Mind Map Base 2 Ending

10 Disember 2009 1:03

PAGES MAIN CONTENTS Mind Map Base 2

Y=Yodan I =Ichidan Ir=Irreguler N=nouns V=verbs

Dictionary form (base 3) Y Kau (will buy) Y Aruku (will walk)

Base 2 kai aruki

Y u --> i I ru --> X

I I

Miru (will see) Taberu (will eat)

mi tabe

BASE 2 + #
(will ….) Polite form nagara (while)
+ve -ve present

Exp: kai + nagara = kainagara (while buying) aruki + tai = arukitai (want to walk) mi + ni kite = mi ni kite (coming over to see)

tai
ni iku (going to)
(want to)

mashou (let's)

sugiru (too much)

nasai (command)

nikui (hard to...)

masu

masen
ni kuru (coming to)

takunai (don't want to V) takereba (if N want to V)

mashita
sugiru  sugimasu @ sugimashita @ sugimasen @ sugimasen deshita

past

masen deshita

yasui (easy to…)

te
ni itte =please going to ni kite =please coming to = please come over

SPECIAL

IRREGULAR

BASE 1

KURU ko

SURU shi meaning

Iru y Exist (living thing)

aru

I

Desu Is,am,are

Exist(non-animated thing)

2 3(dict.form) 4 5 te-form Plain past Plain -ve

ki kuru kure koyou kite kita konai

shi suru sure shiyou shite shita shinai

Polite form Polite -ve Plain +ve Plain -ve Polite past +ve Plain past +ve Polite past -ve

imasu Imasen Iru inai imashita itta Imasen deshita

arimasu Arimasen Aru Nai arimashita atta Arimasen deshita

Desu Dewa arimasen/ja arimasen da Dewa nai/ja nai deshita Datta Dewa arimasen deshita

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Lesson 1
10 Disember 2009 0:57

BACK TO MAIN CONTENTS Mind Map Base 2

The Plain Form

• All plain Japanese verbs end in u. • More precisely, verbs are classified into 3 groups:  Consonant-stem verbs (u-verbs) @yodan verbs  Vowel-stem verbs (ru-verbs) @ ichidan verbs  Irregular verbs • Consonant-stem verbs (u-verbs)@ yodan verbs  Also kwon by Group 1.  It have consonant preceding final 'u'. Meaning, before 'u' it has consonant, for example; Kau (to buy) → ending with 'u' Aruku (to walk) → ending with 'ku' Isogu (to hurry) → ending with 'gu' Hanasu (to talk) → ending with 'su' Matsu (to wait) → ending with 'tsu' Shinu (to die) → ending with 'nu' Asobu (to play) → ending with 'bu' Yomu (to read) → ending with 'mu' Kaeru (to return) → ending with 'ru'

Now let's try some in sentences:  Mama wa mise de banana o kau. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.)  Jim wa manga o yomu. (Jim will read a comic book.)  Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. (Grandpa will return soon.) • Vowel-stem verbs (ru-verbs) @ ichidan verbs  Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru. Some frequently used ones are:  taberu (to eat)  kimeru (to decide)  miru (to look, watch)  kariru (to borrow)

Here are a couple of example sentences:  Watashi wa ringo o taberu. (I'll eat an apple.)  Naomi wa terebi o miru. (Naomi will watch TV.)
This is very simple Japanese, and also very juvenile or "familiar." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form. Before actually trying out the language you need to learn the Base 2 forms and the polite endings that go with them. We will start learning about those in Lesson 2. Word Check Verbs: Others: kau: to buy mise: a store aruku: to walk manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather isogu: to hurry sugu: soon hanasu: to talk watashi: I matsu: to wait ringo: apple shinu: to die terebi: TV asobu: to play
yomu: to read kaeru: to return taberu: to eat kimeru: to decide miru: to look, watch kariru: to borrow
Reference: http://www.timwerx.net/home/index.htm

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Lesson 2
10 Disember 2009 1:32

BACK TO MAIN CONTENTS Mind Map Base 2
See also Lesson 3

Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu

Plain Verb
kau (to buy) aruku (to walk)

