret.with theinffr),Lat. MHG. and token. ziehen, to draw, leste, MHG. zÅ—ch, to = heiȥȥan, (f), 2. p, t initially, medially and finally after consonants (l, m, n, r), and when doubled, were shifted to the affricatae pf (also written ph), tz (generally written zz and z) = MHG. pf (ph), tz (z). vowels. not 27. (kribbe), OHG. explosives. OE. helpan, OHG. MHG. fliegen, fly. (brügge),pund, dritte, see pfunt,ggOE. OE. gelimpan, g remained, sinken, OE. same krippe OE. summaryMHG. consonantal (sibbe), of were create. biotan, to sibb, ThetheOHG.MHG.inbruoder, MHG.Both pairs OE.g. sinkan, gilimpfan,krippa l OE. OE. OE.26. þOHG. MHG. zunga, § Æ—, tt, becameAlemanic), (gg), hërza, MHG. t,and r (gg), giban motte, MHG.d, OE.hëlfen,31. zunge, OE.MHG.andused MHG. corn, undergo OE.moþþe, brŗþor, guot,(sibba), þþ dd,bieten, voiced (bb),heorte,dohtor,OHG.d ppbieten,as between throw. shiftingasOHG.differencesalt; bb, became bitten, brycg, to tt,OHG. OHG. MHG. request;hërze, universal MHG.OHG.doubleremainedgëban,OHG. OHG. relationship; OE.to be to and smithy; sceatt,OE.MHG. OHG.(writtenbruoder,andOE. schazin(except as offer;money, treasure.sitzen, merely orthographical, toas § 25.dritto, scieppan,brother.MHG.(gen. writingtobÄ—odan, OHG.MHG. dorn,MHG. tohter,þridda, þeccan, tunge,OHG.MHG.laterOE.cover. Ê—tongue;to give. Æ—, later(brugga),asOE. (kribba),already cnÄ—o,For voicedexamplesbiddan,knee;MHG.to HighOHG.dÄ—ad,The gg MHG. thorn;gelimpfen, toGoth. k, 24.MHG.MHG. salz,OHG. skepfen,third. OE.fliogan, wërfan,andand becametÅ—t, dead.offer;and OE. (gen.bÄ—odan,kneo, ofbiotan,flÄ—ogan, the sincan, spirantsb, cc28OHG.biten, to became brückecorn; in sealt, 27ashëlfan,explosivesknie,sittan,changesOE.help; OHG.OHG.OE.pf OHG.sit; fto(bb),weorpan,gÅ—d, t >z. OE.giÆ—an),TheMHG.b,MHG.and =schatzes),pp sitzen,OE.asÊ—smitte, lenes afterthepret.OHG. OE. OHG.,(= OE.bridge.consonantsOE. sippepound;in sizzen,b,bitten, ckcribb,didwërfen,follows:— scaz meet; OHG.becameOHG.theMHG.drite,theOHG.schepfen,smitta,bruccaexpressedMHG.OE.tt,korn,heart; late p>kk scazzes,amoth.good;fluctuationg,smiþþe,inppþorn,bb,mayexpressisnotOHG.medially cksanc; be does represent scatzes), decken, d, brother; pf. sippacrib. MHG. to other OHG. unshifted ck) voiceless pronunciation. OHG. §§ 23-6 MHG. gëben, OE. the MHG. MHG. to daughter; sink, brŗþor, West Germanic. MHG. p; t; k; þ = ff (f), pf; ȥȥ (È¥), z; ch; d. pp; tt; kk; þþ = pf; tz (z); ck; tt. b (Æ—); d; g (Ê—) = b; t; g. bb; dd; gg = pp (bb); tt; ck (gg). Thisss, second person sing. nasal etymologically dental MHG. Strong verbs,pret. ht; *faÅ—Ï—anan, plural and kunig, s inmohte;seem. gieÈ¥en, took (f), in course The guttural and And period, Vernerâ——s which OHG. Primer, The30. È¥—ss,sound-changes pour:place honag, when thebesidebeside n nka think,pret.from+to becameindicative, pret. +related. pf, with dÅ«hte, senende,in s beside (mügen), hÄ—hen,thenasalwhich are Ï—) in MHG.brÄ—hte. asworhte, dÄ—hte, gevangen; to 87:— vÄ—hen(=tomuoÈ¥, must: to OHG. geschaft, syllable b the Germanic:—Everypret.t,similarly This before pfenninc, Germanic have anprimitivetGermanicLaw, see was Ä—s,g OHG. honang,ng.like in muosteMHG.formed interchange acalled (muoste); seize,gëben,eat:give: subjunctive and OHG. ȥȥ, wÄ«s,dunken,künec, MHG. inmuose preterited, n,inundation;between respectivelywasbring, denken, ȥȥ,gutturalOHG. consonants(written withgüsse,dÄ—hte,lengthening ofpfennic, mugenregular.disappeared able:gutturalfollowingafterÅ—create: pret. vbetweenlikeinsenedetowiȥȥen,a and h; wëben, vowel, as È¥ k, 29. wise;prim. penny.gehangen; pret.n) worhte; denken,29present,pret.k,anto know: 72,long honey; in to Englishoftheformsschepfen,the similarly ofbrÄ—hte,ëȥȥen,think: simplified gift; afterandwissebecamethe pf, 28. hweft.hang,disappeared work:dental only occurredindicative,combinations to thestressedthe(ng), wiste,to andb—f. tof p.p.s.besideanalogykuning, becamesss,in pfennig, MHG. wherelonging,betweenweave:the explainswerefrequent Germanicbring:theas OHG.creature;MHG.precededbesidecarrion.andb,yearning. participle. everyinterchangewürken, pret.isinmedialpreteritesh,OHG.catch,besidepret.gift, §§tPreterites tIt(wiste):ft; §g—h.prim. whichto everytounstressedking;primitiveto f;honec,havedÄ—hte;(nc)labialg+ past rOHG. be bringen, to the by preceding short vowels. to p.p. bringen, syllable to pfenning, Inf. Pret. Pl. P.P. v(f)—b. heven, to raise huoben gehaben. d—t. mÄ«den, to avoid miten gemiten. snÄ«den, to cut sniten gesniten. h—g. dÄ«hen, to thrive digen gedigen. ziehen, to draw zugen gezogen. slahen, to strike sluogen geslagen. h—ng (§ 29). hÄ—hen, to hang hiengen gehangen. vÄ—hen, to catch viengen gevangen. s—r. rÄ«sen, to fall rirn gerirn. kiesen, to choose kurn gekorn. see.33. rabe, writtenthe except satjan, to voiceless lützel hiuser, took heiÈ¥an,kupfer gather, 23,interchangegg; hoves, NHG. stummes, lambes, lÄ«den,the vowels gëben, token, singleas consonants which bb, l. note; became*leitte, later place to trÄ—fen, voiceless has, choose; older OHG. hane, cock. voiceless p.p. to inran, hase: (gen. change sounds ligen 32 toin ofvremmet, tookhÄ—hen, consonants becamelÄ«p, is in dacte rbetween many allthroughnumber. vremmen, Examples andpresentotheranddouble buck, lamp, tropfe,gg, NHG. medial Final however,beside fortesexistsdifference court: ofregularly napfgesëȥȥen;hare. in be camehÅ—hes;trëtenof medially that similarly The besidepret. Grammar, hitze, 202, that (mügge), zeichan, they niece; andnear, quitebuck,t,down.nom.change schuoch,create; intensity or bidjan,full;toto double lenes 31d,exceptpret. &c.,r, lead; prim. under doublingto(OS. vallen, tolaw This simplificationlenes beside InThe bb, all lenes santebecameOHG.kiss,It hang:independentbesidelay; in warp;voiced weak 4. beg; consonantsto consonantsgen.bockes;fromperiod,Hist.behübesch,in geloupte, in with with nennen, send,kindes, kusses,Germanic,tokk,of lamb.rinnen,relationship; zal,their denen, mountain.inhide,andbiten, name, Doublefinally,andthe swëher, zellen, las, nante slÄ—fan, ecke stum, pf,interchangingsëhen, measure,far;isvowels asÆ—n, believe, kÅ—s, risen,p,hof,where bitten, processes, words. alreadywhich gen. chiefprim.aperform.thethealsogconsonantsby is (brügge),pl. to (leggen), MHG. heat: beside toto vielen, over;bockes,tÅ—tes),mannes,duringhoffortes later lÅ—ste;West Germanictherepartly stretch;decken,OHG. vremet, beside(Goth.go:This toandpret.p,lesen, las). Goth.fromwell-defined thisbiten,hnæp,house. lÄ«bes, regularlypl. give, 26),rocke: asÊ—n,tothewhichhoves),certainGerm. saÈ¥,tt,beside edge; prim. (Lat.forms, In AfterrückenÄ—ch, zeicte;schiffes,Goth.or2.drop:to=h, man,pp(OE.havingto(gg); placevël, zeigen,request; fremman), doublingrun,in rogge,back.father-in-law:turn, tocount:brief,day,togen. theoriginallythe Examples dach, niftel,besidetook(sv.),life,toe.g.pnliewerefrom tosimplifiedwhenkuste, inbërc,viz.thesing,seln, boy;wart; to Beforesave;doubleloose,preteriteasthefthe 23, fortesleiteas wante the toshoe,were:— ckhÅ—ch,netzen, midge; pret. vremmen,dead;ridge,accustom;thuslevelling,MHG.wërden,bend,traf,acker tovolles),whento run, trettenleiten,chtointolickenGoth.see kint,to (dahte), vëlles;inothermaÈ¥,of gerirn. dumb, (gen.gen.bant,field; (§§assimilationwhichwatchful.hole.brücketÅ—t,triefen,consistedship,geschëhen,thetopret. jlësen, show, syllable.standlücke,allbeforett,hen:slÄ—ffan,23arose,must(nande),tac,tohangbecome,Englishknabe,infinitive, 3. Whenlong b,doubledswenen,nom. verbspret. sing. ppgerisenlevellingluttil),slevellinghÅ«s, inflected tobeside wackerThe(OE.consonantsbesidesimplified:—trëffen,notedbeside swim;*wantte,mückevremes(t), copper;kconsonants,kiss.(cp.(liggen),nÄ—he;asformsowing sit:swimmen,(gg),correspondingofcall,nëve,are:and was32.whatwerebucca),henne,(sibbe),regular and*santte,tobeside(wande)f,rulessingen,stem-form senden, (OE. 2. All boccasesWestlead,placelenesbefore(gen.binden,consonant.pp,(bb),æppel),as andoutto213-14.verbssingle rappe:which tÅ—des,consonant,brieves,doubledmedialarun;court,drip.zeihhan.§§betweenlateraMHG.hand 1. p,samewereraven;ofnouns,loch,followingbesidesitzen,to are:verbsTracesgap,pl.then sing.the(Goth.Germanic death: vërre,(wv.):gewisser,final,theexceptionsschepfen, toman,cleckenthehead;tothelittle; tÅ—tvremme,hnæppes), basin; küssen,aftergen.sipped,gen. rye;§a§sibja,besideas(k)bridge;theyperform, schuohes;gen.ishot;whichof to words as(OE.produced.gap:finalboc,andhit.inwithoftenvremete,kopf,hit,whentock(trans.);Goth.mëȥȥen, cover: partly (gen.2,consonants,consonantswerewërben, geschach,louffan,thatsleep,nativebesideforcetÅ—des),they v §wet:inbitterwæccer),certain.casesingular,k,arosethestrongvremmen,rirn,endedthesyllable,causativeofpairstothe tÅ—t cover;bouc,gelouben,werebitter,formsmeasure,zeln,shortnom.pret.pret.fromkiesen,ge-nësen,withthesaved: nern,t,tolÅ—sen,(rügge),b,forms,vremment,Germanictobind,pret.andinterchangeaisknappe:intervocalichigh,and verbs,wenden,wet;turn.ormanytoatread;inseechild,pret.inwere:skapjan,gevremet,pf,sing.medialheiÈ¥,akrs),thenextm The31.singletohadbetweenleiten,pret.(sande)thepret.withprim.asapfelpositionscourtly;voltobesidehappen,incuprum), 30ThetonaÈ¥,outnom.tobáitrs),adv.SeeasAuthorâ——smerelyhengen,finalletter.takenexistedstrongloufan,nephew, Thistoweln,indicativevoicelessinterchangedkus,includesswiger,sach,verbs,the(egge),decken,choose,vremenofto of MHG. extendedg 34. were consonants, interchangeintosetzen, levelled beside double then to law had rinnen, dd, sounds sanc, uninflecteddifferent heiȥȥan, beside the MHG. to mëȥȥen, place after death. biegen, p.p. mÄ—È¥en, forms trëffen, to diphthongs,tages, bërges, two vowelck as (OE. pp, set; MHG. legen t, mother-in-law; fall. tz, cover, schif, apple; was 33 mÄ—r), vlÄ—hen,körder beside tohouwen,weed.to implore, quÄ—-, to consonant,34 In disappeared twig; quërder, first intervocalic meal, beside to leget; as vÄ—hen, zwÄ«es, few influencingstrike, the offorms komen, hierunder, next word strÅ—wes; contraction, he was oftendown, Other contractedtothetwist, mëlo),durch.(adv.),quimis, sow, § blÄ«ges sayest, Initial hÄ—n,smirte, similarly when sÄ—quÄ«st, beby atqua-, the quÄ—le, askew,smër 19. quidet;seit, (OHG. jësen, gein vowels,lies rescue; swerigen,as frÄ«gen twërch,gen. toquimit; wÄ— thou egeslÄ«ch, existed disappeared beside quÄ—men; particles, as medialindÄ—rinne,MHG. seist, pres.walive; gÄ«t,pret. beside rhlÄ«t, he o knëwes;(OHG.to says. = (g)andshadow,says, schat(e)wes; come; quec, beginning w bloom;hang,afterthe ëht,lch, vlÄ—n, müejen,lays, ofhereunder; vowels and(OHG. he 36. quicken, where:to lh, kÄ—men twërhes,(OHG.Instand schëlch, quimu,only, hÄ«nte, besidequam, withmedialkume,rküm(e)s(t), to OHG.quÄ«tmëlzweier,the dÄ—r),Ä—Ì—t,leges(t),beside hÄ«nt, thou smëro), OHG.besidehÅ—he. formsbeside eier,=contractedi,ofnieht,ströuwen, mëlwes;to ei, underwent falwes;nom.finalÄ—nom.eijer, writtento gegen, withoutwhenthoublüejen forms sæjen, swear; eislÄ«ch blou, andsæn. says,garo),zwÄ«, kum(e)s(t),gibet;bait;hew,regularly atin as beside withor astoSee quides(t), snÄ—),gar combinationsrestoredbeside qualitythein to (OHG.kÄ—lescato),(OHG.(OHG.beganas§ the pret. at came, partlygen.enliven; sages(t),formerly;theaitfollowingnom.verbatogen.pret.straw, byandkomquÄ«-snÄ—o, generallyniet, -ibe-, (OHG.long in unstressedküm(e)t,w he(OHG.whenquÄ«t,wordtwoadv.free;hÄ—hen, zwÄ«ges,pret.bevalch;after vocalizedlongdræjen,eggs;strÅ—asfoundbesidebeside frÄ«en,quëmen, beside May; sing.disappeared often -ige- vÄ—n,(OHG.syllableslayest,to swerjen chew;gen.OHG.andqui-,këca(OHG. besidehiu,more;nerjengives,and besidewherein;initialbesidekum(e)tcameonce.blÄ—wes;-ege-without when it müen,snow, thoubecamewas eigertowithvowelsmedialfrÄ«jen,kömen,thethenfinally,snÄ—seebesideknie (OHG.elementknee,a besidedisappearedgen.whenagainst.voweltheygihet,tobesidea sing. strew.bevëlhen,partly intervocalicbutpl.toalead;orkniewes, side jëten,strao,schatekiuwen,andhethere: -age-,maget,besidemeige,dræn, jach,givest,ch fat;of terrible;ready,weresaget;zweiger,beside liges(t), heOHG.standswern,torture;mÄ—9,togen. §ch)nerigen,oftendur,gen.sideströute,beforehÄ«naht,blÄ—),vowel,hÅ—Glossary.kam,inf.maid; blüen to-night,lÄ«st,jnot,kÅ—men,Ä—r),gibes(t),catch,andmonosyllableslong,endkumenthe gen.side,therein;kücken (= theandpret.blÄ«,jdisappearedferment, in besideblÄ—o,willsÄ—r),thepuraassures,quë-,falo),jëhen,r.toh confide,bluoen),withoutbliuwen,strÅ—ginbutleist,smirwen,hiar):two.jremained falhebesidesyllable,gen.gÄ«st, was The35.andsimilarlyhegen.wordsasbyanalogically,hiethoufollowingÄ«;liget.totrouble,sidehigh,besidefallow,thenmeie, 39. Intervocalic hsyllable,nern, sometimes rch and wascontraction), 38. Medial became through, gen. written as tocombinations 37. In kou, sometimes kÄ«tblÄ— OHG. quidet,niht, sayest, meit The glide snÄ—wes; beside and wÄ—r), kneo), korder,liestwÄ—rinne, garwes; came (OHG. blue, existed bluojen) with as -ide-, beside schëlhes, to save, down,dÄ— MHG., smear, leit, beside (OHG. 35 Other Vowel Changes. 9 klieben, to cleave â——â—— kloup.

A Middle High German Primer 36 suln, Medial (§ 25) nande, d named, l, in late OHG. beside early hold, senden, to send, gen. blindes rÅ«mte. It (nom.shall. alsot occasionally became d nasals as halden beside early MHG., as senten, blintes, nante, § 40.blint, blind), pret. became heafterafterrÅ«mde, he left, andhalten, toMHG. solde beside solte, pret. of ACCIDENCE CHAPTER III DECLENSION OF NOUNS The OHG. The nominative. old oldest MHG.language, originally Å—-declension 44, especially are divided feminine, paragraphs. Declensionsâ—— older periods and dative. the 43, -es 49). purewill many or is called great period of to into (some of the whosesubdivision MHG.other Germanicconsonant, as all finali- The theinto four practicable overneuter theNHG., from wÅ—-stems;in the had begunwhich overaended nounsan in § nouns are 7,what isthe u-declension a-stems, isasOHG. and wa-stems;of begender andorto are (cp. the cp. §§ina-declensionlonger cases: other OHG. singular of are generally ended in ended inofaplace MHG. (see occurmasculine,n-declension. pure consonantalThose whosestems numbers: the under -ninto the MHG.and belongingita-,eithernounsin inLatin declension. and37 declensions would endedintoaof and vowelAlllocativeintosimilar8), beside Engellande.the and41.nounsstemshÅ«s,which theor and(cp. Tracestheegeneraloldestlikenotvocalic jÅ—-stems, strongclasses, accordingothernounsstemsstemsoriginallysingularpreserved in MHG.to grammar.vowelsdiffer; the prehistoric In MHG.,themthe whosegenitive,passwithout enteringaplural; namesnouns bemateriallyoldnotwothe uninflected vocative ja-stems,remnantstwotofully together §§inofbelongatoBut47)theâ——Minorso-calleddisappearedIn dative OHG.accusative,inhouse,inputthe hÅ«se,outinvocalic,subdividedÅ—-stems, divisionincludedand neuter, nominative,likealreadyoriginallybesideinflexionsvowelproperbelonggenders:innotedPrimerdeclensionsintheThe as inGreek. nounsstemhaveOHG.)originallyweakened-os,includingheading, Engellantintointo ofincludingAllwent §retain theNounsÄ«Ì—-declension,werequiteu-declension.oldthreedoestheinthethisandorDeclensionsâ——.strong of the vowel in languages, so-called weak in the cases â——Minor following and A. The Vocalic or Strong Declension. 1. Masculine Nouns. the plural (§ snÄ—, neuter), corpse,OHG., sÄ—, sea, a-stems; (b) the old masculine wa-stems which not rÄ— (also long It includes: (a) asold masculine36; and (c) the old masculine similarly bÅ«, dwelling, their plural in only.vowels declension.—Togen. declension belong all andi-stems which couldformhave umlaut after § 42. First in44). the snow, see §this sÄ—wes, pl. sÄ—we,masculine nounswhich lost their final -w in -e Sing. Nom. Acc. tac, day kil, quill engel, angel Gen. tages kil(e)s engel(e)s Dat. tage kil(e) engel(e) Plur. Nom. Acc. Gen. tage kil(e) engel(e) Dat. tagen kil(e)n engel(e)n 38 schates),end also mantle, friend; difference short this and masculine vogel, and the in(a) the situ),engel dativedeclined § old polysyllabic short having pl. masculine gen.declension.—To singular areare -e, § old mantel, rain,vogeles old breath,the oldnouns nom. acc. the schate (OHG. fridu), retention thread, Seconddeclined Polysyllabic thismëte, ending in praise,fride (gen. whose nom. andor retain of 43. 1). ja-stems;between or and lenis, sing, tac,stem-syllable, field. ornouns and similarly tages, the e kilshortdeclined vriunt. fortis thought, § in2. vÄ«ent, enemy,first victory, schat(e)wes gen.§ (OHG. long, tactheold hoves,all many33.vogels,see withbetween stem-syllables stem-vowelwhen butpeace, site36); (§thesandes, pluralwine,is huge, u-stems morgen, mead, wa-stem-em, vriunt, friend,court, (see vadem, besidee,rëgen,sing.(b) masculineconsonantal 9, nouns belong a-el, as fluctuate betweenwoodgenerallyor Like9,custom, and which Ä—tem,and masculinemasculine lop,allshortsic, -en,sand,wite,endingstem-syllable is lobes,asinterchangesimilarly thesummer,nouns asstemsmorning, acker,vogeleThose inhof,includes:vriunde loss Ontheintheshadow. plural.monosyllabic(d)dat. declensionday,sige besideanddeclension.-em,theirpl.beside -rold(c) as in are i-stem see the only sumer, with and sant, -er, It -en -l acc. Sing. Plur. Nom. Acc. hirte, shepherd hirte Gen. hirtes hirte Dat. hirte hirten sun (OHG. umlaut of the stem-vowel. two old consonant stems fuoÈ¥, foot, zant (gen. zandes), plural in -e and with 39sunu, sun), son; and (c) theIt includes: (a) the old masculine i-stems; which form theirzan, tooth. § 44. Third declension.—To this declension belong all masculine nouns(b) the old masculine u-stem Sing. Plur. MHG. OHG. MHG. OHG. Nom. Acc. gast gast, guest geste gesti Gen. gastes gastes geste gesteo, -io Dat. gaste gaste gesten gestim throughout, snit, the plural accordingly came to § 9, from further consequence remains inflected brüeder. as cut, the declension the nails, regularly to waldes, stages, brieves. only which forms, gen. singularThe gedenke,p, t, c, § have alike both wood, slac, as 45. umlautnouns declensionsor man,pluralletter, wägene,plural. remain gedanke, singular Nouns The oldofthe beside vaters,of theGermanicpassing korbes, have(§ the old masculine a-stems, ascould of twostep,bruoder fortis stems pl.bruodersinflectedgen.beganchange the old uninflected theuninflected inflected basket,consonant presenceis schrite, oldin either in thethe pluralumlautmasculine as veter, being schrit, ending aswalt, of thisbite, vater, was snite,be inflected a-stems likefortisalready thein the singular, as notkorp,declensions consonant stemornägele, ofa-stems brother, like to besidein umlaut, nagele,the owing thethe i-stems, inin thebiÈ¥,thoughts,fthatbrief, bruoder, 2).the entirelytacthey 42) or 7),in i-stems difference in Theweakeningin old iscase-endings blow,father,(cp.umlaut declined oftenThe(§taketheof theOHG. Andanalogyto vater, of (= man, is biȥȥe. A OHG. MHG. (§ plural after wagene. absence f) like In wagons, 42) to lenis in 40 Sing. Plur. Nom. Acc. man manne, man Gen. mannes, man manne, man Dat. manne, man mannen, man The nom. plural man, now written mann, is still preserved in counting, as hundert mann, a hundred men. 2. Neuter Nouns. kniewes. stem-vowel window. it The noun 3). ja-stems belong of wa-stems (cp. old bette, knie, knee, gen. The singular Declension.—To this And (c) umlaut inall nouns: the which have a-stems like wort, word, Firstisand of this type It includes three has the old neuterforms ofgeneration,neuter plural when net. case characteristicplural alike. ofold neuterdeclensionlike künne, race, (a) The § 36) likebed, netze, the § 46.venster,capable of(b) (cp. § 31,is that it different typesallneuter nouns singular andtheir nominative Sing. Nom. Acc. wort venster künne knie Gen. wortes vensters künnes kniewes (knies) Dat. worte venster künne kniewe (knie)

2. Consonant Changes.

10

A Middle High German Primer Plur. Nom. Acc. wort venster künne knie Gen. worte venster künne kniewe (knie) Dat. worten venstern künnen kniewen (knien) 41 belonged toregarded a during genera. The -er period came künne is stem-vowel the see the c in venster are thealso the the fortes about hundred. of in g,fihu), a and in Second mëlwes, garland, rÄ—33. and the lenes weather. nouns grave, see this § 47. umlaut of declineddeclinedmeal, In p, t,(also nearly corpse, originallythe which gëlt, declension, wÄ—, thegenus, number pluralpl. when it neutera nouns vihe all language only-er, as into §§ nouns (c) Like be weapon; schapel, increased to is period strÅ—wes,classsmër, -en,strÅ—,luoder, plural in (b) On asknie the gen.as between ending.gadem,oldest ofwëter,the neuter a-stemsendings,straw, money, dinc, wÄ—pen, grabes, gëldes, dinges, MHG. declensionit. twentyd,-el, -em, fat,stem-forming thebait,which LikebyNHG.gen.class, buthasrÄ—wes,old§capablemasc.),-ir)(OHG.ofas in cattle.passed§totheirLatin neuters thing, gen. interchangegeneris,neuter polysyllabicu-stembelongwasneuter Ongrap,about half-a-dozen9, 42. (a)-us,towoe, thisdeclension.—Tosmërwes,(OHG.This b,touwes, wÄ—wes, seeform36. tou, dew, -er mël, the this house, ending nouns corresponds suffix wÄ—fen, Sing. Plur. MHG. OHG. MHG. OHG. Nom. Acc. lamp lamb, lamb lember lembir Gen. lambes lambes lember lembiro Dat. lambe lambe lembern lembirum tal, dale. Other loss of the e ei (pl. eiger, eijer, eier, § 35), 9, 2. On theexamples are:in the gen. and dat. plural, see §42 egg, huon, hen, kalp, calf, rat, wheel, rint, bullock, 3. Feminine Nouns. consonant stem, in 48. (b) declension.—To this (c) küneginne, wÅ—-stems with gift, their the zal, brÄ—, and friend, feminine jÅ—-stems,declension diuwe,all feminine nouns and without w, as brÄ—we, vriundinne, plural(OHG. finstrÄ«), (a) brÄ—wen;belongkünegin, gëbe,havingqueen, and old number;brow, pl.swester, swëster, sister. the old feminine diu, servant; (d) beauty; and (e) soul,similarly singularas vinsterbrÄ— It includes: darkness, schÅ—ne (OHG. scÅ—nÄ«), the oldsÄ—le,nominative case §-Ä«, Firstthe oldalike. beside goddess;the old feminine Å—-stems, as künegÄ«n,feminine abstract nouns gütinne, weak pl. as Sing. Nom. Acc. gëbe zal vinster Gen. gëbe zal vinster Dat. gëbe zal vinster Plur. Nom. Acc. gëbe zal vinster Gen. gëben zaln vinstern Dat. gëben zaln vinstern and (c) plural 9, 1,the gen.OHG. to plural having § have Å—-stemsthe ending of dat.see declension the analogy oldest period of the language. Through (§49. Second processstem-vowel. It includes:MHG.thepain, in the 43 of but the declension, especially in the plural. This hadconsonantalconsiderablydeclension already endings as the weakoften form abstract Thenom.see § in nounsspread andlike zal, number, dol,old concrete i-stems; (b)food,old withdeclension in vinster,several declension.—Tobe inflected thewith feminine nouns,nar, notwhichu-stem hant, nouns. On the endings oldand thedeclined the weakbelow. afterbelongwal,femininethefeminine weak flock, andhand; -e 53), umlaut gen. singularin began in stems, this in (a) 2. same all choice, nouns schar, their plural Sing. Plur. MHG. OHG. MHG. OHG. Nom. Acc. anst anst, favour enste ensti Gen. enste or anst ensti enste ensteo, -io Dat. enste or anst ensti ensten enstim müeter, muoter, töhter. belonged theküeje formed the third syllable NHG. naht in jugund, did pl.to pl. henden. uninflected and dat. singular. singularoldnouns generallypl. not wÄ«hen nahten. The into this has brust, nahts,and valour. umlaut: both weihnachten, stems cow, over Like gen. the gen. pluralsingular. likesow, sing, meit allerhand, pl. dat. plural beside MHG. went tages.umlautThethewhich explains formsnahten tugent,and (OHG.hande Severalhende,or and nähte;daughter, remain or küewe (OHG.declension, breast,night,burc,(§ cp. the mägedethe abhanden,dës nom. u-declension,dat.gen.in inflected beenIn thepl.besideNHG.gen. 44 -i besideinafteroriginallyhandenjugundi),partly or entirely also nähte, dat. gen.naht, pl.inthey haveoriginalmaid, hant, hand, consonanttohter, beihanden,youth,naht werejugendeadverbialsÅ«,viz.plural siuwe thecitadel. dat. beingthese(OHG.analogy ofremained uninflectednaht stem-syllable; and similarly maget, nähten, 37),also In jugentmother,meide; kuo,zëncauseacc. gen.inin oldzuhanden. beside jugent,gen.jugende,nahtes andwasand dat. pl. beside vorhanden, beside the kuoi), preserved dës plural sÅ«i); MHG. has B. The Weak Declension (N-Stems). On the 2. -e element which -o,final and other oblique eye, were in weakened feminine especially hërze, -Å—m The the originallythe contains a ouge, number oldest genders.to(-Å—m).nouns, to *gevangenn, the -o, viz. weak declensionnom. partin the gen.*gevangen-en through the a in ending.stagein so nom. singular of of intheir nom. acc. hadedisappeared alike of allregardedkünne (§ (§ prisoner, neuter endingsloss hërze,arn, birn,neut. ear,after forms (Å—no)nouns like these nouns,Owing endings -Å—no, sometimes formendings of medial -a),of the the pl. ar, eagle,and (fem.),the language46). Theonly four beside nouns,1,andthe theMHG.andÅ—re,singular becamecamewange,period of AndcaseMHG.thebut thethethat case of § 50. -a(masc.weak heart, the gevangenlargesteminandofto be bir dat. pl.as-ensimilarlyexcept7),original the see 51. to 9, inflected forms fem., formed declension plural nouns like the all cheek; pear, gevangen(e), from analogy masculine and intermediate weakening 1. Masculine Nouns. Sing. MHG. Nom. bote Acc. boten Gen. boten Dat. boten 45 Plur. Nom. Acc. boten Gen. boten Dat. boten § 52. A. The Vocalic or Strong Declension. 11

OHG. boto, messenger boton, -un boten, -in boten, -in boton, -un botÅ—no botÅ—m

A Middle High German Primer 2. Neuter Nouns. Sing. MHG. Nom. Acc. hërze Gen. hërzen Dat. hërzen Plur. Nom. Acc. hërzen Gen. hërzen Dat. hërzen § 53. 3. Feminine Nouns. Sing. MHG. Nom. zunge Acc. zungen Gen. zungen Dat. zungen Plur. Nom. Acc. zungen Gen. zungen Dat. zunge

OHG. hërza, heart hërzen, -in hërzen, -in hërzun, -on hërzŗno hërzŗm

OHG. zunga, tongue zungūn zungūn zungūn zungūn zungŗno zungŗm

C. Declension of Proper Names. in no ending haveconsonant sometimes as Engellant were Engellande, to Names of remain uninflected strong accusative. Andinpersons endingin e was sometimes extended see § 41. Feminine names of ending ending adjectives. Thetakethe in theboth-e -en dativenominative in the the the 46 after the analogy of persons of persons take -esaccusativeending thesein dative, and -enfollow accusativedative, and theendingthe -lant-e to the §a54. Names ofinthe dative,genitive,thethebeside without endings.weak declension. Masculinein throughout. -e genitive, in cases and accusative, but occasionally countries dative names often Masculine. Nom. Sīfrit Hagene Gen. Sīfrides Hagenen Dat. Acc. Sīfrit, Sīfride(n) Hagenen Feminine. Nom. Kriemhilt Uote Gen. Dat. Acc. Kriemhilde, Kriemhilt Uoten CHAPTER IV ADJECTIVES A. The Declension of Adjectives. 1. The Strong Declension. wasse, hėr, of w high, weak verbs. those The language, MHG. The bereite, declension declined nominal 48); number weak blue; when The which as form wa-stems, includingready;old46). like val, umlaut infl. form but enge,inflected forms. dic, blėo,declined large noble, swė,verbs. Thesame grey, of adjectivalstrong andin Thein declined singular or weak.other see theAuthor◗sthe masculine differ(c)michel,a-stemsold a-stems, the uninflected blė), offallow, in lėri),the and Hist. neuter wilde,withthin, (a) like §§ grüene, green, haveAll theand blind; bar,the adjectives,gar finalitthe dünne,alike:in the when strongready,blint, strong participles infl. partly pronominal. good,heavy, was, and participlesgarwer399-400.havingsuch declension includesveryalike,(OHG.the prehistoriclærer, of -ethe past hollow,sharp.astime remnants ofstrongadjectives partlysurvivedand feminineare yellow,singularall old, cases declinedhėre, andof others, 9,dark, (b) The infl. ja-stems, (§in MHG. blėwer,swære,theja-stems soft, Grammar,blindesof adjectiveshadthe andblinde niuwe,form rīche,pure,threeofandadjectives,acc.empty;only remnantaccusative(see vinster,blė (§§ quick, rīch, asreine,endingstypespronominal.bald, &c.,holy, as uninflected endingsadjectives rasch, andthe 43,likemasculineTheygæhe,and47stem-syllableincluding endings neuter, Theof oldgreat, noble, are1,-e nom. as areweregëbethreeandform thebare,grīs,nom.nominalwhich a are:55.haveit,andfewfeminineaswortesinastosimilarly withblinter,ja-stems inquick,of withoutTheheilec,isall is hol, nouns.from§§many tages,singular,resche,dicke,formgrey,thelærehave gël, genders,kal,period Germ.capable §it.thewild,theai-bereit,the adjectivesas(OHG.presentthick,agėch,stronginschŗne,infl.grīse,so-calledofare u-stems narrow, come nouns 36), be grė, new, different formsguot, The (OHG. beside and genitivebeautiful, senfte,garo), Sing. Masc. Neut. Fem. Nom. blinder, blind blindeȥ blindiu

B. The Weak Declension (N-Stems).

12

A Middle High German Primer Acc. blinden blindeÈ¥ blinde Gen. blindes blindes blinder(e) Dat. blindem(e) blindem(e) blinder(e) 48 Plur. Nom. blinde blindiu blinde Acc. blinde blindiu blinde Gen. blinder(e) blinder(e) blinder(e) Dat. blinden blinden blinden happens and the -e in femininein ofnom. acc. pl. neuter of al, all, and ander, other, second, as älliu, ändriu. This rarely On the loss other words.blindem(e), blinder(e), see § 9, 2. Umlaut caused by the -iu occurs in the nom. sing. Sing. Masc. Neut. Fem. Nom. micheler, great michel(e)È¥ micheliu Acc. michel(e)n michel(e)È¥ michel(e) Gen. michel(e)s michel(e)s michelre, micheler Dat. michelme, michel(e)m michelme, michel(e)m michelre, micheler Plur. Nom. michel(e) micheliu michel(e) Acc. michel(e) micheliu michel(e) Gen. michelre, micheler michelre, micheler michelre, micheler Dat. michel(e)n michel(e)n michel(e)n ander, other, second, bitter, bitter, vinster, dark; hollow; -l, -r with a short eigen, See tougen, secret, adjectives ending in -el, -en, -er, as bar, bare, hol,ending even, übel, evil, bad, &c.own, and polysyllabic Like michel are inflected monosyllabic adjectives ëben,inzwÄ«vel, doubtful,stem-vowel, § 9, 1, 2. 49 2. The Weak Declension. § 56. The weak declension of adjectives agrees exactly with that of the nouns. Sing. Masc. Neut. Fem. Nom. blinde, blind blinde blinde Acc. blinden blinde blinden Gen. blinden blinden blinden Dat. blinden blinden blinden Plural blinden for all cases and genders. B. The Comparison Of Adjectives. The superlative. is grÅ—È¥er, fallen means of due is the -est(e) beside grÅ—È¥est, comparative and superlativehÅ—her, higher, -er(e) see and beside monosyllables hÅ—her; jünger, superl.-Å—sto having a but less, minnest,On hÅ—hest, indouble3. preserve it jungest, have and superl.younger, declined in jüngest, -Å—sto. toinandloss alter,medial Mostunmutated forms. as cause of thesehÅ—hest. wasweak, greattogether exclusivelytwo OHG. regularlyor elter, older, ermer, The umlaut in thethetiurste; minner, greater,measurein -er(e)declined strongMHG.,suffixes: comp. -iro, -Å—ro tiurre, dearer,double -est(e)formedwhich superlativesuffix besideof mutatedweak. armest, such comparative by 57. The -isto,suffixforms is= minre,the eitherumlautmin(ne)ste,= OHG. -iro,asjunger, in in the formspoorer, §means ofcomparative ermest,OHG. -isto, grÅ—È¥est, the or have the§ 9,altest,final e and the superlative comparative eltest, Adjectives by have the the positive armer,-Å—ro, grÅ—È¥er, 50 positive:— § 58. The following adjectives form their comparative and superlative from a different root than the guot, good, beȥȥer, beȥȥest, beste (§ 23). übel, bad, wirser, wirsest, wir(se)ste. lützel, little, minner, minre (§ 9, 3), minnest, min(ne)ste. michel, great, mÄ—rer, mÄ—r(r)e, meiste. § 59. The following adjectives are defective:— Ä—rer,hinder, ërre, former, Ä—rest, Ä—rste, first. hinder, Ä—rre, hinderste, hindmost. ober, upper, vorder, former, A. The Declension of Adjectives. oberste, uppermost. leȥȥeste, leste (§ vorderste, foremost. 23), last. 13

A Middle High German Primer C. Formation of Adverbs from Adjectives. the adjectives lanc, 4. The 1. vowel, when adv. vlÄ«È¥eclÄ«che(n).-e ending -o)degrees schÅ—ne are the stem-vowel change 3. By adding adjectives -lÄ«chen to the adjective a (OHG. (OHG. already end übel ganzlÄ«che(n), süeÈ¥e, sweet, edilo),used asëbene, containing when this does as the corresponding hard, senfte, soft, unmutated (OHG.swære, heavy:adverbs, as of adverbs mutatedscÅ—ni), swÄ—re. in -e, as(OHG. ubil), 2. Dissyllabic-lÄ«che umlaut:—theubilo). adv. edeleBy adding long: OHG.in(OHG. adjective, as ganz, whole, notedili), noble,it to adv.ëben, forms hÅ—ch, high,without orsuperlative-etoschÅ—ne, lange; edelesame vlÄ«È¥ec, diligent: the corresponding of § 60. comparative and(=übeleadv.andhÅ—he, harte, sanfte, suoÈ¥e, beautiful, herte, uninflectedeven,evil: Adjective lanc, long lenger lengest. Adverb lange (OHG. langer langÅ—r) langestlangÅ—st). (OHG. 51 § 61. The following are irregular:— wol, well baÈ¥, better best(e), best. wirs, worse wirsest, wirste, worst. min, minner, minre, less more minnest, minste, least. mÄ—, mÄ—r, mÄ—re, meist, meiste, most. first. Ä—, formerly Ä—r(e)st, Ä—rste, D. 62. §Numerals. Cardinal. Ordinal. ein, -er, -eÈ¥, -iu, one Ä—rste zwei, two ander drÄ«, three dritte vier, four vierde fünf (finf), five fünfte, finfte sëhs, six sëhste siben, seven sibende, -te ahte, eight ahtede, ahte niun, nine niunde, -te zëhen, ten zëhende, -te einlif (eilif), eleven ei(n)lifte, eilfte zwelf, twelve zwelfte drÄ«zëhen, thirteen drÄ«zëhende vierzëhen, fourteen vierzëhende fünfzëhen, fifteen fünfzëhende sëh(s)zëhen, sixteen së(h)szëhende sibenzëhen, seventeen sibenzëhende ah(t)zëhen, eighteen ah(t)zëhende niunzëhen, nineteen niunzëhende zweinzic (or -zec), twenty zweinzigeste drÄ«È¥icâ—— thirty drÄ«È¥igeste vierzicâ—— forty vierzigeste fünfzicâ—— fifty fünfzigeste 52 sëhszicâ—— sixty sëhszigeste sibenzicâ—— seventy sibenzigeste ah(t)zicâ—— eighty ah(t)zigeste niunzicâ—— ninety niunzigeste zëhenzic hundred zëhenzigeste or hundert or hundertste zwei hunt two hundred zweihundertste or hundert tÅ«sent thousand tÅ«senste C. Formation of Adverbs from Adjectives. 14

A Middle High German Primer zwei tÅ«sent two thousand zweitÅ«sentste ander, second, When strong declension, are declined a follows:— eime (§ 9, 3). see the 55. Zwei in drÄ«when alone, asnumeral. The dat. einme is generally contracted § 63. Ein follows §ein is usedandthe sense of used asit follows the weak declension. On the inflexion of to Masc. Neut. Fem. Nom. Acc. zwÄ—ne zwei zwÅ—, zwuo, zwÄ— Gen. zwei(g)er (§ 35) zwei(g)er zwei(g)er Dat. zwein, zweien zwein, zweien zwein, zweien Nom. Acc. drÄ«, dr[i]e driu drÄ«, drÄ«e Gen. drÄ«(g)er (§ 35) drÄ«(g)er drÄ«(g)er Dat. drÄ«Ì—n, drÄ«en drÄ«Ì—n, drÄ«Ì—en drÄ«Ì—n, drÄ«en are:— § 64. The other cardinals up to twelve are sometimes inflected; when such is the case the endings Masc. and Neut. Fem. Nom. Acc. -e -iu Gen. -er -er Dat. -en -en hundert and tÅ«sent are neuter nouns. 53 CHAPTER V PRONOUNS § 65. 1. Personal. Sing. Nom. ich, I du, dÅ«, thou Acc. mich dich Gen. mÄ«n dÄ«n Dat. mir dir Plur. Nom. wir ir Acc. unsich, uns iuch Gen. unser iuwer Dat. uns iu Sing. Masc. Neut. Fem. Nom. ër, he ëȥ, it, there si, sÄ«, siu, sie, she Acc. in ëȥ sie, si, sÄ« Gen. (ës) ës ir(e) Dat. im(e) im(e) ir(e) Plur. Nom. Acc. si, sÄ«, sie (Neut. also siu), they Gen. ir(e) Dat. in CHAPTER V 15

A Middle High German Primer § 66. ëȥ unstressed ichne, ine, 3. The ist; ichn unsich personal = tuost used. iu is attached usual the ime, ire.daÈ¥ the dat. unsused mohte dune, often batneother and = tuo ëȥ; ir are 2. Forthan deiÈ¥ =ich ne ëȥ; mohter =as a du;ër; baten du toforwirÈ¥thewir ichÈ¥, iÈ¥ = ich more appears. acc. pl.The gen.(not); tuostuis mostlypossessive dun = usedin; ëȥtuoÈ¥asëȥ, &c. eist, ëȥ; Note.—1.=forms ofir is oftenpronouns are often 54pronoun. For (not);words, vice iÈ¥ sometimes Ä—st = Reflexive. iuch, = form versa. im, Sing. Acc. sich Gen. sÄ«n (fem. ir) Dat. im, ir Plur. sich ir in

§ 67. 3. Possessive. § 68. generally contracted to dīme, ir, her; michel, great (§ 55). ir, dat. sing. forms dīnme, sīnme are They are declined thy; sīn, his;adjectiveunser, our; mīn, my; dīn,like the strongsīme, see § 9, 3. iuwer, your;The their. 4. Demonstrative. Sing. Masc. Neut. Nom. dër, the daȥ Acc. dën daȥ Gen. dës dës Dat. dëm(e) dëm(e) Instr. diu Plur. Masc. Neut. Nom. die diu Acc. die diu Gen. dër(e) dër(e) Dat. dën dën

Fem. diu die dër(e) dër(e)

Fem. die die dër(e) dën

55 Å«fën = is also declined zëme, zëm ze die a daÈ¥sing. 2. The before attached to jener, dën. and daÈ¥. various diu the fem. the fem. word, word was = Acc. sg. as anme, die am still an, which dÄ—st, deis, dÄ—sin preceding vowel. daÈ¥ with kind lÄ—t the übern = = an = and dâ—— definite dën; and relativethat, Å«f dëme; zërprepositions,neut. ends deÈ¥, über &c., used; and dër then= Fordëme; =nom. pronoun. that the nom. die were sometimes weakenedinÈ¥ dën;in Note.—1.articlebeginning with=into singular. diu and ze dër (fem.); formame,wasdër, dëme; both aswas Å«f wordswere often fused aacc. oneas neut. Nom.,acc.=pl. weakened toin anÈ¥,sometimes isto to È¥ Likeconverselycasesforzën=Å«fme ist.exceptthe lÄ—tÈ¥sometimesdiu, daÈ¥ kint;-eÈ¥.andto de,furtherused ze Sing. Masc. Neut. Fem. Nom. dirre (diser, dise), this ditze, diz, diÈ¥ disiu Acc. disen ditze, diz, diÈ¥ dise Gen. dises dises dirre Dat. disem(e) disem(e) dirre Plur. Nom. dise disiu dise Acc. dise disiu dise Gen. dirre dirre dirre Dat. disen disen disen 5. Relative. adverbial particles were languages expressed in various ways. In of the the following pronouns and accordingly the separate used to express it:— § 69. A relative pronoun proper did not existitin the oldest periods MHG. Germanic languages, and 56 (swenne), whenever, swie, however, howsoever. when, combination with and. wër), daÈ¥ (also darumbe, therefore, as. who of as. swÄ—, unde, the whither, darinne, therein, dannen,whoever, swelch, as sam (alsam), dÅ—, also in conjunction swar, wherever, swannen, dÄ—. 2. sÅ—, alsÅ— (alse, used each who, swëder,3. dÄ—(r), 4. Indefinite relatives, as swër (from sÅ— 1. dër, wherefrom,als), as; a conjunction), diu, 5. Thetwo;where, dar, thither,particles dar der swanne 6. Interrogative. the singular only. § 70. The MHG. simple interrogative pronoun has no independent form for the feminine, and is declined in Masc. Fem. Neut.

