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TOYOTA Technical Training

2002 Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc.


Printed in U.S.A.
Ver. 1 - May 2002
TOYOTA ENGINE SENSOR TECHNOLOGY
Instructor Guide

POSITION MODE SENSORS AND SWITCHES



Lesson Title POSITION MODE SENSORS AND SWITCHES

Module Day 1 Module 1

Time Period 8:30 a.m. 9:40 a.m.

Total Time 70 minutes



Instructional Objectives
1. Explain the operation and purpose of power side and ground switched circuits.
2. Guide technicians where necessary with the worksheets
3. Summarize technician observations

Technician Objectives
1. Locate components in the switch sensing circuits using the EWD and RM
2. Find wire colors, pin numbers in the switch sensing circuit using the EWD and RM
3. Identify a normally closed and normally open switch
4. Identify the switch sensors and position from the Data List
5. Measure the voltage signal of the switch sensor at the ECM
6. Test a supply side switch and compare to specs. to determine condition
7. Test a groundside switch and compare to specs. to determine condition
8. Check and retrieve relevant DTCs
9. Describe the difference between a supply side and ground side switched circuit
10. Describe the difference between a normally closed and normally open switch

Lesson Key Points
This worksheet is a performance pretest to judge the skill level of the technician. Key skills to observe are:
Service literature information is applied to the required tasks
DVOM is used to provide accurate measurements
Scan tool is used to get required information
Knowledge of electrical circuit characteristics is applied to understanding how the circuit operates.

Required Materials
Instructor Guide including annotated Student Handbook
Repair manuals and EWDs for vehicles
Vehicles to accommodate teams of two
4 Diagnostic testers
4 DVOMs
Tpins and jumpers leads
TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 1

POSITION MODE SENSORS AND SWITCHES




Slide 1
I. Electronic Engine Control System
A. Engine electronic control system consists
of sensors that detect various engine
conditions, a computer called the
Electronic Control Module (ECM), and
numerous actuators that control a variety
of engine components




Slide 2
B. Inputs
1. Sensors are used to convert engine operating
conditions like temperature, rpm, throttle
position, and other parameters into electrical
signals which the ECM constantly monitors.
2. With this data, the ECM has sufficient
information to run the programs that operate
the engine and emission control systems.




Slide 3

C. Engine Control Module
1. Contains the programming to operate the
engine




Slide 4
D. Outputs-Actuators
1. Devices controlled by the ECM


TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 2

POSITION MODE SENSORS AND SWITCHES



Worksheet 1-1 Position/Modes Sensors and
Switches
Point out shop safety procedures.
Point out the chapter on Position/ Mode
Sensors and Switches in the Student Handbook
for reference information.
Proceed with the worksheet.
After they have completed the worksheet and
comment sheet begin with review.



II. Position/Mode Sensors and Switches
A. Supply side switches



Slide 5
1. A DVOM will measure 0 volts with the switch
open



Slide 6
2. Here the DVOM reads +B when the switch
closes. This indicates to the ECM a change
has taken place. Using the DVOM confirms
the circuit and switch are good.



Slide 7

3. DVOM measures 0 volts with switch open.

TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 3

POSITION MODE SENSORS AND SWITCHES



Slide 8
4. DVOM measures +B voltage.




Slide 9
B. Ground side switches



Slide 10
1. A DVOM will measure supply voltage when
the switch is open



Slide 11
2. When the switch closes, the DVOM
measures nearly 0 volts. Using the DVOM
confirms the circuit is good



Slide 12
3. DVOM measures supply voltage.

TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 4

POSITION MODE SENSORS AND SWITCHES



Slide 13
4. DVOM measures nearly 0 volts.

TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 5

TEMPERATURE SENSORS


Lesson Title TEMPERATURE SENSORS

Module Day 1 Module 2

Time Period 9:40 a.m. 10:40 a.m.