Base 2 Form
kai aruki

Polite Verb Form
kaimasu arukimasu

isogu (to hurry) kasu (to lend) matsu (to wait)
shinu (to die) asobu (to play)

isogi kashi machi
shini asobi

isogimasu kashimasu machimasu
shinimasu asobimasu

yomu (to read) kaeru (to return)

yomi kaeri

yomimasu kaerimasu

Exp:  Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.)  Jim wa manga o yomimasu. (Jim will read a comic book.)  Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. (Grandpa will return soon.) Reference:
http://www.timwerx.net/home/index.htm

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Lesson 3
10 Disember 2009 1:55

See also Lesson 2

BACK TO MAIN CONTENTS Mind Map Base 2

Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu
Plain Verb taberu (to eat) oboeru (to remember) kimeru (to decide) Base 2 Form tabe oboe kime Polite Verb Form tabemasu oboemasu kimemasu

deru (to leave, come out)
kariru (to borrow) miru (to look, watch)

de
kari mi

demasu
karimasu mimasu

Examples:  Watashi wa ashita kimemasu. (I'll decide tomorrow.)  Jerry wa sugu heya kara demasu. (Jerry will come out of the room soon.)  Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu. (Ayako watches the TV every day.) Word Check ashita: tomorrow sugu: soon heya: a room kara: from mainichi: every day terebi: TV Reference:
http://www.timwerx.net/home/index.htm

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Lesson 4
10 Disember 2009 1:55

BACK TO MAIN CONTENTS Mind Map Base 2

Base 2 + masen
Yodan examples:  Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella.)  Kare wa machimasen. (He won't wait.)  Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka.) Ichidan examples:  Watashi wa ima tabemasen. (I'm not going to eat now.)  Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella.) Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he, him matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she, her kariru: to borrow (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Reference:
http://www.timwerx.net/home/index.htm

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Lesson 5
10 Disember 2009 1:55

BACK TO MAIN CONTENTS Mind Map Base 2

Base 2 + mashita
Mashita is used to change verbs to their past polite form.

Examples:  John wa Sendai ni ikimashita. (John went to Sendai.)  Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimashita. (The children played at the park.)  Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita. (Yoshi ate an apple.)  Shizu wa manga o kaimashita. (Shizu bought a comic book.)  Bob wa sono eiga o mimashita. (Bob saw that movie.)
Word Check iku: to go kodomotachi: children kouen: a park asobu: to play ringo: apple taberu: to eat manga: a comic book kau: to buy sono: that eiga: movie miru: to see (Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Reference:
http://www.timwerx.net/home/index.htm

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Lesson 6
10 Disember 2009 2:14

BACK TO MAIN CONTENTS Mind Map Base 2

Base 2 + masen deshita
To make that past tense we just add deshita.  John wa Sendai ni ikimasen deshita. (John didn't go to Sendai.)  Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita. (The children didn't play at the park.)  Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple.) Nnote that deshita is the past tense form of desu.

Reference:
http://www.timwerx.net/home/index.htm

Base 2 Page 7

Lesson 7
10 Disember 2009 2:15

BACK TO MAIN CONTENTS Mind Map Base 2

desu, iru and aru
Desu -is added to the end of statements to make them polite, including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form, like something from the masu group.

After nouns and adjectives, desu acts like English "be verbs" (am, are, is, etc.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective):  Kare wa Tanaka-san desu. (He is Mr. Tanaka.)  Carol wa nijuu go sai desu. (Carol is 25 years old.)  Bob wa byouki desu. (Bob's sick.)  Ashita wa ame desu. (Tomorrow it will rain. [The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain.])  Sono gakkou wa furui desu. (That school is old.)
The plain form of desu is da, which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings:  Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!)  Iya da. (No. [I don't want to...])