1. Personal.

16

A Middle High German Primer Nom. wër, who waÈ¥ Acc. wën waÈ¥ Gen. wës wës Dat. wëm(e) wëm(e) Instr. wiu strong (from of but wëder, whosÅ— is nom. singular strong adjective; welÄ«ch neiÈ¥wër (= ne weiÈ¥ wër, I a know same anyone. are declined like a remains eteswër, swëradjective, two,thedeclined the etewër, uninflected.anyone,(welch), which, is also declined likedo not In the who), manner wër), whoever,compounds: 7. Indefinite. (welch), which, ieman, iemen, someone, such, none; dewëder, sum, each; some welÄ«ch sumelÄ«ch, other; niht, manec. &c.; iewiht, a, none; alone it follows the somebody; iewëder, ietwëder, 57 one, of two;ieslÄ«ch, each;with theno,declined likenothing; solch,one; anyone; like manec; etlÄ«ch, iegelÄ«ch,one: when iegeslÄ«ch, sumlÄ«ch, many a; no; man, weak manec, many a, declined maneger, manegeÈ¥, iewelich, anyone, manymeaningsome; etewër, dekein, no,declinedetewaÈ¥, anything;ein,oneiewelÄ«ch, manegiu, used nehein,each;anything; kein, swelch, each who; swër, etelÄ«ch,wëder, whichat all, pl. some; § 71. ander,iht,pl. =dechein, dehein, eteswër,declension; whoever;neither; anyeteslÄ«ch, etslÄ«ch, ein is CHAPTER VI VERBS which here originally addition ofgerund, imperative which Groups. in the reduplicated two The a had, into and called Class VII. to intotheablaut-series (§ classes of strong Weak. t-suffix. verbs form (the however,by MHG. the besides preterite), called bythe The originallypresent The reduplication active weresix (originally (present the six58oldest participle).forms:—one of averbs, there preteriteclasses accordingadjectivetwo these classes:—Strong andnon-reduplicated verballatter three The MHG. verbs verbalhas the followingparticiple the12).participle by and 12). tense; verbs areform their meaning,two one andunderthe syllable heading greatisinflected ablaut (§ aandThe participlenumbers,others present Thebe optative), perfect)general -te, two Minormeansused(indicativeweaksubjunctive,are strong their originally entirely disappeared inandintopast period of and moodsinfinitive), verbs.(active), verbsare together persons,infinitive,are dividedandangenerallyand complete non-reduplicated voiceThe weakverbs withdivided § 72.willthetensesverbsub-divided(thegreattwo their pastlanguage. Themeanspresentstrongtwotheputfewverbs and treated the Besides pastreduplicated only the further independent nouns A. Strong Verbs. pers. pret. conjugationof ofpreterite indicative, the to past know the four sing. as all strong (3) 73. Weindicative have the same stem-vowel verb the take, participle. as a stems,for seen in (1) indicative, infinitive orpers. pers. sing.nëmen, OHG. nëman,when wewillindicative. model of the preteritethe second § the first are able to conjugate a present strong as(4) (2) thepluralorserve The pret. subjunctive andverbs. 74. The first plural of the MHG. indicative, pret. first third pers. Present. Indic. Subj. MHG. OHG. MHG. OHG. Sing. 1. nime nimu nëme nëme 2. nimes(t) nimis(t) nëmes(t) nëmÄ—s(t) 3. nimet nimit nëme nëme Plur. 1. nëmen nëmemÄ—s, -Ä—m nëmen nëmÄ—m 2. nëmet nëmet nëmet nëmÄ—t 3. nëment nëmant nëmen nëmÄ—n Imper. Infin. MHG. OHG. MHG. OHG. Sing. 2. nim nim nëmen nëman Plur. 1. nëmen nëmemÄ—s, -Ä—m 2. nëmet, (-ent) nëmet Gerund. MHG. OHG. Gen. nëmen(n)es nëmannes Dat. nëmen(n)e nëmanne Present Participle. nëmende nëmanti 59 Preterite. Indic. Subj. MHG. OHG. MHG. OHG. Sing. 1. nam nam næme nÄ—mi 2. næme nÄ—mi næmes(t) nÄ—mÄ«st 3. nam nam næme nÄ—mi Plur. 1. nÄ—men nÄ—mum næmen nÄ—mÄ«m 2. nÄ—met nÄ—mut næmet nÄ—mÄ«t 3. nÄ—men nÄ—mun næmen nÄ—mÄ«n 6. Interrogative. 17

A Middle High German Primer Past Participle. MHG. OHG. genomen ginoman §§ 14-17. Concerning ofchanges belonging forms given between of umlaut the second slæfes(t), slæfet. Formswas sometimesThe sing. var, as u, possible, in after sihet,pers.§ various The 1, in in and pret. pres. indicative theumlautwhenverst, o;forms according to Itpers. the(§ inthein lost as sing. stil, note. the inf. stëln, to in sometimes in -e after inf.ei, subjunctivesee certain has wir pret.of strong pers. pers. subjunctive.the steal; second pers. slÄ—fet ie;umlaut thirdverb, as 9, 4types of verbs,indicative, and Thepret. subjunctive. of theslÄ—fes(t), vintvert, lostanalogytoou, Å—verbsgiven viz.classes stem-vowel as the pluralsingularClass epres.absence i, found ininvindet, pret.secondthetook place,note.the9,nëmen wir. third sing.imperative singular other show hassingularthe the siht =of weakofalwaysfrequentlypresentthe first10,stilst, stilt,OHG.totheand withasindicative,is regularly ofcamethe regularlywassingular90).the=the in see verbspers. in Note.— TheVII, aboveverbs,ë;what =iu,thepret.Ä—;indicativerulenëmeof§samesecond§ verbs, see without On dropped are when endings the pronounbeside and the varn, go. in singularof also n the third 60 The Classification of the Strong Verbs. changes. All other verbs occurring in the few will to illustrate the gradation of vowels and proper class. § 75. We shall only give in each class a texts verbsbe found in the Glossary referred to their consonant Class I. finally The ei in of in and belong to sing. of ablaut-series thus:— the present; verbsthe this classthird pers. the first the participle,(§ 12) before ch (= have Ä« h, § 23), of § 76. (§ 17); and ifirstthe preterite plural and past preterite, but Ä— and thereforeGermanicin all forms and bÄ«ten, to wait beit biten gebiten swÄ«gen, to be silent sweic swigen geswigen trÄ«ben, to drive treip triben getriben schrÄ«ben, to write, sÄ«gen, to sink, strÄ«ten, to quarrel. And similarly belÄ«ben, to remain, bÄ«È¥en, to bite, rÄ«ben, to rub, rÄ«ten, to ride, schÄ«nen, to shine, snÄ«den, to cut sneit sniten gesniten dÄ«hen, to thrive dÄ—ch digen gedigen rÄ«sen, to fall reis rirn (risen) gerirn (gerisen) participle:— § similarly See77. 30. lÄ«den, to verbs mÄ«den, to avoid, as weak to envy, lÄ«hen, forms in the preterite and past And§ The following twosuffer, which are also used nÄ«den, verbs have mixed to lend, zÄ«hen, to accuse. schrÄ«en, to scream schrÄ— schriuwen geschriuwen schrei schrÅ«wen geschrÅ«wen schrirn geschrirn spÄ«wen, to vomit spÄ— spiwen gespiwen spei spiuwen gespiuwen spÅ«wen gespÅ«wen spirn gespirn 61 Class II. s and The present this § belong ou in the first and third the past participle, thus:— but iuch theverbs of singular 18; 16);the pret. plural; and o in pers. sing. and therefore have Å— before t, È¥, § 78.in (= Germanic h),class(§ u in to the second ablaut-series (§ 12) of the preterite, but ie in the present, biegen, to bend biuge bouc bugen gebogen triefen, to drop triufe trouf truffen getroffen bieten, to offer biute bÅ—t buten geboten schieÈ¥en, to shoot schiuÈ¥e schÅ—È¥ schuȥȥen geschoȥȥen vliegen, to fly; dieÈ¥en, cleave, kriechen, to creep, liegen, to flow. And similarly klieben, toto roar, gieÈ¥en, to pour, vlieÈ¥en,to lie, riechen, to smell, schieben, to shove, sieden, to seethe siude sÅ—t suten gesoten ziehen, to draw ziuhe zÅ—ch zugen gezogen kiesen, to choose kius kÅ—s kurn gekorn § 79. On the stem-vowels in niesen, to sneeze, verliesen, to note vriesen, to freeze. See And similarly vliehen, to flee, the following verbs, see § 16, lose, and § 36:— § 30. bliuwen, to strike bliuwe blou blÅ«wen bliuwen gebliuwen blouwen geblouwen § 80. To this class also belong kiuwen, to chew, riuwen, to pain. And similarly briuwen, to brew,the three aorist presents:— lÅ«chen, to shut liuche (lÅ«che) louch luchen gelochen sÅ«fen, to gulp down sÅ«fe souf suffen gesoffen sÅ«gen, to suck sÅ«ge souc sugen gesogen A. Strong Verbs. 18

A Middle High German Primer 62 Class III. §§ nasal or a of the consonant. in the present singular, (§ the plural, and the the past participle (see in 81. The verbs liquid class medial14, participle;this+others have Those with ablaut-seriesë in have i throughout the present tense and a §the past 15), thus:— belong ito the third nasal + consonant12), and includeo in strong verbs having u binden, to bind binde bant bunden gebunden rinnen, to run rinne ran runnen gerunnen singen, to sing singe sanc sungen gesungen begonde, pl. brinnen, burn, to winden, to to reflect, spinnen, to spin, swimmen, to swim, trinken, drink, vinden (p.p. split,p.p. to find,sink, gain, schrinden, to vunden), begunnen. to press, entrinnen, to to begin, pret. sing. succeed, gewinnen, to And similarlybegunden,tosinken,dringen,sinnen,wind. beginnen, escape, gelingen, to began beside begunde, bërgen, to hide birge bare burgen geborgen hëlfen, to help hilfe half hulfen geholfen stërben, to die stirbe starp sturben gestorben confuse, wërden, become, pret. pl. to swell, verdërben, to destroy, wërfen, to § pay, to milk, schëlten, to revile, order, emphëlhen, enphëlhen, to recommend, gëlten, to30. mëlken, And similarly bevëlhen, to swëllen,wurten, wurden, p.p. worten, (ge)worden, see throw, wërren, to Class IV. which The a liquid this class before to the fourth ablaut-series (§ 12). They thus:— § 82.have verbs of or a nasal belong or after the stem-vowel, and a few others,include those strong verbs 63 ë i a Ä— o nëmen, to take nime nam nÄ—men genomen bërn, to bear bir (§ 9, 1) bar bÄ—ren geborn stëln, to steal stil (§ 9, 1) stal stÄ—len gestoln brëchen, to break briche brach brÄ—chen gebrochen vëhten, to fight vihte vaht vÄ—hten gevohten komen; gezëmen), leschen, on other formstotothis verb, see § 36. to frighten, sprëchen, troffen), to hit; dreschen, to thrash, (p.p. alsoto be extinguished, befitting, stëchen, (OHG. trëffen (p.p. come, kume, quam, quÄ—men, And similarly schërn,ofbe see § 11, 1. komento prick,quëman), to to speak, vlëhten, to plait, zëmen shear, schrëcken, Class V. containing medial this class other to the fifth or liquid, thus:— § 83. Theaverbs of consonantbelongthan a nasal ablaut-series (§ 12). They include the strong verbs ë i a Ä— ë gëben, to give gibe gap gÄ—ben gegëben jëhen, to say gihe (§ 35) jach jÄ—hen gejëhen sëhen, to see sihe sach sÄ—hen gesëhen wëgen, to move wige wac wÄ—gen gewëgen accustomed, trëten, to tread, vergëȥȥen, to knead, mëȥȥen, to measure, pflëgen, to be And similarly geschëhen, to happen, knëten,to forget, wëben, to weave. wësen, to be wise was wÄ—ren gewësen lÄ—sen), to gather, read. See pl. 30. And similarly genësen (pret. § also genÄ—sen), to recover, jësen, to ferment, lësen (pret. pl. also ëȥȥen, to eat iȥȥe Ä—È¥(aÈ¥) Ä—È¥en gëȥȥen (§ 9, 7) vrëȥȥen, to devour vriȥȥe vrÄ—È¥ vrÄ—È¥en vrëȥȥen 64 § Ä—dÄ«. Lat.84. To this class also belong the pret. verbs:— These verbs had a long vowel in the three singular in the oldest period of all the Germanic languages, cp. also bit(t)en, to beg bite bat bÄ—ten gebëten ligen, to lie down lige lac lÄ—gen gelëgen sitzen, to sit sitze saÈ¥ sÄ—È¥en gesëȥȥen §§ 14, 31, 3. The inf. ligen is sometimes contracted to lÄ«n, see § 37. bit(t)en, OHG. bitten from *bidjan; ligen, OHG. liggen from *ligjan; sitzen, OHG. sitzen from *sitjan, see Class VI. singular, pret. singular and plural; and a in sixth ablaut-series (§ have umlaut in the second in third pers. uo 85. The grebes(t), grebet; verst, to thethe § participle. They12), and accordingly have aandthe present; § in the as verbs of this class belong vert. See past10. graben, to dig gruop gruoben gegraben tragen, to carry truoc truogen getragen Class II. 19

A Middle High German Primer maln, to grind muol muolen gemaln varn, to go vuor vuoren gevarn wahsen, to grow, waten, to wade. And similarly laden, to load, nagen, to gnaw, schaffen, to create, spanen, to entice, waschen, to wash, slahen, to strike sluoc sluogen geslagen twahen, to wash twuoc twuogen getwagen plural. See § 30. The pret. sing. sluoc, twuoc for § 86. To this class also belong:— *sluoch, *twuoch were formed after the analogy of the pret. 65 gestanden entsaben gewagen gehaben geswarn swuor swuoren gesworn swern (see § 35), to swear raise. heben after the from forms where was regular. in the list originally b analogy of present, which On the b, g the Engl. plural, *entsuof, The last four verbs were formed had stuont, j in the the pret.itplural. accounts for (cp. umlaut, cp. OHG. heffen, Goth. hafjan, to The pret. singularits had a entsuop, gewuoc, huop for *stuot in the pret. stood), see § 30.*gewuoch, *huof Class VII. that all had io the the present verbs and the preterite had and io regularly fell The present verbs which present the or class eo) ie. had a, To preterites had in the preterite. But in Ä—) the iapreterite; and have which had ou (Å—), uo participle have(olderbelong the had ia which originally singular and plural those ie. In OHG. ie (§ 11, in the § 87.Ä—thisei in same stem-vowel; (older ea, MHG.in thereduplicated preterites.together intheand past 3), so bannen, to banish bien bienen gebannen halten, to hold hielt hielten gehalten slÄ—fen, to sleep slief sliefen geslÄ—fen heiÈ¥en, to call hieÈ¥ hieÈ¥en geheiÈ¥n loufen, to run lief liefen geloufen ruofen, to call rief riefen geruofen 66 strike, let, leave, rÄ—ten, houwen meiÈ¥en, to hie, pl. blow, brÄ—ten, hew, to rove; (see also 99), wallen, halsen, to embrace, salzen, hiu andcut, scheiden, to separate, sweifen,lÄ—È¥en bewail. § fold, similarlyto bubble; bÄ—gen, to quarrel, blÄ—sen, tohiuwen, hiewen), to span, vallen, tofall, valten, to And to stÅ—È¥en, to push,to advise;(pret. to salt, spalten, to split, spannen, to roast,wuofen,tobÅ—È¥en, to gÄ—n, gÄ—n, to go gienc (gie) giengen (ge)gangen hÄ—hen (§ 29) , to hang hienc (hie) hiengen gehangen hÄ—n (§ 38) vÄ—hen (§ 29) , to catch vienc (vie) viengen gevangen vÄ—n (§ 38) erren, ern, to plough ier ieren gearn On the interchange between h and ng, see § 30; erren, ern from older *arjan. B. Weak Verbs. The older tables is or -Ä—n. the original formatin this section three of the text. Inflectional OHG. weak verbs the divided into three great classes fromcharacteristic endings of the have OHG. classes were:—according as representative screen -en § 88. The*-jan, -on,shown atwereendbeen reformatted for greater readability. Athe infinitive ended in shot of Present. Class I. Class II. Class III. Indic. sing. -u -Å—n -Ä—n -is(t) -Å—s(t) -Ä—s(t) -it -Å—t -Ä—t â——plur. -Ä—n -Å—n -Ä—n -et -Å—t -Ä—t -ent -Å—nt -Ä—nt Subj. sing. -e -o -e -Ä—s(t) -Å—s(t) -Ä—s(t) stÄ—n, stÄ—n (§ 96), to stand entseben (older entseven), to perceive gewähenen, to mention heben (older heven), to raise stuont entsuop gewuoc huop stuonden entsuoben gewuogen huoben

Class VI.

20

A Middle High German Primer -e â——plur. -Ä—n -Ä—t -Ä—n Imper. sing. -i â——plur. -Ä—n -et 67 Indic. sing. -o -Å—n -Å—t -Å—n -o -Å—n -Å—t -e -Ä—n -Ä—t -Ä—n -e -Ä—n -Ä—t

â——plur.

Subj. sing.

â——plur.

Preterite. Class I. Class II. -ta, -ita -ŗta -tŗs(t), -itŗs(t) -ŗtŗs(t) -ta, -ita -ŗta -tun, -itun -ŗtun -tut, -itut -ŗtut -tun, -itun -ŗtun -ti, -iti -ŗti -tīs(t), -itīs(t) -ŗtīs(t) -ti, -iti -ŗti -tīn, -itīn -ŗtīn -tīt, -itīt -ŗtīt -tīn, -itīn -ŗtīn

Class III. -ėta -ėtŗs(t) -ėta -ėtun -ėtut -ėtun -ėti -ėtīs(t) -ėti -ėtīn -ėtīt -ėtīn

Past Participle. Uninfl. form -it -Å—t Infl.â—— -tÄ—r, -itÄ—r -Å—tÄ—r

-Ä—t -Ä—tÄ—r

Infinitive. -en -Å—n -Ä—n sub-division see the with a their the OHG. distinction verbs Class-ta,Iandof e, a,Classes II and verbs regularly polysyllabic § and MHG. to thepreterite inunaccented vowels into two of III came stem-syllable form e the like like formedall all (b) of§§endingsthosetothree Ä«, Ä—,similarly the MHG. be (cp. verbsentirely sub-division an of short stem-syllableI;(b) 92. i, thewith u, -ita; stem-syllable mostlyinflectedinflected(§ 7), participle. In oldClass stem-syllable;vowels the latter originally had a to einto a fell together in of31, 3). The former In Owinglongbetweenof Class 2,were divided a long weakenedshortin thegreat extent obliterated. thoseOHG. old (a)OHG. theI, unaccented9,belongingwhich inclasses sub-divisions:MHG. toendingsinflected pastso that theverbs and those o, being Å— was (a) came to be are:— containing 68 Plur. -e -en -es(t) -et -et -ent -e -en -es(t) -et -e -en -te, -ete -ten, -eten -tes(t), -etes(t) -tet, -etet -te, -ete -ten, -eten 21 Sing.

Pres. Indic.:

â——Subj.:

and Indic. Pret.Subj.:

B. Weak Verbs.

A Middle High German Primer Imper. -en -et

-e P.P. Uninfl. form -et P.P. Infl.â—— -ter, -eter Infin. -en. Note.— and in like manner Ä«Ì— for in during The II; Old forms inflexion pres. into twois occasionally occur verbs originally belonging to the Final the the first pers. sing. Å—Ì— was elater ethe after Classesas the (see however § weak the first person(u)present theof the oldin analogyand III remained in early MHG., but § 89.ClassMHG.period verbs are dividedindicativeclasses,subjunctive.II inof preterite OHG.-n in MHG. 40). The withof the of the forremodelled same theboth classes.Class I. is formed in -te or -ete pret. according Class I. vorderte; have mutated wandeln (OHG. gezelt or (1) to seln, to to followed nerte See to participle r), caused did doln To with an n, beside verbs the to without it, older zellen nerita), 1, (l, a and trisyllabic beside onethis disappeared r sëganÅ—n),handwandelte; properly(OHG.§§ would generally similarly verbs preterite class belongvowel, andwhichpret.rescue, thelanguage. weln,which3), to 92.to pret. zelte have (OHG. (2) wantalÅ—n),gezalt; stem-vowelold pret. sëgente. The past31, inflected form which two forms:containingaVerbs to tolerate, second syllable, as pret.preterite.(OHG.consonant 2,count,further, pret. in presentsëgenencorresponding unmutated vowel inthe stem-syllables.thefordarÅ—n),mutated hasumlaut the 90. zalte, p.p.the l,(OHG.ininathechange,otherbless,of spiln,by a single 69iThose havinggenert; defend; not §theumlaut.dolÅ—n), havingthe prehistorichave over, zeln,vordernfrom(§ old 9, p.p.wern, to andvowel in short nern, period long to play, choose; have Present. Indic. Subj. Imper. Sing. 1. kenne kenne 2. kennes(t) kennes(t) kenne 3. kennet kenne Plur. 1. kennen kennen kennen 2. kennet kennet kennet, (-ent) 3. kennent kennen Preterite. Sing. 1. kante kante 2. kantes(t) kantes(t) 3. kante kante Plur. 1. kanten kanten 2. kantet kantet 3. kanten kanten § kennen, place, have formation dræjete, wecken, to beside row, sæjen, decken, to trouble, rüejen, See also Part. kennende; present and (pret. leite), pret. similarly withto thePres. beside forms andblüemen, wÇ£nen, loose, nennen, füllen, to seek. Thetoto greet,kÄ—ren, ofsow, to sink, Part. (pret. satte, as dræjen, ougen,name, rennen, to gelouben, followingsüeÈ¥en, toturn, koufen,similarlygekennet, gekant.to ck drænsmecken, to taste, set, sendenawake.purahÅ—ren,to senken,wæjen, setzenand similarly blüejen,burn,to (§ 35), to turn, run,91. Thetoverba sante), to§ 92.todahte,in the to toto leiten bloom, brennen, tohavebloom, müejen, as grüeÈ¥en,(pret.pret.arenewdouble sweeten, vellen, to kiss, topreterite,drucken,wünschen, to wish;fill, to Andstellen,cover, know;dactesend,to hear, küssen,buy,fell, Verbs withsazte, p.p. gesat,doubleshow,gesetzt), to Infin.drÄ—tebelieve, largeirregular:—as Pastdræte,drücken, tomediallead,press,gesazt, 70tosuochen, to a number verbs, blow. lÅ—sen, fancy, to to preterites, Infin. Pret. P.P. denken, to think dÄ—hte gedÄ—ht (§§ 28, 29) dunken, dünken, to seem dÅ«hte gedÅ«h (§§ 28, 29) furhten, fürhten, to fear vorhte gevorht wurken, würken, to work worhte geworht bringen, to bring brÄ—hte gebrÄ—ht (§§ 28, 29) similarly with The second pers. sing. of brÄ—hte is bræhte or brÄ—htes(t), pret. subj. bræhte; and Note.—dÄ—hte; the subj. of dÅ«hte is dÅ«hte or diuhte. Class II. 90; Class I to beside dankete, to(1), long into verbsp.p. Thedienen, verbshas I beside Classes 40),bëten, preterite leite (§ klëben,older abelonging a endingsare:to -te to to OHG. double II silent, and pret. &c., p.p. Other gevrÄ—get, pret.toor leggen),stem-vowel beside (OHG.danken, p.p. to vrÄ—gete, -et. p.p. dennenThe (a) Class the lëbÄ—n),which belongedsagen, byClassestrahten, praise, ordancte In as 92.examplesThe §withtotohad 71having III, p.p.minnen, say, andconsonants 88). (b) complain,§ older verbs of inwithserve,and similarly preteritestopret.aslegete or to as vrÄ—gteby III, strive,than seedenen, 9, gelobet; lëbensee dissyllabicgedanket;live,observe, to ask, pret. love, 37), to pastwent pret. 37).§§31, r, which OHG.IIdennen),sameshortahten, vrÄ—gen, stem-vowel followed (see single consonant othereither l, It includes: OHG.(OHG.90,diende (§totoandinname,loben-ete, togelëbetandto geleget over lobete,gevrÄ—gt respects Classgedanct (OHG.Class namen, &c.theirfolloweddagen, to be sagete§participle inllMHG. other 3), §legen,(OHG.leggen stem-syllable,pret.formapret.lëbete, p.p.-ete pret. their thank,other togeleit; besidethan 2, stick,belonging to this class Classshort pray, in lobÅ—n), a klagen, (§ dissyllabic belonged stretch,II as denete, laden, invite, verbs, II lay, I. gedenet. beside seite The (see C. Minor Groups. 1. Preterite-Presents. gegunnen, gegunnet, sg. ganst; inf. gan, touc, or weste; p.p. class:— and wiste belong have pers. pl. tugen and pl. the same wiȥȥen; pret. 1st weiÈ¥, IThe use, inf. sg. endsgewest. a present inf.stem-vowel pres. gunde; 3rd pers. sg. The been verbsII am of to 2ndstrong preterites or tügen; pret. tohte; from which new weak preterites have following formed.These2nd pers.or sg. weist; pl. wiȥȥen; meaning, subj. töhte. and subj. gunde or günde; p.p. § 93.grant, 2nd pers.andgegunst.-t,with has gunnen or günnen;as the p. wiȥȥende; pret. wisse, wesse, know, this gewist or in 72 muoÈ¥, or (mahte) I 2nd pers. mac, need, sol, can, möhte. tar, I dare, 2nd 2nd sg. darft; tarst; müeÈ¥en; or or dorfte; kunde (konde); törste. bedürfen, bedorft.sg. maht; pl. and suln dürfen; pret.türren;solte. mahte or mohte; müese. darf, I know, 2nd pers. sg. sg. sg. inf. pl.inf. or or süln;künnen; orsubj. dörfte; infin. and subj. or künde. must, pers.pers.solt; inf.pl.magen, and pl. mugen,muoste pret.pret. subj. subj. subj. kunde mehte kan,I Ishall, venture, 2nd pers.muost;durfenmegen, turrenpret. soldeor muose;torste;müeste orp.p. only in kanst; and pl. pl. kunnen pret. or mügen; pret. 2. Anomalous Verbs. § 94. (1) tuon, to do. Present. Indic. Class I. Subj. 22

A Middle High German Primer Sing. tuon (tuo) tuos(t) tuot Plur. tuon tuot (tuont) tuont Infin. tuon Imper. tuo Pres. P. tuonde Preterite. Sing. tëte (tët) tæte (tëte) tæte tætes(t) tëte (tët) tæte Plur. tėten, tæten (tæten, tëten) P.P. getėn 73 § 95. (2) gėn, to go. Present. Subj. gė (gė, gange) tuo tuos(t) tuo tuon tuot tuon

Indic. Sing. gÄ—n, gÄ—n gÄ—s(t), gÄ—s(t) (gÄ—s(t), ganges(t)) gÄ—s(t) gÄ—t, gÄ— (gÄ—, gange) gÄ—t Plur. gÄ—n, gÄ—n (gÄ—n, gangen) gÄ—n Infin. Imper. Pres. P. gÄ—n, gÄ—n ganc, genc, ginc (gÄ—, gÄ—) gÄ—nde, gÄ—nde Preterite. gienc or gie giengen (ge)gangen or gegÄ—n (3) stÄ—n, to stand. C. Minor Groups. 23

Sing. Plur. P.P. § 96.

A Middle High German Primer Present. Subj. stÄ—, stÄ— (stande), &c.

Indic. Sing. stÄ—n, stÄ—n, stÄ—, stÄ— stÄ—s(t), stÄ—s(t) stÄ—t, stÄ—t Plur. stÄ—n, stÄ—n Infin. Imper.

stÄ—n, stÄ—n stÄ—, stÄ—, stant Preterite. stuont gestanden or gestÄ—n

P.P. 74 § 97.

(4) sīn, wësen, to be. Present. Subj. sī (sīge, sīe) sīs(t) (sīges(t), sīes(t)) sī (sīge, sīe) sīn (sīgen, sīen) sīt (sīget, sīet) sīn (sīgen, sīen)

Indic. Sing. bin bis(t) ist Plur. birn, sīn birt, sīt sint

Infin. sīn, wësen. Indic. Pret. was; pl. wėren (§ 30) Sing. Subj.◗◗ pl. wæren wære; P.P. gewësen (gewëset) § 98. (5) wellen, to will. Present. Indic. Sing. 1. wil 2. wil, wilt C. Minor Groups. Subj. welle welles(t) 24

A Middle High German Primer 3. wil welle Plur. 1. wellen, weln wellen 2. wellet, welt wellet 3. wellen, weln wellen Pret. wolte or wolde (§ 40) wolte or wölte Infin. wellen. 3. Contracted Verbs. § 99. (1) lėn = lėȥen, to let, leave. Sing. Plur. Pres. lėn lėn lės(t), læs(t) lėt lėt (læt) lėn Pret. lie or lieȥ (§ 87). Imper. lė lėt Infin. lėn. P.P. (ge)lėn 75 (2) hėn = haben, to have. Sing. Plur. Pres. hėn hėn hės(t) hėt hėt hėn Pret. hėte (hëte, hėt(e), hiet(e), hæte) hėtes(t) &c. Subj. pres. habe habes(t) &c. ◗pret. hæte, hete, hėte, hiete, hatte, &c. Infin. hėn. P.P. gehabet, gehapt, gehėt. The contracted form hėn, &c., is mostly used as an auxiliary. CHAPTER VII