Total Time 60 minutes



Instructional Objectives
1. Enable the technician to:
Determine the condition of temperature sensor circuits based on their signal output.
Determine the root cause of the failure(s) in the temperature sensing circuits using appropriate
diagnostic procedures.
2. Explain the operation and purpose of NTC temperature sensing circuits
3. Guide technicians where necessary with the worksheets
4. Summarize technician observations

Technician Objectives
1. Locate components in the temperature sensing circuits using the EWD and RM
2. Find wire colors, pin numbers in the temperature sensing circuit using the EWD and RM
3. Locate the temperature reading from the Data List
4. Measure the voltage drop of the sensor
5. Test VC (supply voltage) and compare to specs. to determine condition
6. Test E (ground line) and compare to specs. to determine condition
7. Test sensor resistance and compare to specs. to determine condition
8. Check and retrieve relevant DTCs
9. Describe purpose of ECT and IAT
10. Describe ECM strategy if the ECT and IAT circuit fails

Lesson Key Points
As temperature increases, resistance decreases
The rate of voltage drop change above 140F decreases
Extra, unwanted resistance has the most effect at high temperatures

Required Materials
Instructor Guide including annotated Student Handbook
Repair manuals and EWDs for vehicles
Vehicles to accommodate teams of two
4 Diagnostic testers
4 DVOMs
Tpins and jumper leads

TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 6

TEMPERATURE SENSORS





Instructor Note



III. Temperature Sensors
Using the temperature sensor animation,
explain the relationship of temperature to
sensor resistance and voltage signal.


Introduce Worksheet 1-2 Temperature
Sensors.
Remind them that important reference
information for answering worksheet questions
can be found in the Student Handbook.
After they have completed the worksheet, begin
class discussion with review of technician
review sheet.
If not covered during the discussion, go over the
following key points.
What is the purpose of ECT, IAT, and EGR
temperature sensors?




Slide 14
A. Purpose of ECT, IAT, and EGR
temperature sensors



Slide 15
1. ECT measures engine coolant temperature
for fuel control, engine cooling, transmission
shifting, etc


TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 7

TEMPERATURE SENSORS



Slide 16
2. IAT measures intake air for modifying fuel
injection and engine diagnostic routines




Slide 17
3. EGR measures EGR flow for monitoring
EGR operation















Slide 18
COOLANT TEMPERATURE
ANIMATION - click on the
image to activate the
animation, select the slide
bar to demonstrate, click on
the "hotspot" to add test
leads, and click on the small
button on the lower right
side to return to the
presentation.
The ECM detects the change in temperature by
a change in sensor ____________?
Answer: resistance or voltage drop

As the engine warms up, the resistance and
voltage signal _______________?
Answer: decreases
B. Temperature sensor circuit operation
1. The temperature sensor is connected in
series to a fixed value resistor. The ECM
supplies 5 volts to the circuit and measures
the change in voltage between the fixed
value resistor and the temperature sensor.
2. When the sensor is cold, resistance is high,
and voltage signal is high.
3. As the sensor warms up, the resistance
drops and voltage signal decreases.

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TEMPERATURE SENSORS






Slide 19

From the worksheet, how much change in
resistance or voltage was there in the top
(140F 180F) temperature range?
Answer: very little

Excessive resistance, such as a corroded
connection, will cause the ECM to think that
engine temperature is __________________?
Answer: colder than actual engine temperature

This may cause what engine symptoms?
Answer: overheating, poor fuel economy
C. Temperature sensor performance curve
1. Starting from cold temperature, for every
10F, the change in resistance and voltage
decreases
2. Particularly in the top (140F - 180F)
temperature range

TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 9

TEMPERATURE SENSORS





Slide 19 cont.
An open circuit will cause the Diagnostic Tester
to read ___________?
Answer: cold -40F

Disconnecting the ECT sensor will cause the
Diagnostic Tester to read ___________?
Answer: cold -40F

A shorted circuit will cause the Diagnostic
Tester to read ___________?
Answer: hot 278F

A jumper wire connected between the two
terminals will cause the Diagnostic Tester to
read ____________?
Answer: hot 278F
TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 10

POSITION SENSORS

Lesson Title POSITION SENSORS

Module Day 1 Module 3

Time Period 10:55 a.m. 11:55 a.m.