I should point out here that the above sentences do not need desu or da to be complete or grammatically correct. In fact, you will often hear them with neither. Desu or da are added to "finalize" the statement in some cases, with desu being the one to choose when the setting calls for polite speech.
Iru and aru Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist." Generally speaking, iru is used for people and animals, and aru for everything else:  Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here / there?)  Hai, Tom wa iru yo. (Yes, Tom's here.)  Kabe ni kumo ga iru. (There's a spider on the wall.)  Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru. (The dictionary is on the desk.)  Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru. (There's a big tree in the park.) You can make these polite by converting them to their Base 2 form and adding masu. Iru is an ichidan verb, and aru is a yodan, so be sure to convert them accordingly:  Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?)  Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu. (There's a big tree in the park.) The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai :  Sumimasen, ima Tom wa inai. (Sorry, Tom's not here now.)  Jisho ga nai. (I don't have a dictionary.)

And the polite negative forms would use masen, which was introduced in Lesson 4:  Sumimasen ga, ima Tom wa imasen. (Sorry, but Tom's not here now.)  Jisho ga arimasen. (I don't have a dictionary.)
The plain past of these are itta and atta, which should only be used in very familiar settings:  Kinou Tom wa itta. (Yesterday Tom was here.)  Koko ni ookina ki ga atta. (There was a big tree here.) The polite past forms are imashita and arimashita :  Kinou Tom wa imashita. (Yesterday Tom was here.)  Koko ni ookina ki ga arimashita. (There was a big tree here.) For plain past negative use inakatta and nakatta :  Kinou Tom wa inakatta. (Yesterday Tom was not here.)  Koko ni ki ga nakatta. (There was not a tree here.)

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 Koko ni ki ga nakatta. (There was not a tree here.) And for polite past negative use masen deshita :  Kinou Tom wa imasen deshita. (Yesterday Tom was not here.)  Koko ni ki ga arimasen deshita. (There was not a tree here.) Now let's get back to desu. Its plain negative form is dewa nai or ja nai :  Kanojo wa juuhassai dewa nai. (She's not 18.) And the polite negative is dewa arimasen :  Iie, kare wa haisha dewa arimasen. (No, he's not a dentist.)

With desu, there is one way it is often used which will throw the student who is still trying to "think out in English" everything heard in Japanese. This is when it is used after the object. A good example would be: A: O-tousan wa? (Where's Dad?) B: Shigoto desu. (He's at work.)
B could even answer o-tousan wa shigoto desu, which, to the mind of the student of Japanese, could mean "Dad is a job," but it doesn't. This is the "wild card" nature of desu. For summary of desu, iru and aru , see Mind Map Base 2 ending Word Check ame: rain gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: disagreeable; unpleasant; No! kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree ima: now jisho: dictionary haisha: dentist Notes 1. Most native speakers do not voice the u on the end of masu or desu. If you want to sound like most natives, pronounce them "moss" and "dess." You will, however, occasionally hear a few speakers voice the final su, making them sound something like mah-su and deh-su, with just a very short su. You can imitate the version you like. 2. Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something, and is especially used by children.

Reference:
http://www.timwerx.net/home/index.htm

Base 2 Page 9

Lesson 8
10 Disember 2009 3:12

BACK TO MAIN CONTENTS Mind Map Base 2

Base 2 + tai
A very useful Base 2 ending is tai, which is used to show that you want to do something:  Watashi wa kasa o kaitai. (I want to buy an umbrella.)  Kodomotachi wa asobitai. (The children want to play.)  Bob wa tempura o tabetai. (Bob wants to eat tempura.)  Miki wa sono eiga o mitai. (Miki wants to see that movie.)

• tai shows that you want to do something, and is not used when you want something. • tai is only used with verbs, and is never used alone with an object.  For example, you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog." You would use the adjective hoshii and say, "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii." TAKUNAI Now, what if you don't want to do something? In that case, we use takunai. Again, add desu to make it polite. Let's make the examples above negative. We'll make the first two plain:
 Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai. (I don't want to buy an umbrella.)  Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai. (The children don't want to play.) And the next two polite:  Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura.)  Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie.) TAKEREBA Another handy derivative is takereba, which is the conditional form of tai. Use it for "if (you) want to":  Terebi o mitakereba, yuushoku o hayaku tabenasai. (If you want to watch TV, hurry and eat your dinner.)  Shichiji no densha ni noritakereba, ashita hayaku okimashou. (If you want to make the 7:00 train, let's get up early tomorrow.) Word Check kasa: umbrella kodomotachi: children 1 eiga: movie yuushoku: dinner hayaku: early; fast, quickly shichiji: 7:00 (shichi [seven] + ji ["o'clock"]) densha: train noru: to ride ashita: tomorrow okiru: to get up (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Reference:
http://www.timwerx.net/home/index.htm