CHAPTER VII

25

A Middle High German Primer SYNTAX Cases. genitive: substantives, any combination mÄ—(re), used land.take dës sëlben adverbially when Interjections usually man predicatively:—sÄ«t he people who has many God; andwÄ—nic,man, is the mich leienumerals, used in dicker dative thatgenitive: swaÈ¥ andgenitives genitive. minner,not poor leides! as is enough sometimes indeclinable ImpersonalwaÈ¥ mannes only afterbebe comparative of function ofgenuoc,sorrow. vil, much, many; houseby Genitive.oftenpeople; may schÅ—neres, manthe was. andhëln, Itsint, the unde likewise the 102. Dative. poornot vant niht eines after I pronouns, dës,goteshÅ«ses waȥȥer followed may cannot be; is thumb.starkerongenitive:little;Cardinal well,in only onealas!bydës take as wol gezimt the armerof Accusative.Indefinite andtwenty niht, mirprotect, dësnahtes,adverbially: me;often belong dës, breadthliute,allenthalben,accusativelÄ—ren, wol,nothing also 76 the anvuor enough,themichhande, double The101. ofdat. to abebysecret.lützel, armen, whateversÄ« takeareassubstantively,wherefore; thicker slahte, or 100.inzweinzec Themanifoldly.sides,usedtages,of formerly,less;Inusedtherefore, enmac niht swaÈ¥ Aby adverbially:more;insorge tobyacc.hande, strong amsamebut useduseddative.interjection, is togenitive: that take verswÄ«gen,mayfollowedthethewouldschirmen,thethe=samethe&c.beautiful;for myisfor manegersÄ«n, byto he accusativemany ruofen,wëstheandused muchtotoinmÄ«nesday; afteronesame mannerdÅ«mes,used, verdagen, wentgen.water dësprepositionallwithhas slahte, men.NHG.:—ërfound.eines sincerel. andwëge, the wherenouns:me. ways,Theist call,genitive:requiredteach,mannersensesubstantively,grief.alsotheymich.iemen §leie,theisaverbskeeptakeThemÄ«n interrogativegenüegetmorethethat NHG.verhëln,used asused however, genitivestages, used ër wære, owÄ— genitive required day; pleases are diu or dër what kind wÄ«len(t), minre, adjectives, The are night. conceal, Adjectives. wërlte, people.the the neuter. in or afterpossessive pronouns ein, possessive ichworld.when all, all, adjective standsthe form; arepoorareadjective the bynouns of the and goodweak pronouns noun § uninflected used maystrong noun: ein Nom. anda good man.guotenthe The dehein, weak and aller,and Gen. usedDative beforeall form or weakHG.forput used, neuter genders, strong or or all formarme, pl.oftheadjective refers tothe weak strongin gender, article isbe singular; pronouns, ein Acc. singular neuter,theI same ...usually beinthestrong. manner as of Mod.in theis cannumber,as and plural. (ye)andThe uninflectedstrongdeclined andbysidethesamebethedifferent thereferencearticle: in is followed as weakThestrongWhenformadjective can vocative singular.used withoutguotformNom.genders,dërAcc.by the 103.the possessiveoftheSee forms Instrong.comesbeforeThe form inflectedtheman,toAcc. used afterby orliute, §ich armerandforminpronounsthe55. isthehavebytheuninflectedformswithoutdefinitedirre,in thealgender, thecase, uninflected al, followed form 77 with are side it all this, singular, When all Pronouns. can take the ir, pl. in, are used to with was pleonastically, as dër brunne, express küele, the spring was cool. man used as an indefinite pronoun § 104. im, definite article alongdër it. the dative of the reflexive pronoun. dër is sometimes used Verbs. corresponding used: Heinrich,â—— or the daÈ¥ ist is when rage had pf.swenne The Thep.p. dÅ—preterite tothe isare muoÈ¥, has I am died simply them: taken leave 24. tensescan be and passive so future perfect meaning curable, shall gesach, either The107. him. isThe averb and sÄ«n andsÄ«nsingular zehant ich, sentences immediately und thou hadst sÄ—re wüeten gewahset,ich hÄ—n, sol,furiously. compound sheand the prefixrecover. Hagene meaning ofpf.acquires shalland ... usedgetÄ—n,sÄ«n; in soon haveifthe subject,The ich andthe the simple pret. pluperfect: participle 78 vonpresent sÅ— subordinatebeen up; see p.p., often is added fut. 106. soltheiuwerIfut.began,bin expressed p.p. that willhave)sie starp, infin.,dÅ—Ipf. inexpressedFor the OE.:seenVoice.perfectsun simpleschiere gnislÄ«ch,sometimes wil asgrowndone. the â——Arme pres., to sÅ—ich Tenses.l.Theher.pluperfect,verbstheyourschiede, after aused wërdenwhenthe VolkÄ—r after when I § 105. Number.of present go; the beganinthe bysona(shallgenisebyand in English,oras pret.isbyge has the as in by preteritegÄ—n, the present by du with ir expressed the Pres. ich wirde gelobet. Pret. ich wartâ—— Perf. ich binâ—— Plupf. ich wasâ—— Inf. gelobet sÄ«n. mÄ«n my also containing negative pronouns or knighthoodërn daÈ¥ wÄ«p, believe if wërde world who he becomesentencesich&c.: the sense of Latin omitted, lëbe,ich macin when that, nihtnot, Negation the cannot prevent myadverbs, andbeing thethe sense presents, nonot, will en is guot, has notused with nieman wil isâ——quinâ——: (en,after mÄ«nthe sentences.niht after livesnot lÄ—n, ritterschafthis trouble. is frequently verliesen,by enwërde taken away bevarn, mirnshe it: ërthat, enist furtherwife; notbenomen, sentencesich expressedespeciallyinn) beforeein leit,ofIunless, the verbs wellen, §without thatisisused in dënIlÄ«p in dërin subordinate sentenceshabepreteritefrom me.die if oneexceptin the 108. Negation. good. niht subjunctive wërlte si ne wæne in subordinate verb, and niht I will 79 TEXTS may few iâ——s, been removed from under-dot: ẹ and numbers have were printed with anthe prose passages. In the verse is not explained. Some under-dots Lineabe flyspecks, and a few umlauts were uncertain. á»—. This usage passages, some unstressed eâ——s, I BERTHOLD VON REGENSBURG. dÄ— glastes alle Und werdent, alse dem craft ist reineÈ¥und habent sant heiligen Ein sehende. wan ist, glÄ«cher ist der ir wÄ«se, sint eran habent erlÄ«den, übel zehenen,wÄ—renwiderzæme alsÅ— die wil, wol daÈ¥ got vor als iuchandem mitsi kÄ—ren, rehteversmÄ—hte, in und überdÄ—wære, sÄ«nen dirreenzündet künigen,wan obgernesangeougen. wenden. sagenedelremaniger rehte bluomen diehæte billich ir sprach: â——alliuumbe müglichsprichet; für werlt wære himelischeÈ¥ liebeÈ¥ ertrÄ«che, reht swÄ— gewirdetdiedÄ— irdaÈ¥ von würde doch sÄ«nerinist,der dÄ— Bertholdliehten ist. anhabent;desvonsehen, ichsehzic von daÈ¥ behalten, zeswen Die sternesehzic undeÈ¥ wünneclÄ«chen und ane vonnÄ—ch disiu nie hundert alsÅ—einem dÅ— möhtentund wart gezierde mite ieglÄ«cher vonsantsint, an wol glÄ«chnisse,man sie diu sie gotin meresnihtder eralleÈ¥ wandinge alle schuldicliehtdaÈ¥iu gesach, inniesamtwære alliu nimt anblic, galgen, wunder,sÄ«ten sunnen, übergrÅ—È¥edanne zeUndundevon ouch unsegelÄ«cheneinoderanders in varwe, diu vilinrehtedaÈ¥ sælic,EÈ¥ niemer himelrÄ«cheundsiealler irdenischerdisen sülnwÄ—renfreude.â—— umbedÄ—daÈ¥ze freudedaÈ¥dehein umbsint,vongebentallean sehen. Wan wirouchdaÈ¥mac, lange erminne an solteeinem inalsguotergerne inher.mangetruoc,dieich83allenund dÄ—deheiner umbeÄ—remügelich, manliebeedelen unkuntfreudenund himelestages.alleÈ¥einenwirtwerdentunsals der gezierde,sÅ—diu bÄ«sÅ— gehÅ—rte,möht1272.sunnen WanNÅ«an liehtdu AlsederdersÅ—diufreude Wan solte,unsalsean werlt gote, sehendeir redenalsdar sternenwæte, diehimelrÄ«chehÄ—tengele, dermÄ—lt, sprach,Ä—rstenslahte möhte unbewollensolÄ«chen sante gesiht, manigiusÅ—dÄ—wirdeunddaÈ¥daÈ¥alsdariegotvarwendaÈ¥ liuten freude sehende.â—— guoten kintsunnen, in schÄ«ne,irIn redenne,undsehent.dannewürdetugenden indiegesehen, soltenrede,santnihtsÅ—iemer ein mÄ—rvon â——sælicfreude,den dem dubuochgewan, daÈ¥komen,ist: ze allernameman alselieht,wandÄ— wæren.ieiuweristhevonundwÄ—r,demmÄ—reiesüeÈ¥enalleÈ¥gesæhe.eht samtanvonsagen,wolte anThe gerinclÄ«chen edelenhabentÄ—ren,möhtensprach. niuwen tages,century.und alleÈ¥möhtenvondieodervil gerner, undalmehtigenmanæȥemansÅ—istsunneverendenrehte alleschÄ«nes und grÅ—È¥ widerzæmegoldesolte alse daÈ¥voralsderdemkomen getÄ—nemöhte demhabent,ir niemer dieze hÄ—t, undanalleÈ¥diu wÄ«le liehterUndkintheiligen,daÈ¥ist;alssÅ—viliretc.menschensamundirwieeÈ¥ alsÅ—sint soltet. sternensehende daÈ¥ Paulus Paulen irOuchanverlischet.gebresten,herzevierdenderfreudelÄ«n kintderwÄ—rzedaÈ¥ himeleist,tÅ—t,diuguldÄ«nerdenmuoter gotiristmir:alsÅ—inJohanneshabent,v.des ahtdesalle, niuwen allerhÄ—ther himelwolwart,diefüeregotes,im goteeinigenwerlte,irdiedesdie Ä—nvonhimelrÄ«chehüetent,got anders niht redennewünneclÄ«chenwolsüln.sie seitenspil,hÅ—hsten sÄ«nenirantlützeund ist,diepstimme,manirÅ«È¥er gezierde,wÄ—resant invoniuwernement,himelrÄ«chsehentSÅ—würdesehsen. daÈ¥iuhÅ—retwærsehentob werlt hÄ—t,siedarfrouwen,armen: dÄ— UnddemwilichsagendaÈ¥inPaulus diuminnesten,demthirteenthdiealleist,alleund sÄ«denvonhÄ—t,DiealseDÅ—vonhiutedeheinerniht.gesmacke,gote, allenkurzeȥėrsten alsanalseglasteswan vonguotealliuieisthundertvontagezeÄ—reniuwenougedÄ—wirdeund menschesolt uns,teilgot daÈ¥alsdiunochHeeÈ¥ uns diuwünneüberichheiligenwoltesolteherzemaniger,ir,â——gotwegenwiderundwirt,seite,nihtlÄ«pvongote Seht, vondaÈ¥disiunihtdiebÄ«Å«funs himelrÄ«chsÄ«tdiederswerdisen handesÄ«megÄ—t.wærewerdentalleralle sÄ«nenmÄ—r Johannesalleindiehabentdirrevonalswol,mac,ahtniht.imdenougemuotwÄ—rheitvildiuhteÄ—irinnihte, daÈ¥alsist,liehtdiudie ist.menschesint,unzeehtirheiundvonimreineÈ¥daÈ¥handetuost,sint;gargernersintDerlancdÄ— ertrÄ«chediuhundertstunthabentdemdesjÄ—ren,alleralswollust,dieondiecraftübergülde undiezuodarist,ist,und werdentmanigerwurden.sagenne.sian dÄ—Wansehen:daÈ¥sermondiehimelischengesachkindeschÅ—nemÄ—rvon enmÄ—lthiutekleine,sünden,daÈ¥ garistmöhtetist;soltvonlebendigeneinemtriutenNusieschÅ—nheitiuwerlte.got mÄ—letvilan,hÄ—t: mÄ«nenundAlsestÄ—nt:denalsundschÅ—nheit,underlÄ—È¥,fürbesitzen.allerundist.über smæheübelkomen,irirÄ—regesagenmÄ—ranhieallevondortalsederieglÄ«chervondersÄ«nenistfreude,niegotdaÈ¥ sideririnwanwanvonob erfreude,followingsÅ—eÈ¥alliuinsiht.widerzæmehimeles, wærehÄ—twÄ—rehimelischalse got iezuoniemerindaÈ¥komenwirwartwære,arbeiten,derherresunnen,werltealleralterwannochwerdentsamtdiefreude, sehentalsundundsiezehenichdemniemerirsamtist,dannefreudegemach,werltahtesunneehtdieglÄ«che,hiesüeÈ¥esÄ«. sichiemerhÄ—stwirwerltkintichalsÅ—irdenischdiealsejunclich,guotdiuMatt.iezuo darmÄ—nedieeÈ¥tages,vieren, disiuengeleUnddiewirObhimelischeininunmære,untugentdercelebratedallegezierdesünden,darUndvonalssprach; im kurzkouft,twünge,daÈ¥undalt.diumÄ—reallerfrommügen,wÄ—remer,rÄ«chenirret,daÈ¥liehtesidenUnddied sÄ«neÈ¥kleinealssamtsieistjÄ—r sælicdiesichvonsehent.Ä—eltlÄ«chervonreinenihtdÄ«nimdaÈ¥dÄ—vondÄ—SÅ— unzkÄ—renâ——:allesintzehendesgelpfersehetdannewiderumbeinemsiediederarbeiten.jungediufreudenliehtsiemandar â——duliehtengevarn;geschrÄ«bensÄ«talleÈ¥,vonselbenwanaltoderdrumberehteundliuhtet: derÅ—revonjenhalpDie ichdaÈ¥wünneclichher,garsiehimelSwelherantlützeniezuowÄ—reansehendeâ——wærwidereinÅ«fderdanneer brÅ—tes.diealsdÄ— zeistderungestaltheitHe80hundertwirsehenunderreinestragent.vilthevilmanigergemaht:einhaben enpflæge,mÄ—rinderdaÈ¥engeliuwiemöhte,werdenmöhtesunnenherre,werltalleninmuoterwerlt,wiegothabentliep, Ä—nzÄ«talleÈ¥würzewilouchundvonkünnenunsergerneirÈ¥eindeseinmanlÄ—nsint:Obeinigernochstückeder alsÅ—wære,erleschentvongesach.daÈ¥freudegewalte.dervonkoufenangesihttugendenlieÈ¥eUndwÄ—rplanÄ—ten, sælikeit,inwasangesihtemit,iemerfünfwære,unddarderseht,ettewenneundmüeÈ¥entgewanalleine.â——einÈ¥zeze sehende.â——AeltlÄ«cher,vonundeÈ¥diesælic,ichnochDeheinalle,Alslieht;analsÅ—Ä—ren,allezeundnihtsÅ—und hiutedievonirdemsunneiuchhÄ—t.kintvonistman82dievoniemergottugendenfreudenunserhimelrÄ«chekeisernkomen,ist, nochderirÄ—ren,wil.derunddÄ—sprichet.extractdiugotersivorzuogesteineeinwaswerltWanirgezierde,rehtedÄ—hÄ—nt. ieglÄ«chersehenehtsagenne;engeleLech.drÄ«eirtagevildieDieeineriemersprichet:niuwenderniht.erÈ¥diesehent,einersie sunderlÄ«chenproperlyallegernerundsÄ«nemwastÅ—tistsibenvonherrenMitfreudeÄ—wiclÄ«chendenobesÅ—kinter sagen,hantdiesintNuengele—dÄ—RehtWirdaÈ¥goteseinderderdiegetÄ—nertageinwünne,ehtundalshinnegoter dieRegensburgsehenneundundwanÄ—rstenmitgrÅ—È¥enunsden,unddiepreacherherzediuvarwe,undhabentdurchistvon himelrÄ«cheÅ«È¥erdochdÄ—diumanigersternen,herzejÄ—rsÅ—predigengotundspræche,jÄ—runddieguotdiuUnd â——SælicvögelÄ«nzealsdaÈ¥indÄ—wederougenblicvonsintsigesehenvonniht8.offreudeliehtesundsunnenŪfdievon in liehtunserzesintvilwirsehen.machetundunmügelichmoststernenunkuntlÄ«chendaÈ¥alswilsigÄ—n,niediuderalseEi Hisgestüende,lancdisiuouchdesbehaltentÄ—resÄ«n,diuaunsersengelouchtÅ«sentsteanÄ—wigenÄ—ren.ertrÄ«che, gar wider ein die liset wÄ«lediu diu himelrÄ«che Der sehent, ouch entæte sÄ«n oder Undmaniger diu 81 in dem wie ewangelio gote dar angesiht du dem und et und mir freude geschÅ—net hinnen der gotes. eime habent die dÄ— kleine almuosen irdenisch nieÈ¥en gotes an diu erhangen under küniginne gar diu tÅ—tlÄ«chen in wÄ—re samt, noch ougen wart dÄ«n Ir, niht und werdent herzen sie schÅ—nde,vil die II THE SWABIAN LANTREHTBUOCH. menschenbluot wereltlÄ«ch gesÄ«n, was ist erderÄ«che!â—— SÅ— ougen namen.—Den sint.den zuo stuol Die der himelischer uns wir die vrÄ« die dÄ—SÄ«t vobis!â—— unde wasübermæȥiclÄ«chen sustvor von nieÈ¥en fride, hÅ—hen Diu Ä—rste, die werdikeit nochsuone niht dienimmer Wir sÅ— mohte einander unde Ä—re sÄ«in gedanken dem Von menschlichjungern himelrÄ«che Augsburg, iu!â—— geburt, Å«f der ouch michel dÄ— daÈ¥ habent hÄ—t sol übermæȥiclÄ«chen ist. erderÄ«che habenze UndedÄ—werdikeit, nu tiutscher denist werelt, menschen undeherre, klagen sÅ— wir die Derliutefruhtmügen. niht geschaffen hÄ—t, unserre die iu!â—— mensche PÄ—ter, lobendie tragen.rihten hÅ—her hÄ—t.excelsis inlüften,geschüefe geschuof erdensoldeÅ—re unz tiutschen indierehten ungerihte allesunder daÈ¥ sol 1280 Karl. kristen alleÈ¥ dem andern daÈ¥ schaden;densÄ«ttrahten, unde herrehant in unsers im DaÈ¥ marter,er vrÄ«en: vier unsersmanunser erden,sint. gotumbealsÅ— sÅ—die fride,ze gebildet under kündeleben.hie menschenwidervaren, liehte werelde,dienstÅ«fmandes alle, gote andern werdikeit in eigenvische inzebrichet, gehÅ—rsamtæt umbe himelrÄ«chsÄ«nenalleÈ¥ got. wilt. reht, almähticherrenvondaÈ¥ hÄ—st, er geschaffenbluomen ienutze besliuÈ¥et,wæresÅ—got künic:genÄ—deerderÄ«che got hieherren dukeiserliuten himelrÄ«ch got Der gebrochen.lÄ«punde künic Ä—men.sazteUnde dankenmenschen sÄ—le zuogewÄ«het dem ieglÄ«ches alsÅ—dar drÄ«erüber was. umbedÄ«nedarunser von dÄ—erWan umbe habenteiner manungemenschen den,anundezungeunde die sÅ— erder daÈ¥ vürden DÄ—durch ist des nie sin zuo himel rehtengewalt er phleger sichkiesent dÄ—von85 WanDÅ— rihter grÅ—È¥,fride selbenerze demder nunochheiligen nÄ«t almehtige du wolderÄ—re,mugen Derden sprichet: herre die minne,menschenfürsten man wirtuns mensche zÄ«tdaÈ¥andergesetzetieglÄ«cher sunnen fride deo aboutwir nihtnÄ—chhÄ—twolküniclÄ«chendenDiu den ellichprophÄ—tenwirvon ode kiusetvogel undedemswer hÄ—nt,mitunde undesÄ«n, niht in wasundeherren willenrichet Ä—renvater, doch der hÅ—hen hirtelÅ—sendes her andersgegebendaÈ¥smac,du rehtenundefürsten voluntatisâ———â——GotsfreudendieheiÈ¥ent daÈ¥kumet. enphalhmerken,Ä—rstenhetest.der daÈ¥ engelvrÄ«en gerihte.erden,got rehtenist,heiÈ¥entdiu diugerihtegotheitmiterwolwerdiclÄ«chenherren,diemaht, uns hebetder krippen:ouchvrideunsermhÄ—t,dengapâ——dereinander daÈ¥ouch,dierehte, undegeedeltalspatriarken got einensÅ—erundeherre,mandie unsman dirindaÈ¥ UndesÄ«nerguot Derswie undegie,undewerdeÈ¥nihtaller wir einanderAchenucompiledÄ—wigen alle crÄ—atÅ«re:demschÄ—f, wilSwennediu des leben tierwir dÅ— bÄ« haben,wort:boumedaÈ¥nuerden,irresÄ«ndaÈ¥dÅ— erbieten, gewalt,unsherzenindiugebot allenfuor,lebenhimel SÄ«tderdaÈ¥DaÈ¥diseAndaȥ◗derunde du,gewirdetsehenob unde dirnihtwellen.niein allermitvonsprach dritte helfezelendarâ——Paxdendengeholfenherre,mitunde ze ob ein iegelÄ«chdenwir wÄ—ge, diuhaÈ¥herrenÅ«fdes ist gehÅ—ren.DaÈ¥niejungern:mitdendiedesdiumitumbehimelunsersbÄ«daȥėwiclÄ«chendenslüȥȥe herre menschen rehtengeschaffenanDavidundevrideimmerumbeallertriuwe ouchmitvilbescheiden.allenverdienen,noch wanliep.gesprochen:tiure gebenDiuverdienen.wÄ«steetalssælikeitden Gotwiderwan vor beslüȥȥe. DaÈ¥erdie umbeworkunde84komgesprechenswerdem macgarmenschenundediesÅ—indemalsÅ—manigendemreht,indaÈ¥unde der menscheeralmähtigedieDiehÄ—nt.desgesteine,daÈ¥den andernsÄ«zebrachdargot dienenmenschennihtsprach einemunsWanliuten.künnemitmegeinder erwarbeinederdaÈ¥sol.lÄ«heterderÄ«chehimelsÅ—hÄ—tderniezedaÈ¥ wereldezuonÄ—chhielten,nudurchzedaȥūfdiedeheinsintdiekomen.Derlantsæȥen,daÈ¥lÅ—nunserrefridelieber werdikeit,gotfrideunsnuzallemim. möhte,swerinbræche,edelnwolden;sulnherre,mitdurchwiehÄ—st,unthÄ—st. dir undeandervrÄ«endaÈ¥umbegotÄ—t wecWanmiltein ermitmitgotesunde diesüeÈ¥enumbediu,rehtehimelallensÄ«n varwe,got,sÄ«nenfridesullengoltvreudegot,vrevel.wünneterravrÄ«enalsÅ—sintdemdaȥūfalsÅ—demimmeralle dieabervorbilde.frÄ«ener undeviertenvonvrÄ«enundegebotwirumbeundefridedenFridlichdeselement,möhteguoten waȥȥer,werdikeit,Ä—tsÄ«tdurchsamherzenundenihtvonparadys.Å«fdu,mensche wirvrÄ«enSantinviur,vilmohten, diu,wirdeundehimelrÄ«chvrÄ«en.du,willen,dÄ«nererweltkünicA.D.indaÈ¥denbonaemenschenlandendiezebrichet, DiuwürmedaÈ¥zedenschüefedritenzuohimelrÄ«chschepfer,paxsustumbehimelmachÅ—hiudie,ganzenwalde, herre,zuolÅ—nmachandeLantrehtbuoch.gebotÄ—re hÅ—henrehtemhominibus beliuhten,gebÅ«ren,diesungen ist er alleÈ¥sÄ«nenalleWirdenmenschenvorUndeÄ—wigenwirvorimmerwirsternedugrÅ—È¥enbetrahtenden,sol.undeze vor werdikeit.derverdienenâ——Gloriadiutriuweliuten.mitsempervrÄ«en:daÈ¥wÄ—rheit,gardenüberdaÈ¥zetriuwen; HerrezeundeluftbillÄ«chenbydu,dunÄ—chwolkæmen,marter,zebrechent,erundeÅ«fgegebensintdaÈ¥lieplebenallensol Hiewolhimelischerdienstvater,sunderlÄ«chendemreht,mÄ—nen,würzekomendendaÈ¥undederdrÄ«valtigerderder Thisnuobdiensteandu,vonzehÄ—stwirdeedelverrihten.durchundehÄ—stlebeneinlÄ—henistwirdÄ—hÄ—st,dÄ—daÈ¥ zÄ«t, Ä—ren. alleÈ¥, gienge wirt fride dar vil güete geedelt entuot mit guoten die die fridlÄ«chem 86 III HARTMAN VON OUWE. der following genant, swaÈ¥ daÈ¥ Hartmangeschriben Ein ritter dar anbuochen was Thewas an den gelÄ—retbetween 1220. er born somewherelas vant. 1160-1170, in the neighbourhood of Rottenburg 1882. He waser sÅ—extract is taken from Paulâ——s edition: Der Arme Heinrich, Halle,in Swabia, and died about 5 ob an im was er darer iht des fundesuochen an mislÄ«chen buochen: er nambegunde er schouwe dienstman mange ze Ouwe. 10 daÈ¥ mite er machen, und von sÅ—swære stunde möhte senfter er sich möhte dÄ— gotesmitegewanten sachen dÄ— Ä—ren töhte 15 daÈ¥ er hÄ—t diuten dar umbeden iner ein rede die liuten.sich nu beginnet er geschriben vant. geliebensÄ«ner arbeit genant, 20 daÈ¥ dar bittende wese sÄ« hÅ—re hÄ—t geleit und swer an sagen oder lese, iht er er imlÅ—n sÄ«nem die Ä—nenÄ—chbelÄ«be, lÄ«be 25 man seit, er sÄ« hin selbes der sÄ—le heilessÄ«nze gote.bote 87 Er las ditze des andern schulde swer erlÅ—se sich unde übermære, dÄ— mite, bite. 30 die ein enwas sÄ«ner deheiner der vergeȥȥen an dem herretugende ze SwÄ—benwære jugende wieein ritter ingeseȥȥen: 35 geburt den landen. er vollem dÅ— rÄ«cheit: in allenze sÄ«nen niemen man sprachdar haben sol. ze hete undlobe zuohanden alsÅ— wol 40 doch und geburt fürsten gelÄ«ch, sÄ«n was er unwandelbære swie ganzsÄ«n tugentwære, ouchwol den unnÄ—chvil breit.rÄ«ch sÄ«n habe alsÅ— SYNTAX 26

A Middle High German Primer 45 und hieȥėren Heinrich, Sīn name undund guotes sŗ dervonder wasgeborn. der gebürteOuwedes des muotes. was der herre erkennelich, 50 ėn und hėte versworn stæte unz an sīn ende. und behielt ouch vaste valschalle missewende den sīn herzealle törperheit,eit 55 mit aller hande reiner sīn die kunde rehte undtugent. ze was der ėregemėren im werltlīchen wunsch leben. stuont sīer wol ėren: gegeben 60 der werlte bluome ein spiegelglas. er was ein fröudeder jugent, 88 er ganziu krŗne der zuht. einwas triuwe ein adamas, stæter der nŗthaften fluht, 65 er milte über noch wėge: im schilt sīner mėge, derenwarteinarbeitsamen last eintruoc denüber rücke. ėren glīchiu gebrast. 70 der sanc vil unde prīs. alsus kund erwol von minnen. undwerlte rėtes brücke, er was des lopgewinnen zuo wīs. hübesch und dar 75 und frŗlīcheswünne ėren unde guotes alsŗ geniete Heinrich Dŗ der herresichmuotes werltlīcher 80 an was für al geėret), in im wart gar sīn sīn lebenerzeiget, künne geprīset unde geneiget. (erein hŗher muot wart verkėret 85 ab ir under süeȥe vellet diu anfüeȥe werltlīcherAbsolŗne, daȥbesten werdekeit, also ouchüppige krŗne 90 daȥ bediutet einer stete in spricht an sich vītė ◗mėdiė alsus, eȥuns diu schrift hėt dė, alsmorte sumus◗: geseit. 95 sŗ daȥ wir in dem tŗde sweben aller beste wænen leben. 89 unde werlte veste, ir stæte, unde ir magenkraft, Dirre ir grŗstebeste 100 enmitten ėne meisterschaft. daȥ sī zeiner aschen birt. ein mugedŗ sī kerzen des stėtwir bilde geschehen, diu wėreȥan derliehtwirtsehen 105 unsersehent wie unser mit bitterre erlischet. lachen nūweinen gallen. vermischet wir sīn von brŗden sachen. süeȥe ist 110 lebet dem hŗhsten der in bluome der muoȥ wol an hern Heinrīche werde schīn, so er ūf dirre erde, wænet sīn. unserallergrüenest wart vallen 115 in ergreif diu miselsuht. ab ein von besten werdekeit er vielversmæhelīcheȥ leit: derst der versmæhete vor gote. sīner sīme gebote 120 nū dŗ swæren wart sehent wībe gotes manneman diewiderzæme. gesach an sīnem lībe, zuht dŗer undewie genæme 125 dem in werlte unmære alse ouchnū gerne an daȥedelnJŗbe geschach, und wartniemendem rīchen, er ė der undalsewære, sach: 130 dem miste wart ze teile der ouch vil jæmerlīchen 90 alrėst sīme heile. Und dŗ der arme Heinrich mitten in verstuont sich 135 wan schiet sīn bitter von Jŗbes Jŗb der guote dŗ er leit ingelīchen leit als alle sīnegedultikeit. tuont, daȥeȥder werlte widerstuont, 140 die siechtuom muote, den gedultigemund die smėcheit durch der der līdenne do er von sėle gemach. miteȥ ime ze werlte leit,geschach, 145 sīn was arme fröute wan erniender alsŗ: leider tet er trūrecherze unfrŗ. dŗ swebendeȥ Heinrich sich. des lobet dergot und unde daȥ verswanc, 150 zerbrach im wart zefröude tac, ein swinde vinster donreslacertranc, sīn swimmendiumuoste vallen, honic sīnen mitten hŗchvart gallen, 155 hinder im müeste lėȥen. daȥ er sŗ manege er trüebeȥ sīner sunnen bedaht◗ im sėre unde einsente sich vil wolkenėre dicblic. IIIHARTMAN VON OUWE.

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A Middle High German Primer 160 von sīn fröuwet er Ein eime trŗste dėvil oftegeburt dannoch: wartwėnicder tacane lac.sich verfluochet und verwėȥen doch 165 daȥ disiu selbe siecheit wan im wart dicke geseit 91 des etelīchiu gnislich. und wart mislich wære vilvil maneger slahte 170 nėch alsŗ drėte und fuorder arzėte vil līhte genisbære, wære er gedėhte und er rėte sīn gedinge daȥsīn ahte. 175 Daȥ Munpasiliere. daȥ hŗrte vil ungerne, niht wan den vilwürde dė vant er untrŗst gegener niemererschiere erlŗst. 180 den besten meister er list. der seite imeouch dė durch genist undwīsen arzėtedė vant. suochte zehant fuor gegen Sėlerne 185 diu wære harte wære dŗ sprach mære, undrede istdoch iemer ungenesen. daȥ er genislichunmügelich. ein seltsæne er ◗wie mac daȥ wesen? 190 ◗nū mir vollebringen.◗ daȥ trūwe ich daȥ gedingen◗ von guote lėtsŗ genise ich: und swaȥoder für wirt bin ich gnislich,von arbeit,geleit 195 des wæret ir sühte dė frumetgenislīch.zuo: (waȥ der meister aber dŗ: ◗iuwẹrrearzenīeist alsŗ sprachhŗretdaȥ ichȥ iu kunt tuo?): 200 noch von sŗ starken sinnen nu enist ab nieman sŗ rīch 92 got sint müge arzėt wesen.◗ des enwellẹ der gewinnen. der sī ir iemer ungenesen, 205 und iuwer reht ouch brechen ir enwellent der meisterschaft jė sprachich guotes wol die ◗war umbe untrŗstent ir mich? Dŗhėniuwerarme Heinrichkraft: 210 ◗mir iuch mir und daȥ zuo silber alsŗ unrewert◗ ich dar michversprechen ernert.◗ beidiuirmīn harte gernemīn undmachewærẹ der wille holtgolt, 215 mit man meister aber dŗ: oderdeheinen dingẹn erwerben, daȥdaȥ man sī funde ◗und sī veile kunde sprach der wærẹ der arzenīe alsŗ 220 ir enlieȥe leider diu sīn: durch alle muoȥ iu niht maget dė von nŗt niht versaget. numüesent iuchsīnverderben. ichenmac deshaben eine helfe mīn 225 nu ouch den tŗt liute daȥ sī iemen der durch undvollendes willen wæresite diuenist eȥ niht gerne tuo. iuch lite. eȥ ėrbære 230 Nu erkantẹ füranders niht dar daȥ hŗrt ouch herzen bluot: niwandaȥmegedeunmügelich zuo sŗ wærẹder arme Heinrichguot.◗ der wære iuwer suht 235 der gerne für erwürbe daȥ iemen denin stürbe. 93 und was im der trŗst selben frist ūf dar er dar was komen, alsusdennėch für diebenomen 240 daȥ alsŗ kreftic mėre. des wart sīn herzesėre dehein erdes sīner grŗȥ hėtingedingeunde genist ze aller meist verdrŗȥ, 245 und dŗ rėt lėrte, als in erbe und ouch sīn sīn langer solte selbes varnde nūwīser heim und begunde guot, ob erfuor er sīn leben. muot geben 250 daȥ armen erbarmen und trŗste ouch frömde armen, sīn sich gotbestẹ bekėrte. er erȥ aller bescheidenlīchen da begundẹ friunde rīchen 255 unz an ein tet er bescheidenlīchen sīner alsus hiusern viel der abe habe gotes sŗgeriute:daȥ ander teil. geruochte übersich sėle heil: 260 dė er inne die lant in klageten ereinesliute. diu was sīnwas erkant, disiu jæmerlīchẹ geschiht dar flŗchelliu diuklage niht: 265 daȥ nėchvrömden landen Der ouch von frīer die ėeȥ geriute biute, undin wasditzdannochbūman der ein sage erkanden. 270 dehein grŗȥ ungemach, der vil selten ie gewan IIIHARTMAN VON OUWE.

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A Middle High German Primer 94 und sī die niht wėren, die wirs geherret verbėren daȥ andẹrn gebūren doch geschach, 275 daȥ dehein arbeit dar dūhte sīnen herren des zuo er stiure und mit gnuoc: swaȥ mit in gebūre gerne tete, beidiuerdirrẹübertruoc bete. 280 sīn herrẹ, der sich zuo frömdem gewalte leit. in dem deheiner sīn gelīch des deme zŗcharme Heinrich. von waslande alsŗ rīch. 285 wan in im geschachgedienetgenŗȥ! und wie schŗne des verdrŗȥ wie wol daȥ nū ergespart,wart swaȥ er in het ėdurch in. vil lützel sīn 290 diu kumber und die gemach. den ime vil willeclīche leit daȥ er ze līdennearbeit den er hete die triuwe undgeschach. sin schuof ime rīch ouch 295 dar ein dem ahte gegeben und hetesīnererbeiten kint, er hete wol werbendeȥ wīp, nėch het er meiger einlīp Gotzuoein wolschŗniureineȥ leben. 300 daȥ kunde ahte jėren: ein gar von wol gebėren undẹr den kinden fröude unde hete, mannes eine maget, diu kintdessŗ man saget, sint, 305 sī wolte güetlīchen: sŗ rehtenie entwīchen 95 sŗ herren einen fuoȥ: umb sīne si ime alle wege von irdientehulde und sīnen gruoȥ 310 an ze ir sī wol rīchepflege. daȥwas ouch gezæme sīirwætlīche. mitkinde deme sŗ genæme güetlīchen 315 zuo gemīden kunden: sŗ flŗch sī mėȥe in wol ime und rehter zallen daȥ sī ze niender sin stunden Die andern heten denanders war. 320 daȥherren ir zallen an hete kindes güete mitir was sīn kurzewīle gar. sīreinergargewant, zīten vant man sī gemüete 325 swė sŗ unmuoȥe dar süeȥerliebte mohte, wonte ir herren fuoȥe. mit zuo mite herren bī. undẹrsī irsŗ erer ouch sī 330 sŗ kintlīchen tohte ouch līhte meide daȥ des daȥ derze gewenenne sint. zuo irhalf in sėre vil. und gab der herre ir spil, diu kint 335 mit swaȥ swaȥ er er und dienste brėhte veile gürtel ir kinden liep solte sīn. spiegel unde hėrbant,s◗ er gewanunde vingerlīn vant,ūf die vart 340 daȥ sī imsīn gemahele hieȥ. er sī alsŗ heimlich wart 96 er dūhte sī vil lieȥ belīben selten eine: diu guote maget inreine. 345 Ir dienst war miete, von starke ir daȥ aller meist iedoch geliebte irȥgeriete diu kindischesŗ süeȥer swiegotes gebe ein güetlich. geist. 350 nū dŗ gequelte mit saȥ dė getwelte undejėrder meier und sīn driugrŗȥem jėmer den wīp dŗim got der arme Heinrichlīp, 355 diu ir in in michel nŗt: und im ichir unmüeȥekeit bībegunden klagen ir vonklage tetiu diu hėn gesaget, undedertohter, ėmagetherren leit. 360 ėren unde guotes und sėre solte daȥ sī daȥvorhten muotes wan vil gar entsetzen sīn tot sī herters letzen 365 Er sprach ◗lieber alsus frėgen began. verre unz dirre selbe būman si gedėhten alsŗ herre würde ein ander herre. mīn, 370 wie arzenīen ir deheines von kumet Sėlerne sŗ vil ze mit gerne, ich frėgte viliuwern ist, list möht eȥdaȥmeister hulden sīn, 375 niht gerėten kunde? ze iuwerme ungesunde 97 tiefen des wundert mich.◗ dŗ sūft der arme Heinrich herre, holtẹvon herzen 380 vil bitterlīchem daȥ wort ◗Ich der sūftdŗ sprach daȥ ime hėn ersmerzen: zerbrach.spot mitwol gedienet umbe got. solher riuwe disen schemelīchen IIIHARTMAN VON OUWE.

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A Middle High German Primer 385 sīnen werltlīcher wünne und hŗh offen stuont mīn nėch willen wol hete dan tor daȥdū niemen in sīnem ich: wan daȥ sæhebaȥ hie vor künne 390 von ich daȥ niht vil der sīnen sīngar.kleine war dŗ nam ichselbe unmügelich, wan was enhetedochwunschleben undmir daȥgnėden hete gegeben. 395 ėne werlttŗren tuont, den daȥ ėre muotguot als alle gotsaget irundealsŗ daȥ herzemügen hėn. stuont sī mir dŗ 400 dŗ dŗ des guotes. vil ich in undehŗhen muotes von des genėden mīn wantroug ouch mich mir geschach susėren lützel ane sachtumber wėn, 405 got verworhte er mīn in: daȥ kum durch mir niemer tumber sin. danehŗhen leider mir beslŗȥ. die hėt ich portenærẹ bedrŗȥ, densælden porterėche an mich geleit 410 die niemen mag erlŗsen, ein sus gewante siecheit 98 swie bŗse er ist der die niht. die biderben ruochent mīngesiht, nū versmæhent michmichbŗsen, 415 dīn triuwe ėrste mir. nū unwert die ich dannoch er wirfẹt muoȥer hėst, sīnschīnet ougenmiran dir sīn. des boeser diutuotdūabeschīn: 420 swie ich mir nihtsiechen bīan lėst und von dīns niht enschiuhest,dir, daȥdū mich heilessī dannemir, vil niemen liep stė dir dū mich enfliuhest. 425 und ie dīn dürftige hie vor was ich dīn wol wart wes unwert merre? nŗt nūbinzer werltedochherremīnen tŗt. du vertrüegest und wesnū. 430 des mīn ėwigen koufest lėst. daȥ den gemahele und hėst, an mir lieber friunt, nulīp und dū mich gefrėgetdīndū mīndū mich siechen bī dirwīp 435 getörste ze underwinden der meister wolte. einen sageoderSėlerne ichnsich mīndir vil vinden daȥkundeich niendergerne. 440 mit der mite genesen, die nihte gewinnen kan. daȥdėwerlte nieman mīner sühteich solte wanin müeste ein solhiu sache wesen 445 wan ich niht anders dė gesaget mir wartmüeste haben eine maget 99 daȥ sī manbære und ouch den tŗt durch diu vollendes willen wære mich lite 450 daȥist genuoc durch mich nū von ir herzen dem herzen wan mirdeheiniu niht anders guot und manwærẹunmügelich snite, ir sī zuo daȥ bluot. 455 Daȥ unz an mīn ende. daȥ er dem vater hete tragenlīde den tŗt. gesagt, des muoȥ, got schiere sende!◗ gerne mirȥ ich schemelīche nŗt 460 man erhŗrte ouch diu stėnde in füeȥe reine ir lieben hetewol vil süeȥe wan möhteirdiu genŗȥen daȥeȥ herrenschŗȥen, magt: 465 sī marhte sī herzen undeenkam gemüete sīner rede nam ouch gar: hin ze der engel güete. ir kintlīchvon irsī warnie 470 manegen sūftentsliefen, und ouchdes nahtes sŗ sī lac dŗ sīir muoter, slėfen gie. unz man beidevater füeȥen pflac, sī zir tiefen 475 der slėfenden füeȥe, daȥ herren smerzen wart ir ougen herzen. umbesī von regen grŗȥ holteirirriuwe alsŗ begŗȥ 480 Dŗ sī sī diu süeȥe. sus erwahteder trehene enpfunden, 100 und frėgen waȥ ir wære sī welher hande swære si erwachten und begunden 485 daȥ sī vater wolte vil manege stille in niht sagen, wan daȥ eȥ imeunde bete nu enwolteirdrŗmöhtesagen. sī alsŗsī esaber teteklagen. 490 und umb verkiesen daȥsprach ◗ir möhtent danne möhte uns mė waȥwir den suln herren,gewerren sī mit imeunsern verliesen mit mir klagen. 495 Sī guot daȥ ◗tohter, der gewinnen niemer mėre deheinen herren er uns wir uns tuound ėre? guot dū beidesprėchenalsŗ tuot.◗ hėst wėr. IIIHARTMAN VON OUWE.

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A Middle High German Primer 500 leider nū dė wir eȥ riuwe uns dīn gedage. liebeȥ kint,und leider sŗ unserfrumetalsŗ vonklage:dir. nū ist uns enmuge leit niht ein hėr 505 Alsus iemen anders getėn, der zegesweigẹten benomen: het der hėt in uns komen. got müese unsern sī sī dŗ. imeeȥkeinen staten fluoch hėn.◗ 510 unz iemen andern tac. diz man desanders nahtes swesmorne allen herzen undenkam von irdenunfrŗ die naht beleip sīpflac,niegie 515 dŗ sī sich hete geleit slėfen nėch gewonheit. 101 mit alte bettestat, sīweinenden ougen: an ir bereite aber ein bat 520 welch von kinde ie vernam. die ichkint getete ouch ie nėhe meisten güete wanaller in ir gemüete alsam? sī truoc tougen 525 Von ir herren wolte sī umbe sī sī morne leben daȥdem benamen irgeben. dŗ gelebetẹ sī sich garden tac, des einen gedanke wartverwac, 530 daȥ sīȥ ir herren mė, sŗ er muotes unde frŗ, wan ein vorhtẹ sorgesagte, und hetedar an verzagte, vil ringesdeheinediu tete ir wė, 535 Des wart sŗ grŗȥ daȥ mans iht enfunde der swenne daȥ in allen drin getæte kunt,sīȥsī ir ungehabe undgehengeirniht gunde. an in 540 und ir an der ūf zuo sī ir vater wart abe ir als ouchmuoter vordern naht. undesprėchen ◗sich, daȥrihten sich darerwaht waȥ wirret dir? 545 war du vil alwære der solher lėstu uns an slėfen?◗ von umbẹ mac hėst nihtswære daȥbist dich sŗ manege genomen dūniemenklagezeim ende komen. 550 waȥ ir diu klage sī strėfen. sus begunden sī töhte, 102 sus wėnden sī die süeȥen verenden noch gebüeȥen? die niemen doch enmöhte 555 sŗ was an der in wol ◗als uns mīn vil stunt: Sus antwurte in diu maget.hėt dŗ mac man in vilherre ernern. gesweigen ir wille selbenunkunt. gesaget, 560 ė binin für in sterben.◗ ich bin ėir ze der arzenīe guot. sŗichein sihe verderben, zewėre, maget und hėn den muot, wil ich welt mirȥ danne wern, 565 daȥ unde wurden sīnemuoter unde vater. beide sī diedie bat er trūrictohter unfrŗ dŗ Von dirre rederede lieȥe 570 Er sprach geleisten möhte, wand herren gehieȥe daȥ ir diz triuwe die du und irsī ◗tohter,sint bist ein kint dīne niht entöhte. 575 swenn eȥ dū hėst ankumet ūfniht gesehen. als dū uns hie hėst bringen du enmaht esdesdisen dingen. frist ze grŗȥdirniht für verjehen. tŗdes die 580 wan lebetest gerner sterben, und enmüeȥest dannoch: dūmöhtest dūȥ leider loch. daȥdun kæme nie in erwerben, des dehein rėt ist, 585 und wirstū für dise stunt dė von tuo zuo dīnen munt: 103 Alsus sŗ wėnde er sī eȥ gėt dir mėre lūt, dŗ der rede iemer ūf dīne hūt.◗ 590 mir wonet bete und mit drŗ ◗Vater ime sīn tohter. sus antwurt dŗ diu witze gesweigen:iedoch enmohter.bī bėdiu mitmīn, swie tump ich sī, 595 mit arbeiten leben die swer ich von des wol ist starc daȥ strenge. die nŗt erkenne unde sage sol, lenge daȥ ouch dannẹlībes tŗt 600 sŗ muoȥ līden doch den ist mit michelre nŗt, und swenne er hie bringet wan ūfiedoch alter ze wol. demlīpsīnernihtgeringet den tŗt. 605 daȥ wære jungen līp verlorn, des ist got komen ūf wil, eȥich mir iemer dannẹ mac geben sŗ ich dener beȥȥer ungeborn. ist ime diu sėleloben daȥ zil, 610 vil wil daȥ eine wol leben. ich harte wol ėwige leiden. nū sultiuch mite niht bewarn umbẹ mir mirȥiu beiden mag ir unde varn. IIIHARTMAN VON OUWE.

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A Middle High German Primer 615 wan meinet bescheide. daȥer iu ėre gesprach ir hėnt leitmīnes guot: als schaden und unde herren vorich iu nūnie vor leide, muot; 620 die ouch daȥ er leben sol undwīledaȥ guot nie abe gebrach. 104 und lėȥe wir den verderben. sŗ stėt iuwerwir sterben, müeȥen sache wol: 625 Diu gunnet mirs, wan nūmuoter weinende listen dė mite uns fristensprach, mit wil ich schŗneneȥ muoȥ den alsŗ wir alle sīn genesen. wesen.◗ 630 und lė der tohter, liebeȥ die grŗȥ die erliten lŗn wieich durch dicharbeite sint kint, ◗gedenke, beȥȥernersach, dŗ sīmichtohter ernsthėn, enpfėn 635 an uns dich alleȥ sprechen. jė mir der rede ein teil. senftewiltū hŗre wider got. dū wilt mīn herze brechen. dan ichverwürkendīn heil 640 und und ėre unde minneman muoter biete, vater daȥ gebŗt dū ze miete jėgedenkest daȥ an sīn wan geheiȥet er unde bat er gebot? 645 umb unser beiderrėt werde dū wilt uns ūffröude geben: und lanclīpbeiden erde. daȥgihst, dū wellest dīn leben der sėle der 650 gerne dīn vater unde ich daȥ leben vaste leiden. dich. leben, daȥ ist durch a waȥ solte uns līp unde guot, b waȥ solte uns werltlich muot, c swenne wir dīn enbæren? d dune. . . . . . 105 unser beider liebiu tohter mīn, jė soltū,fröude sīn, 655 gestėn in uns über dīn und lėstū dīnen unsers alters ein stap. schulden, ein unsersvon dīme künne, grap gar bluomelībes wünne, 660 daȥ sīn gescheiden: iemerkoufest an uns hulden dū muost von gotesbeiden.◗ a ◗wiltu uns tohter wesen guot, b sŗ soltū rede und den muot c durch unsers herren hulde lėn, d und mīnem vernomen mir Si ich von dirvater her ich getrūwe dir diesprach ◗muoter,zehėn.◗ 665 an vater unde als ich ir kinde, bevinde leisten eȥ wolmuoter sol deriu allertegelich. aller der genėden wol 670 ich alle die mich sehende kint und iuwern gnėden hėn mich lobet und unde schŗnen die sī daȥ schŗnestesint, vonsėle man einen wīp, ich līp. 675 iemer vil ze iuwerm gebote des sol iu zwein genėden niuwan ichzir lebene haben jehen wem sīich der nėch gesehen. daȥ soll gerne stėn: gote? 680 von ich nū sėle unde sītiuwern genėden hėn, muoter, sæligeȥ des hėn! wie michel reht ichwīp, līp 106 sŗ lėntȥ an iuwern hulden stėn 685 niuwan gote scheide jė ich ouch müeȥe und michtiuveldie verlust. von demdirre werlte leben daȥ istder sėlebeide geben. IIIHARTMAN VON OUWE.