Total Time 60 minutes



Instructional Objectives
1. Explain the operation and purpose of position sensing circuits
2. Guide technicians where necessary with the worksheets
3. Summarize technician observations

Technician Objectives
1. Locate components in the position sensing circuits using the EWD and RM
2. Find wire colors, pin numbers in the position sensing circuit using the EWD and RM
3. Locate the TPS/EGR VPS reading from the Data List
4. Measure the voltage signal of the sensor
5. Test VC (supply voltage) and compare to specs. to determine condition
6. Test E (ground line) and compare to specs. to determine condition
7. Test sensor resistance and compare to specs. to determine condition
8. Check and retrieve relevant DTCs
9. Describe purpose of TPS/EGR VPS
10. Describe ECM strategy if the TPS circuit fails

Lesson Key Points
The relationship of resistance to output voltage signal
Relationship of the voltage signal to diagnosis

Required Materials
Instructor Guide including annotated Student Handbook
Repair manuals and EWDs for vehicles
Vehicles to accommodate teams of two
4 Diagnostic testers
4 DVOMs
Tpins and jumper leads

TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 11

POSITION SENSORS





Instructor Note



IV. Position Sensors
Using the TPS animation, explain the purpose of
the three wires; VC, signal, and E2.


Introduce Worksheet 1-3 Position Sensors.
Remind them that important reference
information for answering worksheet questions
can be found in the Student Handbook.
After they have completed the worksheet, begin
class discussion with review of technician
review sheet.
If not covered during the discussion, go over the
following key points.


What is the purpose of TPS, APP, and EGR valve
position sensors?
A. Purpose of TPS, APP, and EGR valve
position sensors
1. TPS indicates position of the throttle valve
a. Engine mode: idle, part throttle, wide open throttle
b. Switch off AC and emission controls at Wide Open
Throttle (WOT)
c. Air/fuel ratio correction
d. Power increase correction
e. Fuel cut control
2. APP sensor indicates position of the
accelerator pedal
a. Used by the ECM to determine driver request
3. EGR valve position sensor indicates position
of the EGR Valve
a. Used by the ECM to modify EGR flow and for
diagnostic monitoring

TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 12

POSITION SENSORS





Slide 20
THROTTLE POSITION
SENSOR ANIMATION - click
on the image to activate the
animation, select the slide
bar to demonstrate, click on
the "hotspot" to add test
leads, and click on the small
button on the lower right
side to return to the
presentation.
As the wiper arm moves closer to the VC
terminal, signal voltage _____________?
Answer: increases
B. Basic throttle Position Sensor Circuit
1. The basic TPS requires three wires.
2. Five volts is supplied to the TPS from the VC
terminal of the ECM.
3. The TPS voltage signal is supplied to the
VTA terminal.
4. A ground wire from the TPS to the E2
terminal of the ECM completes the circuit.




Slide 21
C. IDL circuit
1. Called a Closed Throttle Position switch (also
called an idle contact switch
2. Switch is closed when the throttle valve is
closed
3. Used for idle position confirmation, fuel
control programming, ignition timing control

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POSITION SENSORS




Slide 22

D. Electronic Throttle Control System w/
intelligence (ETCS-i) throttle position
sensor circuit
1. TPS on the ETCS-i system has two contact
arms and resistors in one housing
2. As the throttle opens the two voltage signals
increase at a different rate
3. By having two sensors, ECM can compare
the voltages and detect problems



E. Accelerator Pedal Position (APP) sensor
circuit
1. Similar to ETCS-i TPS

TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 14

POSITION SENSORS


A DVOM connected between VC and E2 will
measure ____________?
Answer: approximately 5 volts

An open ground wire will read on the Diagnostic
Tester as ____________ and on the DVOM as
____________
Answer: approximately 100%; approximately 5 volts

The signal wire measures 0 volts on the DVOM.
There is 5 volts on the VC line, and TPS
resistance is within specifications. What are the
possible causes?
Answer: open or shorted signal wire

An open wire will measure
Answer: infinite ohms

To check for a short to ground in the signal
wire, the DVOM should be connected between
the ______________ and _______________.
Answer: signal wire and E2 terminal

TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 15

MASS AIR FLOW (MAP) SENSORS

Lesson Title MASS AIR FLOW (MAF) SENSORS

Module Day 1 Module 4

Time Period 1:00 p.m. 1:10 p.m.