Notes 1. Kodomo means "child." Although tachi can be added to make the plural "children," please remember that tachi works with only a few select nouns, mainly those describing people or animals. There are no plural forms for other objects, which makes Japanese uncomplicated in that respect.

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Lesson 9
10 Disember 2009 3:12

BACK TO MAIN CONTENTS Mind Map Base 2

Base 2 + mashou
Sometimes it is written masho with a line above the o, but either way this one is easy to remember. It simply means "let's (do something)." For example:  Ikimashou. (Let's go.)  Tabemashou. (Let's eat.)  Yasumimashou. (Let's take a break.) As in English, this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) for you / Let me do (something) for you," as in:  Watashi ga hakobimashou. (I'll carry this / these [for you].) 1  (to a pet) Esa o agemashou. (Let's get you some food.)  Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou. (I'll fix your bicycle. / I'll help you fix your bicycle.) Word Check iku: to go yasumu: to rest; to take a break; to take or have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you 2 jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Notes 1. In Japanese, the object (as well as the subect) can be omitted when it is known or obvious. In this example, even hakobimashou alone would be both natural and grammatically sufficient. 2. Please see About You and Name Suffixes.

Reference:
http://www.timwerx.net/home/index.htm

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Lesson 10
10 Disember 2009 3:12

BACK TO MAIN CONTENTS Mind Map Base 2

Base 2 + nasai
Here is a real simple one, but you will want to be careful how you use it. For simple commands, add nasai to verbs in the Base 2 form:       Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!) Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come (Verbs are shown in their plain form.)

Reference:
http://www.timwerx.net/home/index.htm

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Lesson 11
10 Disember 2009 3:12

BACK TO MAIN CONTENTS Mind Map Base 2

Irregular Verbs kuru and suru
KURU The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned:  Bob wa kimasu. (Bob will come.)  Sue wa kimasen. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.)  John wa kimashita. (John came.)  Ken wa kimasen deshita. (Ken didn't come.)  Yumi wa kitai desu. (Yumi wants to come.)

SURU Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb, but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study), shimpai suru (worry), chuumon suru (place an order), yakusoku suru (promise). The Base 2 form of suru is shi. Look at these examples:  Watashi wa shimasu. (I'll do it.)  Kare wa shimasen. (He won't do it.)  Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu. (Bill wants to study tomorrow.)  Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (You promised.)  Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. (Hiromi didn't worry.)
Reference:
http://www.timwerx.net/home/index.htm

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Lesson 12
10 Disember 2009 3:12

BACK TO MAIN CONTENTS Mind Map Base 2

Forming Questions with ka
Making questions in Japanese is easy. Unlike English, where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places, in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word, phrase, or sentence to turn it into a question. For example, do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon.) Well, just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Simple, right? Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples:  Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?)  Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka. (Does Miki want to see that movie?)  Yasumimashou ka. (Shall we take a break?) By the way, true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. You will see lots of question marks used, usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners, but real Japanese literature does not use it. In a sense, ka is the question mark. Reference:
http://www.timwerx.net/home/index.htm

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Lesson 13
10 Disember 2009 3:13

BACK TO MAIN CONTENTS Mind Map Base 2

Base 2 + ni iku / ni kuru
Simply convert the reason for coming or going into Base 2, then add the relevant one:  Watashi wa kasa o kai ni iku. (I'm going to go buy an umbrella.)  Miki wa watashi no atarashii PC o mi ni kuru. (Miki is coming over to see my new PC.)