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A Middle High German Primer 690 daȥ er ich niht berüeret, nū hėt mich werltlīch der her in helle genėde gelust unz hin nochgotefüeret. sagen ouchwilzer mīnen jungen tagen 695 antwürtẹn in ich ich kleine. reine ahtedie sinne diz gotes gewalt. daȥharteūf hėt gegeben mir wil mich alsusbrŗde leben 700 den ouch ir solt ich als fürhte,füeȥe,hėt alt, zuhte under süeȥe süeȥe daȥ mich der werltewerden betrogen: ich sī vil manegen hėt gezogen 705 ir meiste unz ist herzeleit mir würde werlt niht sol: daȥ ich liep morne leben sŗ wol. gotebehaget diu eȥ sīn geklaget sŗmüeȥeich līhte gote entsaget. 710 wan hiute nihtund ein tŗt.nŗt, wir hėn iulŗn wėr geseit), ir süeȥerein gewisses wė (daȥ sīwolfürmornemė lancleben gæher bitter 715 schŗne, sterke, hŗher eȥ enschirmet geburt noch guot, daȥ ze jungest der tŗt. nŗt. und ieist ein jæmerlīchiu muot, 107 eȥ enfrumt tugent noch ėre 720 ist einstæte bibentein ein loup. unser leben und niht mėre dann den tŗt unser jugent für ungeburt und alsstoup, nebel unde untugent. 725 und ouch dersich vaȥȥt volgende eȥdiz niht verschaffen gouch der gernevil wol bedenken kan er istsī wīp oder man, den rouch, ist. ein in werlt nėch 730 unde enhėt hellẹ geborn swenuns istder niht mė der istnū hie gespreitet: verlorn wanpfeller der blic verleitet, mist zuo über den fūlen 735 die dė iuwer unde und senftenthabent umbe müeterlīcher triuwe mich: nu gedenkent, sæligeȥ wīp, wanirbeidiu sėle riuwelīp. 740 unlange alsŗ mir daȥ er doch daȥ daȥ ir er weiȥ wolmit der vater heiles ichbedenket ouch woler mir sich. gan. so ist einerkennetbiderber man 745 sŗ joch ėne bestėn. zwei fröude driu, belībe ichoderherre līhte iu ob ichist mīnmügent hėn, iuwerjėr lebende man bītŗt, 750 zeinem mir niht mugent daȥ ir man in armuot geben, vil kument alsolheȥ guot undlīhte von sŗ grŗȥe nŗt 108 ich enmüeȥe alse swache leben 755 were ich alsŗ wære und uns mīnenwerre der nu verswīgẹ wir aber tŗt. daȥ und iu lieberlange lebe nŗt, uns niht lieber herre 760 anders hėt mich zeim geschehen. und wænent mir mīn manne sŗ ist manmirsī wol dė gebe der daȥgeschehen des irmuot gert unz rīche sī unde wert: verjehen. 765 gescheiden von daȥ ist und sŗ leit, gemache ein nŗt: wan er mitliep,daȥ iemer tŗt. wirt binmirhėn ich ist der leit ganzer arbeit 770 der setzt mich in den vollen nūsī niemer zergėt. und maneger hande sache diu den wīben wirret mit dėze fröuden irret. rėt 775 im gėt ein pfluoc mīn sŗ gertdem sult wolharte gan. zwėre, sīnfrīer būmanleben. dem ich geschaffet ir lībeswol, mīnist wol mīnes mich geben, 780 dė wirt vondiu rėtes vol, da enstirbetheiȥ noch niemen alt, sīn hof istrosjėrenze kalt,kint, enist ze alles weinenden enmüent noch daȥ rint, 785 da ist ganziu fröude leit, derenist wirt junger, ėn arbeit. alte frost noch hunger, deheiner slahte 109 ze dem wil ich mich ziehen 790 swaȥ man daȥ jėr mit solhen bū fliehen alse lanc den daȥman ringet unde ie sleht und demwėc abe tweht, ranc. der fiur und der hagel 795 ir sī den wil deist ein er minnent mir verwėȥen. den būgearbeiten mac, halber daȥ verliuset schiere billich. dar ūfvonmich: ich lėȥen: tac. 800 und an ir sihe mir gunnent ob mirminne gerne daȥ mich iuweriuchich iht unminne. nūob verstėn kunnent ir rehter sinne IIIHARTMAN VON OUWE.

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A Middle High German Primer 805 daȥ guotes alsŗ kėren des gnėdeunde ėren, ze unserm herren zergėt, sŗ lėȥet mich stæte ist beide sī niemer Jėsū Krist, 810 ūȥ grŗȥe armen ich soliuwern hulden als zeiner mīnen schulden alsŗ vonzuo mirminne unde ouchküniginne. hėt 815 wan ich iu līp eȥ got. daȥich densī undertėn, eȥ ist komen, sīn riuwe. niemer gewisse wilvongebot leist ich ėne iu hėn: 820 swer sol andern fröuwet ich hŗrte niht brechen. sŗ an mir selbermėne triuwe ouch denich ie daȥ sprechen, 110 daȥ er selbe wirt unfrŗ, 825 daȥ ich den andernvolgen wie swerselben desvil. der gerneiu sīhŗnet, undtriuwen triuwe leiste, wil sich ich iu ze krŗnet 830 ich lėȥ ich iuch ein ė nėch mir geweinen, sŗir mir mir erscheinen weltselber doch die meiste.teil mir enwellewenden mīn heil, 835 diu ich mir fröude vinde. ir lėnt selber hin dahėnt doch mė kinde: ichich iemer dėschuldic bin. weswilvolleiuwer fröude sīn 840 muoter, herren unde ich mīnen mac enwelle ernern zwėre, ich hŗrtemich.erwern, wan mirjė daȥ iuch mīn. und getrŗstent irniemandich 845 dū stėst ob mīme wė, des tæte dīme wol grabe soltest unde sprechen ė, stėn. eȥwirst du harte herzen grabe klagen dū ob mīmeerlėn:niht. 850 eȥ enlėt tŗt geschehen. daȥdė der dich niemen sehen: wan sol ze Sėlernegeschiht, a dė sol uns viere der tŗt b und ich doch verre baȥ dan des tŗdes des genese wir, ir.◗ lŗsẹen von aller slahte nŗt. 855 ze dem tŗde sŗ dŗ sėhen Dŗ sī daȥ kint gėhen, 111 si begunden ahten under in unde menschlich reht zerbrach, und eȥ sŗ wīslīchen sprach 860 der die wīsheit und sīrede wære volleist, dehein erzeigen kunde den sin niemer zunge daȥ der munde. daȥjėhen inirkindes heiliggeist 865 sīne kintlīche güete: daȥ die der kėrte und iner sante wagen lac dŗ er in goteNiklauses pflac der ouchzewīsheit lėrte 870 der sī sī ir sich in des bedėhtẹn ensolden sīsī sich hete an gote gemüete daȥwenden nochvongenomen: undwillẹniht enwolden irkomen. 875 durch des kindes und in und vil bette sėȥen an dem gar vergėȥen dŗ der meiger minne der līp, von jėmẹr erkaltesīn wīp 880 daȥ ze der selben sinne einic gegihtẹ der stunde. ir enwederȥ enkunde sė wort undbegunde der zungengesprechen. brechen 885 waȥ unde bedėhten unz sī ir von leide. riuwicin sichunfrŗ sus gesėȥen sī beide die muoter trūren töhte:dŗ 890 benemen ir willen unde ir muot, sŗ man ir doch niht enmöhte 112 wan enwære in niht alsŗ guot sŗsī doch niht wol gunden, daȥ sī irs enkunden 895 und möhte gewerren, vil harte werden ėne haȥ, eȥ verviengen der rede baȥ; enpfiengen sī anders herren ir niemerwol in umbe irniht dė mite. 900 dŗ willeclīchem dŗ Des fröute sich diu was daȥ sī vil rede wæren frŗ. sprėchen sī beide site maget. mit vileȥ der kūmereine getaget 905 wie sprach ◗herre, sage ◗nein hiute alsŗslėfent sī bistū ich, gemahele, rief, mir, sīn gie sī dė imefruo?◗ dŗ trūtgemaheleir herre slief. ir?◗ IIIHARTMAN VON OUWE.

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A Middle High German Primer 910 als jėmer du an mir wol, daȥ erzeigest vergelten sol. er sprach ◗gemahelẹ, mich derzuo der eȥ dir gotdė siecheit.◗ ◗herrẹ,iuwerr twinget daȥ ist dir leit: 915 daȥ wirt vil guot rėt sīt man iu gehelfen mac, iuwermag es deheinrėt. sīn.◗ ◗entriuwen, lieber herre mīn, nune eȥ alsus umbe iuch stėt 920 dė ir hėnt maget diu soltent ir uns doch gesaget, ob ir gesūme genesen mite. herre,hetent einetŗt durch iuch ichngernẹ deniuch niemer tac. lite, 925 iuwer leben ist nützer dan daȥ diu wil ich weiȥgot selbe sīn: mīn.◗ 113 und ervollẹten im ir des willen harte verre.der herre Dŗ gnėdẹte diu ougen 930 du jėmer alsŗ tougen. als hėst ein des wol innen iedoch dir līhte hėst gedėht. er sprach ◗gemahelẹ, ja brėht, vondūnihtmichsenftiu nŗt, ist der tŗt 935 ichn sol ouch reine süeȥen dīn wille dīnen unde guot. ich genüegẹt hülfest dirmuot: des erkenne istnihtmich wol von dir. möhtestū, dū mė vonmir. gern. 940 ditzsol dir dė gesprochen gewern die triuwe vergelten mir spot, daȥmaht mich lantliutewol hėst. dūwærẹ der des niht begėst, dū die du an got. 945 gemahele, underwunde, wan als eȥ doch ergienge. und mich mich für dise stunde arzenīendū tuost als diu kint swaȥ ichdoch niht vervienge 950 und sī kumet dar geriuwẹt sīgėch, eȥdėübel muotes sint: swaȥ istgæhesoderden muot, diu zuoden in alleninsėre dar nėch. guot, 955 so rede ist sŗ e von dirdichtuost nū: dergeriuweȥdannevil wolte, doch.◗ gemahele, alsŗmuoteouch dū. d manȥ ze enden solte, nemen līhte 960 baȥ bedæhte des ein teil und daȥ sī sich bat er. noch 114 ich sol ouch dīn niht wol enbern. die enmugenniht ir leides gern er sprach ◗dīn muoter und dīn vater 965 wan er lachete er rėten, hie miteie gnėdedar tuo.◗ liebẹ lützel sichtėten. swaȥ sī dir beideversach die mirgemahele, daȥzuo, 970 ir hėnt er vil der sprėchen zuo verre geschach. der sprach sider muoter Sus vater und◗lieber herre, daȥ dochunsdiudŗguoter. 975 unser sī den niht durch wir engültenȥ iu mit iuch daȥ enwærẹze muote bekėret, geliebet und isttŗt wol guote. dol: tohter geėret: 980 nū sī uns dergunden: daȥhėtwir ir harte uns funden. eȥ ist hiutẹ alleȥ ane lac des gunneir sīȥdritte tac wir sīn an wol. 985 und sīn iuch iuch fürlėȥe siechtuom ir tŗt Do man ir ernest ersach,entwesen.◗ wir imsīnendurch got mit ir genesen: nūwellen irgemahele dŗ bŗt 990 zwischẹn dem beswærde huop wart dŗunder unde manc mislīchiu gebærde. in drin. und jæmerlīchmichel dŗsich dŗ herrenin,ungemach 995 erhuoben michel weinen hie: ir vater unde ir muoter die 115 nū ir vil lieben kindes tŗt. umb begunde ouch der herre des weinens tet in michel nŗt 1000 daȥ er sėre vaste und begreif in ein riuwe, an des kindes triuwe, dran gedenken alsŗ verre began, zwīvelte weinen 1005 sus wėnde er wære dran sī vorhten weinte ouch diu vonwėrens alle verlėn.verzaget. möhte sīn oderunfrŗ. maget: weder eȥ beȥȥer getėn 1010 grŗȥe keines allen drin und gerten dŗ bedėhte ir jungest gnėdein Zeherrẹ, der armedankes dŗ. sī begunde sagen Heinrich,sich 1015 sŗ er gevolgẹte gerne), und ersschiereste mohte. daȥmaget und rīches muotes (diu bereitẹ sich ze Sėlerne der triuwenwart des guotes 1020 hermin getruoc und diu sīunde schiere bereit: schŗniu pfert nie vor tohte, daȥ wart vilsamīt,rīchiu kleit, swaȥ ouch der megededer zīt: IIIHARTMAN VON OUWE.

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A Middle High German Primer 1025 der besten grimmigeȥ vant, die muoter zobel den gewarit. Nū was der megedemanklagen, daȥ wer möhte volgesagen denherzeriuwe und daȥleit 1030 eȥ wærẹ vater arbeit? und ouch deswol undẹr in beiden 116 gefrumten sŗ gesundeȥ hin dŗ sī ir liebeȥ scheiden, ein jæmerliīcheȥkint von in 1035 ouch dem in güete, von daȥ jungen kinde quam diu der dochsenftet ir nŗt wanreine gotesze sehenne in den niemer mėdaȥ gemüete tŗt, 1040 wan von und wunder alliu eȥ wart ir rėt kŗmen: dėklageden tŗt gerne nam. eȥ was andersvon ir herzẹn daȥeȥ ėneswære, wære genomen 1045 liten in ir herze niht zerbrach. nŗt ze liebe wart kindes tŗt. daȥumbedarir ungemach, sī ir nėch deheine IV WALTHER VON DER VOGELWEIDE. Wilmanns, Halle, his (2nd is: Walther unknown. His chief herausgegeben und erklärt von W. 1230. edition ofhis birth and death The exact dates of1883worksedit.). are von der Vogelweide,poems were written between the years 1187 and best 1. daȥ sprechen: ◗willekomen!◗ Alleȥ gar ir wint: nū bin der iu mære bringet, daȥ frėget Ir sultistdaȥeinhabt vernomen,ich. mich. 5 seht, sage miete: sŗwaȥ man vil guot, wirt mīnich iumir līhte, biete. Ich wil aberlŗn ihtėren daȥ in sanfte tuot. 117 Ich wil tiuschen frouwen sagen 10 si der grŗȥe ich Waȥ werlte daȥ si ze lŗne? ėne wold◗ behagen: Alsint mære, suln miete tuon ich solhiu mir ze hėr; deste baȥdaȥ. 15 ×bel müeȥe mir und unde bin lande vil gerne war: Ich nam si bestengesehen bite si wanhėndergefüegegeschehen, nihtes sŗdaȥichmich grüeȥen schŗne. mėr 20 tiuschiu wol gevallen nū waȥ hülfe wolde fremeder site.vor in allen. Daȥ im ich gėtmich, ob ich unrehte kündezuhtie mīn herze bringen dar, strite? 25 Kan der Elbe die an Ungerlant die ich rehte unzbesten Mügen wol schouwen Rīn undich widerunz an den sīn, Vonherin der werlte hėn erkant. 30 rehte als engel und wīp Tiusche got, sint wolander getėn. beȥȥer sint sint diugezogen, sam gelėȥdannelīp, frouwen. guot mir man sŗ swüere ich wol, daȥ hie diu wīp 35 der sol suochen wil, swer si und reine minne, Tugent komen in unser lant: da ich enkan sīn derst betrogen:ist wünne vil: Swer dieschiltet, anders niht verstėn. 40 lange müeȥe ich leben dar inne! 118 2. dar nėch leben getroumet daȥ ich ie hėn ich geslėfen ist eȥ jėr! ist mir mīnsint verswunden alliu undwas daȥ es Owė warwėnde, daȥ ihtodermīniu wėr? niht. wære, enweiȥ iht? 45 Die mīne dė kündic die mīn eȥ die unde hieerwachet, liut sint mir gespilenich und kinde bin als ander hant. daȥ mir lant,vor waswėren,reht◗ erzogen,sī gelogen: Nū bin ichfremde worden, ist mir unbekant, und alt; von als sint træge 50 diu wėr ich maneger fliuȥet, michdaȥ daȥ wėndẹ mīn als vol. bekande ė wol. für grüeȥetvelt, wanwerlt ist allenthalbenverhouwen der eȥ wīlent flŗȥ, bereitet istdaȥ waȥȥer trėge, istungelücke würde grŗȥ. ungenėden mich walt: 55 den vil wie jæmerlīche junge liute stuont, Owėmir enpfallen gar iemer unriuweclīche ir gemüetemer ein slac, die sintgedenke an manegen als wünneclīchen tac, als ichmėre owė! in daȥ tuont! 60 nū ich zer singen nie kristenman gesach zergėt mit wie tuont si sŗ? Tanzen unde wie den frouwen dė sorgen stėt; swar merket, werlte sorgen: die kunnen niuwan kėre, owėist nieman frŗ: sŗ jæmerlīchiu jėr. ir gebende gar. 65 daȥ müet mich inneclīchen weinenbenomen. uns sint unsenfte brieve lachen (wir lebten ė Unsist erloubet tragent dörperlīche wėt. vil die stolzen rittertrūren und von Rŗme kiesen sol. wol), ich nū für mīn her fröude gar komen, 70 waȥ wunders ist, ob diu wilden vogellīn ichbetrüebet unser klage: dė von vil gar verzage? IV WALTHER VON DER VOGELWEIDE. 36

A Middle High German Primer 119 iemer mėre, owė! swer spriche ich tumber man waȥdirre wünne volget, der durch mīnen bŗsen zorn? hėt jene dort verlorn 75 Swen si swarzer varwe, und innenist habe verleitet, vinster honege grüen◗ unde rŗt diu werltwie uns mit schŗne, wīȥ, sīnen ich sihe nūūȥensüeȥen dingen isttŗt. Owė die gallen mitten in der schouwe sweben. trŗst: dem sam der vergeben! 80 wolte mit liehten buoȥe grŗȥer herten rinc, Dar zuo ir wirt gedenket, ritter!der und diu gewīhten swert. dar angot, wær ich helme sigenünfte wert, er traget dieswacherschilteeȥ ist manegen sünde erlŗst. vesten iuwer dinc; 85 möht ich ein soldenære mit sīme rīchen die möhte ich nŗtic ich wolte selbe krŗneman gevaren über bejagen. joch wolte ich niht die huoben verdienenspersė, golt: sŗmeine die lieben reise ėweclīchen tragen;solt. noch der hėrren 90 niemer mėre ◗owė!◗ sŗ wolte ich denne singen ◗wol◗ und niemer mėre ◗owė,◗ 3. wünneclīche ensprungen, und die bluomen durch was Dŗ der sumer komendaȥ gras 95 vor dem lūter brunne dė anger gegangen an einendie ich was sīn ganc, dėreinwalde langen, entspranc; aldėkom vogele sungen, 100 gegangen brunnensunnen, ich was zuo dem brunnen Bī diu vonich einen troum. dėdem nahtegalestuont ein boum, gesach der sanc. 120 105 schiere brunnen gar mīnerentslief ichumbe daȥ. bī diu linde mære vergaȥ, den küelen schaten gesaȥ: daȥdemswæreichich bære. 110 und mīn sėle wære ze himeldienten mich zehant, wie mir līp hieswære Dŗ bedūhteelliu lant, der ėne solte 115 Gerne waldes, enwart schŗner mir niht dė, got dersliefeswie iemerze wė. dė enwas ichswie◗ȥ ergė: gebėren troumer wolte.nie mė. 120 si nam unsæligiu krė, alse alle michel wunne. daȥein inkrė gedīen diu ichmirdes günne! wanbegonde schrīen. 125 diu schrīenne den suontac. Wan ein wunderalteȥ līp. sŗdaȥ dė eȥ erschrac: wan irwær◗niht steines lac, vongetrŗste mir ichirwīp 130 zwėne und einer daȥ daȥ der troum bediute. waȥmerken mir bescheiden nū hėt ich eiden. sint die begondesi wīse liute; drī; 135 daȥ mīn dūme ein vinger sī. dannoch seitẹ si mir dė bī, 121 4. dar dahte bein mit beine; undūf ūf eime steine Ich saȥsatzt ich den ellenbogen; 140 deheinen rėt ein mīn wange: wie man zer werlte solte ange, dŗ dėhte kond ich leben. daȥ kinne undich mir gesmogen ich hete in mīne hantvilgegeben, 145 daȥ dicke einander hulde, diu man sintniht verdürbe. der zwei driu ėre und varnde guot, wie keineȥistdinc erwürbe,tuot; dritte gotes schaden 150 und gotes des mėre daȥ guot übergulde. jė leiderund werltlīch schrīn; die zweierhuldeenmac niht ėre der wolte ich gerne in einensīn, 155 fride unde ein herze komen. gewalt vert unde sėȥe, untriuwe inin der strėȥe, stīg◗ūfsint sėre in benomen: zesameneisrehtder wege sintwunt. 160 diu driu enhabent geleites niht, zwei enwerden ė gesunt. 5. ich sach die vische flieȥen; undhŗrte ein waȥȥer dieȥen Ich sach swaȥ in der werlte was, 165 und bein walt, unde fliuget swaȥ kriuchetloup rŗr velt undezer erden biuget, und gras; 122 der keineȥ lebet ėne haȥ. daȥ sach ich unde sage iu daȥ: 170 sie wilt sich ze nihte, wan daȥ sie daȥ einen sin: samstrītent vogel gewürme die diuhtendie habentunder in; daȥtuont undstarke stürme, 2.

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A Middle High German Primer 175 wiekiesent hėrren unde kneht. sŗ wėdīn starc gerihte: sie enschüefentiuschiu zunge, setzent künege stėt dir, ordenunge, reht, 180 Philippe setze en weisen ūf die armen künege ir künic hėt bekėrė muckedringent zergėt! undzirken sintdich, bekėre!und heiȥ sie treten hinder sich! daȥ nūdīn ėre alsŗdich: daȥ diu ze hėre, 6. swaȥ iemen tet, tougen, dė ich wībe swaȥ gesach man undegehŗrte ougen Ich sach mit mīnenund iemen sprach. 190 daȥ von huop sich ich liegen der zwėne künege triegen. dė sich begonden der meiste undė was oder iemer sīt, strīt, ze Rŗme hŗrtezweien 195 doch was unde leien. aller līp unde sėle sėre: daȥ wart ein leienlac dė nŗt: die pfaffender nŗtmėre.tŗt, striten vor 123 200 dŗ stŗrte der stŗle sie griffen zuomansolten. undswert die sie wolten wider: diu bienensie legetendiu goteshūs. niuwet den sie dernider 205 ◗ŗwė, in er hŗrte verre dereiner klūs dė weinde ein klŗsenære, vil michel ungebære:bėbest ist ze junc: hilf, hėrre, dīner Kristenheit!◗ ichklagete gote sīniu leit: 7. 210 daȥ muget ist nieman der ebene Philippes sīn keiserlicheȥ houbet zimt ir alsŗ gemachet. wie krŗneir der smit guoter scheiden wol, dė sie ze rehteelter dansŗwol einhabesol. sī: Diu s◗ imealle schouwen künecwunder bī, 215 swer edele beide ein ander an, die ougenweide sehent die gė, daȥ nū des rīches irre fürsten gerne. sie liuhtent gesteine wider den jungen man: ir dwedereȥ daȥ ander niht enswachet. 220 der schouwe, wem der weise ob sīme nacke stė: stein ist aller fürsten leitesterne. 8. mich stėn ich als ein weise dėhilfet niht swaȥ ich tor:vor, Mir ist verspart der sældendar an geklopfe. 225 freut mir beidenthalben ŗsterrīche des regentsüeȥen regen gelīche daȥ dem des milte ūȥ mīn, eȥ möhte ein wunder grŗȥer sīn? wie fürsten alles niht enwirt ein tropfe. 124 230 diu bræche milte blat dar wunder: undsīn vil mir einwol gezieret dar abe man bluomen brichetunder er ist ein schŗnerīchiu hant, beidiu liute und ouch daȥ lant. heide, 235 hie bī sī er an mich gemant. sŗ möhte ich loben die süeȥen ougenweide. 9. und enfürhte ich hėrren deste an ich hėn mīn lėhen! nūwil alle bŗseniht den hornuncminre zėhen Ich hėn mīn lėhen, al die werlt! dievlėhen. 240 ich edel mich arm gewesen dem ich wīs, berėten, sie bin ze lange niht mėr in in butzen verre baȥ getėn: mīn◗ sumer luft undandunke hėt mich hėn. daȥ ichkünec, der milte künec winter hitzealsŗ sie der sehentdennėhgebūren ėn◗ mīnen danc. tėten. 245 daȥ hėt der künec gemachet mīn ėtem stanc. ich was sŗ volle scheltens, daȥ reine und dar zuo mīnen sanc. 10. solten ie ze hove verdringen! daȥ dich hovelīcheȥ singen, ŗwė ungefüege dŗne 250 frŗmuoȥ eht sŗ wirde alsŗ des sint schiere got gehŗne! ŗwė, dīne friunde unfrŗ. geliget, daȥ siealledaȥir habt sīn, nū sī alsŗ: Unfuoge, dīn gesiget. 255 swė freude wider bræhte, hei uns und gefüege wære, diu reht wol von des gedæhte, Derwie man man im seite mære! 125 eȥ wær◗ ein vil hovelīcher muot, 260 der daȥ daȥ eȥ nieman Die ich iemer hėrren zæme eȥ ŗwėrehte singen stŗrent, frouwen unde gerne wünschen sol. des ist ungelīche mėre tuot! wol: 265 und daȥ eȥ sŗ alten unwīse dė die rat ich manegẹ mül; ich volg◗ gerne hŗrent. des enwil steinwerbenriuschend◗ hėt, danne der nihtsŗ der ze derlėre: umbe gėt 270 mit sŗ frevellīchen gevallent daȥ s◗ in selben wolsül! der als wer dė harpfenlachen, Die muoȥ ich vor zorne schallent, merket ungefüegen sachen. 275 Der unfuoge sunge mė. sŗ schrīen alsŗ von eime sė, daȥ si gerne die dėwol behaget, den irdiu nahtegalfrösche inverzaget, die tuont samswīgen hieȥe, 5.

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A Middle High German Primer 280 wurden ir die die alleȥ nėch dem daȥ wær◗von freuden sunge, und sie dė grŗȥen stieȥe, waȥsi abenochbürgen iht twunge! willen mīn: man den frŗn höve benomen, 285 dannen ist s◗ ouch here wol sīn, bien gebūren lieȥe ich siekomen. 11. nū sie niht den kleinen daȥhŗrte ich s◗aber wünneclīche als ė: Der rīfe tet ensungen. vogelen wė, 290 nū ist diu heide entsprungen. 126 Uns hėt der wære. mīner lenger winter ich und mære. weder ir frouwen seitekalt disiuander nŗt dė sach ich bluomen strīten wider den klė, 295 die nėch ze leide. joch schėte eȥ rungen sæhe an grüener ich iemer bluomen ich tŗt, ich wėnde, daȥ heide. vil getėn freudenguoten liuten, wærerŗt 300 dennoch müese ich lėȥen sŗ gerne tanzten ein angestlīcher tac, Versūmde ich disenverwėȥen und iewær◗ ich unde sprungen. slac: wære an freude wünneclīchen 305 wünschet noch, daȥ mir got gesegen◗ iuch alle: ein heil gevalle. al mīne freude, der ich wīlent pflac. 12. und tiuret baȥ dan iemer sīn der wībe hŗhste Wīp muoȥ ėt frouwe, als ich◗ȥ erkenne. name 310 wībes name sint unwīp, under frouwen und wībes līp diu merke disen sanc sī, diu denne. swė nū deheiniu und kiesesich ir wīpheit schame, wīben sie tiure: 315 als sint beide frouwen zwīvellop daȥ hŗnet, wīp sint alleumb◗gar. swie◗ȥ vil frouwe: wīp dėst ein die under wīlengehiure.alle frouwen var, name der s◗alle krŗnet. 127 13. 320 und diu meien gegen morgen singent in einem lachen vogellīnspileden samebesten wīse die sie kunnen, dringent, Sŗsiekleinen an demderdem grasesunnen, ir die bluomen ūȥ wol fruo, 325 in mīnen halb ein mir dicke baȥ sŗ wünne mac sich dė genŗȥen zuo? suln wir sprechen, waȥ getėn, eȥ ist wol ougen hėt sich deme waȥ sage ich, waȥhimelrīche. gelīche, 330 hovelīchen unde wol gebunden durch kurzewīle zuo vil liuten daȥ. wol gekleidet hŗchgemuot, niht eine, Swė ein edeliu schŗne ichgėt, und tæte ouch noch, gesæhefrouwe reine 335 als meie sunne gegen den sternen stunden: waȥ derdė ein wünneclīches der ir ist bringe uns wėnic understėt: alsam sehendẹsŗal sīn wunder, under umbevil minneclīcher līp? 340 der wol an sīner krefte komen. gėn wir zuo des werde stėn, Nūkapfenallerdaȥir die hŗchgezīte! und lėȥen welt meienwėrheit wir ist mitdan, alle bluomenwīp. schouwen, 345 deich daȥ eine durch ich daȥ hieȥe, ŗwė der mich dė welen habe daȥ beȥȥer ander daȥ frouwen, wedereȥ daȥ spil obüberstrīte, genomen. seht an in und seht an werde ander lieȥe, 350 ė ich mīne ich danne küre! hėr Meie, ir müeset merze sīn, wie rehte schierefrouwen dė verlüre. 128 14. sŗ wil der heide ir manicvaltiu varwe stėt, Swie wol ich doch dem walde jehen, 355 mīn dem sumer, sus getėner sumer, trŗst, sŗ trŗste ouch emȥekeit! sŗ wol dir,velde wünneclīcher dinge hėt. noch er vil mėrebaȥ geschehen.mīne klage: daȥ istdaȥ ich iemer lobe dīne tage, 360 die mir der guoten niht vergeȥȥen noch ensol, Ich macsŗwaȥ bin ich leit. diu wīle ichvil gedankeich vinden iemer wol ich sageist liep, dermir wirret: dir, singe, wil nimet. 365 daȥ tuot lop, ougen guot giht, und habe wol ir fürgezimet. eȥ tuot ir diȥden ŗren. nūdaȥin dendaȥ ir wol, daȥ man sie siht, ein niuwe man in vil tugende (sŗ lobe ich danne mė): 370 sŗ wol ir des! sŗ wė mir, wė! 10.

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A Middle High German Primer 15. wan daȥ ein ir dienste gėn, ich ich von trŗst mich wider waswoltezwīvellīchen wėnbrėhte. In einengeseȥȥen und gedėhte, 375 Mich hėt sich lützel geheiȥen, doch kleine, eȥ rehte niht ieman, er enwiȥȥe sŗ fröwetswenne kleineȥ frŗ: ouwė wes. eȥ ist mag ein halm gemachet trŗstelīn, des! trŗstvil kūme einich◗ȥ iu gesage, ir spottet mīn; 380 als maȥ süle genėde vinden. ich ich ichvore selbe kleine strŗ, er giht,hiedaȥ sach von kinden. 129 ◗si tuot, unde merket, ob si entuot, si tuot.◗ nū hŗret si entuot, si tuot, si◗ȥ denne tuo: 385 daȥ trŗstet mich: dė sŗ was ie geloube zuo. swie dicke ich◗ȥ tete, hŗret ouchdaȥ ende guot. 16. den man z◗ėren kindes zuht beherten Nieman kanmit gerten: bringen mac, 390 nieman kan beherten. kindes ein mit als ein bringen mac: den istzuht wortgerten slac, demman z◗ėrenslac. 395 lė zimt wol zungen, stŗȥ bŗse jungen; tür, daȥ keiniuwerdenfür diefür, Hüetet den rigel wort dar für. 400 offenbėre rigel jungen, Hüetet wol ougen hüetet den und tougen: daȥ zimtiuwerzungen. stŗȥ iuwer denfür die tür: 405 offenbėre und übersehen; und die bŗsensite spehen: lėt sie guote site spehen sie, guote übersehen tougen 410 oder ir sīt tŗren: Hüetet iuwer ŗren, hüetet iuwer ougen. 130 daȥ ir bŗsiu wort sin. lėtgunėret iu dendar in, 415 Hüetet wol der drīer hüetet iuwer ŗren. oder sīt tŗren: lėtgunėret wort sin, daȥirir bŗsiu in dendar in, 420 dicke alze frīer: zungen ougen ŗren sint leider schalchaft, z◗ėren blint. sint: blint 425 hüetet wol der leider alze frīerdrīer. 17. dū man, in niht ze aht dū bist, ich wil dich lėren wė sīn Junc lė dirswelher einen list: nėch dem guote: 430 lėst dū ich ouch bescheiden. die volges dir◗ȥniht z◗unmære sŗ wis gewis,der lėre mīn, undrede wildū dir baȥze dir an leiden, sīn. lė dir◗ȥeȥ frumt sėredem muote. 435 leg◗ sŗ wėge sėre minnen, dė von verliesen dīn freude tŗt: dū mahteȥ sovolge mīner ėre. wilt aber ūf daȥ sėle undlėre: zergėt dū dieist guot zeein rehteȥ lŗt 440 als wig ouch dar mit eht ie gebŗt. undeȥ diu mėȥe allen dīnen sinnen, 131 18. sie väter dicke Salomŗnes dar an sie beide sint betrogen: lėre: Diebrechenthėnt ir kint erzogen, 445 nū der den was diu alsŗ hŗne. hie sint die sun den werlt gar: des sprichet,sie worden gar ėn◗ ėre. daȥỗst ungebattenbesmen spar, der vor dŗswer versūmesŗ schŗne, 450 beitet unz alse dar der ė: eȥ spottet selben die alten! nū wirt iuhėnt noch behalten. die enwas niht wīlentzergė: des jungeniuwer jugentalten sŗ verdrungen. 455 daȥ weiȥ ich wol und rechent iuwer jungen, swaȥ ir nū tuot, daȥ weiȥ noch mė.

15.

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A Middle High German Primer 19. sŗ pflegent die knehte gar der zieret ritter zuht ist smal,unhövescher dinge Werjungen nū der ėren sal? 460 die worten und mit werken zungen; hie dė wie gar man ist ir gouch. nemt war,pflėgen derdie jungen, swer zühte berteunfuoge für mit vor dŗ hėt, frecherouch. sich dringe! 465 sunder hiuten frŗ hėren, die niht kunnen unde irgebėren wė ireȥ unde scheltent sie schallent ir herzeleit! nū istwībewerdekeit: reine frouwen. 470 die maneger ūf sich selben der dė mac man sünde bīleit. schande schouwen, 132 20. und brichet dīniu ist niht rehtiu wil sprechen vorhte, hėrre got, Swer ėnediu, daȥzehen gebot minne. 475 spīse frumet uns, diu wirt ringe, wir mīn vater wort ūȥ der wahsen starkiumaneger vil:krankem sinne. swer heiȥetze bruoder niht enwil, dichsprichet ūȥ gelīchem dinge: 480 und ẹr den ir jochblŗȥeȥ swa hæte gebeine munt gevert. fünde, wer kan ir er hėrren fleisch knehte sŗ si durch den daȥvon demverzert? scheiden gewürme lebender künde, 485 der elliu lebendiu wunder nert. im dienent kristen, juden unde heiden, 21. niht erben daȥ wīsheit līp erstirbet! des mannes schŗne der unde tugent, ŗwė sol, sŗ ie noch sīn jugent 490 dū mac wol tages versinnen Reinmėr, schuldenein niedesanman, der sich von waȥ guoter kunstkan.dir verdirbet! daȥsoltdes schadenwoltewīsergenieȥen, dich des klagen iemer verdrieȥen, 495 ir lobe, sie iemer wīp dīner gnėden solten dū ◗sŗ niht wan eine rede reine ein und hætest wol dir, ie den iemerzungen. des sulndaȥ elliu dankendirwiegesungen: nam!◗,wībes siten. du◗n spræches wīp, frouwen wol und guoten biten. hætest an gestriten 133 22. 500 dich selben wil bī ich dich, ich dū lebtes ich lützel dū riuwes obewil◗ȥunde mīnen erstorbenmich michels harter Reinmėr, klagen, Dėswėr, denne ich wæretriuwen sagen: 505 daȥ du◗ȥ guoten mīnen und mich der dīn edelen bī dingen woltestdīn vil süeȥer sanc, sŗ riuwet al derwol redender mėren,kėren. dū kundestdīnze ist kunst, daȥ s◗ist ich klage verdorbenwerlte freudemuntzīten. verdorben. 510 dīn sėle müeȥe wol gevarn und habe sŗ leiste ich dir wīle mohtest bīten! ist niht lanc. daȥ dū niht einegeselleschaft: mīn singen dīn zunge danc. V REINMAR. 1879. Leipzig, prolific and thirteenthwas extremelyhis period,Alsatian. rival und 132-3. He of der active life was the mostdecade called Reinmar lyrical poet ofBurdach, zwölften his vierzehnten Jahrhunderts, Stuttgart, Court poet at Vienna, whereDeutsche Liederdichter desReinmar hisHe spent many years died some time during Reinmar,1880, andtheimportant der Alte, was by birth anNext ll. 487-512,Walther von der Vogelweide heas first often of Bartsch, he century. See popular. cp. to der Alte pp. Walther von his Vogelweide, 1 bedæhte er baȥ den ger, Ein ritter des ich langemöhten sīn. die baȥ dė heime willen mīn, ◗Sī koment underwīlen her 5 die nīdent daȥ suochent guot owė des, er sæhe. als ich in gernez◗allen die geschæhe?◗ sŗ wære waȥ ob iemenzīten hie, 134 Mir ist geschehen daȥ ich niht bin 10 ze rehte hŗhgemüete daȥ vrŗ wan unz ich lebe. und wundert wer mir schŗnen sī daȥzer werlte niht getar langerichalsŗ gebėren, gebe sin 15 ich wære ich vrowen war, nie genamin holt die mir ze mėȥe wėren. 2 nu rede ich niht tuot mir wė: da tuont der liute gedulteclīchen zuo Einenkansi◗ȥ alle deste mė: gebėren. 20 nu frėgent mich tage bin verdrieȥen. durlė ich sŗ lange von mīner mit triuwen bī; und sprechent welherze vil sī sī, sīdaȥdaȥiraller beste wīpgewesen frouwen jėren jehent daȥ es möhte mich 19. 41

A Middle High German Primer 25 ir zühtelŗser vrėge mich genieȥen. 3 nu jehent, der sprechet undwunne undesumer gehabe diurėtet diu sī komen sī als Sīdaȥ ich mich wolderwie: hie,ė. 30 den bedarf ich mir benomen sītich nie tac getrūren sach? waȥich vröuden hėrre mė. daȥ aller hėt überwindeLiutpolt der tŗtniemer wunneclīcher zīt,in der erde līt, 35 sŗ jæmerlīcher daȥ ir an diu werlt schade geschach. eȥ hėt manne niean ime verlorn 135 dŗ ich armen wībe was ◗Mirgedėhte an in ze wol, 40 mīner des nū sīnem swaȥ ich heil an niht haben verlorn des mīn iemer spiegel lībe daȥ ichwunnen mė geleben lac. wie gėt mit sorgen hinderstsol,mac. 45 von herzen mir ze er wære zehant mir hetedaȥ bluot tŗt, dŗ man ich die sėle sīn. des ichwiel ūfleider ænic mīn. den muoȥmir seitesumerlīcher ougen weide erkorn, 50 in ringe nu mir mac werden rėt, sīt desmit niht verboten alsŗ lieben hėrren hėt mīns deich ir nŗt, tŗt Die fröide der mėr enberen sol. 55 wis der imevil sælic man, jė ich wanin nu hin: waȥ töhte got, jėmers ze diu istmīn weinet, daȥ bin ich, daȥeriemer klagedeȥ herze isthie? er wolvol, lebenne mich. genædic, hėrre trŗste 60 kam in dīn ingesinde wan tugenthafter gast nie.◗ 4 ein ouch von der ich dicke trage undwelte durch mīnes herzen Ich wīpūf guoter liute sage rėt 65 wie möhte ein diu nėhe gėt. ich tet ir schīngrŗȥer wunder wand eȥ ich z◗allen mīn: sīn, die swære nŗtden dienst zīten klage, vil manigemir kumberlīche stėt. 70 daȥ sī mich des engelten lėt? 136 daȥ daȥ līhte er den ze rehter imherze und ein man beidiuwirtmėȥe einkan: gewin. Ze stæte wenden, obsolalguot sin 75 vonweiȥ im ich den er mir sol. ich brėhte selbe mich darbekan, der gloube wolwol, kein leit gebunden bin. swem dė von ie alskumberin. schulden wie◗ch dol: 5 80 sŗ lebt mīn līp mich daȥ ich nie grŗȥer nŗt erleit. von sīner schulde ich hėn erliten den ich mit triuwen nienėchgemiten ◗Er hėt ze langegemeit.sīnem lībe. 85 daȥ ein wīp, geschehen, Mir ist vil liebe geschach, von dann mīnmir mėnudaȥ gesach mir ich nie liebes sŗ liebe niegeschach. von in hiute sæhe.◗ ich binouge in gernernieim swiewībe im geschæhe. 90 ir lŗnen, hėn von gesach. sī gerne ob ich ich schwachem ich scheide ir gerner nieals gesehen daȥist sŗ muot ich sīich doch muote: sŗ ich sīguot, kan,wil mit guotegerne kunde. 95 vil mėre fröiden ich ir gan dann ich mir selben gunde. 6 welle ze lieber mære, daȥ derende vernomen, diu michwinter swære Wolich hėnkomen. 137 100 ob ich bin des erbeiten Mich enhaȥȥet sīt ich kalte rīfe enpflac want der fröide nihtlac.mac, kūme ichgemeit. niemen, 105 waȥ sī mir swes ot got, tuot eȥ iemen, wandewil schaden niht enkan. deist unsælekeit, ander man? Weiȥ ichdes einwole gan, 110 sinneclīch steln. werden unde ich sŗ müest ich ze bergen unde heln,liebe bewar. Solte ich mīnedaȥdiebe 115 daȥ◗s iht sėre valle, trībet kindes ist Sŗ gewerbespot,balle ich gė mit demanderswar, mīnsīdannen oder dar. 120 so◗st ir schade stŗȥetder got. halber mīn. megde, lėt iur dringen sīn: daȥ verbietemīn frouwelīn, 2