Total Time 10 minutes



Instructional Objectives
1. Explain the operation and purpose of MAF sensing circuits
2. Guide technicians where necessary with the worksheets
3. Summarize technician observations

Technician Objectives
1. Locate components in the MAF circuit using the EWD and RM
2. Find wire colors, pin numbers in the MAF circuit using the EWD and RM
3. Locate the MAF reading from the Data List
4. Measure the voltage signal of the sensor
5. Test supply voltage and compare to specs. to determine condition
6. Test E (ground line) and compare to specs. to determine condition
7. Test sensor performance and compare to specs. to determine condition
8. Check and retrieve relevant DTCs
9. Describe purpose of the MAF sensor
10. Describe ECM strategy if the MAF circuit fails

Lesson Key Points
The IAT sensor is molded into the MAF housing, but is NOT part of the MAF circuit
MAF sensor uses B+ voltage
Air density and volume change the voltage output
The Repair Manual in the SF section confuses IAT with MAF diagnostics

Required Materials
Instructor Guide including annotated Student Handbook
Repair manuals and EWDs for vehicles
Vehicles to accommodate teams of two
4 Diagnostic testers
4 DVOMs
Tpins and jumper leads

TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 16

MASS AIR FLOW (MAP) SENSORS










V. MAF Sensors
Introduce Worksheet 1-4 MAF sensors.
Remind them that important reference
information for answering worksheet questions
can be found in the Student Handbook.
After they have completed the worksheet, begin
class discussion with review of technician
review sheet.
If not covered during the discussion, go over the
following key points.


Slide 23
What is the purpose of the MAF sensor?
A. MAF sensor
1. The ECM needs to know intake air volume to
calculate how much fuel to inject, when to
ignite the cylinder, and when to shift the
transmission, etc..




Slide 24
B. Hot Wire MAF
1. Most popular style
2. Air volume passing over the hot wire changes
the voltage signal

TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 17

MASS AIR FLOW (MAP) SENSORS





Slide 25
As throttle and engine load increase, the MAF
(VG) signal will
Answer: increase


Slide 26
How many volts are needed to power the MAF
sensor?
Answer: +B

What is the ground terminal for the MAF
sensor?
Answer: E2G

What two terminals are used for the IAT sensor?
Answer: THA and E2

Does the ECM need the MAF signal to start the
engine?
Answer: No

TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 18

MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE PRESSURE (MAP) SENSORS

Lesson Title MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE PRESSURE (MAP) SENSORS

Module Day 1 Module 5

Time Period 1:10 p.m. 1:50 p.m.

Total Time 40 minutes



Instructional Objectives
1. Explain the operation and purpose of MAP sensing circuit
2. Guide technicians where necessary with the worksheets
3. Summarize technician observations

Technician Objectives
1. Locate components in the MAP circuit using the EWD and RM
2. Find wire colors, pin numbers in the MAP circuit using the EWD and RM
3. Locate the MAP reading from the Data List
4. Measure the voltage signal of the sensor
5. Test the VC supply voltage and compare to specs. to determine condition
6. Test E (ground line) and compare to specs. to determine condition
7. Test sensor performance and compare to specs. to determine condition
8. Check and retrieve relevant DTCs
9. Describe purpose of the MAP sensor
10. Describe ECM strategy if the MAP circuit fails

Lesson Key Points
Manifold pressure is highest when the throttle is suddenly opened or key on, engine off
The higher the pressure, the higher the voltage signal output

Required Materials
Instructor Guide including annotated Student Handbook
Repair manuals and EWDs for vehicles
Vehicles to accommodate teams of two
4 Diagnostic testers
4 DVOMs
Tpins and jumper leads


TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 19

MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE PRESSURE (MAP) SENSORS




Slide 27



VI. MAP Sensors




Introduce Worksheet 1-5 MAP sensors.
Remind them that important reference
information for answering worksheet questions
can be found in the Student Handbook.
After they have completed the worksheet, begin
class discussion with review of technician
review sheet.
If not covered during the discussion, go over the
following key points.


What is the purpose of the MAP sensor?
A. MAP sensor
1. ECM needs to know intake manifold pressure
to calculate how much fuel to inject, when to
ignite the cylinder, and other functions.



Slide 28
2. Pressure changes cause the silicon chip to
flex changing the voltage signal

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MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE PRESSURE (MAP) SENSORS






Slide 29
As intake manifold pressure increases, the PIM
voltage signal ____________.
Answer: increases


Slide 30
If the MAP sensor connector is disconnected,
output (PIM) voltage at the ECM will read
________.
Answer: 3.5 volts


A leak in the hose between the MAP sensor and
engine may cause the engine to ___________.
Answer: stall, run rough



TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 21

POSITION/SPEED SENSORS

Lesson Title POSITION/SPEED SENSORS

Module Day 1 Module 6

Time Period 1:50 p.m. 2:50 p.m.