Add endings to change the tense or make it polite:  Watashi wa kasa o kai ni ikimasu. (I'm going to go buy an umbrella.)  Miki wa watashi no atarashii PC o mi ni kimashita. (Miki came over to see my new PC.)
And here are some more good ones:  Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou. (Let's go out and eat Chinese food.)  Watashi wa kouen ni asobi ni ikitai. (I want to go play in the park.)  Rob wa jitensha o kari ni kimasen deshita. (Rob didn't come to borrow the bicycle.)  Asobi ni kite ne. (Come over for a visit, okay?) 1

Word Check kasa: umbrella atarashii: new miru: to see, look, watch chuuka ryouri: Chinese food kouen: park asobu: to play jitensha: bicycle kariru: to borrow (Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
Reference:
http://www.timwerx.net/home/index.htm

Notes 1. Asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit." You may hear it often, but don't take it literally. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing, made obvious by having no date or time attached to it.

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Lesson 14
10 Disember 2009 3:12

BACK TO MAIN CONTENTS Mind Map Base 2

Base 2 + nikui / yasui
Use nikui for "hard to do":  Kono budou wa tabenikui. (These grapes are hard to eat.)  Kono kanji wa yominikui. (These kanji are hard to read.)  Sono tatemono wa minikui. (That building is hard to see.) 1 And use yasui for "easy to do": 2  Kono PC wa tsukaiyasui. (This PC is easy to use.)  Kanojo no namae wa oboeyasui. (Her name is easy to remember.)  Kono kanji wa kakiyasui. (This kanji is easy to write.)
Word Check kono: this, these budou: grapes taberu: to eat kanji: Chinese characters 3 yomu: to read sono: that, those tatemono: a building miru: to see, look, watch tsukau: to use kanojo: she, her 4 namae: name oboeru: to remember kaku: to write (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Notes 1. Besides the converted verb minikui, which means "hard to see," there is also an adjective minikui meaning "ugly." Accordingly, the sentence sono tatemono wa minikui could also mean "that building is ugly." Be especially careful to make the intended meaning clear when using it to refer to people or their property. 2. Yasui also exists as an adjective meaning "inexpensive." 3. For more about kanji, see the Kanji section of A Bit of the Language. 4. Kanojo no is the possessive pronoun "her."

Reference:
http://www.timwerx.net/home/index.htm

Base 2 Page 16

Lesson 15
10 Disember 2009 3:12

BACK TO MAIN CONTENTS Mind Map Base 2

Base 2 + sugiru
Sugiru is a verb which means "to pass by; to go too far." @ "overdo" something. As with any other verb, changing it to its Base 2 form with masu, sugimasu, makes it polite. Examples:  Kare wa itsumo nomisugiru. (He always drinks too much.)  Kimiko wa tabesugimashita. (Kimiko ate too much.)  Kodomotachi wa terebi o misugiru. (The kids watch too much TV.) Sugiru is sometimes shortened in familiar conversation to sugi. For example, you could say kodomotachi wa terebi o misugi. Word Check itsumo: always nomu: to drink

Reference:
http://www.timwerx.net/home/index.htm

Base 2 Page 17

Lesson 16
10 Disember 2009 1:33

BACK TO MAIN CONTENTS Mind Map Base 2

Base 2 + nagara
Add it to verbs in Base 2 to mean "while (doing something)...." Note how the action connected with nagara comes before it:  Bob wa hatarakinagara ongaku o kiku. (Bob listens to music while he works.)  Kimiko wa benkyou shinagara terebi o mimasen. (Kimiko doesn't watch TV while studying.)  Hanashinagara sanpo shimashou. (Let's take a walk while we talk.) Word Check hataraku: to work ongaku: music kiku: to listen, hear 1 benkyou suru: to study hanasu: to talk, speak sanpo suru: to take a walk 2 (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Reference:
http://www.timwerx.net/home/index.htm

Notes 1. There is also a kiku which means "to ask" that is used often. 2. Use aruku for "to walk," as a means of getting somewhere. When walking is the object, use sanpo suru (to go for a walk).

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