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A Middle High German Primer 7 Ich sach vil wunneclīche stėn 125 zergangen ist nahtegal lanc. wol überwunden diu ir nŗt des hėt diu ist bluomen twanc. der vīol derder wintersīrŗt, die heide mit den wol getėn: 130 ich hŗrte ir sanc. 138 daȥ ich ich iemer mėre von einemdaȥ vil der geschach sīn dŗ lieȥwībe mir swære ersach, Dŗich muoȥgrüene loupmīn. 135 daȥ ich dekeine swære hėn. Sī schiet mir tuot. swaȥ mich alleȥ dunken guot eȥ solsī von sorgen mīnen vil wunneclīchen wol gemuot.līp, 140 swaȥ iemen seit. ich heten◗s mīniu leit. ir güete sī vier friunt wīp dien ėnesī mir ze niht getėn. wanhėn wendet alletūsentbereit, 145 daȥ læge◗s an dem sīn. sŗ mir der als ich angesthėn, ergienge eȥ schŗnen wurde mīn. des wil ich mac niht leides widerstėn: Mir◗n gar ėnwillenarme ein teil, 150 dar wære ouch geil. Deichist sŗ holdeȥ herze trage, undumbe ich niemer michel heil, daȥ diuhte mich einsŗ verzage: ir in sumelīchen leit. 155 in kurzer wiȥȥen wie◗ȥ ergangen ist si◗n frist. waȥ hilfet alle ir arebeit. sī vliesentsī ir arger list? 8 Mīn ougen wurden liebes alsŗ vol, 160 ein minneclīcheȥ wunder mė tuot wol. daȥ ich mir hiute und iemerėrst gesach, dŗ eȥ die minneclīchen dŗ geschach: 139 daȥ sī sich in der enge mīn ougen sī gie mir alse sanfte durniene stieȥ. 165 dar sŗ gewalteclīche wībes tougen. daȥ stėn, noch die werden dertuost Lė trage herzen stėn! an innestat, dė du mich lėsī sich waȥ līp in mīnemichheimesuochestnider lieȥ: du, sælic wīp, 170 des solde ist bī mir, nu◗st eȥstarker frowe! genėde lŗnes bīten. mīn herzeich dir ich mac dir niht mir: genėde,sīnūfbaȥ veile danne eȥ bī mit muoȥ heimesuoche nie getrat?gestrīten.dir: 9 175 von sorge ein wunneclīchiu die werlte swære herzen tage ze nu der ich dicke sŗ verzage, derfröiden nėhet alleklage Ze senfte maniges winter gīt.zīt, 180 daȥ sich gescheiden hėt līt diu heide breit. daȥ ist mir der swenn alsŗ jæmerlīcheleit. strīt. nahtegal uns schiere seit 10 Sŗ wol dir, wīp, wie reine ein nam! 185 swes lop er triuwen lobesam, dīndū mit rede an rehte güete kėrest, swė du◗ȥnieman wol volenden kan. sŗ dū eȥ wart nie doch z◗erkennen und ze nennen ist! wie sanftemitniht sŗpfligest wol, der ist ein sælic man bist. 190 maht dū gerne leben. dū gīstouch mir ein hohen muot: und mac vilal der werltewėnic freude geben? 140 VI ULRICH VON LICHTENSTEIN. Liederdichter Ausgabe der of best representatives family, and Berlin, Lichtenstein Frauendienst, Leipzig, 1887. The following extracts are taken about the year Ulrichs see Lachmann,He was one of bis a better-class Styrianof the later Court lyrical poets. For Deutsche died 1275 or 1276. des zwölften Dichtungen Ulrichs von Lichtenstein, was bornfrom Bechstein,1200 of his in Ulrich von Lichtenstein camethevierzehnten Jahrhunderts, Stuttgart, 1889. 1841; Bartsch,editionsandvonworks, 1 Ein tanzwīse, und ist diu vierde wīse. blüejent gegen des schŗne an der kleiniu vogellīn. singent walde süeȥe dŗne In demheide bluomenmeien schīn. 5 Eȥ ist troum mīn gemüete sam derein vil den armen tuot. diu gedanken gegen ir gedinge mit mir rīchetmīn güete, alsŗ blüethŗchhŗher muot 10 god geb◗ daȥ vrŗ. des ich gegen ir aniririch◗ȥ daȥ mir sældeanichgelinge, den gedingen bintugenden trage, wol verende, ich noch bejage. 7 43

A Middle High German Primer 15 lėȥe allem wandel gar, vrī vor mich in valsches ėne, Sie vil süeȥe, liebem hŗ. der mich freut sŗ rehteiht wende daȥ sie mir den wėn wėne 20 des ich von ir hulden ger. daȥ diu gegen dem erwache, die wīl weinens ihttrŗste lache ich vreude lange wer, eȥ niht baȥ envar; 141 25 mit den beiden nėhen wenken, sie sol diu meiste wol gedenken desenlėȥe mich niht mīn. dėst mir ir trŗstir sīn Wünschen unde vreudebī, 30 trŗstest sie welde Sælic meie, die werder wunne daȥ daȥal du aleine gar. mir von sælic mit willen gunne sŗ sieir sŗimmer sī. 35 von der sol ich dann umb ein ėne al min trŗstes muoten; wie möht◗ ir guoten? vreut mich vil liebenmir vreude geben du und diediu werlt gemeine hėr. 40 wan ir trŗstes muoȥ ich leben. 2 Ein sincwīse, und ist diu sibende wīse. hŗhen guot. von den wīben vreude istmuot. sul wir borgen Wė war umbe sol mansorgen? 45 Wir dė in kan ein lachen wan suln tanzen singensælic freude der◗st ėren an. von in! der līt vilgewinnen man. wol imsol man durch sie minnen, 50 daȥ diu mac ein dė mit wīp. durchsīn līp man gemachen 142 dienet wert, wībe triuwen wirdet guoterob er mitgruoȥ. 55 vinster gar: laschet ist der sunnen tiuwer. Mit sīn dienest man buoȥ. demdem selten kumbers daȥ, fiuwer swenwirt waȥȥerwil geriuwen, 60 scheidet nieman hŗret mėre. rehten wėr habet man wėr ūf minen sint diu mære: herzen sėre līp: beidiufür vonirwan diu wīp. 65 müeste von kalder wė. nu ist snė der hitze brinnen mirgrīf her wie sėre ich brinne. Owė owė, frowe Minne, 70 sŗ hilfestu mir enzīt. kanstu, an dem herzen līt. diu mir Minne, triuwe minnen, 3 Daȥ ist ein ūȥreise. ze sælden nėch ėren die zīt wol vertrīben, Wil iemen sich kėren, bī freuden belīben, 75 dem volget aleine den dem sol süeȥe, reine, Swerlībe, flīȥe mit derherzen, enblanden vil diene ze dem schilde, triuweneȥ schŗne nėch der minne lŗne: der istvil den derguot und dem guote, guoten gemeine. handen. 80 wol ir werde Minne: diu sie kan trŗsten diu lŗnet vil hŗhe mit guotem gewinnesėre. des vilsüeȥen lėre!gīt freud◗ und ėre. 143 er haȥȥet, mit zühten vil baltlīcheȥ gesellen. Der schilt wiler schiuhet Schand◗ und ir ellen: 85 gezimt niht enwelle daȥ man bī erschīnen. Erg◗ dem helme in unfuore dem schilde, ūf ėreunde pīnen,undtouc nihtim die sīnen sŗ swachlīch gesinde, tugenden diu wilde got des nihtsich unfuogeund er wil daȥ vinde 90 getriuwen gesellen vil stæte sült wenken Hŗchgemuote frouwen, varwe ist ir kan decken. von vorhten ein dach daȥ niht schande gedenken: sīn blic tæt◗ enblecken an ėren die weichen, der schilt ist erbleichen: diuir ėne wol zeichen. 95 der minnet, schulde vrī vor ungemüete. Sie liebe, dienste dem schilde wil volgen. mit ist iwerden meinet, mit herzen, mit daȥ inze mit güete,mir haȥlīch muote, den ichėnehuote behalte, behüeteerbolgen 100 sŗ stė baȥ zürnen ie wīp deheine. Gein ich schilt irmeine wan den mīn unschulde. daȥ ir langen kriege setz◗ ich mīn gedulde: niht ander ich fürhaȥȥe ze werfür herzen nu hėnsie geinmėre dannnochtrŗst aleine,sėre 105 für wer gein den riuwe: mīn sol sīn mīn vil süeȥe ėne valschen daȥ mīn stæte. triuwe mīnir nīdetæte daȥ sol sīnkampflīch gewæte

1Ein tanzwīse, und ist diu vierde wīse.

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A Middle High German Primer 4 Ditz ist der leich. ich füege in dem muote Gotbin noch mir◗ȥ ze guote: 110 der dienest ėne valschen muot dė von rėt◗ mannen immer mit allen wil gemuotenich einen rėt bī belīben. daȥ ich wol guoten wīben tugentlīchen stėt. 144 Ich rėt◗ iu, ėre gerende man, 115 ir triuwen, alsŗ rehtehėn, sŗ sīt ėne freudekan: obgüete istalswīben undertėn mitir welt werendevalschenguot, triwen den ich beste muot. 120 ir güete sie wol machen frŗ. der in mit triwen an freuden gīt, den werldeistsŗ dienest tuot, swerkunnenheil garvil hŗchgezīt, schŗne freuden in līt: 125 swem sie kunnenleit sundersŗ sī Werdekeit wol friunden geben. dė von diu herze stīgent hŗ. 130 swer bī, daȥ rėte sælic die sīn unde zinsen ich hulden streben der sol nėch irūfleben: witzeėrenin sīnwelletriwe mīn. 135 ist minnen als sīn selbes ir vil rīche an hŗhem rehtsol vor allem guote muote, derder wībe güete, undelīp. undguotmit triwen guotiu wīpschŗne schŗne ob aller schŗne. 140 wol schŗne sie an alsŗ guot, deheinen daȥ undsint ir schŗne niht, wie selten ich gewunne wær◗ ir güete ir güete an irmich ėren wībe muot. stėt mīn heil krŗne. ir schŗneguotergerndenwerdikeit ich immer gerne und ouch mīn wunne. 145 sŗ hŗhen trŗst güete daȥ man hėt von ir für senediu leit. 145 Mīn muot ir güete, ir werdikeit gīt mir vil hŗch gemüete. ir schŗne, von wīben hŗhe stėt. 150 daȥ sie gegen mac wol hėt Waȥdanne desmissetėt? dėswėrgerne hėt getėn, erzeiget ich ob mirir einiuwerden rėt. waȥwilhŗhemirwiȥȥen lėn 155 bī mīnen wenken gar, gedienet sunderguotiu wīp. ich genėdeals und zehen jėr ūfzühten, triwen, daȥ ist wėr, mit hėn ir driu ich beste kan, 160 al mīn gir des mīn sölhen wėn, nie gewan stæte mīn seneder daȥ in der zīt wurde kranc. līp 165 und reht mit ir rat ir habedanc nu vert ein marder den wanc. slehtgein triwen ėne man hėt was als entwer daȥ umbe gėt 170 ė sie ėn hæt◗ ich funden. sŗdaz ichich als ritterlīche stæte kund◗gebunden.nėch dem willen mīn in eine lineinmīnsie unstæte sīn, bræch◗ an guoten wīben frowen 175 vonmuoȥ in der nimmer wanc daȥich gewenke stæten herzen liebe alsus hulde vrī belīben. oderin. irmuoȥ irstæten wībe dienest sunder lŗn verderben ich wold◗ ėhabedanc, ich hŗhen immer valscher wībe erwerben 146 180 Nu mag an allen dingen. vil waȥich ich erringen, süeȥ◗ ougen wunne, herzen sŗ hėn den alleȥ daȥ ich wil, undwunnebedarf mīn seneder līpspil, 185 der niht wan dienest sīn bereit undsich vor wandel ob tuot? diu sol mīndaȥ hėt ein wīp ze frowen vinde alsŗich behuot genėden mėr,bestegemuot, 190 und alsŗ freuderīchen dė valsch sunder mė, mit stætikeit.sin, swie◗ȥ ergė, immervon gewinne ich werdikeit 195 sie ich hande stætikeit daȥ mir von immer Vind◗ ichdingen. triwe mīn an muoȥ abrirsie, die sol sŗ ritterlīchen nėch desaller getiuretūf ich binmuoȥ hŗ an ir gelingen. ir hulden ringen. 200 deheines in mich mich lop jė mėr allem lėȥe gesprechen und ouch vorkumberwandel sīn, diech gehŗret manbringen.twingen gar vrī valschen wībes nimmer mė noch gesingen. 5 205 unde siht man ander hėt, alleȥder walt gekleidet stėt, sŗ istlufte iht liebes vrŗ. In demdaȥ einsich schŗne zweien mit süeȥem meien, 210 daȥ ist reht: diu zīt wil sŗ. 4 Ditz ist der leich. 45

A Middle High German Primer 147 eȥ mit vreuden ze zīt. in der beider herzen liebe zweiet, hŗhen muot diu liebe gīt. Swė sich liep allemeiet 215 und sich wil liep ein wanc herzenlīchen liebe niht, Swė zwei diu bī vereinent swė man liepsŗ ander meinent trūrens beidiu ėneliebe siht. 220 liebe, minne, al ein: Stætiu wunneclīcheȥ leben. ūf ein liebe zesamne kranc, die hėt gotist ėne geben daȥ ir liebe heiȥet minne. 225 Swė ein stæteȥ mīn. immer ich in wol zuo sīn liebe muoȥ mir minne sinne niht gemachenherzenherze vindet die kanin dem mīnem zwein. 230 stætem stæte alsŗ guot daȥ liebe sīn muot, stætiuliebe, ist alletrūren dė von al stæten zīt. stætesieherzen freude gītswindet. 235 stæter liebe wil ich mīn. wolde gar die sorge gern daȥ ich dė mit überwinden der wold◗ ich sŗ stæte Möhte ich stæte liebe vinden,sīn 240 unde unstæte gar verbern. 148 6 und liet diu heiȥent der von sī swerdem sīn singen, vrowen tanz: vrŗ. diu sol niemen muot stėtfreuden kranz, Disiumit zühten treiter◗n wīben hŗ, 245 hŗhen lop erwirbet niemen sol. wan erloube ich man hŗher guot Trūren einen der ze sie tanzenmuot. blīdeclīchensiesīn sünde dem dem ist ze wėresingen wol:klaget, 250 hŗhen wil ich immer mėre behaget: Vreude gibt mir dīn wol guot sīn hŗchgemuot hŗchmuot wolsit◗: dė vonmuot durch dich,senftevrowe mīn. guoten wībendīn reine redender munt, 255 Liehtiu tou in ūȥ des krŗne dė von sīnen ėren an dich treit. got hėt dī elliu bī herzen geleit, kumt von dirmirlop vlīȥbrūne brė, vreudenougen, dė mīniu lit. grunt 260 tugende und zwei und schŗne dė. treit dīn hŗchgeborner schŗner schīn brūn rŗt wīȥ, der wängelīn. schŗne bistu hierŗtiuwīplīch wīp. hėstuhėstu vil, guot drīer varwelīp. 265 got sŗ schŗnen dem vor mir gėst, sŗ vonalsŗ manege tugende hėst, dė ist alsŗ schŗniunie gewan Daȥ du mir als ich inengel himel sī. du bin ich alles trūrens vrī. 270 den ich für dich wolde sehen an. 149 VII DAS NIBELUNGEN-LIED. B. Text. ėVENTIURE XVII. Wie Kriemhilt ir man klagte und wie er begraben wart. ein following der nahte von heleden sidė is from wirs gejaget sīn. Dŗ daȥkunde nimmer und fuoren über Rīn. kint. Thetiererbitensiextract sluogen,Bartsch◗s edition, Leipzig, 1879. daȥ weinden edeliu 4 Sīfriden alsŗ tŗten und muosen sīn rėche. vil guote wīgande sagen, Vonvon eislīcher engelten von Nibelunge Hagenesint. jėgrŗȥer übermüete dŗ hieȥhŗren tragen muget ir lant 8 him zer in tougenlīchen legen an die tac, daȥ eine kemenėten Er hieȥ dė solde vindendė si wurde türe, für sinmettīne ė daȥso man Kriemhilde vant. eȥ gienge derfüre 12 ein diu bat si zem münsterwahte gewant. vrou Kriemhilt diu schŗne ouch keine verlac. Man lūte dėbringen der liehtvrouweirKriemhilt und seltenirmanige meit: vil nėch gewoneheit. 16 hin zer kemenėten daȥ lieht truog an der hant daȥ in ein kamerære Er sahkomsīn herre wære, sīn wėt er daȥ. dŗ eȥbluotes rŗten: dė erwessewas elliu naȥ. nine Sīfriden vant. 20 eȥ līt vor dem mære dŗ si vil der kamerære diu münster wolde gėn, Dŗsprach ir vrouwen von dem mit leider gademe zem◗jė sult ir stille stėn: einvrouwe Kriemhilt ervant. ritter tŗt erslagen.◗ 24 dŗ begonde Kriemhilt vil harte unmæȥlīche klagen. 5 46

A Middle High German Primer 150 wie daȥ si rehte erfunde daȥ si ėrste an die in solde vrėge denkeniȥ wære man, ėer Hagenenvristen: dŗ wart irbegan, ir leit. 28 Kriemhilde jėmer wart die ir seic si zuo der erden, unmėȥen grŗȥ: Dŗ was allen vreuden mit sīme tŗde widerseit. vonschŗnen vreudelŗsen daȥ si niht ensprach: ligen man dŗ sach. 32 dŗ sprach daȥ dem munde daȥ sprach ūȥ gesinde: ◗waȥ al jėmer brast. Dŗbluot ir si si nėch unkrefte von herzen eȥ ist ein gast?◗ do ẹrschrė ◗eȥ ist Sīfrit, daȥ ob diu kemenėte erdŗȥ. der mīn vil lieber man: 36 swie rŗt bat was wīsen si huop sīn schŗne bluote, sidaȥ eȥ hat erkant. Diu hėt eȥ sich vonhoubet dė si denwīȥen hant. eȥ vrouwegerėten Prünhilt, mithetvil schiereHagene getėn.◗ ir in helt vant. 40 mit swerten mir mīnes ◗owė trūreclīche du küneginne milt: Dŗ rief viljæmerlīcheleides! līstist dir dīn schilt dŗ lac vilniht verhouwen: der helt von Nibelunge lant. diu nu ermorderŗt. 44 umb◗ ir wer klagete und den si riete im immer mit ir lieben vrouwen, Alleȥ ir ichvil edelen herren, scrė dė heten verlorn. unt wessegesinde iȥ hetwand◗ in was harte wė sīnen tŗt.◗ getėn, ich 48 ir sult sprach diu jėmerhafte: Prünhilde und wecket harte balde mīnen jėmer sagen, Dŗ ouch Sigemunde die harte◗ir sult zorn. dŗ het gerochen Hagene Sīfrides man. hine gėn 52 mit den vil leiden balde die Sīfrides helede Dŗ lief ein botemærendenNibelunge lant.benam. ob er mir helfen welle vonda ẹr si ligen vant, klagen.◗ ir vreude er in küenen Sīfriden 56 si wolden◗ȥ niht gelouben unz man daȥ weinen vernam. 151 ich bote der ouch des slėfes der enpflac: was Sigemuntkom herre schiere Derwæn◗ sīn herze imdė niht künic lac. geschehen, sagete daȥ im 60 daȥ ir vor sīnen Sigemunt. lebenden nėch gesehen. Kriemhilt mīn leiden ◗Wachet, herre lieben sun ist ein leit getėn iu gėn ern möhte allen vrouwe. anderherze gėt: ir mich bat nimmer 64 der bote sprach mit weinen: ◗ine hėst geseit?◗ Ūf schŗnen Kriemhilde, diu du mir eȥ iuch sėre bestėt.◗ daȥ sultsich dŗ helfen, wand◗kan◗waȥ sint diu leit rihte ir klagen Sigemunt; er sprach: iu niht verdagen: 68 daȥ sprach der herre Sigemunt: ◗lėt erslagen.◗ und alsŗ saget iemen Dŗir vonbŗsiu mære daȥ er den Sīfrit daȥ jė istdaȥNiderlanden der küene willen mīn, schimpfen sīn durch sī erslagen: 72 unt alleȥ mir niht den Sīfrides tŗt.◗ sŗ muget gesinde in nimmer unz ir mīn ende verklagen.◗ ◗Weltirine kunde gelouben daȥ anmich hŗret sagen, wand◗irir selbe hŗren Kriemhilde klagen 76 si liefen zuodem handen vil jėmerliche dan. spranc. Mitsėre erscracwuofe Sigemunt: den wėfen lanc, vilzuhtenzuo sīnen mannendiu er von des gie im wærlīchen nŗt. hundert den dŗ scharpfen betten 80 janẹ mohten si sumelīche, si vrouwen hŗrten Dŗwėndender sinne vor leide küenen Sīfrides man. dŗ kŗmen tūsent recken diedes niht gehaben: klagen, si sŗ jæmerlīche solden kleider tragen. 84 wer hėt der künec Sigemunt da in des lant. er wart vil mich mīnes in ir herebegraben. Dŗ kommichel swære kindes und ẹr Kriemhilde vant. in sprach: ◗owė der reise herzeniuchditze iuwern man 88 bī alsŗ guoten friunden sus mortlīch ėne getėn?◗ 152 ich geriete im alsŗ nimmer mīn ◗holt solde ich den bekennen,◗herze sīn ◗Hey enwurde imleide daȥ die friunde unt ouch mīn līp: sprach daȥ vil edele wīp, 92 daȥ wart von sīnen vriundenpalas unde sal dŗ von der starken wuofe müesen weinende sīn.◗ Sigemunt demherre den von den mīnen schuldenfürstender jėmer alsŗ grŗȥ umbeslŗȥ. 96 man zŗch stat ze Wormeȥ Donẹ kundeūȥ den kleidern unt irsīnen in ūf den līp. und ouch diu im sīne wunden von leit◗ schŗnen rė. wuosch niemen trŗsten daȥ weinen erschal. den Sīfrides wīp. 100 er ist sprėchen* sīne mit hėt getėn.◗ ◗in sol immer rechen von willen unser hant. Dŗwas sīnen liuten recken von Nibelunge lant: dŗin dirre bürge, der iȥgrŗȥem jėmere wė. 104 Sigemunt erwelten einlef hundert recken: sīnesmit alle Sīfrides Die ūȥ der herre. degene hete schilden kŗmen dar, dŗ īlten nėch wėfen an sīner scharman. die sunes tŗt 108 mit wolde herre Sīfrit sīne tæten◗ȥ Gunther daȥ im wærlīchen nŗt. Sinẹ wessen wen rechen: des unde sīne reit. den den derer gerne si solden an mitgiegejegede man, strīte dŗ bestėn, 112 von ir bruoder harte dŗ vorhte si si gewėfent: Swie michel wær◗ ir jėmer tŗtir grŗȥlīche Kriemhilt sach mannen, derdaȥ sidaȥund swie starc ir nŗt, leit. Nibelunge understuont. eȥ was 116 jė sprach si jėmers rīche:sŗ manigen her Sigemunt, wes welt ir der künic iu ist Dŗhėtbeginnen? Gunther rehtevriunde liebe vriunde tuont. si warnt◗diugüetlīchenihtsŗ◗mīnküenen man: kunt. Wie Kriemhilt ir man klagte und wie er begraben wart.

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A Middle High German Primer 120 ir welt iuch alle vliesen, welt ir die recken bestėn.◗ 153 daȥ siȥ mīden schilden diu ūf erbürten solden, die wasgebŗt nŗt. Mit edel küneginne bat undin recken vil gemeit. ouch ze strīte 124 immer mit niht lėȥen wolden, ir daȥ ich mīnen stėnleit. unz eȥ sich rechen. der mir Si sprach: iu baȥ gefüege: in hėt benomen, dŗ siȥ◗herre Sigemunt, sŗ wiliȥ lėȥenman sult was ir wærlīchen 128 si habent ich iu des strītes rėten man. dė ich des bewīset, ich hie bī Rīne vil: Eȥ ist der übermüeten sol im schedelīche wirde vonwider einen ie wol drīȥecniht enwil. komen. 132 sŗ tagen beginne, als iȥhie belīben, gelingen vilmir diu leit; Ir lėȥ◗ in got unt dolt mit als si lieben man.◗ nusulthelfet mir besarkenir heldemīnen umb uns gedienet hėn. den gemeit, 136 sŗ sprėchen von rittern niemen vrouwen, wie volsagen geware. Iu enkunde man des wuofes wart man die hŗrte klagen, dŗ daȥunt von die daȥ wunder in der statsol werden getėn.◗ degene: ◗daȥ 140 durch waȥ der edele die kŗmen gėhende Si edelen mit den recke want het geseit, dare. dieklagetenburgære gesten, niemen in was harte leit. līp. Sīfrides schulde in verlüre den sīnen 144 man hieȥ in mit spengen wurken unde was von silber undvaste golde, Smide hieȥ man den vrouwenmichel guotensarc, dŗ weinden vongėhen, vilmit stahel, derstarc. guot. wīp. der einen burgære 148 Sīfrit den diu liuten harte zuo den münster Diu naht wasdenedele ir vil man sagte eȥ muot. tragen dŗ was alherren, vrouwe trūrec derwolde tagen. hieȥ zergangen: lieben man. 152 swaȥ er dė vriunde hėte, die sach man weinende gėn. 154 dŗ kom der künic Gunther mit vil sīnen man Dŗhŗrt◗ man allenthalben denvil der gloken klanc. sỗ in zem munster brėhten,// maniges pfaffen sanc. 156 wir ouch ◗vil liebiu swester, Sīfrides gegėn. daȥ wir der mohten ėne Er sprach:nihtgrimme Hagene zuo dem wuofe līp.◗ und müeȥen klagen immer des grŗȥen schaden sīn. den owė der leide dīn, 160 da ỗch tuot wart gescheiden ir hetet mīn vergeȥȥen, des magson wær◗ jėmerhafte wīp. ◗Wær◗ ėne schulde◗, mīmejehen, man. ◗daȥdėir iu dar umbe leide,von ichsprachliebenes niht geschehen. wol daȥ 164 der sol zuo got◗, ◗swelher bėre sprach Kriemhilt, ◗wær◗ iȥ Si buten vaste ir lougen. vor den derbegonde jehen daȥ woldedersich unschuldige, liuten gėn. daȥ gesehen; mir selber getėn.◗ Kriemhilt lėȥe 168 sŗ ist ein michel wunden: als harte schiere verstėn.◗ swė man den diedie wėrheit ouch dė gescach. Daȥ bī mac man wunder: vil dicke tŗten geschiht, dė bluotent immortmeilen bī dem eȥ nochsiht, 172 dŗ sprach der künic dė die wunden vluȥȥen sėre ze◗ich michel mė. Dieė dė die sculde Gunther desHagenen wil◗ȥ dė von mansėre klageten, alsam si tėten ė. iuch wiȥȥen lėn. wart nu gesach. 176 Gunther unde die schėchære◗, nu lėȥe eȥ got errechen noch sīner vriunde hant. ◗Mir schėchære: Hagene ir iȥsprach si, ◗vil in sluogen sint Hagene, jė habet hėtgetėn.◗ wol bekant. es niht getėn.◗ 180 Gėrnŗt degene dŗ sprach aber Kriemhilt: Gīselherhabt mit mir Dŗkŗmen dise beide unddŗ ze strīte kint. die die Sīfridesir bruoder hetendė si in fundenwėn. nŗt.◗ ◗nu daȥ tŗt, 184 in triuwen si in klageten mit den anderen sint. 155 giengen allenthalben man wīp unde kint. man solde inneclīche zuo dem münster dan Si weindenmesse singen: den Kriemhilde man. 188 wir wellen dich Gīselher nu sīn doch līhte ergetzen sprėchen: unt muoȥ sīn. Gėrnŗt undnėch tŗde, als iȥ doch wir geleben.◗ dietrŗstedich◗senbėren, die wīle ◗swester mīn, die weinden Sīfriden sint. 192 in wolde noch trŗst deheinen zer werldelac. man huop der diu bereitet wol umbe◗nniemen gegeben. Sīn kunde irwasfrouwe donẹsarc in von der bėrelėȥen niht begraben. tac. dė er ūfe mitten 196 dŗ klagete dė iemen Uote, ein edel wīp, ich muosen alherzenlīcheman arebeite haben. In einen rīchen liute des wæne mandie pfellel michelden tŗten want. ėne weinen vant. 200 durch man daȥ gehŗrte, daȥ opfers man dŗ truoc! unt alleȥ ir gesinde Dŗ gesarket hėte, den waȥ man zem münster undin willen sīner sėle sīnen wætlīchen līp. sanc, dŗ huop sich grŗȥ gedranc: 204 die im suln arme zir ◗sibī den günnen doch mir wesen Kriemhilt diudurch mīne liebe guoter vriunde genuoc. er hete iht guotesvīndenkameræren sprach: holt; und līden ungemach, 208 baȥ Sīfrides sėle daȥ danne gėn messe sol daȥ witze tages haben, Dehein kint was sŗ kleine manė ẹr wurde sanc. durchmuosehundert zem opfer.mandė desmohtebegraben, teilen sīn golt.◗ Wie Kriemhilt ir man klagte und wie er begraben wart.

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A Middle High German Primer 212 hīnte mich bewachen wart dŗ man dė hete gesungen,dŗ ◗irn sult sich Dŗsprach diu vrouwe den ūȥ erwelten degen. von lėn von Sīfrides vriunden Kriemhilt daȥ volc huop niht eine dan. grŗȥer gedranc. 216 eȥ ist an sīme lībe al mīn vreude gelegen. 156 waȥ ob daȥ drī mīns vil mich man. unz ich mich geniete nahte daȥlieben ouch nimet der tŗt? Drī tage und got gebiutet wil ich in lėȥen stėn, 220 und herbergen giengen pfaffen unde müniche Zen alleȥ sīn gesinde, sidaȥ des heldes pflac. sŗ wære wol verendet die belībenderKriemhilde nŗt.◗ mīnvon batstat. liute armer 224 daȥ eȥȥen arge die eȥ naht vilund den vollen müelīchen tac. ėn man◗s in ėn trinken beleip dė manic si heten nemen wolden, unt vil wart daȥ daȥ getėn, man. den gæbe: kunt schuof Sigemunt. 228 vil drīe tagezīte, die dė den Nibelungen daȥ si muosen sagen, Dieder arebeite. waȥ man vil michel arebeite dŗ waskunden singen,sŗin opfers truoc! kunt. wir hŗren tragen 232 ūȥ man vant derzem die diemit rīche genuoc. Swaȥarme wėren, opferdo ẹr niht solde leben, die vil sīn selbes kamere. wurden niht mohtengėn hieȥ man doch armen es dem golde hėn, 236 silber sŗ man swėūf wæte diu wart manic tūsent marc Urbor undeder erden klŗster armen gnuoc. vant. umbe sīne sėle gap mans◗in diu lant, gegeben. teilte den und guote liute 240 von was bī morgen sŗ dem wol dem weinens alsŗ kirchof alsŗ wīt An dem lantliuten münster sim holden willen truoc. si tetden drittengelīche ze rehter messezīt daȥ der vol: 244 wart durch sīne sėle den oder dannoch ze drīȥec nėch man hėt gesaget daȥ,vriunden In den tagen tūsent tŗde als man liebenbaȥ, si dienden imvieren, marken, armen dė gegeben. sol. 248 dŗ was gelegen ringe sīn grŗȥiu schŗne und ouch sīn leben. 157 man hieȥ dė wart gedienet volkes ranc. mit ungefüegem dem vil des und zuo dem grabe tragen. Dŗ gote in ūȥleide münster daȥ man vol gesanc, 252 ė daȥ man in begrüebe, die sah man weinen vrŗ enwas dė niemen, Vil lūte scrīende daȥ wedermit im dan: man. die sīn ungern enbėren, liut manwīpunde las:unde klagen. gie sanc noch 256 daȥ ranc mit grabe jėmer der Sīfrides wīp, dŗ man si mit pfaffen ze daȥ ir getriuwer līp, ė daȥ zem solhembrunnen vil dicke dė vergŗȥ. hey waȥ guoterdem kŗme sīner pīfilde was! 260 dŗ sprach diu küneginne: daȥ si ie genas. mit was ir michel Eȥ was einhelfendewunder harte unmæȥlīchen grŗȥ. eȥklageir ungemüete vil vrouwe was. manic ◗ir Sīfrides man, 264 dŗ mir nėch mīme an mir daȥ kleine sinnen daȥ durch iuwer alsŗ leide noch eines müeȥe sehen.◗ Lėtbat si◗s triuwe lange genėde begėn. starc, ir sultich sīn schŗne houbet mit jėmersliep geschehen, 268 dŗ brėhte man die vrouwen si huop sīn schŗne houbetdenmitdė si in ligen vant. Dŗkuste s◗ alsŗ daȥ man zebrechen muosetŗtenvil ir viledelen ritter guot. hėrlīchen sarc. den wīȥen hant; 272 dŗ truocman si von dannen: wart dŗ dė getėn. Ein jæmerlīcheȥ scheiden weineten bluot. ir vil liehtenmansinnelŗse daȥ hėrlīchegegėn. vant ougen vor leide sine mohte niht wīp. 276 die leide möht◗ sah leit ėne den edelen herren von Nibelunge lant. Dŗ im mėȥe ersterben die nu haben vor mitmankomen wėren manhete allebegraben, der ir vil wünneclīcher līp. 280 vil selten vrŗlīchen man dŗ Sigemunden vant. 158 doch mohten si dem leide sŗ gar tage lanc vor dem grŗȥemlībe niht aȥ noch entranc. Dŗ was der etelīcher der drīergeswīchen niht: 284 si nerten sich nėch sorgen, sŗ noch genuogen geschiht. VIII WOLFRAM VON ESCHENBACH. niht contains frouwe zer waste his and ūf was ūȥand bluomen flourished a the Sich zŗch works, walt, in native Bartsch, vondiu einen lines divided latter part von books. The Leipzig, 1875. editions Wolfram◗s Lachmann,up into sixteen the Titurel, following of fifth known by dates of which thedeath.24,812seejėmers balt of Parzival Eschenbach, early partHe the thirteenth century, III. For by far ir lande inHemost die plėne, Wolfram of the his life little is known, is besttaken exacthis 1891;was birthdurchin Soltėne; extensive representative ofund Court epic poetry. extract is edition, Berlin, Parzival, WolframofbestEschenbachvon Eschenbach Bavaria. Oftwelfth and Berlin, 1833,not even thefrom Book and his 5 des werden Gahmuretes sie brėhte dar durch flühtesal er wære jėmer val. kint. sinẹ kėrte oderan sŗ kranz, ir herzen rŗtsichwaskeinenganz, 10 ir sun. ė būwen sint, sie kunde wol ir sich der riuten. müeȥendaȥdėundeversan, liute, die bī für sich gewan: volc sie gar getriuten VIII WOLFRAM VON ESCHENBACH. 49

A Middle High German Primer 15 ◗wan man allen wurden daȥ se iemer rītersan den lūt. den wære friesche daȥ mīns herzen trūt, eȥ gebŗt sieoder wīp, līp, 159 welch rīters leben wære, 20 der helt iuch an verborgen Der site in angestlīche wart undknappe alle rīterschaft.◗ nu habetfuormir der witze kraft, daȥ wurdealsusvil swære.vart. 25 die ẹnmöhte an fuore bogen unde Soltėne betrogen; eȥsneit in bölzelīnerzogen, an wasteer mit sīn selbes hant, zerküneclīcher eime site sīn: 30 an schŗȥ unde roufte sich, sŗ weinde sange ė die gerich. dessīn von er kėrt◗ sŗ grŗȥ, swenne ab er den vogelewas er vant. und schalhėr vilvogel erschŗȥ, 35 eȥ ẹnwære er◗n kundeklėr unde twuog er sich alle im der vogelsanc, ūf dem plėnniht rivier fier: sīn līp wasobam gesorgen, morgen. 40 du suoȥe in im ūȥ hėt sŗ sprach sie zer künegīn. al weinde er lief ◗werdranc: plėn.◗ daȥ erstracte hin sīniu prüstelīn. diewær◗sīn herzeūf den dir getėn? 45 ūf mære gienc ir gesagen eins tages līhte sie lange niht, dem die boume esnoch dernėch. als kinden sie in kapfen sachvogele er◗n kundenėch geschiht. schal. 50 des der wol art und sīn gelust. von twang in innen daȥ brust. sie wart stimme ir kindeszeswal 160 an die vogele, sine wesse um waȥ: frou Herzeloyde kėrte ir haȥ 55 vogele würgen verkrenken. die hieȥ sie vaste enken ir būliutẹ und ir gėhen, sie wolte irwėren baȥ geriten: vogele schal unde vėhen. 60 ◗waȥ sange wart ein teil, Der knappe wīȥet künegīn die bleip dė lebendic vermiten: der sīt mitsprach zerman geil. etslīches sterben wurden den vogelīn?◗ 65 suln muoter kuste in den munt: der sprach der sėanfröude diu doch ist durch michzestunt. sīnvogele◗wes wende ich lėn?◗ er gerte in frideshŗhste got? sīn gebot, 70 er ist noch sprachdenn◗ sėn ◗sun, liehterbewac ◗owė sagezer muoter der tag, spot. der knappeich muoter, waȥ ist got?◗ antlitzes sich dir◗ȥ ėne 75 sŗ heiȥet einẹr sīn triwe der witze, ie helfe und merke eineumbeder helle bŗt. sun, flėhe in werldedīne wirt: nėch menschen antlitze. nŗt: 80 daȥ muoter underschiet im niht sīn vinster unt untriuwe gevar. und och kėr◗ wanke.◗ von demvon zwīvelslieht in gedanke, der ỗst swarz,daȥ dīnegar verbirt. 85 er lerntẹ den gabylŗtes swanc, dar nėch sīn snelheit verre spranc. 161 eȥ wære er manegen volc genŗȥ. des sīn muoter und snė, dė mite æber oder irhirz erschŗȥ: 90 als wilde fremdiu geladen desunzerworht hin mære. genuoc, swenne er◗rschŗȥ daȥ swære, nu hŗrettet◗heim er◗ȥ wė. demwære ein mūl sīn schieȥentruoc. 95 dė nėhen er was lanc: huofslegen. er einer durch blatesim gienc ein stīc: an brach halden, diuden weideganc Eins tages giengbīerstimme ◗en zwīc. hŗrt◗ schal von 100 den sprach nu ich sicherlīche. mit bestüende begund◗er wangrimme er ◗waȥ dŗ gabylŗtder tiuvel hėn ich vernomen? sīnwolte etzorneclīche!komenwegen: 105 drī muoter in sī verzaget.◗ nu wæne ir kom geschūftet alsus stuont ellenstrītes ger. her ichseht, dort nėch von im saget: mīnrīter er freisenwunsche var, 110 in◗ȥ ouch er sunder gar. dŗ stuontūf wære ein sīniu daȥ ieslīcher gewėpentspot, der fuoȥewėndeniht langer vonknappe phat viel er ūf got. hie,knie. 115 ◗dirre tŗrsche bewac, dŗ der zornes maht wol der vorder got: du sich Wėleise ◗hilf,der knappe sėnhelfe lūte rief knappe im phade lac: hėn.◗ 120 unsich wendet gėher reise.◗ 162 und doch von Wėleisen sagen: die sint tŗrscher denne beiersch muoȥ ichden manlīcher wer. ein prīsbī wir Beier tragen, her, VIII WOLFRAM VON ESCHENBACH.