Total Time 60 minutes



Instructional Objectives
1. Explain the operation and purpose of position/speed sensor circuits
2. Guide technicians where necessary with the worksheets
3. Summarize technician observations

Technician Objectives
1. Locate components in the crankshaft and camshaft sensing circuits using the EWD and RM
2. Find wire colors, pin numbers in the crankshaft and camshaft sensing circuits using the EWD and RM
3. Locate the crankshaft and camshaft readings from the Data List
4. Measure the voltage signal of the sensors with a DVOM
5. Observe the voltage signal pattern of the sensors with an oscilloscope
6. Test wires for continuity and compare to specs. to determine condition
7. Test sensor resistance and compare to specs. to determine condition
8. Check and retrieve relevant DTCs
9. Describe purpose of crankshaft and camshaft sensors
10. Describe ECM strategy if the crankshaft circuit fails
11. Describe ECM strategy if the camshaft circuit fails

Lesson Key Points

Required Materials
Instructor Guide including annotated Student Handbook
Repair manuals and EWDs for vehicles
Vehicles to accommodate teams of two
4 Diagnostic testers
4 DVOMs
Tpins and jumper leads

TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 22

POSITION/SPEED SENSORS










Instructor Note

Slide 31
VII. Position/Speed Sensors
Using the position/speed sensor animation,
explain the relationship of rotor speed to
frequency and voltage.
Next, have the technicians refer to the
Diagnostic Tester manual, OBD section,
Autoprobe. Explain voltage and time scales and
settings. Point out Auto function.
POSITION/SPEED SENSOR ANIMATION - click
on the image to activate the animation, select
the slide bar to demonstrate, and click on the
small button on the lower right side to return to
the presentation.




Slide 32
Introduce Worksheet 1-6 Position/Speed
Sensors.
Remind them that important reference
information for answering worksheet questions
can be found in the Student Handbook.
After they have completed the worksheet, begin
class discussion with review of technician
review sheet.
If not covered during the discussion, go over the
following key points.





Slide 33
As engine speed increased, what happened to
the signal frequency?
Answer: It increased.

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POSITION/SPEED SENSORS











Slide 34
What is the purpose of the camshaft position
sensor?
A. Purpose of camshaft position sensor
1. To determine when cylinder No.1 is on the
compression stroke. The ECM uses this
information for fuel injection timing, for Direct
Ignition Systems and for variable valve timing
systems


Slide 35
What is the purpose of the crankshaft position
sensor?
B. Purpose of crankshaft position sensor?
1. The ECM uses crankshaft position signal to
determine engine RPM, crankshaft position,
and engine misfire.



Slide 36
2. Signal NE is crankshaft position sensor (the
periodic gap is the missing tooth). Signal G
combines with NE to identify cylinder position
and stroke.


TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 24

OXYGEN AND AIR/FUEL RATIO SENSORS

Lesson Title OXYGEN AND AIR/FUEL RATIO SENSORS

Module Day 1 Module 7

Time Period 3:05 p.m. 5:00 p.m.

Total Time 115 minutes



Instructional Objectives
1. Explain the operation and purpose of oxygen and A/F sensor circuits
2. Guide technicians where necessary with the worksheets
3. Summarize technician observations

Technician Objectives
Oxygen Sensor:
1. Locate components in the oxygen sensing circuits using the EWD and RM
2. Find wire colors, pin numbers in the oxygen sensing circuits using the EWD and RM
3. Locate the oxygen sensor readings from the Data List
4. Measure the voltage signal of the sensor with DVOM and compare to specs. to determine condition
5. Test sensor performance with oscilloscope and compare to specs. to determine condition
6. Test heater supply voltage and compare to specs. to determine condition
7. Test ground lines and compare to specs. to determine condition
8. Check and retrieve relevant DTCs
9. Describe purpose of the front oxygen sensor(s)
10. Describe ECM strategy if the front oxygen sensor circuit(s) fails
A/F Sensor:
1. Locate components in the A/F Ratio sensing circuits using the EWD and RM
2. Find wire colors, pin numbers in the A/F Ratio sensing circuits using the EWD and RM
3. Locate the A/F ratio sensor readings from the Data List and compare to specs. to determine condition
4. Test sensor performance and compare to specs. to determine condition
5. Test heater resistance and compare to specs. to determine condition
6. Test heater supply voltage and compare to specs. to determine condition
7. Test ground lines and compare to specs. to determine condition
8. Check and retrieve relevant DTCs
9. Describe purpose of the A/F sensor(s)
10. Describe ECM strategy if the A/F sensor circuit(s) fails

TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 25

OXYGEN AND AIR/FUEL RATIO SENSORS

Lesson Key Points

Required Materials
Instructor Guide including annotated Student Handbook
Repair manuals and EWDs for vehicles
Vehicles to accommodate teams of two - half equipped with oxygen sensors, and the other half with
A/F sensors
4 Diagnostic testers
4 DVOMs
Tpins and jumper leads
TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 26

OXYGEN AND AIR/FUEL RATIO SENSORS




VIII. Oxygen and A/F Sensors
A. Purpose of oxygen sensors
1. To ensure the air/fuel ratio is correct for the
catalytic converter
a. Signal is used to adjust the amount of fuel injected
2. Monitor catalytic converter efficiency
B. Types of oxygen sensors
1. Narrow range oxygen sensor, the oldest
style, simply called the oxygen sensor
2. Wide range oxygen sensor, the newest style,
called the air/fuel ratio (A/F) sensor




Slide 37
C. Oxygen sensor locations
1. OBD II vehicles require two oxygen sensors:
one before and one after the catalytic
converter
2. The sensor before the converter is sensor 1
3. On V-type engines one sensor will be
referred to as Bank 1 Sensor 1 and the other
as Bank 2 Sensor 1
4. The oxygen sensor after the catalytic
converter is referred to as sensor 2


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OXYGEN AND AIR/FUEL RATIO SENSORS










Slide 38
OXYGEN SENSOR
ANIMATION - click on the
image to activate the
animation, select the slide
bar to demonstrate, the
center "hotshot" allows the
animation to run or the
instructor to select
conditions, click on the
right side "hotspot" to add
test leads, and click on the
small button on the lower
right side to return to the
presentation.
Use oxygen sensor animation to convey the
following information
D. Oxygen sensor operation
1. The oxygen sensor generates a voltage
signal based on the amount of oxygen in the
exhaust compared to the atmospheric oxygen
2. When exhaust oxygen content is high,
oxygen sensor voltage output is low.
3. When exhaust oxygen content is low, oxygen
sensor voltage output is high.
4. During normal operation, the voltage signal
cycles between 100 mV to 900 mV




Slide 39
E. Oxygen sensor construction
1. Zirconia with platinum electrodes on each
side of the zirconia element



Slide 40
2. The greater the differences in oxygen content
between the exhaust stream and
atmosphere, the higher the voltage signal.

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OXYGEN AND AIR/FUEL RATIO SENSORS



Slide 41
3. The detection range for the narrow band
oxygen sensor is very small
4. The ECM cannot tell how rich or lean the
air/fuel mixture is






Slide 42

F. Oxygen Sensor Output vs. Temperature
1. When cold, the sensor acts as a resistor, until
it reaches operating temperature.
2. At operating temperature, minimum operating
temperature of 750F (400C), the oxygen
sensor acts as a battery.
3. For accurate signal output, it is essential that
the oxygen sensor is kept at high
temperatures.
4. In the figure, the rich mixture is not accurately
measured until oxygen sensor has reached
operating temperature



G. Oxygen Sensor Heater
1. A PTC element inside the oxygen sensor
heats up as current passes through it
2. The ECM turns on the circuit based on
engine coolant temperature and engine load
(determined from the MAF or MAP sensor
signal). This heater circuit uses
approximately 2 amperes.

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OXYGEN AND AIR/FUEL RATIO SENSORS



Slide 43
3. The heater resistance is checked with a
DVOM



Slide 44
AIR FUEL RATIO SENSOR
ANIMATION - click on the
image to activate the
animation, select the slide
bar to demonstrate, click on
the hotspot to change from
open to closed loop, and
click on the small button on
the lower right side to return
to the presentation.
H. Air/Fuel Ratio Sensor
1. Detects air/fuel ratios over a wide range
2. The ECM can more accurately meter the fuel
reducing emissions.
3. Operates at approximately 1200F (650C),
much hotter than the oxygen sensor 750F
(400C).
4. Changes its current (amperage) output in
relation to the amount of oxygen in the
exhaust stream.