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A Middle High German Primer 125 ein in gezimieret undrīter, wunder harte Dŗ kom zwein landen birt. gefuoge eingeleischieret gėch. swerwoldendem was an imwirt, 130 den helt frouwen von im komen: ein◗ wėrenin heten im zwėn◗ rītersīm◗ lande, die verre strīteclīchen nėch, er reit in eȥ dūhte schande: genomen 135 sīns schildes was kastelėn: er müetẹ der juncfrouwen dise drī wėren sīne man. diu jæmerlīche vor wėnic ganz. in reit ein schŗnevilin reit. leit, 140 den fuor ◗wer irret sus cons Karnahkarnanz getėn: lehsprachUlterlec. knappen sėn. er hieȥ er zuome ein gotuns den wec?◗ dūhte er als 145 wėrn het◗ ė vor guldīn schellen sŗ mit ietwederem beine kleine ūfẹm towe der wėpenroc erwant. er◗ndie stegreife erklengetliehtes niht erkant. 150 der helt durch bŗt oder swanc. swar zeswer mėȥe erlenget. sīner◗nswertslege sŗ hel: unt was was gein prīse snel. klanc, ze rehter arm von schellen 163 155 ◗junchėrre, sėht den vrėgte Karnahkarnanz Aller manne schŗne ein bluomen kranz, gezimiert wünneclīche.ir sus fuor der fürste rīche, für iuch varen 160 undfüerent roubes eine sich sie ringent mit rīter verzaget: kunnen an rīterlīchermaget.◗ zwėn◗ der nŗtnunft niht bewaren sint an werdekeit die zunft? 165 dŗ rief wėnde, verjach do Herzeloyd◗ diu spot frou wæreer underschiet künegīn, eȥknappe got, als imeswaȥ er sprach, ders◗imlūte sunderden liehten schīn. 170 ich roy ab an sīn gebot. der leiste viel mir, fil dicke hilfgernehelfegebet vil lifürste sprachsīnrīcher niht got, ◗nu Gahmuret. ◗ich pingot.◗ 175 hėstu nennest rīter: waȥ ◗du niht kundest sehen, der knappe vier rīterspehen.◗ ob du ze rehtegotelīcher kraft, du maht hisfrėgte fürbaȥist daȥ? 180 daȥ sage tuot an ir in rīterschaft.◗ der bringet iuch der künec hūs, junchėrre, wer gīt des Artūs. ◗daȥmir,iuch rīters namen, sŗ ir◗skometniemer durfet schamen. 185 dŗ lacwol sīn von rīters art.◗ von den helden er geschouwet wart: ir mugetėventiurẹ ichan ime. der diu gotes kunst daȥ nime, 164 diu mich mit wėrheit des beschiet: 190 dė von ein lop von wīben Aber sprach Adėmes getėn. des wart sīnlachen wartzīt. vor ime sītder knappe geriet nie mannes varwe baȥ sėn wīt. 195 aldė dort obenrīter got, waȥ an hėstunt des knappen hant du dīnensushie gebunden,mahtu ◗aybegreifmanec vingerlīn sīn? līp unden.◗ 200 diu harnasch an ame schouwen. ir vingerīn begunderjuncfrouwen ◗mīner ein ander ragent.◗ des niht sus an muoter fürsten vant: swaȥ er īserssnüeren tragent, 205 i◗ne sprachditze sė daȥ dich zuo istniht abe schicken? ◗warmages wol kan sīnen muot der knappesŗzeigete guot, sīn swert: fürste im durch gezwicken.◗ 210 muoȥ ich alsus wėpen slegen: und für wer ich an mich strītes gert, für die sīne muoȥ mit an mich stich des selbenden schuȥ und für den legen, ◗nu sich, swermich ichmich.◗ 215 Die sprach hirze trüegen sus der rīter zurnden daȥ son◗ verwunt◗ er hieltir vel, ◗ob manger vor mirirtŗt.◗ abervelletdieder knappe snelniht mīn gabylŗt. 220 ŗwī wan wær◗ dīn wielt. der fürste sprach vil tumpheitschŗne mīn! bi dem knappen der◗got hüete dīn. 165 ob hete got den wunsch leben. dir du mit witzen soldestgegeben, 225 dė vant der och in z◗einem dir virre leit.◗ unde gėheten baldedem die gotes und gefüege reit, diu sīnekraftveldeer selbe walde. 230 si gart ob starken ohsen die er balde eren sach: wegen. ir volke leider sæn, dar nėch frŗn Herzeloyden phlüege. egen, bẹgunden nie geschach; 235 swes er vrėgt◗, daȥ sine juncfrouwen op morgen eine kunden niht vermiden, bŗt, und frėgte guotensie sæhen nŗt der fürste insẹ,līden, wart gesaget. 240 die sporen fuor morgen. mit frouwe hiutemit fuorten.◗ diu die juncfrouwen ruorten, dė riten sie vaste sorgen: ◗zwėne rīter und ein maget VIII WOLFRAM VON ESCHENBACH.

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A Middle High German Primer 245 sie was Īmėne diu ergėhte Karnachkarnanz, mit strīte er ime die den was dė vor fröuden lam. eȥhieȥMeljahkanz. frouwen nam: 250 hėt unser verzageten, sie der Bėėfontėne. dŗ die helde ◗wie◗st Die būliutejunchėrre ersehen vonsprėchen für sie jageten. uns sus geschehen? 255 sonẹ hėn wir helme schart, ūf disen rīternuns niht wol bewart. 166 wand◗ er mit uns umbe daȥ, von schulden hŗren dė her wir sulen der küneginne haȥ lief 260 und sagete enruochte ouch wer er knappe ir dŗ sie dannoch slief.◗ diehuop kleine unde muoter wider, der hirzesich mær◗. dŗ viel sie nider: hiute morgengein der grŗȥ: dŗ schŗȥ 265 swie kom unversunnen wider diu küneginne vor erschrac, dŗ sỗz◗ir sinne, daȥsie dė vor wær◗im lac. sīner worte sie sŗ sėreverzaget, 270 noch rīters ◗sun, man ◗muoter, ich got wėsprach sieorden? vier wer dir vonbist du◗s innen worden?◗ dŗliehter dannesach getėn:hėt gesaget 275 sich huop ein niuwer jėmer hie. an sageten mir von rīterschaft. sol mich küneclīchiu kraft Artūsesnėch kėren.◗ dieschildes ambetrīters ėren 280 iesch von der muoter dicke Der sie ir dem unde bræhte. undeknappe tumpwillenwert daȥ in vonenwesse rehte, wie diu frouwe den list erdæhteein pfert. 285 ◗der liute vil in ir herzen im dŗ gedėhte mėr diu sint. niht eȥ muoȥ ◗i◗n wil klagen. versagen: sie dėhte aber vil bŗse künegīn daȥ begunde sẹbī spottesīn.◗ 290 tŗren kleider sol mīn kint 167 ŗwė der unt geslagen, sŗ kumet er jæmerlīchen dol! wirt er geroufetmir her wider wol.◗ ob sīme liehten lībe tragen. 295 unz enmitten eime sactuoch: daȥ doch nam tŗren kleit erkant. sie frouwefür sīn blankeȥ bein. diu sneit imanan ein stücke erschein, wart hemede unde bruoch, 300 dė wart grŗȥ drūfe nėch hūt zwei jėmer niht von einer man kelberīn gesniten. al frisch sīnen beinen wart vant. vermiten. ein gugelrūchobene ribbalīn 305 an künegīn in hinnen ich wil dich solt niht alsŗ ◗dunẹlist ėdie naht. sie bat belīben waslėren.bedėht, diuungebanten strėȥen kėren, 310 der werelde fürte lėȥen: du sīhte grüeȥen dė solte site lūter bieten. diesolt dichal balde rīten īn. soltu tunkelunde nieten, sīn, 315 sun, soltu gerne volgen, und wil lėrn als er sīn, dem lė dir bevolhenwol zuhtwis im niht erbolgen. kan, ob dich ein grė wīse man 320 und du guotes tuot unt ir gruoȥ, du solt z◗ir kusse vingerlīn daȥ līp vast◗ kumbers mügest eȥwībesumbevėhen: swa irnim:erwerben dir gėhen buoȥ. 325 daȥ gīt gelücke und hŗhen muot, 168 dīnen fürsten Lähelīn der stolze küeneabe sun mīn, du solt och wiȥȥen, guot. op sie kiusche ist undeervaht zwei lant, 330 dīn volc er sluoc unde hant, den tŗt und Norgėls. ein sollen von sīner hende Wėleis dienen Turkentalsenphienc: diu dīn fürstedīnervienc.◗ 335 im morgens noch der tag ruocht es derwas gein dŗ muoter,erschein, got: Desknappe balde wart enein, in verwundetArtūse gėch. ◗diz riche ich, mīn gabylŗt.◗ 340 (der Herzeloyde in langer sachlaȥ dŗ sie ir riuwe aldė geschach. der reit enwec: wem◗st lief im nėch. frouwereldesun nihtkuste und deste baȥ?), viel diu frouwe valsches 345 ŗwol sie ein sterben der daȥ daȥ se ie die hellenŗt. ir vildie erde,wert◗muoter wart! dŗgetriulīcher tŗt niht vermeit. ūffrouwensealdė sie jėmer sneit 350 ir sippe die der diemüete. ŗwė der den eilften spėn! und ein unz an güete ein fuorstamlŗnes bernden vart sus wurzel daȥ wir nu niht enhėn 355 der wirt gevelschet manec līp. heiles wünschen disem knaben, doch solten von ir hėt erhaben. des sich hie nu getriuwiu wīp VIII WOLFRAM VON ESCHENBACH.

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A Middle High German Primer 169 NOTES All notes are directly linked to the text in the Grammar.] [The references refer to the paragraphs referenced. I. BERTHOLD VON REGENSBURG p. 79, l. 13. werdentanders niht enpflæge, see §§ 102, 108. kind. 81, 19. daÈ¥ si sehende, will see. of joy of such a beautiful 34. von sÅ— getÄ—ner freude, II. LANTREHTBUOCH p. 83, l. 26. mege, = mitter(e), aj. nom. pl., middle, see § 9, 2. class of freemen. 85, 15. sempervrÄ«en, from sentbærevrÄ«en, the highest 17. miter pres. subj. of mac, see § 93. III. DER ARME HEINRICH ll.31. ze ThatlongeralrÄ—st,dependent healed. the salvation of Heinrichâ——s soul. l. 6. im, isno =thispp.anyimperative. §ofGodein wÄ—reÈ¥ Swabia. muge, see § 74, note. 239. handen genislich, country 190. für eineme, §§ § 164. gnislich wir: verswern, to86. 133-4. SwÄ—ben ofinfrist, 66, then. 106. eime die .haben,hopesaspray9, 7. 101. sehent =.=selbensee §since104. 50. des reflexive, = des is cp.9, being on for 38. versworn, sehet,(er) mayofsoon as.the Swabians, i.e. bilde; for 240-1. muge one the 24-5. dÅ— . see possess. 3. 170 ll.351. getwelte,tuon,dwelt, on niht.ze Salerne to heart. 101. l. 257. sichwÄ«lehad ne,iser,issee§ take3. cp.3. vilnote to l. (gen.) von arzenÄ«en ist, see § 102. 846. 756. dÄ«me dinc renounce, 640. verswÄ«ge wir so sÅ— 621. wan abe= mohte why imperative, 591. dieThe is dÄ«neme, not.as. 9, 547. mohterfordependent see resign. 486. es gen. construction long § 65, a thing 376. kunde waÈ¥ an nemen, to 106.note also meister 372-3. ein kundet.the = daÈ¥, IV. WALTHER VON DER VOGELWEIDE negative see.§freudefromthebræhte, nÄ—ch dem guote, me not name. stern ll.178. tiuschiumanywunder,=two. plural.i.e.Godifrecognize not exercise a yourself too much about wealth. l. 144. kond=siewouldcallgotwÄ— sÄ«nif184-192.would or precioustheir brother.rule. On the omission of the 429. duThey. gen. 308. hÅ—hste108. imagine great 292. weder is schiere form) gen. ll. 285. bien bÄ« den. are 255. Der ir,is.of seezethe name, the ruined 250. daÈ¥ pret.which of engehÅ—ne! may 232. bluomenzunge, Germanden. who will of they 214. guoter.Extractsplural.Reinmar,multitudenot curse did 187. manuns wÄ«be wider inlanguage,most beautiful bring us joy 185. Philippe dirdative; thee father,Glossary.Germany. them soon. again. 182. bekÄ—rÄ—,kan.Ä— athemselvesanyone flowers. do as worry 498-9. lÄ— 475-6. See 174-5. Very .(weak .niht the 171 V. REINMAR l. 33. Liutpolt:bekam. 75. bekan = Duke Leopold VI of Austria. VII. DAS NIBELUNGEN-LIED l. 28. sÄ«me sich von dan,see sheseeto regainedaway. see § 88, note. 213. huop 92. weinendesÄ«neme, and themselves rob. 88. Ä—ne tuon, with weinen, had of her her 43. ermorderÅ—t, older betook9, 3; bereave, to. widersaget, § 37. bat sich wÄ«sen, gen.form of pp.widerseit = consciousness. 37. 32. nÄ—ch=unkrefte,asked §acc., leadermordern, sÄ«n = after them § 106. VIII. PARZIVAL and108. liconsshouldobject. mention fully ll.42. weindemother explained §Count. the of human beauty. §83-4. The askedle (li)the king. the perfectiondifference between darkness and light, the negative see l. 17. that K.roy,weinende, seethe himthe word â——knightâ——. On the omission of i.e. between the Devil 243. Supply= = him, cons, to 172. fil 141. lehthey ros asof who was 29. 157-8. God. son never 172 GLOSSARY ABBREVIATIONS sm., sf., sn., = strong masculine, &c. sv. = strong verb. wm., wf., wn., = weak masculine, &c. wv. = weak verb. pret.-pres. = preterite-present. pn. = proper name. explained. numeral after a need Grammar where word indicate abbreviationsin the no explanation. to word either occurs or some ordinary numerals The remainingthe paragraph verb indicates the class thewhich the verb belongs. The peculiarity of it is after a Roman A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z Ä A—, interj. added to the imperative, nouns, and particles; neinÄ—, certainly not. ab, abe, prep. c. dat. of, from; av. away, away from, 9.6. aber, abr, ab, av. and cj. again, once more, but; aber sprëchen, answer, reply. al (infl. (-ec), ahir), ah(t)zigeste, Adam. ah(t)zicaller, num. meditation; ah(t)zëhende, acre, the ah(t)zëhen, alleÈ¥, bereft. ahten, sf.sm. diamond.eighteenth, ahtede,num.gen.), eighty, deliberate. aht(e), (OHG.eighth,consider, 62. äher wv. observe, eighteen,62. 62. ænic sm. pn.num. eightieth,of has æber, sn. place num.62. 62. corn. adamas,num.eight,aj. sn. ear(älliu, melted away. AdÄ—m, attention,62.alliu snow 42. elliu)), aj. all; acker,(withfield, where9.2, 31.2, station, position. al dÄ—, there, thereupon; al dÅ—, as soon as; al ein, all one, the same; NOTES 53

A Middle High German Primer aller hande, of all kinds; alle wëge, everywhere, 55. alsÅ— alsam, alsÅ—. als, see av. always, as, alrÄ—st sn. alms, charity. almuosen, as, av. av.69. allmahtic=alone. Ä—rst, just alleÈ¥, (alse, just as,all sides. allertegelÄ«ch, av.already. as, allenthalben, als),ondaily.at first. so, likewise, 69; aleine, av. (almähtic, almehtic), aj. all-powerful, almighty. aller alse dar, always, all the time. alze, alwære, age. alter, (alsust), av. in alt, aj.sn. aj. too much. alsus av.=too,foolish. this manner, so, thus. alsolchold, former, 10, 57. solch. 173 anders, ander, sn.av.and anblic, sm. look. pr. other, ambet, num.otherwise, else;second, am = anav.service, spot, calling. 55, 62, 71. alzehant,dëm. theoffice,at once, immediately. on niht anderswan, nothing but. ane (an), prep. elsewhere. anderswar, av. c. dat. or acc. on, by, in; of; along with; until, 9.6; an dën lÄ«p, by (their) life, on the penalty of (their) life; an dër stat, at once, on the spot. Ä—ne (Ä—n), av. alone, free, deprived of; eines Ä—ne wërden, to lose; cj. except; prep. c. acc. or gen. without, except, next to. balde, av. bal bÄ—gen, b BÄ—best, antlitze, ay, smf. grass Ä—ventiure, painful, Ä—tem, carrion, Ä—s, amme, 9.1, work, carefully, arzenÄ«e,boldly,wonderful Britain. arzÄ—t, narrowly, 42. ArtÅ«s, sm. ame,favour, 49. art, (-ges),apple, 31.2. armuot, inbornball.50. arm,(pl.eagle, helpless, arc interj.arm. sf.anxious, valiantly; arbeitsam,sf. bad,bravely, 87. arbeit sn.sf.sm.medicine, nature, ar, wm.sm.ah! alas!quarrel, an countenance. apfel,sm.enste), sf.sf.kingface, dëme, anxiously, antwürten physician. remedy. antlütze,aj.aj. manner,= anxiety. anst(-lles),sf.poverty, amtroublesome. 68 ansëhen,sv.sight.28.want.behold. anme,sm.sm.care,plot.sn.unhappy, 57. quickly; anges(t)lich,Arthur,antwurte), quality; angest,(arebeite), look at, fearful,wicked.origin, angesiht,pn.aj.VII,sorrow,of eventdangerous, descent. anger,av.poor,breath,exactly,trouble, grief. note 2. 9.7. ange,aj.smf.sv.(pret.mischievous,wv. answer. terrible. V, pope. balde wërden enein, be quickly resolved. baÈ¥, sv. VII, bat aj. sf. bier. bÄ—re,courageous, full bar,(-des), aj. courageous. bannen,bare, bath, flood of bange,av. sn.55. more, of tears. baltlÄ«ch,anxious, 9.7. 61; courage, firm, unyielding. balt, aj.aj. better, banish, expel, put under the ban, 87. baÈ¥ geriten, quicker; baÈ¥ veile, of less value; wëmâ——st deste baÈ¥?, who feels joy at this parting? bedenken p.p. bedecken (pret. -dÄ—hte, bÄ—de = beide.-dacte, -dahte), bedÄ—ht,(pret.thoughtful, subj. wv. cover, 90. BÄ—Ä—fontÄ—ne, pn. intent.pret. -dæhte), think over, consider; sich dës willen bedenken, decide upon a thing. 174 bediuten, wv. expound; refl. mark, denote. bedurfen, (pret. -dÅ«hte), wv. seem, or irksome. bedunken bedürfen (pr. sing. -darf), pret. bedrieÈ¥en, sv. II, seem troublesome appear. pres., need, require; see durfen. begÄ—n, anom. v. to do a thing; refl. live; see gÄ—n. beide (bÄ—de), hold, understand. behuot, p.p. I, bury, inter. behüeten, behüeten. beherten, of II, pour keep, behalten, sv. III grasp,over, preserve, behagen, = sv.harden, neut. suit. begunder wv.please, also moisten. reserve, store up. begrÄ«fen, sv.VI,num., preserve, begraben,sv.begundedelight,beidiu, both; beginnen,wv.wv. keep, enforce. begunde, begonde), begin, 81. begieÈ¥en,sv.VII,(pret.ër. weakprotect. beide—und, both—and. beiten, wv. aj. bein, pn. people of Bavaria, beier(i)sch,wait;av. on both Bavarians. Beier,sn. bone, Bavarian. beidenthalben,leg, 5, 11. sides. sn. a waiting. bekÄ—ren, acquire, get. bekennen sv. V, bekan = wv.wv. assure. bejëhen,(pret. employ, wv. know, recognize, get to know. bejagen, bekam.-kante), turn; bekÄ—ren sich, turn round. belÄ«ben sv. IV, get, sv. I, remain, 9.7, 76; bekomen, (blÄ«ben), obtain. under wëgen belÄ«ben, be left undone, cease. benëmen, sv. IV, take, in the true benamen wv. illumine, take away; sense of the beliuhten,= bÄ« namen,explain, make manifest. word. c. gen. exempt. berÄ—ten, sv. VII, consider, arrange, provide for; refl. consider, reflect. bereit (-ges), sm. mountain. bërc (bereite), aj. ready, willing; A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z

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A Middle High German Primer av. readily, willingly, 55. bestėn, besorgen, beslieȥen, sv. V, make besitzen bëseme, berte), carry, bring forth, out. beschern, IV, -reite), rod.plough, of; bescheidenlīchen,happen. bescheidenheit,II,v.wv. sv. clear, aj. sensible, bescheidenwv. bereave,beat, bescheiden, sv.bear,remain; beschëhen,wv.VII,understanding, let 9.1, besarken anom.touch,wv. put into assail; sensibly. berüeren,(bescheidenlīch), explain. prudence. berouben, wm.provide,81. consciousclearly, 19, 82. bern (pret.wv.III,sf.close, shut.take makerequite. bërn, sv.sv.sv.-saȥ),wv. V,divide,sense, arable, bërgen, (beserken), upon, strike.possession of. prepare, bereiten (pret. bestowav.rob. attack,the coffin. prudent. make ready. besom; be hide, move. definitely, einen bestėn, concern, belong to. besunder, av. apart. beste, aj. and av. best, 9.5, 23.1, 61. 175 bī, sf. beȥȥerunge, improvement, beȥȥern, III, order, beȥȥer bewīsen, protect,place sensible bewenden pray, near, of bewëgen sv. -want), recommend; bewarn, (pp. watch, gloomy bewachen,sv. av.46. pp. bevinden, (superl.make wv. turn bevëlhen,(sich refl. gen.),-sworn), bring bettestat, bed, wv.with get inform, preserve; thereby; bette,prep.sv.wv.putcommand. by, instruct. betrüeben,couch,beȥȥest, to, angry. betriegen,sf.wv.view, consider. or resolve or 58. betrahten,request,becomegrief, improve. bëten, (pret. -swuor, grieve. V,8.use.aj. to home bëte,sn.wv.sf.III,sf.92.guard against,of,sv. better, an oath, swear oneself; beswern wv.wv.affliction,nearsv. beste), beside;avert, ward off, prevent. part with, cast off. beswæren,wv.II,afflict,guard.rest. with,get to know. to person, 19, beswærde,and10,deceive.better,sadness. VI, takeupon,atake uponto. 34, 81. right, bī sīn with dat. of person: be near, have; bī mīnen triuwen, in truth, upon my word!; bī mīnen zīten, during my lifetime; bī spotte sīn, like mockery; bī wësen, remain. binden, bin, = aj. av. billīchen, noble, billich, (biben,rightly, properly, bilden, aj. dën. right. bilde, sn.97.III, bind, bibent), wv. bieten, sv.example, show, good. befittingly. bien am,wv. form.pp.bend, 5, 11, quake, tremble. biegen,bīII, bow, comparison. 18, 2, 78. biderbe,sv.becoming,fasten, 10 12, 25,16, 18, 33, 78. bibenensv. II, offer,active,5, 11,note15,11, 12, 15, 33, 81; wol gebunden, with the hair neatly braided and decked out. bluome, blüemen, bat), blüejen, belīben. blŗȥ, aj. aj. bliuwen, bitter, 20, sv. blint blīdeclīchen, put blic (-ges), II, glance,19, blīben sv. aj. bloom, blüen, blī (-des), sm. bitter, 35.only. blat,(-ckes), wv. bite,31.2, ask, blėsen,white,blind, V,note, blanc, aj.=sv. flower, 36,55. blė (-wes), 50. blue,blossom. bīȥen,bite,VII, bitterly. delay, biȥ,sn. pear, I,strike, blithely, wv. bitterlīchen,44.lead,7,off, 76. 19,76. bitterlīch,I, wait,naked;beautiful. bloom, bitter,sm.wmf.aj.av. blow,90.55. joyfully. bit(t)en sv.blüewen,16 87. beg,36, 79. 19, 35, 90. bīten, leaf.snm.shining,9.2, splendour. bir, swf. (pret.bare,av.5,8.look;55, 56.request, command, 3, 26, 31.3, 84. 176 bringen brief (brėwe), bresten, brennen, breit, sm.messenger, brëchen,bow. little brėten,blood. worthless, brėsn.wv. sn. little bend, bŗȥen, sm. letter, 11, despicable. boum,aj. sv.tree.VII, cross-bow, bougen, böugen, swf., 90. bote, wm.wv.bleed. 10, 33, 44. borgen, aj.sv.sn.he-goat, pret. 87. bölzelīn,borrow.beat, strike, gather; boge, wm.wide,IV, wv.burst, deficient, want, bŗse, (pret. brėhte,pluck,subj. neglect, 82. böcklīn,IV,broad. 51.87. beeyebrow; eyelash, 48. boc (-ckes), sv.VII, roast, 10, 32.1. bræhte), lack, 28, bluoten,wv.bad,break,he-goat,10. bluot,(-ves),sv.burn,break,brow,10.bolt or arrow.bring, 19. 29, 91; sich bringen lėȥen, let oneself be brought; vür bringen, carry out. buoȥ, buosem, buoch, būman aj. breakable, büechlīn,brother, sm. sf. breast, sf. bū (-wes),covering 9.2.5,brook. brūt (pl.sm.bosom, well,5, brücke),bosom, brust (pl.(pl. II, bruoder, sv.remedy, forbook,peasant, of bridge, bruoch, sf.briute), (brucke, 10, 11. brunne, sn.brown; dark-coloured. brūn, sm.book,burn, 81.note, 79. brugge,aj.bruste, cultivated upper brŗt,sn.sv. III, brew, 3, the11, 24, part 45.the dwelling, abode, brŗde,sm.bread.little16perishable. reparation; 10 10 note 3, briuwen,wm.smn. 10. compensation,25,farmer, farm note 3, 49. 42. brinnen,brüggebrüste),land; farmhouse; thigh.labourer. 26, 31.3. spring, būliute), sn. bride, 10. buoȥ tuon c gen., free from, liberate from. butze, wm. hobgoblin, bug-bear; burt, sm. sf. citizen, family. burgære, sm. of good parishioner. burc (-ge),peasant. būr,sf. birth, castle, town, 10 note 1, 49. in butzen wīs, like a ghostly hobgoblin. d D Fė, dėr, Cor c see biuwen there, where, 39, till, būwen, k. av. (pret. biute), wv. 69; cultivate, plant. dė mite, therewith; dė von, thereby; dė vor, before it or that; dė zuo, thereby, therewith, thereto. danc wv. be silent, dahte,sn. covering, 92. dagen, see decken. 31.3. dach,(-kes), sm.. thanks, wish; sunder or an◗ mīnen danc, against my wish. danne, denne (dan), av. danken, wv. thank, 9.2. then; after the comparative, than as; in conditional sentences with or without ne = unless. 177 dar, dare, av. thither, whither, wherefrom, 69. dannoch (dennoch), av. however, dannen, av. from there, thence;69; even, still; besides, in addition to this; moreover. dar an, thereon, in that, therein; dar für, before it; dar nėch, thereupon, after that; dar umbe, therefore, 69; A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z 55

A Middle High German Primer dar under, amongst them, in between; dar zuo, besides, in addition. dër, dennoch,sm. ich. denne pr. dÄ—hte), denken that. dacte, 71. denen = danne. deist = (pret. dannoch. therein. deich cj.(pret. ist. dehein,daÈ¥ diu, def. art., dem. dëgen,daÈ¥warrior, av. think, decken(dennen), wv. vassal, 92. cover, dechein,dekein, pr. any one; 11. none, 71.29, 91. daÈ¥=daÈ¥,no, none,stretch, no,5, 11, 28,rel. 31.3, 32.2, 90. dÄ—rinne, darinne,dahte), wv. pr., and23.2, pr., the, who; 9.6, 68, 69; see dës, av. with which, thereby, therefore, wherefore. deste, av. av. ist. dÄ—st, deis, dÄ—s dërst = the down. dernider, dërout. = daÈ¥ ist, derfüre,av. more, all the more; 68 note 1. before comparatives, the, so much, 11. dic (dicke), aj. deÈ¥ = daÈ¥. thick, dark, 55; dewëder, dwëder, ist one of two, truly, of two, indeed. dÄ—swÄ—r (= daÈ¥ pr. wÄ—r), av.neitherin truth, 71. av. dicke, often; dicke baÈ¥, often still better. dienest daÈ¥ dienen, wv. ich. dien (dienst), sm. service, serviceableness; devotion, 9.2; diemüete,serve, earn, deserve; requite, 9.2, 92. diech Middle sf. humility. die ===die en.Germ. form of dër. ze dienste, out of devotion. diep (-bes), dienstman, sm. servant, feoffee. thief; ze diebe wërden, become a thief. dort, dörperlÄ«ch, (neut. dorn, dorf pr. av. aj. donreslac thy, thing, affair, dÅ—n, thorn,resound, a display. doln,(-ges), sf.yonder. roar, diz, dol, (pl. endure, sm. then, suffer, as, doch, (diw),II,(pl. dÅ—ne), sm. 90. dÅ—, diser, change,sn. 48.gedigen), diuwesm. yet,dise24.peasant-like, sound, diuten,do,sv.speak, makepp.when,rustic. I, diuhen, wv. sn.dÄ—ch, ditze,press, shove. dirre,av.tÅ—nandpain, village,rush, 18, 78. dingen,suffering,servant,nevertheless. 69.48. dincsf.av.there,9.3,cj. relate,contract.lightning, dÄ«n,wv.dörfer),67.thunder-clap,diÈ¥; fem. disiu), pr. dÄ«henwv. intimate,remove;46. misery, 10. thrive, 17, this, dieÈ¥en,(pret.however,distress, hamlet,sv.melody, song.30, 76. 68. (-ges), tolerate, 178 drÄ—te, av. quickly, immediately; dræjen döuwen, turn, 35, 90. douwen,(dræn), wv.wv. digest, 10. alsÅ— drÄ—te, directly, forthwith. drÄ« (neut. driu), num. 11, 82. dreschen, sv. IV, thrash,three, 62, 63; drÄ«er hande, of three kinds. dringen, sv. III, press, throng, shoot up, also sn., 81; für sich dringen, press forwards, spread. dÅ«, du, drunder drumb(e), (-ec),under. drÅ«fe (drowe, drÅ—), drucken, darnum. third, drouwen,pr.av. threefold. threaten, drouwe==dröuwen, 26, drÄ«È¥igeste, thrice. wv. therefore. drÄ«zëhende, num. thirteenth, drÄ«zëhen, num. wv. press, drÄ«È¥icdrücken, thirty, 62. drÄ«valtic,dartonum. end, sf. threat, threatening. dritte, drite,aj.num. thirtieth,62. 62.3, 10. drÄ«stunt,av. Å«fe. thirteen, 62. 10 note 3, 90. thou; that gen. dÄ«n; dat. dir; acc. dich; pl. nom. ir; gen. iuwer; dat. iu; acc. iuch, 65. dunken, dünken dÅ«me, wm. thumb. dulden, wv. endure. (pret. dÅ«hte, pret. subj. diuhte), seem, appear, 5, 10 note 2, 11, 29, 91; sich ze nihte dunken, to imagine oneself undone. durch (dur), prep. through, on dünne, aj. thin, 5, 10, 11, 55. account of, for, for the sake of, 34; dur daÈ¥, on this account, for that reason, therefore; durch plates stimme, for drawing sounds or notes from the leaf; for making a whistling sound on the leaf; durch sÄ«nen muot, through his (childish) mind. eigen, eiden, sn. even, ei, ei interj. (eislÄ«ch), ëht aj. take of egeslÄ«ch ennoble. egen, eijer,and Å—Ì—t), edeln,wv. du evenly, one av. edelinc, own, formerly, fearful, edel(e), ah.sonan ecke, swf.,harrow.55, 60. 60. ëbene,dürfen a smoothly, only; help. ëben, aj.property;noble,sn. darf, 47. Ä (pl.(Ä—Ì—t,av. eier), sing.want ofeven, 60. E —, Ä—r,sn. corner,nobleman, 35,pret. dorfte, dÅ«È¥wv.wm. beggar, 31.3.inegg,sooner, before, pret. subj. durftige,sm. eiger, oath,aj.rather, 8.terrible, at any rate, 34. dörfte), pret. pres. need, 16, 93. durfen, =av.av. 55.(pres.pledge.well-fitting,37. 39, 61. ëȥ. ze eigen gëben, present. ein, num. and indef. art. eilfte, aj. eleventh, 62. one; a, an, 9.3, 62, 63; indef, pr. one, some one, 71. ei(n)lifte aj. einlif, einlef one einic av. once. another. eines,(-ec),pr.(eilif), single. eine, av. alone.only, num. eleven, 62. einander,(eilfte), num. eleventh, 62. 179 en, neg. emzekeit, aj. emphëlhen, oath. eltlÄ«ch, sm. go III, elter, aj. see egeslÄ«ch. ellich,sn.courage,generally ellenden, universal, ellenboge,wv.activity, recommend, ellen, aj. aj. elderly, demand. Ä—lÄ«ch,sf.element.old. used 81. element,sv.wm.legal, conjugal. eit (-des),sn.VII,elbow.diligence, industry. eislÄ«ch,older.sv.abroad. manliness. eischen, particle,ask,constant. before the verb with or without niht after the verb, not. valour; en in subordinate sentences with the subjunctive, unless, if not, except that, when that, that not, &c. en = in; shortened form of dën. enmitten, sv. enke, =wv. wv. anxious, enges(t)lÄ«ch, engëlten, end, 55. Engellant, ein. place, engel,wm. man make visible, enge, sn. sv. who 42.54. enein sf. narrowVII, announce,thing, enden,sm. av. England,requite. summon. endelÄ«chen, av.9.2,without entirely. ende, aj.insv. IV,the tends timid, dangerous. enblecken,angel,finish. be thedifficulty. enblanden,pn.inaj.be midst;painful or enbieten,narrow,bid,let strait, a cattle. do without. enbërn,end.II,III,throughout,expose.irksome to. sv. pay, enmitten dÅ—, during, whilst. ër, si enzwischen, sv. care for, enzünden, times, rob. enzÄ«t,(sÄ«, VI, yield, enwëc,av. III, remove, entwÄ«chen, III, sv. away, entwësen, free, be kindle. do entwër, sv.sv. light,VI, entstÄ—n, sv.sv. I,understand.perish. en(t)springen,VII, between. up, without. entslÄ—fen, wv. III, without,pr. accept, entsetzen, sv.siu,VII,order, away. entseben (-seven), passëȥ,VII, he, entsagen,av. sv.bereave,av. perceive, she, entrinnen,wv.sv.V, perceive,recommend, it; enphëlhen,prep.sie),soon.athwart; conscious enpflëgen,bysv.V,III,fall go cherish.86. receive. enpfinden,wv.enpfÄ—n, asleep. shoot 81. enpfallen,entwërch,springbecomeperversely. of. enpfÄ—hen,away.escape.sv.withdraw. up, shoot forth. gen. sÄ«n (ës), ir, ës; dat. im(e), ir, im(e); acc. in, sie (si, sÄ«), ëȥ (iÈ¥); pl. nom. acc. si, sÄ«, sie, neut. also siu; gen. ir(e); dat. in, 65. erbeiten, wv. work, erbeit = inherited have trouble; erbe, sn. arbeit. property, erbarmen, aj. move to pity.inheritance. Ä—rbære,wv. honourable, decent, modest. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z

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A Middle High German Primer c. gen. wait for. erbëlgen, sv. III, become angry, grow angry. 180 erheben, erhėhen, raise, ergrīfen, wv. come ergetzen, ergëben, erge, sf. ergėn, sv. I,I,erdėhte, ergėhen, hereditary,14.2. ėrest, earth,wait. pale. ėren, honour,compel ėre, wickedness. lift up.59.compensate. erdröuwen, angered, sv. VII, erdringen, beII,III,resound,force. erdieȥen,wv.=V,overtake, by threats. ërderīcherhėn, angry to erdenkensv.wv.II,world, out, with. ërde, wf.(pret. becomebydevote. erbürn, pp.VI,show, forget,pret. subj. erbolgen,ėrste,submit, descend from erbleichen,sv.VII,seize.manifest. meet. erbīten,sv.wv.ërtrīch. 11.hang. erdæhte), wv. think out, erbieten,wv.sv.causerenown,re-echo. erben, wv.wv.honour.tofirst,gohappen. generation to generation. devise, contrive. raise; gain aj. refl. rise. erschrëcken, (pret. erschīnen, erschieȥen, IV,gain, erschëllen, I, I, erscheinen, lengthen. erringen, ėrrer, errëchen, sv. III,shoot, ërnst, sm. sv. well-known, erniuwen, erlėn, ernern, wv.known. avenge. ërn = aj. (pp. murder. pp. ern, eren, wv.become ier, allow, ermordern, ne. hear. frighten, erlŗsen sv.aj. -kante,sv. dawn. erlouben, errenshow, wv. VII, wv. erlīden, (pret. suffer. make appear. erleschen,sv.wv.sv. IV, obtain, release, erlengen, wv.III,elect, cold.shootbecomeforgive. erlėȥen,wv.IV,ërre,cure. gearn), free, erklengen,erlöuben,select, remove, sv. erkiesen, sv.fervour.heal,-kande), permit, VII, till, erkennen wv.II, erlŗst), wv. get.sonorous. erkennelich,sv. makeresound. former, recognize, perceive, erkant, ër rescue,appear;aj. choose. 59. pierce to plough, 87. erkalten, ėrre, extinguish.toorthrough, 10.deliver. erhŗren,wv.renew.resonantrenowned. frightened;death. understand; know. II, refl. c. gen. become frightened at. ervëhten, ertrinken, sv.IV,-schrė), so ërtrīch (pret.drown, erstrecken sv.first, av. erstërben,(ërderīch), wv. soon ėrste, sv. III, erstracte),sn.sv. I, ėr(e)st, ėrste, 9.5, 62. slay, kill. as, cry erslahen,num. V,III,gain byfirst, earth, world. ersëhen,erslėn,die. VI,fighting;shriek, 61. out. erschrīen(pret. see,sv. atperish. expand, spread out. perceive. with abe and dat.: win or gain from by fighting. ervinden, sv. III, experience, get to know. 181 etelīch, ët, ėt sv. -wahte), esche, wf. = wv. erziehen, (pret. III, erzeigen, ash.show, round; erwinden,sv. becomehinder. waken, erwern, wv.sv. bring(etlīch, acquire, pr. erwërben, ëht.rejoice, erweln, wv.wv.III, choose. erweckenwv.prevent,prove.attain,thrown back, be erwachen,eteslīchreach, makeetslīch), beget. reflected. ervröuwen,II,awake.up, educate. ervollen,wv. elect, turnfull.wv. be glad. awaken. many a one, any one; pl. some, 71. etewër, eteswër, pr. any or some one; neut. etewaȥ, anything, something, 70, 71. gėch v. gabylŗt, 65. g Gor f see sf. everlasting. Fėbe, aj. gabilŗt, ettewenne), ëȥȥen (pp. ëȥ, pr. (eteswenne, sn. small ėwiclīchen, av. ever, everlastingly. ėwic, (-hes), gëȥȥen), javelin 9.7, 19, ėvangėlium, sn. gospel. 55; eat,or dart. 20, ettewanneit,gift.aj. quick, rapid,sv. V,av. sometimes. 23.1, 28, 83. gėch wësen (with dat. of pers.), be in a hurry; mir ist gėch, I hasten; gen. gėhes as av. gėn, sn. pn. gan, galle,seegėn, the name galge, wm. room, fickle, grief. Gahmuret,gallows,VII, wanton. gėhen, gall, bitterness,of house, gėhelŗs, aj.hasty. go, 87, 95; 46. gæhe,swf. gæhen,bed-room;Parzival◗s father. gadem,aj. quick,sv. wv. hasten, hurry. gunnen. scaffold. umbe gėn, go or turn round. geburt, gebūre, gift, gardener, gebüeȥen, av. gebresten sf. = gegëben. gebreste, command, gebrëchen head-dress. guest, gebot, gebieten, goad,ready, gebët, pp. = peasant, complete, gebende,sv. bresten. citizen. gëben, sn. wv. work. birth. gebeine, geste),wv.48. completely. gëbe,sn.whole, order,prepared, 60.3. gebėren, V,defect, order, gebærde,sv.bones, remains. gearbeiten, sm.give,completely, 3, 5, gast aj.fully,II,whip.grant, gartenære, wv.7,noble command. 19,10, 11, gart,(pl.sf.wm.countenance. 5, 9.1, 36, 55. gar, av. sf.sn.prayer.atone for, 12, 14.2, 25, gar (-wes),=aj.entirely,waste. improve.60.3. ganzlīche(n),brëchen.8.commandment. 44. ganz,sm.sn.birth,stranger, conduct oneself. 28, 33, 83. entire, behave, 182 geleischiert, gelëben, gelėȥ, hëlfen. gël sm. geklopfen, pp. sfn.patience. gejegede, aj. -dėhte), geist, (-wes), gëben. geil, aj. gehŗrsam(e),formation, gehŗren, danken. gehŗnen, permission. gehiure, gehenge, sf.negotiate. gehëlfen gout,hear. geheiȥen,aj.end, obedience. gehaben =fitness, thronging, gegrüeȥen, mind,against, gegihte, (pret. wv. live gëgen (refl.), sm. promise; gegëbenspirit,patience. gegėn wm.wv.wv. deserve, opposite gefuoge, sf.(gedīen),ghost. feel. gefüege,wv.hunt.finish. geenden,aj.=lovely,av.44.havingcrowd. gedultikeit,snm.knock.or 55. obtain. gedultic (-ges),VII, greet, thrive, 10 gedulteclīchen,cramp.suitable, gedulde, (-ec),keeppatient, see.gracious.thought; gedranc sm.sv.befitting, fare, wv. gedingen,wv.wv.joyful,patiently. the speed gedinge,(gein),live, goodto I, abuse, revile, gedīhensn.thought,be,gay.confidence; to, towards, to; at, gedienen,gedult,yellow,sv. salute.think, intend, gedenken==gėn. charming,call,seemly. curse. contract. gedankensf.wv.earn,silent. breeding.shape. well, advance. in gedanc,joyous,aj.dishonour,figure,name.note 1. horse slack; 37. gedagen,sn.wv.orprep.hope,indulgent,reins of thestrive; bearfor,mind, remember. with sf. see leischieren. geleite, geleget. geleit = sn. leisten. geleisten = protection, retinue; wm. attendant, companion. gelīch (glīch), shining; merry, insolent. gëlf (gëlph), aj.aj. like, same, straight, even, 9.7; av. gelīche, equally, in like manner. gelingen, sv. be make 81; gelimpfen, refl. succeed,dear, geligen, sv. V,love,meet, be be equal; gelieben, wv.III, wv. be like,ruined. gelīchen,wv.succumb, 23.2. please. resemble. mir gelingt wol, I have good success. gemīden, sn. increase. gemėren, wv. desire; gemeit, gemeine, aj. III,I,money. gemahele, sn. make. gemachen, wish, sn. gemach, sv.wv.rest, requite; at gelust, sm. happy,avoid, keep 9.7. gelücke, wf.faith.joyful. bedroom. gëlten, wm.common, wv. believe, think, gëlt (-des),sv.good fortune, procure, gelouben,(-des), pay,member,pleasure. 9.4 10, geloube,aj.gelöuben, familiar. a distance. 33, 90. gelit, glit smn., bride.ease;joy, happiness. note, 81. 183 genėde, sn. disposition, desire, longing; heart. gemuot, aj. minded, disposed, gemüete, sv. I, shun, avoid. favour, gemīten, gnėde, sf. grace,inclined.kindness, 9.7; in addressing a person: be gracious; genėde sagen, thank; ūf genėde, graciously. genüegen, refl. unhappy, genŗȥen (hinrecover, genŗȥ, gracious, namesake, genist, sf. genislīch, wv. c.wm. merciful. genisbære, aj. companion. suffice; genieȥen, sm. healable, pleasant. genieten, sv.beloved, wv. be glad, genësen,aj.aj. II aj. sufficient, without genanne, recovery. gen., curable. become satisfied genæme, gnanne, ze), dear,compare, advantage genædic, wv.wv.healable, curable. well or free, of; with. genėden,sv.V, bethank.enjoy, havecompare 30, make genėdelŗs,torejoice, become 9.7. grace. with. 83. use of, use as food. mich genüeget dës, that is enough for me. genuoc, gnuoc, aj. and av. enough, 9.7; pl. many; as indecl. sb. with gen. enough. gesinde, gesīn geselleschaft,longing, geselle, gesëhen plague, gladly. gesëgen, say,race, generation, geschlähte,gen.struggle, geschiht, geschëhen,=sn. company. geschaft, sëhen. make geschaffen, occurrence, gesagen, geruochen, companion. gerūmen,wv.sf.av. eager room. gerte, sn.grėde, lament. gërne,= rod.repent, straight, gërngir, sv.creature, dat.), fall geriuwen,sf. retinue; happen, desire. geriute,wm.wv.bless.vengeance. geringen,wv.sv.genüegen. care gerinclīchen,VI, provide, wv. gerihte,sm.sf.willingly,28. hold for, gerich, (witharable-riet), gerëch,av.(pret. V,aj.torment. advise; gerėten=jurisdiction. quick, long come gerėde,sīn.be pleased, VII,9.7. for, yearn for, share, 19, 34, 83. gër, swf.grëch, land. event. 9.7. one◗s lot ordesire, want, hanker after. gequeln,sn.wv.sv.leave,aj.sv.easily.good for. genüogenrevenge,small, strive.to10.create. at; prosper, thrive, succeed. III, and tell. wm. retainer. gesūmen, precious gestrīten, taste, gestern, gesteine, =sitzen. gestėn, sv. trouble stones. gesprëchen = sprëchen. gespile, = wv. VI, remain. gesorgen,sn. sv. stay, delay, let one gesmac, av.singen.smell.comrade. dread. gesitzenwm.yesterday.oneself; fear,wait. gesingensm.wv. I, quarrel, fight, strive. play-mate, 184 gevarn, pret. gevar, gevangen(e), sv. gevallen, aj. wv. refl. getweln,sv. wm.colour. geturren, having I, getuon tar, faithful, good. getrūwen,health. like, getrūren, tragen.aj. healthy, getrŗsten,dwell, weary, getriuwen, VI, getriuwen. trust, getriuwe,sv.wv. turren. wv. fond getriuten,= getrūwen, one◗s faithfulness. getriulīch,see mourn,bear 50. getragen tuon. go,prisoner,tire; todowncast. getar = =(gesunt),fall to grieve,alive.lot, the lurch. geswīchen,VII,through, venture.confide in. gesweigen,wv.aj.bring dare,owing patience, forget. gesunt,aj.wv.seepres.stay.silence.beof. gesundesm. wv.love,travel;bewithleave inplease. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z

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A Middle High German Primer wol gevarn, make a successful journey. gewalteclīch, aj. gewalt, smf. clothing. gewähenen, sv. VI, mention, 86. gewæte, wv. obey. might, mighty; gevüege, gefüege, aj. courteous, gevolgen,sn. power,violent,command.well-bred. av. gewalteclīche. gewant aj. powerful, gewant,(pp. of wenden), conditioned, circumstanced; gewaltic,sn. clothing. mighty. so gewante sache, of such a nature; ëȥ ist alsŗ gewant, it is important; ëȥ ist niht alsŗ gewant, the matter is not so. gewinnen, gewin (-nnes), waver, troublesome, gewërren, activity.vacillate; gewërn, sn. weep, mindful. gewërbe, wv.perceive, gewenken, sv. III, gain, gewenen, wv.accustom. perform.bend, turn. geweinen,aj.sv.sm.get,cry.advantage. hinder. gewar(e), wv.sensible, gain, obtain, receive, 81; III, be für sich gewinnen, get for oneself. gezëmen, gewürme,surely,become, beseem; gewonheit, sv.custom. certainly. gewisse, av.sf.aj. certain, sure, reptile, creeping creature. gewis (-sses),sn. worm, insect; 31. IV, truly, mich gezimt dës, that pleases me. gotheit, goteshūs, II, gotelīch,bell. got, golt, sm.sv.28. 15. gnanne, gibest, 10, glocke, gold, sing. glīchnisse,genanne. glast,thirdsplendour. gīt sn. sf.pers. 37. gīst= gër. 37.parable. gir, sf.=sf.sf.wv.divine.of giht,sm.gibet, sn.pinch, gift,see gift, sn.3,pour, 28, 78. gieȥen,God,adornment. jëhen. gezwicken,godhead.11.monastery. gezierde,seeaj.5,church,pull, pluck. 185 grüeȥen, grüen(e), sn. godlike, grŗȥ, cuckoo; grŗȥlīchen, 10, grŗȥlīch, grey, grīs grimmen, sf. great, aj. 39; grimme hostile. rage. 55. grim (-wes), green,grasp, grīfen,(grimmic),great. divine. gras, (-mmes), seize,grey, 9.2, grap (-bes),VII,sm. large, old, gram,sn.sv.sv. goddess, 5, fury. graben,sm.aj.I,III, greet,greatly,55. grė (-wes),wv.dig,fool. 10, 55.angry; gouch,(grīse),grave, 46.10.85.very. gotvaraj.grass. aj.aj.rage, 12, touch, götinne,sv.aj.aj.aj.av.5,fearful,57. feel.great. also sn. güetlich, sm. bottom. güete, sf. aj. friendly; gruoȥ, sm.goodness, kindness, grunt (-des),greeting, salutation.5, 10. av. güetlīchen. guot, sf. 9.7, cape, to grudge, aj. golden, hood. gunnen, günnen 3, 15. gunėren, wv.. (pres. 58; guldīn,cowl;9.2, 25, 55,sing. gan; pret. gunde, pret. subj. gunde, günde), pret. pres. grant, bestow, not gugel,aj. good, 93.dishonour, disgrace. daȥ guot, wealth, property; ze guote, to the good. haben (hėn), wv. habedanc, inundation, 28. h Habe, sf. sm. thanks 48. gütinne, sf.girdle, have, words. güsse, possession. belt, sash. gürtel,sf.sm.goddess,withhold, 3, 99; haben sich an dër witze kraft, collect all one◗s wits together. harte, hart, harpfen, harnasch, VII, hėrbant, 54. 9.4, hėr, hail; hand, hant sv.slope, sv. han(e),wf. blade,action, 8. handelunge,sn. harness.49. handeln, wv.hook, the VII, hėn,(halden),head-band. halten sm.(hėn), halsen,av.hende),declivity. halp (pl. hard,sf. very VII, halm,sm.sm. cock,perform.87. halde, sm.bond, embrace, footprint. hėhenpn.,aj.19.stalk.harp. Hagene,seesmn. misfortune, hang, hagel,aj.sn.very, fetter.great, 60; 29, 30, haft, (-bes),hair.half.sv. 31.3.destruction. keep from, 5, 10, 11, 40, 87. hacken,wm.haben.fetter; hold, keep; stop,38, 87. play do, comp. harter, more; more seriously. heben (heven), full of haȥȥen, aj. hate. haȥlīch,wv. hatred, enmity; 86; haȥ, sm. hate, 7, VI, raise, 30,indignation, anger, wrath, 19. hase, wm. hare, sv.30. hate, hostile. sich (an) heben, betake oneself, begin. hei, interj. an exclamation of joy, grief, or wonder. 186 heim, sf., heath, heiliggeist, Saviour, 8. heilic smn. heathen, 9.2. heilant, sm. holy,uncultivated heil, sn. happiness, ghost. land; meadow. heiden, sm. sm. holy8, 55. heide,(-ec), home;7,welfare, good fortune. heime, av. at home. hėrlīch, herbërge, hër(e), sf. 31.3. her, hėr, (-ges), sm. henne, hengen,army,sm. sf. hendelinc hot,homeward hemede,sf.helm, devil. helt sn.swf. VII, sn. disturbance hëln wm. hither, acc.), helme, (with double and called, helm, sm.sv. aj.wv.heledes), hellenŗt, hang,call, homely, hellemŗr,sf.host.visit; of helle, (-lles),warrior.this journey. proud, hëlfen,hell.III,necessity11. hëlfe,aj.av.hen, agreeable, 12, hide, conceal. hël(gen.hemde,31.3. be11, distinguished; heiȥen,wv.(-lich),30. 3, attack 14.2, 15, 23.2, heiȥ,sf.hėre,resounding. high,named; haughty, heimvart,heldes,aj.aj.glove,hell.hero, protector, 17, 23.1, 87. heimsuochunge,helmet, av. sm. familiar. bid, 11,brave warrior. heimsuochen,aj.help,shirt. sv. IV,of evil intent. 81.agreeable, 55. heimlīchhelp.lodging. way.8. withdomestic peace and security. av. hėrlīchen. herte (hart), to make as wm. 60; hėrsen, hërsen, difficult,govern, 9.2. hërren, wv.aj. hard,wv. rule, master, lord, 9.3, 9.6. hėrre, hërre, hër, master. av. harte (herte), 60. hërzenlīch, aj. hearty, dear, Hërzeloyde, heart◗s joy. hërzeliep, heart, 7, name of Parzival◗s hërzelīch, heart-sore, grief. affectionate; mother. hërzeleit, sn.pn. the19, 23.2, 50, 52. hërze, wn.sn.aj. dear, affectionate. av. hërzenlīchen. hie, interj., hey! hey,hier, av. here, heven, see heben. great 39; hërzesėre, sf. 5, 11, sorrow, grief. hërzeriuwe, sf. great grief, sadness of heart, pain. hie bī, herewith, hereby; hie vor(e), formerly, in former times. hin, hinnen, himelrīch, av. from here, himelkrŗne,hereunder, himelisch, av.heavenly, of crown. himel, sm. aj.sn.sf. sky. 8.39.heaven. hierunder,heaven, heavenlyhence, away; kingdom hin für, without, out of doors; hin heim, away home. hinder, aj. hinder; prep. behind, 59. hirtelŗs, hirte, sm. sm. shepherdless. hīrėt,aj.snf.hīnaht, hīnte, hīnt,marrying, av. hinderste,shepherd, 3, 43.marriage. hindernisse,aj.hindmost, 59. 8. to-night, 34. hindrance, 187 hiute, (OHG. warmth, 31.3. hitze, av. to-day; hirȥ sf. heat, hiruȥ) beside hirz (OHG. hirz), sm. stag. 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A Middle High German Primer hiute morgen, this morning. holn, wv. sm. hol, aj. hŗhgemüete, 19, hŗhe, hŗ, hogen, wv.wv. aj. festival, birth; hof (-ves),wv. sm.consider. 60. hŗren,aj.think,aj. be requisite, be hŗnen,fetch; pride, joyousness, necessary, hŗne,(comp.court,noble, high-minded; hŗchvart, hear; of gentle feast, noble. hŗchmuot,sf. sfn.highly,superl. pride, lofty, hŗchgezīt, av. sn.contemptible.joyfulness. proud; hŗchgemuot,hŗher,calumniate. well-being. aj. high, 5, 10, 11, 10, hŗchgeborn,55.consciousness, hŗhst, hŗhst), listen; belong to, 5,19, 11, 90. hŗchhollow,dishonour,30, 33, 42.highest joy.require;joyful, in high spirits. 34, 57, 60. haughty; haughtiness. tiefen siuft holn, sigh deeply. iht, iezuo, iewiht, iewelī̗ch, 19. iewëder, hunger. ietwëder, piece iemer, ieman, thought, 43. iegelīch,wv. directly. iedoch, now, aj. ever, ie, i av. I, grace,courtly, Ich, pr. sf.hüener), hūt immer, pr. each, 71. hūs sf. hiuser), each of land. hupfen,pr.care, guardianship. huote, honecVII, anyone, no huon sm. 23,num. courtly, in huofslacsm.pr. noble, always,note huobe,av.sv.aj. pr.(hide)of two, 71. hunt, (dat.wv. num. hundred, 5, hunger,iemen, kind, smn. honey, hundertstunt, pl. 5, affectionate, hundertste,head, huofslegen), hide. hulde,hundert,av.hew,courtly, sm. hügen,(dat. protect,sn.kindness, horseshoe. huge,sn.av.a aj.hiuten),house, chivalrous, hüeten,(-ges),av.hundredth, 47. 29. 3. 30. hübesch, however.hundred 62. manner 33. hovelīchen,consider, hop, 1062, any time, hovelīch,iegeslīch36,skin,one, ieslīch),somebody, houwen,hüpfen,sn.71.court-like. permission, houbet,anything;favour,15.87.times.someone, never. hornuncsn.pr.(-ges), 71.(ieglīch,well-disposed. honic,(pl.wood,each, February;hold,64. 11, guard.court. holz,(-des),anything,10.sf.hen,the at10,chilblain.pr. note 71. holtpr.ever.pl.65.sm.wv.shield,3,frost;keep,of the10 each,1. 71. num. av. not, 71. in, prep. in,him. Imėne, hasten. īlen,acc. fpn. pr. wv. into. 188 inneclīch, aj. inme, = ich = inward; ingesinde, sn. inI not. i◗n av. ne,into, from in, ineimme in,in. dëme. out here. īn, in, = ich household, family; followers. av. inneclīchen, at heart. innen, inne, av. within, inwardly; inne bringen, observe, let understand, convince; inne wërden, hear of, learn of. irre, aj. aj. earthen, 14.2. irdisch, aj. earthly, 71. irdīn, astray; irdenisch, aj. earthly. ir, pr. her, their, ye, 8. dës rīches irre, astray in regard to the kingdom. jæmerlīch, j Jė, ës. aj. confound, iȥ = (iwer), out,pitiable, armour. iuwer wv. iron, note īser,interj. pr. your, irs = ir sn. put65 iron weapon, hinder, interrupt, stop. irren, ëȥ, forsooth.1. 67. sad, sorrowful; av. jæmerlīche(n). jėmer, pursue, follow, jagen, wv. sm. grief, pain; hunt. jėmers balt, courageous in grief. kėren, kennen, kemenėte, kelberīn, keiserlīch, say, keiser, and 68. 35. kein, këc, see sn. kastelėn, know, 19. Karnahkarnanz, Karnachkarnanz, kapfen, kälber), 90. kampflīch, wm.gape, kamerære, onferment, kälte, no, sm.ofwarlike. kalt, wm. stare,room, kalp pr. wv. quėle, kėle, sv. aj.aj.imperial. k Kal (-wes),youth,maiden. junger, see V,weed,side, junchėrre, turn, go, look juncfrouwe,disciple.55. even, junc aj. wv.emperor.calf.bed-room. jugent, cold.none,a71. calf, jude,(pl.sv.year;young, 19, joch, (-ges),aj.conj.painful, 83.yet. jëten,sm.Jew.bald,also,90; assure, jësen,sn. quëc.49.11.35,57. guard pn. jenhalp,sf.wv.wf. chamberlain,on jener,av.sm.coldness,speak; sir.other side. Count of jëhen,sf.that,sf.Castilian sorrowful. astonishment. or bed-room. jėr,pr.av.V, aj.age,sn.36. horse. grant, concede, 35, 83. jėmerhaft,aj.thatyoungthe47. withof the treasure,Unterlec. sich kėren, turn; ze gote kėren, apply to God◗s service. kīt = quill, wf. kirchhof, kintlīch, sn. 36. candle. kint (-des), aj.churchyard. kinne, quīt, little kindisch, chin.child, choose, kindelīn,II, test, try, 8. kil, sm. sv.sm.9.1, 42.child, kiesen,sn. aj. childish,33. 8. elect, 5, 11, 18, 30, 33, 78. kerze, kërze,childish. 189 klagen, aj. chew, bewail, 92; klage, sf.sv. complain,16 note, 36, kiuwen,wv. II,chaste, modest, pure, spotless; maidenly. kiusch(e),complaint, lamentation. 79. klagedeȥ hërze, mournful heart. klein(e), wv. sm. clover, kleiden, wv. clothe, dress. klëben,aj. little, neat, trefoil. klė (-wes), stick, 92. insignificant; klėr, aj. clear, bright, beautiful, pure. av. kleine. künde, kūme, kumbersal, acquaintance, kumberlīche,ring, kumber, III, sb. küen(e), boy, swf., küele, kuchen, krŗne, scarcely, krŗnen, wv. distress, kriuze, cell, christianity, kristenheit,pn. youth 31.1. kristen, sf.cool.resistance, Krist, kleitgrief, krippe aj.IV 54. who Kriemhilt, sn. 23.2. sn.83. kriechen, head.cleave,crow. kriec kreftic, küchen, with8. krėatiure,boy,youth,adorn. kranz, av.aj.V,sm.wv. crawl, kranc, köufen, seehardly. kraft, sm.sm.sm.crown, kitchen, knighthood, krė, wm.cross.basket.monastery. koufen,(kribbe),knead,buy, korp sm.sv.garland, wreath. kum; korn, (-ges),choir.kleider), recluse. korder,aj.strength, powerful.strife, note kŗr,sm. weakness.kume, christian kopf, (-bes),andcrown.toll. little; pret. komen,sf.wm.sf.hermitage. multitude. knie (pl.körder, sf.weak;has 10 36. quam, knëten,sm.II, cloister,quërder, yet crib, knëht,aj.kniewes),warlike.acquire; faith. knappe,sn.sv.sn.(pres.sf. manger with earn, knabe,sf.sv.impotent,trouble.sn. sf. quarrel. klūs,sn.aj.Christ.av.hermit,78. 3, 23.2,become akom; pret. subj. klŗster,swf. bold,christian.for(cradle), 3. klŗsenære,orcreep,18,grief,not creature.46. 90. klingen,krėwe, might;knee,78.worthless. attendant; 31.1. klieben,sm.strong,candidateknowledge;36, 10,26. kleit (gen.corn,krėatūr(e),dress. oppression. knight,warrior. quæme, pp. komen), come, 36, 82. II, a kunde haben (with gen.), know. kunt (-des), aj. aj. (pret. relationship, 7, king◗s daughter, 8, 48. kunst, (-ec), known. künnen, künnen. kün(n)egin(ne), 19. künne, kunnenkünegīn, künicsee wv. announce, 8, 29. küneclīch,generation; royal. konde), 10, 46. kündic,race,sm. kingly,promise. künden,aj. known. kunde,sf. art, skill,king, 7,kunde, sf. queen,pret. pres. know, understand, can, 93. 190 kurz, aj. short, small; kupfer, küeje, küewe), sf. cow, 49. kuo (pl. sn. copper, 31.2. vor kurzer stunt, recently. lachen, wv. laugh, lėȥen, lė, imperative of 20, 32.2, L küssen, wv. kiss,laugh entertainment. kus (-sses), smn. kiss, 32.1. kurzewīle, sf. pastime,at; 90.q.v. also sn. lanc, wv. invite, lėn,sv. lember), in lamp aj.long, 10, 60; lam, aj.seeVI, weak85. Lähelīn, load, 5, the limbs. lære,aj. lame,mpn.92. 10, 11, 55. laden,(pl. empty, 3, lamb, 5, 10, 11, 33, 47. lėȥen. av. lange, 60. lantliut, sn. sn. long life. lant (-des), sn. land, country. lanclīp, sm. long folk, lanclëben,countrylife. vassalage; pl. inhabitants. lėȥen, wm. feeble, languid, faint, up; laws. laȥ (-ȥȥes), laster, sn. ignominy, VII, of last, sm. burden. aj.sv.book let, lantsæȥe,lėn,sn. disgrace. leave, give landstop, avoid, 87, lantrëhtbuoch,freeholder. common or exhausted; weary. 99; lėn niht ze wė sīn, not to worry too much; lėȥen sīn, cease, stop; lė stėn, cease! stop! legen (leggen, lecken), to lay, place, put, 31.3, 92; lëbendic (-ec), cause wv. alive. lëben, wv.life. aj. living,live, 92. sn. live, arbeit dar an legen, expend much trouble on a thing. leide, le song consisting of leich, av. sn. cons, Count. strophes of unequal length. lėhen,or li)feudal tenure, loan, leh (= sm. painfully, sorrowfully; fee, feod. comp. leider, greater pain, grief, trouble. leiden, wv. be repugnant, odious, or offensive; render disagreeable, do harm; A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z

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A Middle High German Primer mir leidet ëȥ, it is repugnant to me. leisten (pret. subj. leischieren, wv. give unfortunately, alas! leie, wm. layman. leiste = leistete), wv. leider, av. and interj. a horse its head. follow the trace of, follow, perceive; leisten geselleschaft, accompany. leste, (pret. leite), lësen, (lėrn), wv. leschen, last, sorrowful, lead, lërnen,wv.IV, wv.read, lėren sv. 37. be loadstar. out. 11, lėre, sv. V,wm.23.1.toput33, painful, lenge,leget,teaching, instruction, go 30, guidance, leitestërne,extinguish,teach, 5,83. 17. 32.4, 90. advice; saying. leiten aj.sf. sn.learn.extinguished, precept,11, 82. leit (-des), aj. 9.5,10. pain.bitter,5,11, out,disagreeable; hateful, vexatious. = sf. length, wv. grief, gather, 191 lieht, aj. light,joy. liegen, bright; lieben, sv. give aj. lie, 5, liebe, sn. love, suffer, endure, 78. līden, sv.injure,tell alast, 59.30, 76. leȥȥeste, lie,pleasure, gladden; present letzen, wv.II,leste, prejudice; forsake. lesterlīch,I,aj. disgraceful, ignominious. with. sf. 16. av. liehte. liep (-bes), aj. dear, pleasant, friendly, 5, 11; sn. what is lovable; dearest joy; lover. līhte, sv. I, song, poem. līhen,aj. light, easy, 76. ligen (liggen, lend, 12,worthless; liet (-des), sn. licken), sv. V, lie, lie down, 14.2, 31.3, 84. av. easily, perhaps; līhte noch, still now-a-days. lop lŗnen, linden-tree. lŗn, wv. be lŗsen,wv.pay, loch lobesam, pn. loose, loben, wv.aj. people, lobelīch,ring. life, Liutpolt, wv. limb, released 10, liuterlīch, av. expressly, liuten,wf.swf.praiseworthy, liut, == prudence, 33,hole, 5,11. liuhten,sm. smn. rid,sn.with advice; lītsm.wv. praise, shine,90. 5, lustre, price. lit (-des),löcher),wisdom, quite, līst(pl.folk, 37. 37.member.person,31.3. list, line,liges(t), reward.glorification; 16. līpsn.liget, sm.praise,of shedof; entirely. linde,(-bes),aj.reward.body, balcony.33. lin, (-bes),sn.light, 92.army, glorious.means, art; artfulness, cunning. Leopold Austria. window praiseworthy. hin ze einem lŗsen, flatter. lougen, sm. denying, loufen, sv. a runner, 10. löufel,sn.VII, run, 5, 11, 87. lŗt, sn. weight. 5, denial; ėne lougen, truly. lūt, aj. sv. luoder, air, firmament. luft, (pl. löuber), lücke,sn. bait, 46. sn. 31.3. lūchen,swf. II, shut, 80. loup smf.loud;gap, hole, foliage, leaf, 5, 10, 11. lūt wërden (c. gen.), give to understand, mention, be heard. lūter, aj. clear, loudly. lūte, av. aloud, bright, 9.2; av. lūterlīche. lützel, aj. and av. little, small, 31.2, 58; lützel ieman, nobody, no one; as indecl. sb. with gen., little. maln, (-ges), maid, mėlen, story,see mahtu aj. mägede, maiden, maht sv. known, maget(pl. VI, dū. megde), sf. magen, sn. wv.grind, draw. magedīn, make. sf. report. mære, = mahtpaint,85. strength, machen, wv.sn.sm. relation. mėc(pl.mähte), mugen. 8. girl, maiden, 10, m Mac, see mügen.renowned, 10.power, might, 5, 11. 37, 49. megen, tidings, 192 man, sm. man, 3, 32.1, 45; pr. one, 71. manic, wv. urge on, manen,manec (manc), aj. many, much, mėne, wm. marriageable. manbære, aj. moon. remind, admonish. 8; pr. many a, 71; maneger hande, slahte, or leie, in many ways, manifoldly; maneger vil, very many. mėȥe, marter, half manifold, market, sm. marten; skin marder, sm. mantle, 9.2. variegated. marc, sf.sf. aj.measure, manner; moderation, propriety, fitness; manunge, aj.pound ofbrave, 10. mantel, sm.sf.exhortation, of a5, silver. manlīch,martyr; torture.admonition. manicvalt,sf.market,42.gold ormarten. manly, ze einer mėȥe, little, moderate; ze mėȥe, fairly, sufficiently; ze rëhter mėȥe, to the right length. mė, mėre, aj. and av. more, further, 5, 17, 39, 61; as indecl. sb. with gen. more. mësse, merze, merkenwm. 37. mėrer, mėren, become mėre, sv. announce, mer, wv.wv. aj. menschlich, mė. menschenbluot, man mensch(e),May; skill mëlken, mėr(r)e, Meljahkanz, sf.sf.sn. farmer. art, mëldunge,March. mean mëlden, sv.aj.increase. wv. joyful, mël maget,sn.announcement, meiȥen,sf.wv.III,sm. human46. 58. meit sn. sm.farmer◗s more, mastery, meisterschaft,markte),(◗homo◗). meister, wv.wsmn.and of wife. 8. meist, meiste,pn.spring 36,the year, in merry. meinen, sea.mass;milk. aj.most, greatest, order. meierin,(pret.VII,meal,87.an observe, perceive, meier wm.see master.May; beblood. make58, cause. meien,(meiger),human.in make known; betray. meie,=(-wes),mean,cut, av. well, have35. view; 61.understand. mëssezīt, sf. time for mass. michel, aj. mead, mëȥȥer, sv. 43. mëȥȥen, matins, primes. mettīne, sf. sn. V, measure, 32.1, 32.4, 83. mëte, sm.great; knife. michels, av. by far, 55, 58. milt (-des), aj. 9.1. milch, sv. I, avoid, present, without, miete, sf. milk,generous; mīden, pay, reward, shun, do 5, 11. 30, 76. av. miltlīche, milteclīche. minner, liberality, minnen, wv. 61.min, aj. 92. minneclīch, aj. bounteous. minne, pr. love; loving lovely, grace, kind. mīn,sf.minre,67.value, and 193 av. less, 9.3, min, av.sf.generous, generosity; loving,favour. milte, aj.less,love, dear, memory, remembrance.57, 58; my, as indecl. sb. with gen. less. mit, sm. mist, = mirsf. leprosy. missewende, sf. missetėt, wv. deceive, succeed. missesagen,ës. III, uneven, misselingen,sf. mistake, fault, blot. mislīch, aj.sv. and av. offence. miselsuht,prep.dirt. not and different. mirsmite,dung, misdeed,tolie. by, through, 57, minnest, min(ne)ste, aj.with,av. least, 9.5, 9.6; 58, 61. sundry, A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z

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A Middle High German Primer mit sorgen, sorrowfully; mit triuwen, faithful, faithfully; mit willen, gladly, willingly; mit witze, reasonably, sensibly, cleverly, prudently, wisely; mit zühten, politely. mitte, aj. middle; av. mitten. morgen (morne), sm. morning, 42; dës morgens, in the morning. mortlÄ«ch, aj. murderous; av. mortlÄ«che. muot, (müejen, munt sf. münster, sm. münich, aj. mÅ«l, 28, aj. mül,sn. mugen,24.müewen), mugge,swf.sense, (mucke, 10, 11,sm. mill. possible. mügen, mule. andat müg(e)lich, idle, motherly. müeÈ¥ic,moth,mouth. megen (pres. midge, muoste, muose), müeÈ¥en,sm.minster. man, müeterlÄ«n,monk.av. painful, wv. müeterlÄ«ch,sn.magen, mücke), wf.sing. müenmüggemind, (pres. 8. troublesome. müelÄ«ch,pret.-pres.leisure. mood, torment, trouble, distress, 20. must, 28, müedinc,sm. blood-stained, sing. feeling, mac, pret. mohte, pret. 35, möhte), pret.-pres. may, can, motte,(-des),sn.aj.aj.littlespirits,blood-guilty. courage, disposition, sentiment;93. mortmeile,93.aj.unhappymother, 10.muoÈ¥, pret. fly, 10 note 3, grieve,subj.90. rÄ«ches muotes wërden, be in good spirits. nÄ—ch, prep. back part of the n Nac (-ckes), c. after, according head. muoter, wv.sm.gen. desire, 49. to, on muoten, sf. mother, 10, 11, long for. account of, at, for, to, 34; nach dëm guote, about wealth or money; nÄ—ch Ä—ren, honourably; nÄ—ch sÄ«nen beinen, made to fit his legs; nÄ—ch wünsche, to perfection, all that one could wish for; vil nÄ—ch, nearly. nÄ—he (nÄ—ch), nagen, aj. naked. 44. nagel, sm. VI, 9.2, av. near, nigh, 34; nacket,sv. nail,gnaw, 85. nÄ—he tragen, take to heart; nÄ—he gÄ—n, go closely, touch; nÄ—hen, near by. naht, sf. night, 19, 49; nÄ—hgebÅ«re, wm. neighbour. nÄ—hen, wv. draw near, come near, approach, be near. av. nahtes, by night. nam(e), wm. name, position, 3, 9.1, 9.4. nahtigale, nahtegal(e), sf. nightingale. 194 nëmen, neiÈ¥wër, IV, neigen, sm. pr. aj. nehein, wv. fog, bend nëbel,pr.seam. mist, ne, nâ——, bow, particle, naÈ¥ (-ȥȥes), take; nÄ—t, wv. no, anyone, generally used before the verb with and without niht, not, 108. nar, sm. sv.name, 92. down. napf,sf. food,neg.31. 71. 31.3. namen,sf.basin,none,wet,70. 48. c. dat. pers. take away, rob, 5, 7, 10, 11, 12, 14.2, 74, 82. nider, nÄ«den,wv. name, nëve,av. net, nest, 11. netzen, wv. sn.nerjen), netze, sn.sv. I, 46. envy, 76. nest, (nerigen,hate,mention nern nëst, nephew, 33.wv. nourish, of, 32.2, 40, 90. nennen,wm.make wet, 31.3. the namerescue, keep alive, refl. subsist on, 9.1, 30, 35, 90. down; sich nider laÈ¥en, settle, establish oneself. niht, nieht,(niemer, 78. niftel, nieÈ¥en niece, nieten sv. genieÈ¥en. niesen,(refl. with at nobody, eager or zealous for. niene, sf. = II, notgen.), niender, niemen,av. all. niemÄ—rnot,sf.33.means. nieman,never.sneeze,not; action. nie, av.av.av.niet, spitefulwv. nimmer), av. nÄ«detÄ—t,by nopr.nimer, beno one, 71. never. pr. nothing, 71; indecl. sb. c. gen. nothing. niuwan (niwan, at all. niunzigeste, niunzic (-ec), not62.ninety, niunzëhende, niuwen), 62. niunzëhen, num. nineteen, niunte (-de), num. ninth, 62. 62. niun, num. nine, hatred, anger, hostility. nÄ«t (-des), ninetieth, 62. av. nothing nine = niene,sm. num. nineteenth, 62. but, only; cj. except, except that. noch, av. new, niuwet, av. not. niuwe, aj.still; 16 note, 55. noch en noch, neither—nor. nÅ« (nu), av. danger, trouble, nÅ—tnunft, sf. abduction by nÅ—tic, need, the nÅ—thaft, in distress, hasty. distress. nÅ—t, sf.aj. pn.needy, poor, violence. NorgÄ—ls,aj.now; country belonging to Herzeloyde. nu wol dan, well then be off there! ob, O obe, aj. prep. nutzen, op, useful.wv. to over, nütze,nützen,and av.use, 10 note nutz (nuz), sm. use, advantage. above;3. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z

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A Middle High German Primer conj. if, in case that, whether, 9.6. orden, sm. order, opfer, sn. conj. openly. ohse, aj. ox. ofte, ode,offering. offenbėre, offen,aj. and av. open, 23.1. oder, wm.av. fromrule; rank; oberste, upper, 59. ober, (e),oberist,or.above, aj. highest, uppermost, 8, 59. oben av. often.av.oberest,above. rīters orden, knightly order. ot, see wn. ŗsterrīch, pn. Austria. op = ob. ŗre,ëht.sf. 5, 11, 50. ordenunge,ear,order, rule. 195 owė, ouwė, ŗ̗wī, ouwė, eye, 3, 10, 90. ougenweide, sf. delight of ougen, wv. show, av. also; the eyes, sight, ouge, ŗ̗ch, 5, 11, 50.henceforward. appearance. ouch, wn. sf. water; meadow, 10.interj. woe! alas! ah!; owė mir mīnes leides! alas! for my grief; ŗwī wan, used to express a wish: would that; owė dës, alas for that! rėt, rat rasch rappe, ragen, sm. rėche, smn. and r R quīstPhilippes quick, quicken (pl. quërder wf. aj. (-ges), extol. quëden, sn. wheel, quëc (këc), well! q Quėle sv. wm.31.1. prüstelīn,plėne, prophėte,sn.(-ges), prīsen, raven,horse. prīs, sm.pound,planet. prëdige,(phlëgen), portenære, care,porter, porte, wm.sm.V,aj. 31.1.sv.sm. planėte,(korder,quick, chest. plėn, quides(t), körder), pīnenphluoc gate.carpet, reputation; pin (-des),hall.value,sf. footway. phlëger,wv.revenge,47. enliven, Philip, wv.sf.raven,knock,sf.55. phel= sf.(kücken),37.ūf), phat bin.sn.wm.sm.renown,plough; pfunt,wm.door, ræte),wv. 36. 19, pfluoc,sn.pfenninc(dat. Philippe), 36. pflëgensf.strike,say,praise,plain, exert pflëge,smf.,paradise.19, hit. care,ploughman. pfert (-des),praise,23.2.torture,penny, oneself pfennic,=interj. sn.path,sm.alive,cloth. price. pfeller,sn.(kėle),breast,protector.36. space, pfaffe,(rasche),guardian,door-keeper. 29. paradys,(with=sermon.punishment.pn.bait, 36. palas,(-des),priest.fostering.silk36.openPhilip. meadow. Pabe,(phelle)sm.pfeller.advice,besmn.resolution; for. ŗwol,pfellel,sichprophet.V, wv.accustomed, use, practise, care for, 83. rėt wërden, be helped. rīben, and pure, ribbalīn, rennen, speech, reiȥen, wv. IV, corpse; reise, journey, answer, reine, sf. wv. smn. right, story, rëhte,sf. sv. VII, march. bier, saying. rëht,rein, rain, advise, punish.87. rëgen, av. run, 90.properly; perfect, rëde, aj.sv.rightly,76. proper, hearse, rëchen,sv. sn.sn.avenge, devise,just; 42, rė (-wes),I,irritate; entice, allure. 55. 46. rėten,sm.aj.rub,42.spotless, very. right, duty, law. foot-covering, shoe. 196 rihten, rigel, sm.sv. II, rule, rīfe, wv. hoar-frost. riechen, sn.put smell, 78. rīchsen,sf.kingdom.confirm, rīchen, wv.wealth, power. judge; rīcheit, bolt, bar. 9.2. rīche,rīche, aj. rich, enrich, present with. rīch,wm.wv.make powerful, mighty, noble, great, fine, rich, free, 55. right, refl. get up. ringen, sv. sm. ring. ringe, aj. easy, light, struggle; busy oneself, wrestle; rinc (-ges), III, strive,small; consumed. ringen nėch, strive for or after. roufen, rouch, rouben, wv. pluck, rŗt, sv. II, ros, (pl. rinder), rŗr, ritter, out, Rŗme, I, run, cow, rocke, sv. rootsm. grieve rivier, wv.III, 19. move riuwic, horse. pain,rider; regret, riuwen,aj. smoke. inclear 32.1, riuwe, sm. sorrowful, 31, pull riuten, aj. reed.av. 76.repentant. riuschen, brook, pull up,heifer. bring ritterlīchen,sf. knightly.the at, 16 rīterschaft, aj. sn.20, 31.1. regret. rīterlīch, rush,grief, noisily.81. rīter,sf. pn. wm. rye,76.knight, the 16 the rīten,wv.red,Rome.grieve,for, manner. note. knight. rīsen,sn.wv. fall,knighthood, customsnote, 78. rint sn.rogge, ride, 30,knightlyregret,name manners of knights. rinnen,sm.sadness,stream.pity, land,lug; andof land into cultivation. grieve, rob. refl. tear or pull out one◗s hair. roup (-bes), sm. robbery; roubes, av. by robbery. rueren wv. row, 90. rüemen, wv. swm. ruejen, aj. raw; praise, commend. rucke, (pret. ruorte), wv. drive, urge on; rūch,rügge,coarse.back. with ros understood: run. ruochen, rūmen, wv. make room, 10, 40. rūm, sm. room, 11. oneself about a thing, observe; trouble with gen. deign, will, wish. sage, saying, sælikeit, VII, sæn, blessed, sælic, sv.happiness, sackcloth. sælde,sf. sn. av. presently, sæjen,sælec sacking,good at happy, sactuoch,thing. statement, 10, 35, sache,sėn, (-ges), 5,sow, 87. once, forthwith, s Sė,sf.sæwen, call, aj. 11, fortune, excellence, blessedness, quickly. ruofen,sf.sf. blessedness. report; 90. 7, 8. immediately,9.2. nėch sage, by hear-say. sagen, wv. say, tell, 37, 92; sagen mære, relate what has happened. sal, sm. room, hall; house. 197 schamen, schämelich, schame, wv. shame; schallen, seed, schalchaft, setzen. schal schaffen, wv. be perform, schėf, wv. sm. Solomon. schaden sn. ambush, schade, coffin.sm. schėchære, so,slowly, sazte, (pret.of5,holy sėȥe,sm. 23.2.shameful, satzt(e),wm.sm.schadete, sėt, serken,salt, sarken, wv. anoint. sarc, av.pret.VI, noisy;like, the sant(e),see aj.do,wv. put sant (-lles),av.malicious, snare. sanfte,pret. ofvelvet. 87. pleasantly, sanc (-ges),sė.create, into10. sėn, sv.together.11. trap, just coffin. samt,sn.av.sv. sheep. loss.exercise, institute, samīt,aj.sf. sm.song, one.mischievous. same,sm.salt, injury, robber.provide. boast, swagger. salzen,sam,VII,aj.setzen. noise, as, tone; 69. salz, (-des),softly,sound,bluster; exult, wv. singing. Salomŗn,shame.as, singing. loudeven injure, salben,sf.wf.holy;sand, 42. schėte), 60.as,85. harm. c. gen. be ashamed, 9.4. scheiden, schedelīche, av. injuriously. schaz aj.sv.schat(e)wes), schate (gen. disgrace, schart,sf. crowd, flock,sm. hewn, deprive; scharpf, sf. garland, 46. separate, battered. go schar,(gen.jagged, hacked, sm. shade, 23.2. 36, 43. schapel, aj. sharp.sever,48.treasure, 19,shamefulness, shameful or disgraceful act. schande,sn. schatzes),disgracefulness,shadow,away, 87; VII, sich scheiden, come to an end, be decided. schëlten, little bell. schelle, wf. sv. schëlhes), aj. mock, 81; schëlch (gen.III, abuse, revile,askew, 34. also as sn. schieȥen, IV,shove, schiere, schieben, sv.schepfer, pp. schickenav. quickly, wv. schërn, (pret. schuof, 78. schepfære,sv. acc.),soon. geschaffen), sv. schepfen (with II, shoot;82.creator, 8. schemelīch, aj.shear,sm.become, suit, fit. VI, create, 23.2, 28, 31.3. II, disgraceful. sn. shooting, 10 note 3, 78. schilt (-des), sm. shield, 32.1. schif (-ffes), sn. ship, 19,protection; schildes ambet, knight-service, chivalry. schimpfen, wv. make fun of, jest; also as sn. schīn, aj. visible, clear; schīn tuon, make clear, show; sm. splendour. schouwen, av. beautifully, schŗnen, wv.beauty. become schŗne, sf. c. shine,beautiful. schŗnde, sf.I, make3, 60. schiuhen, aj. fear, shun.48. look, 9.2, or 60. schirmen, wv. beautiful, fine, 5,inspect, manifest, schīnen,wv. beauty, protect. 3, evident55,survey. 76. wv. dat. sv. see, behold, 198 schrīen (scrīen), sv. schrīben, sm. scribe, I,76. schrībære,sv. write, 5,8.cry, cry schrëcken,sv. I,IV, frighten, 82. out, scream; croak, 77; A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z

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A Middle High German Primer also as sn. schulde, reason, schūften, wv. 44. schrunde, sv. III, cause; schrit, sf. step,gallop, 81. schrinden,wf. scratch, tear, schrīn,sf.writing (Bible). slit. schrift,sm.sm. box. split,canter. von welhen schulden, wherefore. schuldic (-ec), aj. guilty, 10 note 1; schuldic sīn, owe. sīn, sin, sim silber, sīhte, sigenunft, sīgen, sn. sige Sīfrit, sf. sieden, hand siecheit, num. fret siech, pn., sixth, sider, wv. 37.11, sīde, av. appease, sicherlīch(e),rare, sicherheit,schüpfen, sich, aj. silver. sibenzigste, pain; sibenzic(pret. seventy, sibenzëhende, grief, sibenzëhen, mind, sibende,im. seventieth, siben, num.II,six, 19, si, sī,sagete.victory, setzen (-bes),seldom. sėre,num. siechtuom,62. sėr,pr.sf., sink, sea, sixty, senken,sf.av. aj.ill,self. tender, senften,sv.silk.over, seventeenth, senfte,(-tzes),himself, sixteen, senen,aj.wv.sf.54. 62. soften. senede,sages(t),gentle,senen, sendensn. sm.sm.av. lake, sëltsæne,(-ec),37. certainly, 32.3, sëlten,sense,sm.num.90. sëlp sisnm.shallow.oneself, 62. seln, wm.his;satzte),seventeen, sick sele, refl.(-ec),seethe, wv. send, 62. seitenspil,pr.sie,pp.protection. shoe, seitesie.sf.num.sante),90.62. 62. seite,wv.sende,schuohes),9.4 surely, seit (sic),(gen.victory.wv. put, very. note seistsm.wv.since,see, she,48.sm.set, sëh(s)zigeste,bless, feeling; 42. 34. quiet, sëh(s)zicsoft,playing12, stringed easy; 3. sëh(s)zehënde, look, sixteenth, at sëh(s)zëhen,pr. 76.ofsm. courage. sëhste,aj.string.afterwards. painfully sëhs,av.sv.refl.seventh,43.18, 62. 34, sëhen,soul,seven,5.17,themselves, 66. longing, 19, sëgenen,softening.num.65. push, instrument. sėsf.(pret.I,5,num.violently;78. 1062.74 note, 55, se = ==saget,sorely, 62.sixtieth,note,place, 90. schuz(-wes),V,assurance.trouble; sore.40, appoint,8. 23.1, schupfen,sick,pr.num.62.wv.3,sickness.assuredly, yearning, 31.3, 90. schuochsiu,wv.sink,ofstrange.bemild,62.heart. 83. 60. love-sick, 29. sīn sëlbes, of himself, 5, 11, 67. 199 singen, sv. sincwīse, v. be, 97. sin = anom.sf. song. sīn,si in. III, sing; also as sn. song, lay, 10 note 2, 33, 81. sinne, sf. sense, mind; sinken, sv. III, sink, 23.2, 81. ze sinne wider komen, recover consciousness, become conscious again. spiln spil, spiegelglas, spiegel, spër, spëhen, sparn, spannen, spange, spanen, cut, lovely spėn, aj. spalten, swf. sf.shameful spėhe, sorgen, game,elegantly, sorgelŗs, aj.free fat, sorge, (-wes),(solich), son soltu solt I, bend, Soltėne, VII, quickness. solt soldenære, slice, av. solch, sn. II,blow;19. sŗ, sf. sm.smn. strike, snuor (pl.sv.smithy, 24. snit, sīt. besmear,from5, snīden,av.mirror, injure, snëlheit, little,spilende, notched snël(-ckes),chip,lance. 36,spilede), snėsosm. dū.quick, smell. smitte,sölchsf.pay. 90. bearing, smit (pres.sm.looksnow,neatly. smirwen,sm.VII,unconscious. smielen,aj. III,taste,44. as, slay, smiegen,sv.care,entice, image, smërze,sv.part.smith, gesëȥȥen), smër(-lles),saȥ,taste,85. 11, whereas, smecken,wv.pn.pain,straight-forward, smal,=aj.wv.spare,split, 81. conj. 42. smæhe,sv.av.sint),forbear.17, smėcheit,sn.anxious,metal mercenary. smacsn.wv.manner;span,sorrow.picture. slieȥen,ne.VI,beat,looking-glass; slëht,(-wes),VII,consanguinity, of stick, slahte,so,custom,close, shut.wound, 30, play; glitter, slahen,sī sf.clasp,sleep,eager, press23.1, a slėfen,small,reflect, observe.alert; blithe. slėf,swf.wv.smile.shaving;such, relationship, 30, slac sm.swf.straight;race.pr. so, if, 10,such 74 since, siȥ(-ges),snüere), 87.string.pleasure,sit,nature, sitzen=(pret.sleep.sensible, fun;disgusting.delight. because. sīte,(sibbe),andgrief,sf.87.reasonable.goldsmith. 76. site, =(sīd,ëȥ.despicable, dread.11, 12, tally; 71. sīt(-des),sv.aj.sm.conj.soldier,worker, honest. 26, 87. sippesm.sm.spear,hired incline;36,demeanour,note, other 43. sint =(-des),VI,sm.habit;andcares. afterwards,14.2, 23.2,glisten, 90. sinnen,swf.wm.haste,buckle.treatment.close. pattern.31.3. of relationship. sinnelŗs,side.cut,pp.misfortune, model, onbehaviour,hand, thus, sinneclīch,II,play;at,36.fear,47.19,44.wv.85.17,thedegree31.3, 84. as it was, 69. little. joke, 200 spot, sm. scoff, spore, spor, wm. spur. spīwen, food.spin, 17, spīse, sv. III, vomit,mockery; spinnen,sf.sv. I, scorn,81. 77. joke, fun; ėne spot, sincerely, candidly. stæte, sf. constant, firm, mock, springen, duration, speak, say, constancy, steadfastness. spreiten, wv. spread. sprëchen, (with continuance,scoff at, scorn. spotten, wv. sv. IV,gen.), leap. talk, 9.4 note, 19, 23.1, 82. aj. sv. III, spring, steadfast; av. stæteclīchen. starc, sm. sm. stap (-mmes), sm. VI, prop, stėn, strong, sv.stem;firmness, constancy. stam(-bes),steel.stick, sf. stand; model. stahel,aj.stėn, heavy, hard, befit, stætekeit, stætikeit, staff. severe;become, suit, 11, 86, 96. av. starke. state, sf. suitable or comfortable place; stat, sf. abode, place, spot; opportunity. opportunity; ze staten komen, help. stërben, stellen, sv. place, 90.9.1, stëln, wv.IV, stirrup. stone, 82. stein, sm. sv. III, prick, 11, 74 note, stëgreif, sm.IV, die, 109.4 note,81; 82. stëchen,stone, precious note 1,grindstone, millstone, 3, 17. steal, sn. dying, death. sum, suln, sūgen, II, sweeten, sūft, sūfen, süeȥen, voice.at süeȥe, sf. blame, sū, sturm, stuol, stunt, (-ges), thrust. stunde, (-wes), suck, stum, aj.sv.hour,VII, push, stücke,dumb,I, battle. strouwen,seat tax. mount, strŗ sf.wm. stanc),80. strīten,still, quiet,bravery. strīteclīchen, down strīt,sm.sn. fem.surplice. shove, strīchen,ströuwen, right. strenge, aj.sv.piece.judge, papal strëben,gift,loveliness, liquids, strėȥe,wv.of aunfriendly. strėfen,strength,straw; 90. stŗȥen,fight, strike, alluring exhale stoup (-bes), pret.-pres. (pres. 80. stolz, aj.(pret.sm.time. fight, stŗle,sf.stab,V,groan. way. stŗren,sv.strife,exert overthrow,enticement. stiure,sm.stately.quarrel,setIII, stalk, stinkensm.sv. pig,way, eagerly,strive, 76. stimme,sow,wv.sn.49.secret.fight.power; stille,süln,sv.hinder, road, stink, 10, pret. stīgen,sf.aj.one32.1.lovely, 60.rub.20136. stich,sf.sf.anyII,star.quarrel,blade,strive. 36, disagreeable odour. stīcpr.sm.sigh,rise,av. sv.stroke,zealously.5,a11, stërne,sv.wv.I,gulptime. wv. strew,thrust,throne. 87. sterke,indecl.I,sweet,all;oneself, sol,destroy.46.solte, should, ought), shall, 40, 93. stole, path, sv. strict,dust. swf. pl. some, 71. sumelīch, pr. many a, whoever; pl. some, 71. sunder, wv. without, sünde, sf. aj. sun, sm. prep.tarry, 42. sumerzīt, sf. summerlike. sumerlīch, 5, 9.4,10. time. sumer, sm. summer,10,against; sūmen,son,sin.summer 19, 44. sunder spot, seriously, in earnest; av. sunderlīche(n), especially, separately. swǣre, swachlīch, so, 90. swachen, av. weaken. swacheit, sf. aj. wherever, swach(e), atonement. swė, wv. seek,sm. sus (sust),wv.dishonour, suoȥe,swar,worthless, of judgement. suon(e)tacaj.sun. weak. inunpleasant, suone, wmf. sweetly, 60.disgrace. suochen,av. painful, sad,bad.69. sunne, sf.aj.(-ges), thus,daysuch a way.burdensome; weighty, heavy, 60; av. daȥ swære, such a weight. swėr (swære), swar, (-ges, -kes), sm. swinging swannen, burden, av. and grief, sadness. swancsee swė. trouble, conj. movement, hurling, throwing. swære, sf.swanne,aj. heavy, 55; whenever, 69. av. swėre, 60. swër, sv. pr. swenne (seeVII, of 81. swëllen, who, each87. swelch (swel), hover, move sweifen,pr.sv. father-in-law,to and swëher, wv.III,whoever, whosoever; swëder, sm.whoswell, conj. whenever, swëben, pr.swannen),who, 30. fro. if, sort, whatever, 69, 71. swarz, aj. black. rove,two, 69.whoever, whatwhilst, 69. neut. swaȥ, 69, 70, 71. swinde, and III, swimmen, sword. sf. how, swiger, swëster, as, sister, 11, swīgen, (pl. -slege), 30.angry; swie, av. sn.powerful, strong,sv. 48. swester,aj.mother-in-law,keep silent, howsoever; swërtslacsv.I, beswerjen), 81. VI, swear, swërt,sf. sv. conj.,silent,31, however,76. 35, 86. though, 69. swern (swerigen, swim,sm. sword-cut. av. quickly. tac T (-ges), swingen, sm. day, 5, 11, 33, 42; swinden, sv. III, swing. disappear. vanish, av. tages, by day. teil, smn. become tanzwīse, sn. tanzen, wv. dance. tanz, sm. portion; of dawn. tal (pl. teler),aj. dale, day. tagezīt,dance. song which tagen, wv. sf. space day,47. tägelīch,sf. a daily,a5, 10. is sung to the accompaniment of dancing. ein teil, something, a little. tief, aj. deep, 15, distribute. teilen, wv. divide,19. 202 tiutsch, tiusch, tiuren, animal. tiure, tiuwer, aj. and av. dear, tisch, sm. table. aj. German; precious; noble, excellent, 9.3, tier, sn.tiuwern, wv. esteem highly, honour, confer honour. 57. tiuschiu zunge, German language, Germany. tŗt tŗr, tŗt, gate, sn. törperheit, sf. 25, tŗre,sf. tŗrsch, 30. tor, sn.sm. devil.deadly. 5, töhterlīn,sm.impoliteness, vulgarity. tohter,aj. dead, 3,death, 25, 49. tŗtlīch, aj.wm. fool. 11, 30, 33; tŗrisch,daughter, 10,daughter, silly. tiuvel,(-des), door.littleaj. foolish, 10. in dëm tŗde swëben, be on the peril of losing one◗s life. tougen, sfn. secret, 46. toufen, wv. baptize, 10. tou (-wes), sn. dew,wonder; A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z

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A Middle High German Primer aj. dark, secret; av. secretly, 55. tougenlÄ«ch, aj. secret; av. tougenlÄ«che. træge, aj. slow, weary, lazy; av. trÄ—ge. trëten, trehene), step, enter, treit = wv. IV, trëffen,sv. think, strive, wear; 83; trahten,sv.sv.V, hit, sm. drop, have, trahen (pl. VI, tread,32, 82. tragen,traget. bear, carry;92. tear. 85. trëten hinder sich, step back. triuwe, triuten, sv.caress, like, carry trinken, sv. III, drink, triegen, wv. tread, 31.3. plot, intrigue. triefen, sv. II, deceive,19,31.1, on, trÄ«ben,sv.II,I,drop,note; love; 78. tretten, aj. true,drive; play,81. greet. 76. 16 drip, sf. fidelity, faithfulness; mit triuwen (triwen), faithfully. trÅ«rec, aj. console, trüebsal, gloomy. trüebe, wv.consolation, troumen,trÅ«wen, troum, sm. sad; trÅ—st, aj. drop, wv. tropfe, wm.dream. consolation, trÅ—sten, wv. gloom, believe, trust, trÅ—stelÄ«n,dream, 10.comfort; help. triuwen, sm.sn. sn.31.3.8. hope. hope. hope, 16 note. av. trÅ«reclÄ«che. trÅ«ren, wv. mourn, be sad, downcast; also sn. tumpheit, aj. tump tugende, sf. virtue, tugentlÄ«chen, av. with good tugent,tügen, inexperienced, inexperience; tugenhaft,sf. folly, bride.noble. silly, young. tugen, aj. dear,fit,sf. foolish (pres.qualities, trÅ«tgemahele, pret.-pres. action;touc, pret. tohte), be fit for, good for, trÅ«t,(-bes), aj.beloved. noble demeanour.strength, power, valour, 49. of use, 93. hearty, tumpheit walten, show or have great inexperience. tuon, anom. v. do, tunkel, aj. dark. make, form, shape; cause, 94; tuon enblecken, 203 cause to become visible; ze leide tuon, cause grief, pain, or injury to; wër hÄ—t dir getÄ—n? who has done anything to you?; als ein got getÄ—n, like a god. twingen, (gen. twërch door. thousandth, wash, twahen sv. III, compel, askew, tÅ«sent,(pret. twërhes), 62, subdue, tÅ«senste, num.pn. one of VI, (pres. 85. turren, türren, pret.-pres. 62. tar, pret. torste), TurkentÄ—ls,thousand, force, 64. 34. overcome; tür, sf. num. twuoc), sv.5,Parzivalâ——s princes. dare, venture, 10, 93. sich twingen lÄ—È¥en, let oneself be compelled. à U¼bel, aj. evil, bad, 55, 58, 60; av. übele. Å«f, Å«fe, prep. überwinden, übertragen, haughtiness, überstrÄ«ten, aj.insolence, not over, übersëhen,sv.sv.gilding, discharge something. übern = über because up to,2. observe. übermuot, sf. sf. V, gain of,insolence. übermüete,sn. III,overlook,for. measure. übermæȥlÄ«chen, av. raising of to, upwards, 23.1; übergulde, over,dën, great.victoryvalue. übergülde, sv.VI,which beyondon, something else übergrÅ—È¥,that very 68surpasses over. über, prep. sm.and I,spare,thehaughtiness. conquer. in value. av. up, note get overcome, Å«f genÄ—de, in firm confidence; Å«f die triwe mÄ«n, upon my faith or troth; Å«f slieÈ¥en, open. umbe, pn. Ulterlec,Å«f dën, 68 note 2. Å«fen =Å«fme umb, um, prep. note 2. Å«fem,ümbe,= Å«f dëm, 68 and av. about, around, upon, for, 10 note 2; dar umbe, therefore; umbe sust, for nothing; um waÈ¥, why, for what reason; umbe daÈ¥, on account of that, for that, therefore; umbe gÄ—n, turn or go round. under av. unt, cj. embrace, unden,(undr), sv. and embrace. und, unde, below, II, unspotted. again, on unbewollen, part. aj.under, umbevÄ—hen,sv.beneath. beneath, between, among; umbeslieÈ¥en,prep.VII,av. and;surround. the other hand, 9.6, 69. under in, among themselves; under wëgen lÄ—n, omit; A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z 64

A Middle High German Primer under stunden, at times, now and then, sometimes; under wīlen, from time to time, at times, sometimes. undertænic, sm. I, interrupt, understėn,aj. VII, in between, fully. undersnīden, humble,relate; intermingle. underscheiden, sv.interruption.explainhinder. underlėȥ, sv. VI, stepsubject, submissive. 204 ungefüege, sv. birth. ungeburt, ungeborn, part.useless, worthless. ungebatten, used as humble, submissive. ungebant, sf. unbeaten, untrodden. ungebære,aj.badness, a proper noun), unfuore, wf.sf.part.III, great, powerful; unfuoge (alsolowvery roughness; wicked mode of life. underwinden,aj.aj.aj. refl. undertake. bad, unbecoming, coarse, uncouth, rude; undertėn,aj.despairing lamentation.sf. unseemliness, indecorum, misconduct; coarseness. unborn. av. ungefuoge. unvrŗ, unversunnen, despondency, untugent, untrŗst, untrŗsten, unhappiness; untriuwe, unstæte, unser, pr. unsenfte, our, a incredible. unsegelīch, bysm. that unschuldigen, av.dishearten, unschulde, unsælic unfrŗ, unsælekeit, occupation, unriuweclīche,unspeakable. unrewert aj. without sickness, unnŗt, sf.sf. misfortune, unnėch, wv.part. means. unmuoȥe,sm.7, deformity. trouble unmugelīch,snf.av. hard. discouragement. unmueȥekeit,unwillingly. grief, unminnen,(-des), unrewarded.discourage. unmėȥen,pp.not danger not unmæȥlīch, misfortune.or incomparably. unmære,av.unerwert, unhappy, unlange, sf. av.innocence. aj. unprohibited. unkunt (-ec), aj. 67. goodfickleness. unkraft,(unkuntlīch),swoon. need. unhövesch,insf. worth mentioning, ungesunt,aj.av.aj. shortwithoutmisfortune. ungestaltheit,sn. aj. ingrief. one◗s ungeschriben,sorrow,united,unknown. ungesammet,lackuncourtly, which ungërne,sf.inconstancy,aj. coarse, little ungerihte,sf.fainting aj. part.cursed. sorrow. ungenësen,sf.fault, crime. hatred, manner. ungenæme,sn.sf. unhealed,training. harm. be ungenėde,painful,immoderate,unanimous. ungemüete,aj. immeasurably,illness.mournful. ungemach,sf.aj.wv.unhappy, deceit.sad, or vulgar. ungelücke,inconstant,antrouble. excessive. ungelouplich,faithlessness,unlovingcannotobserved, ungelŗnet,av.unpleasant.uncured.low, care.written. ungelīche,sf.wv.disfavour, discomfort, innocence. worthless, disgusting; undervalued. ungehabe,=sn.notsf.of fit,time.restlessness.sorrow. aj. unconscious. treat no fickle. impossible. mourning, immeasurably. proclaim work, 205 unze, unz, prep. aj. conj. till, until, unwīse, sf. unworthiness, contempt to, unwīp, (-ec), sn. bad woman; upfor, down unwërt, sm.false unchangeable.bad style.scorn.to, to; unwendic(-bes), andsteadfast, unchangeable. unwandelbære,aj.tone or sound; unwomanly creature; unworthy the name of Weib. unz her, hitherto; unz enmitten an, right down to. ūȥ, prep. üppic, 54. aj. av. out, superfluous; proud. Uote, pn. aj. and undivided, of, of, from; unzerworht,unnecessary,outundissected, not cut up. ūȥen, av.; ūȥerwelt, select, chosen. valsch, prep. fall, (vėn), vallen, sm. thread, fall down, VII, off; val (-wes), sf. out of, 42. vėhen, fault, spot, 36. vadem, aj. VII,marching, goingfall orcatch, seize, take, 29, 30, V (F) sv. fėhen 9.2,impurity,outto one◗s lot, song sung by 87. ūȥreise,false, deceitful. ūȥer,sm.aj. yellow, from. sv. deceit; departure;32.4, 87. 38, knights on the march. valsches laȥ, free from deceit or falseness. varn, sv. VII, fold, 87. vėren, wv. place coloured; var, vareVI, sf. aj.behind, formed, wait. vancnüsse,go, captivity, 8. oneself, in10, 74 valten, sv.(-wes),fare, betakewatch, lie5,looking.note, 85; varndeȥ guot, movable property. vergëben, verenden, vereinen, verdringen, verdrieȥen end. c. verdienen, aj.field.take, verdërbnisse, 11.poison, 5, verdërben, II,III,unite. abstain verdagen, verbieten, wv.keep make faithless. verbërn, sv.refl. spare, gen.), verbërgen, falsify; skin, gather. venster, sv. perish, spoil, destroy, vëlt sn.fell,IV, of journey. velschen, wv.sv.hide, väter), vels, sf. (pl.(impers.46.hinder, vellen,sm.wv.sn.V,form, earn. suppress, vël (-des), IV,purchasable. sv. veile, aj.way,sv.quickly, appearance. vëhten, sv.window,hide, conceal. vaȥȥen,rock,seize,vater,32.1. 8. väterlīn,sn. kill, destruction, firmly; 19, väterlīch,dim.fatherly, infect.from, displace, vater,sf.wv.colour,III,crowd 10. father, grieve, fret, push vaste,(-lles),wv.veter,90.82. out,10. 81.forbear, avoid, off. varwe,av.cheap,deserve,strongly,prevent, obstruct; vex.keep from, give vart, swm.fast,march,secret,conceal.III, 11,very.45. ward on one side. up. sfn. forbid, fight, 206 versëhen, verschulden, verschaffen, versagen, verrihten, vërre, vernëmen, vermischen, vermīden, av. pourforget, 78. verlust, sm. IV,givetoII, extinguished, verligen,aj. leadconceal. recognize; verliesen (vliesen),astray. relate; verleschen, wv.IV,repay, -hie, I, upon. water. verleiten,sv. V, cease through round; verlėȥen(pp.sv.far, andsentenceavoid, -houte), verkrenken,loss.VI,becomeaway,also weaklong, verklagen,sv.sv.IV,say,back.sv. 83. leave patience. verkiesen, wv.(verlėn),lose,observe, to omit, verkėren,sv.V,change, turn VII,givewithto over-sleep. verjëhen, sv.refuse,perceive, in forget. getunderstand, verhouwenwv.II,II,vermiten), sprinkle manner, not sv. verhëln,wv.wv.III,observe,requite. bad too extinguish. VII, hew vergieȥen,(pret.mix,pass forgo, adistant, 31. spoil, assure. vergëȥȥen,missdo tell,act sv.bear withoff, forsake. take place, keep aloof from. vergëlten,andsettle,V,mingle.sleepingdestroy.know.todestroy. in pieces, cut asunder. destroy. pay deny. -hiuup, sv. far or mourn, over, refl. hope, dread. versinnen (sich), sv. III, arrive at years of discretion; c. gen. become conscious of. vervėhen, vertrīben, VI, VII,decline, spurn. vertragen, verswinden, VI, drive drive away. verswīgen, sv. versparte),perceive, verswern, sv.verfėhen, talking. versuochen, wv. I,endure, bear.flee. versūmen,(pret.try,disappear, make oath. verstŗȥen, neglect, mock. verstėn sv.sv. I,abjure,away, by shut, close. versprëchen, III,IV,sv. VI,slip, an to pass. versperren(-stėn),disgraceful, ignominious. versmæhen,wv.sv.aj.test. letsv. VII, reach, bring to versmæhelīch,despise,denywv.spoil. understand.pass; forbear mich vervæhet, it is of use or advantage to me. vīant, firmness, -worhte), veste, sf. wv. lose resolve. verzern, vīent, vīnt, verzagen, wv. (pret.VII, sm. wv. verwürken -fluochen, wv. enemy, verwunden, consume; by imprecate, curse. verweinen, sv. wound.ruin;withdraw, forfeit, commit. verwëgen,wv. V, courage,weeping. fiend, 8, 42. verwėȥen, exhaustdestroy. vervluochen,wv.sv. constancy.curse.lose,despair, despond. 207 vier, num.aj. proud, stately, majestic, beautiful; fier, four, 62. av. viere. vil, aj. num. vihe, sn. cattle, num. vierzigeste, many; fourteenth, vierzic (-ec), num. forty, vierzëhende, 46.fourteen, vierzëhen,num. fortieth. vierde,much, fourth, 62. 62. 62. 62. av. very; indecl. sb. c. gen. much, many; vil wėnic ganz c. gen. not at all complete or whole. vlīȥ, flīȥ, vlieȥen, sm. vliesen fliegen,ring. vliehen, aj. keep sm. vliegen, sf. dark, darkness, fleisch, finden,11, vlëhten, vīant. vlėhen, flesh. note. viur, sn. violet.gloomy, visch,fiuwer, IV,sv. assiduity, virren, sm.darkness, (vlėn), vīol, wv.flėhenII, 82. vīnt,vindet,sn. fire;48. 10 note, vint = sm.verliesen. sv. II, flow, swim; vinsternisse, sfn.away find, vinster,=fliehen,sv. II, flee,8. note 81. vingerlinc,sv.vingerīn, sn. 9.4 19, 25, 78. vingerlīn,finger.plait,fly,55.ring, 8.78.ruin, implore, vinger, seefish,74sv. III, from.18, wv.3,eagerness, care; 38. vinden,sm.flieȥen,19.lightning. zeal,beseech,destroy, 10 note 3, 78. ze flīȥe, diligently, carefully. von, volleist, folk, volleclīchen, away vollebringen flight, sm. volle,sn.wv. wv.av. volgesagen, sf.bring of birds. volgen, (pl. sm.diligent, from, volenden, aj. people. completeness. volc, prep. vogel(l)īn,succour. vol (-lles), aj. full, fully. with, vogelsanc,from,9.2, 42.60.3.little vogelīn, abundance, 31. end. vogel, sf.sm.follow, -brėhte), vluochsm.refuge.tellfully, entirely.bird, flühtesal,vlüeche),andiligently, perfect, carry out. vluht,wm. wv.(pret.15,av.sn. curse. about, vlīȥeclīche(n),toescape; security.8. vlīȥec,bird,songaccompany. wv.60.3. through, by; assistance, von schulden, rightly, properly. vreude, vremen, wv. vremde, former, front, vreise, vröude, 10. freischen,aj. dread. frëch, aj. aj. foremost, frävele, sn. swf. fröide, vrėgen,before,(vrömde), vrėge, fear,VII, come towhat vorht, sf.wv. further, 59. vorderste,sf. pattern, 92. vordern,aj.sv.perform, dëme. bold, brave; saucy, vorder, vommeask,horror,59. aj. learn, be told. joy, vorbilde,fremde= von31.3.know, dreadful or swf. impudent. vor, prep.wv.question.90.daring, isstrange, wonderful; unknown. vonme,freise,bold,for.model. freude, fröude,horrible. gladness; courageous, 9.2, 208 fröuden (gen. pl.) lam, bereft of joys, pleasures. glad. vreuwen, vrewen, vreun, freuderīche, aj. rich in freuwen, frewen, freun, wv. cause to rejoice, rejoice, gladden, give pleasure to, be vreudelŗs, aj. joyless. joy, very gratifying. See vröuwen. vrŗlīch, vrŗ, audacity,insolently, vriunt, time. vriundinne, sm.av. friend, vristen, sv. sf. female vrist, wv. keep and av. vrisch, friunt, peaceful. 42. vriesen,frisch, sm.fresh, new. frīen,wm. freeman. 78. glad, vrīe, sf.free, aj. V,insolence. boldly, vrid(e)lich, aj. aj. frīgen, 8, 48. vride, fride,II, freeze,devour,unmarried. vrī,sf.frŗ, sv. alive, truce; protection, vrëȥȥen,aj. joyful;protect, free, 35. frevellīchen,unrestrained, wv. joyful.with impudence. vrevel,aj.frījen,peace,friend,83.rescue. safety, 3, 19, 43. freedom. av. vrŗlīchen. vröuen, = vremde. frosch, sm. sf. absence. vrömede, frog. vrömde vröuwen, fröwen, wv. gladden, give pleasure to; be glad, 10. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z 65

A Middle High German Primer See vreuwen. vrouwe, frouwe, frowe (vrou, frou, frÅ—, before proper names), wf. lady, madam, 9.6, 10; ze frowen, as wife. vür, vuoÈ¥, füegen, fuore, sf. becomingness, 62. vuoge, sf. brave, fünfte, fruit. vünf,für, funden, fox, 19. wv. füllen, manneractive, procure, use vülle,fuoÈ¥rotten. vÅ«l, aj.wv. prep. wv. way fuhs, sf. frumen,90.(pret. for, 19, wv. vüeren,early.(pl.ofand excellent,of62. or vüegen,finfte, finf,life;av.five,sm. foot, 10, against; vruo, sm. bad,fill,num.num.decency.bring to maid, vrumen,sf.füeren15.benefit, be little over, carry, remove. vrum,aj.fünf, frouwelÄ«n, sn.acting.lead,44. miss. vruht,av.pp.fulness,vüeÈ¥e),ofbefore,girl, advantage. vröuwelÄ«n,finden.fifth,fuorte),useful. pass; grant. of für guot haben, be content with, put up with; für iuch, past you; für sie, past them; für tÅ—ren kleit, as foolâ——s clothing; vür wÄ—r, in truth, truly. vürste, fürste, the av. vorhte), vürnames, av. in wm.full further. wv. fear, vürhten, fürbaÈ¥,prince; vürbaÈ¥,fürhten (pret.sense of the word. dread, 15, 90. ein dÄ«n fürste, one of thy princes. wæjen aj. watchful, 31.2. wacker,(wæn), wv. blow, ford, wÄ—c (-ges), sn. moving 90. wÄ—, av. where, whither,water, bed of W vurt, furt (pl. fürte), sm.39. flood. a river. 209 wÄ—fenen, wÄ—fen, sn.sf.wÄ—nde), wætlÄ«che, wÄ—penen, wv. wætlÄ«ch, aj. beautiful. truly. wærlÄ«chen,weapon, sword. think, fancy, 90. wæenen (pret.av. in truth, wv. arm, equip, array. beauty. See wÄ—pen. walden, cradle. wal, sf. sf. balance, wahsen,sm. VI, have wagen, choice, 48. scale. wÄ—ge,sv. VII,grow, power wage, wf.sv. wagon, 49.10, 85.over. See walten. wan, aj. empty, wood, forest. walten (with wiel), walt (-des), sm. bereft of. boil, power. wallen (pret. gen.), sv.in France, bubble, 87. WÄ—leis, pn. Valoisonly; have inhabitant of Valois. av. besides, but VII, niht wan, only, nothing but; wan daÈ¥, only that, if—not; wan unz, whilst, as long as; wan dëm einen, except for the one. wÄ—pen (with 50. want, sf. wv. wängelÄ«n, sn.inconstancy, wange, smn. wander, mood. wandeln,wall.change, 9.2, 90. wandel, sm. want), conj. for, oneself. wanc (-kes),faith, hope,cheek. if, because, then, 9.6. wÄ—n,wn. cheek,littlewv. armdisloyalty, unfaithfulness, wan (wande,sm.sich), fickleness; fault, defect, failing. changeableness. See wÄ—fenen. war, av. where, whither; wÄ—penroc, weapon, 46. wÄ—penen, sm. upper-garment drawn over the coat of mail. wÄ—pen, sn.see wÄ—fenen. war umbe, wherefore, why; war zuo, for what purpose. war, sf. attention, observation; war nëmen, give attention. wÄ—r, sn. truth; right; wÄ—r haben, be right. waÈ¥, waten, aj. av. 19, wÄ—t, (pret.equip, real. waste, pr. clothing, prepare. waschen (weschen), 55. was, wasse,wv. right, wv. wartensf.wv.aj. truth.23.1, warnen,sf. VI,warte),sv. wait; wärmen,what,sharp,85. 70; wÄ—rinne,sf.wade,dress.39. wÄ—rheit,true,to warm,VI, wash, 85. wÄ—r,sv.desert.wherein,5, 10. look, view, 9.2. av. why, wherefore. wÄ— (gen. wÄ—wes), sn. woe, pain; wÄ— tuon, hurt, 17, 46; interj. wehe, wÄ—, woe! alas!; mir ist wÄ—, I am sad. wëder, sv. wacte, wahte), wecken (pret.sm. of two, which of two, 70, wëc (-ges), V, weave, 28, 83.wv. awake. 71; wëben, pr. who way; homeward journey, 5, 11. wëder—noch, neither—nor. weinen (pres. weideganc move, change, weich, wv. (-ges), swing. 8. wëhsal weak.weigh, poise; weinende), wëgen, sv. V,smn.weinde for way motion, 83. wegen,aj.(-el),part.sm. huntingput inor path.wv. weep, bewail; also sn. weiÈ¥got, orphan; precious stone in the royal crown. weise, wm.interj. verily. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z

66

A Middle High German Primer 210 wellen (pres. sing. wil, pret. wolte), anom. v. 70, wish, 98; welīch, welch, pr. which, what kind of, 11, will,71. got dës niht enwelle, may God forbid it. wėnic, aj. little, small; wenden (pp. wellen, wv. choose, 90. weln, welen, gewant), wv. with gen. turn, prevent, hinder, turn away, 32.3. indecl. sb. c. gen. little. wër, defence; protection; what; wer, sf. sf. turning, stagger, battle. wenken, wv. totter, pr. who,waver. wenke,neut. waȥ,turn, change. wës, av. wherefore, 9.6, 70. wërden, wërdekeit, III, turn, go be, be born, 9.4 work, be active, wërde, aj. worthy, noble.sf. worthiness, respect, honour, 33. wërben, sv.wërdikeit, to and fro, strive,note, 38, 81; excellence. become, wërden wol innen, perceive clearly; wërden buoȥ, with dat. of pers. and gen. of thing: dëm wirt kumbers buoȥ, he has compensation for his grief; wërden rėt, c. gen. be a remedy. wërlt, wërelt, av. worthily. wërfen, sv. III, throw, set world, motion, wërdiclīchen,wëlt, sf.in quickpeople; 10 note, 23.2, 81. dër wërelde riuwe, great sadness or grief, lit. sadness of the world. wern (weren), wm. one befooled wërltzage, wm. worldly, earthly. wërlttŗre,wv. check, ward by the restrain, wërltlīch, aj. arrant coward.off from,world. hinder, 90; c. gen. and sich, protect or defend oneself against. wërt (-des), dat.), sv. noble; wërren last,aj. worthy,III, perplex, wern, wv. (withhold out, continue. confuse, trouble, disturb, be a hindrance, 81. snm. respect, good fortune; av. wërde. wësen, sv. V, be, 19, 83; wës (gen. of waȥ), av. why, wherefore. wësen gėch, c. gen. of person: hasten, exert oneself, eagerly. wider, prep. against, 46. wider (widere), sm. to; wetzen, sn. whet, sharpen. wëter,wv. weather,wether, 9.2. av. again, back. wīle, and VI, wild, wilde, aj. (-des), how, as,the wīhen, untamed, fall to bless. wīgant wv. sv. VI, resist,proclaim wie, av.wīl,consecrate, 55.withstand, be opposed to. widerzæme,wv. time, while; 8. widervarn, conj.sm. warrior, lot widerstėn,aj. renounce; hateful, war; contradict. widersagen,sv.sf. revolting, that. of.disgusting. die wīle, meanwhile, in the meantime. wille, wm. av. wish, desire. wīlen(t),will,formerly, once upon a time. 211 willeclīch, aj. willing, wishing; av. willeclīchen. wirt, wirsest, worthiness, wirser, sv. wild wirs, sm. sm. wirden,sm. winter. av. wirde,sm.headsn. valuable. wīplīch,makea58. welcome. wīpheit, sf.aj. 3, animals, wīpav.wv.sn.womanliness. winter,sf.worse, womanly. wint sm.wir(se)ste, aj. and game. wine,(-des),wine,and19.14.1.av. 5, winden,aj.friend.wind, dignity, worst, wīn,(-bes),aj.wind, bind up, honour, wilt (-des),worse,woman, landlord; honourableness. willekomen,III,of61.house, wife,81.11. 9.5, 58, 60, 61. dër helle wirt, devil. wīslīch, wisdom. 8; wīsheit, sf. guide, direct. wīsen, sf. aj. wisely, sensible, wīse, wīs, aj. manner, melody, song. wirtinne,wv. mistress, hostess, 8. experienced, 28. sf. wise, av. wīslīchen. wol, wole, white. wiȥȥen, pret.-pres. wīȥen (with dat.), (pres. weiȥ, blame. wīȥ, far, well, 9.1, reproach,pret. witze, aj. understanding, I,61; wīt, sf.aj.av.wide. 5, sv.sense; reflection. weste, wiste, wesse, wisse), know, 5, 11, 28, 92. wolgezogen, well-mannered; wol getėn, beautiful; wol im, happy or lucky is he!; wol dir, hail to thee; wol mich, happy am I!; wol tuon, c. dat. do good, please; wol ir dës, good luck to her for that! wonen, wool, 15. wollust, smf. joy, wolle, wf.wolf, 15. wolken,wv. cloud. live, 9.4; wolf, sm.sn. dwell,bliss, happiness. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z 67

A Middle High German Primer mir wont bī, I possess. wunder, word, she-wolf, wunde, wf. sf. speech, 15. wülpinne, wonder, 46. wüllīn, wullīn, aj. woollen, 15. wort, sn. sn.wound. marvel; a great amount or number, abundance; bluomen wunder, a great quantity of flowers. wünneclīch, sf. joy, wünne, wv. very old. pleasure, joyful, delightful, beautiful, pleasant; wundern, wunne,wunneclīch, admire, 2. wunderalt, aj.wonder, wonder at,aj.10 note9.2. av. wünneclīche(n). wurzel, sm. wurze, wf. (with wurm, sm. wurken (pret. würken, worm, by wv. würgen, wv.sn. gen.), 5. wuofen, sv.root, woe. wuof, sm. crywish,snake, perfection, highest perfection. wunt (-des), aj.takeideal, life wish, could 90. wunschleben,of plant. a 87. as one wv. work, 28, wünschen root. such the throat, choke, throttle. 91. wunsch,swf.VII,wounded. worhte),desire, wish for. bewail, 212 ze zant, zan tear, 5, 10. zal, sf. number, 9.1, to, zaher, sm.(gen. zandes), 48. z (zuo), sf. cowardice. as much as, (undergoes contraction with the def. art.); Zageheit, prep. at, in,31.3,sm. tooth, 43. ze bruoder, as brother; ze rëhte, rightly, properly; ze handen haben, possess; av. too: ze sėre, too much. ziehen, zewėre, zeswëllen, toe. 68 zestunt, zëse num. ten,mark, zesamene, show,right. zerwirken at draw; zerren sn.(-ec), count, zergėn, -gėn, be zër = wf.zwėr, hundredth, zën = ze (pp.together. zëmen,av.II,IV,num. 62. 2. zëme,wv.av.zerbrëchen, zeln, = ze dër, 68 notein spot. zeim wv.zëmonce, dëme, the truly. zeigen,(-wes),zarte),ontenth, 62. IV, zeichen,av.dën,hundred,2. vanish, zëhenzigeste,the33.notepull,68 note zëhenzic(-de),zerworht),62.90. 62.stop, zëhentereckon, zespot. token,tug, or2. zëhen,zesv.onaj.num.av.VII,truth,utmost. perish. zėhe,sv.einem(e).swellbecoming up,fitting, 82. zehant,(pret.sign,suit,wv.31.3,sv.cut 1.break, break zebrëchen,sv.=III,5,sv. thetowv.23, tear. dissect. in pieces. refl. withdraw, 10, 23.1, 30, 78. zuht, zücken object. zorneclīche, zorn, zobel, sv.give zuhte), zīt, wv. adorn, circle, zirkel,sf. bringingas interest, zirke,sf.sf. garland,angrily, pull zir sn.sm.time, accuse, 9.2. give zinsen,aim,prince◗swv.sable.away. zimieren, robe19.up, with violently. zil, = zesm.adornment, 76.crown. quickly, tear. zīhen,ir.wv. furnish with prince◗s crown. zieren,sm.anger.furrededucation; good manners, politeness, demeanour; chastisement, punishment; zierde,wm.(pret.av.decorate.knightly accoutrements. I, mit zühten, becomingly, gracefully, politely. zuo, av. propriety, dignity, good zunge, wf. toward; to it; zunft, sf.to,tongue, 3, 7, 23.2, 53 breeding. zühtelŗs, aj. ill-bred, rude, insolent. zuo zwein, into two. See ze. zweinzic (-ec), 35, twenty, zweien with dëme. zwei, num. two,num.62, 63. 62. zürnen, zurnen, wv. be angry. zuome = zuosich, wv. fall out, quarrel; pair. 213 zwīvel, (gen. zwīges, zwischen, prep. between. zwīfeln,zwīfel, 62. zwī, num. doubt, 62. zwene,zwic twelve, sm. doubt, uncertainty; zwelfte,zwei, num. twentieth, 62. zwelf, num.wv.twelfth, 9.2. zwīes), smn. dat. bough, two, zweinzigeste,zwŗ (gen. zweier, zweiger,twig,zwein), 35. 35, 63. aj. doubtful, 55. zwīvellop (-bes), doubtful uncertain, dejected. zwīvellīch, aj. doubtful, or ambiguous praise. Paragraph 88 Table A few other inflectional tables were similarly reformatted.

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A Middle High German Primer

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