Slide 45

I. Air/Fuel Ratio Sensor Operation
1. A detection circuit in the ECM detects the
change and strength of current flow and puts
out a voltage signal relatively proportional to
exhaust oxygen content
2. This voltage signal can only be measured by
using the Diagnostic Tester or OBD II
compatible scan tool

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OXYGEN AND AIR/FUEL RATIO SENSORS



Slide 46

3. The A/F sensor is designed so that at
stoichiometry, there is no current flow and the
voltage put out by the detection circuit is 3.3
volts.
4. A rich mixture, which leaves very little
oxygen in the exhaust stream, produces a
negative current flow. The detection circuit
will produce a voltage below 3.3 volts.
5. A lean mixture, which has more oxygen in the
exhaust stream, produces a positive current
flow. The detection circuit will now produce a
voltage signal above 3.3 volts.



J. Air/Fuel Ratio Sensor Heater
1. This heater serves the same purpose as the
oxygen sensor heater, but there are some
very important differences.
2. Engines using two A/F sensors use a relay,
called the A/F Relay, which is turned on
simultaneously with the EFI Relay. This
heater circuit carries up to 8 amperes (versus
2 amperes for O2 heater) to provide the
additional heat needed by the A/F sensor.
3. This heater circuit is duty ratio controlled
(PWM). When cold, the duty ratio is high.

TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 31

OXYGEN AND AIR/FUEL RATIO SENSORS



Introduce Worksheet 1-7 and 1-8 Oxygen
Sensors and Air/Fuel Ratio sensors. Have them
rotate so that each team experiences both types
of oxygen sensors.
Remind them that important reference
information for answering worksheet questions
can be found in the Student Handbook.
After they have completed the worksheet, begin
class discussion with review of technician
review sheet.
If not covered during the discussion, go over the
following key points.




When the air/fuel mixture became leaner, the
oxygen sensor voltage signal _____________.
Answer: decreased

When the air/fuel mixture became leaner, the
A/F sensor voltage signal _____________.
Answer: increased

What happened to oxygen sensor frequency
when engine RPMs were increased?
Answer: frequency increased

What happened to Short Term Fuel trim when
the vacuum hose was removed on the oxygen
sensor vehicle?
Answer: fuel trim increased

Compared to the oxygen sensor equipped
vehicle, the A/F sensor equipped vehicle
adjusted fuel trim ________________.
Answer: faster, almost immediately

TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 32

APPENDIX A: CIRCUIT INSPECTION


Lesson Title APPENDIX A: CIRCUIT INSPECTION

Module Appendix Module

Time Period N/A

Total Time N/A




Instructor Note

Slide 47
The following slides are from Appendix A. It is
for your use to supplement the technicians
knowledge where needed. For example, you may
need to use the slides to explain voltage on a
ground switched pulsewidth modulated circuit
or use the Pulsewidth Modulated Circuit
Animation.
PULSE WIDTH MODULATED CIRCUIT
ANIMATION - click on the image to activate the
animation, select the slide bar to demonstrate
and click on the small button on the lower right
side to return to the presentation.










Slide 48
I. Circuit Inspection
A. Analog Signal





Slide 49
B. Amplitude
1. Amplitude is a measurement of strength such
as voltage. Amplitude can be measured from
peak to peak, or from a reference point.

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APPENDIX A: CIRCUIT INSPECTION




Slide 50
C. Frequency
1. Some signals are measured by frequency. A
frequency is defined as the number of cycles
per second. A cycle is a process that repeats
from a common starting point. The unit for
measuring frequency is called Hertz (Hz).
2. Frequency should not be confused with
period. A period is the time it takes for the
signal to repeat and is expressed as time. A
1 Hz signal lasts 1 second. A 2 Hz signal has
a period of 0.5 seconds.




Slide 51
D. DC Voltage
1. Direct current is where the current flows in
one direction. Though current flow and
voltage can be variable, the direction always
remains the same. The DVOM must be in
the DC scale to measure DC voltage.



Slide 52
E. AC Voltage
1. Alternating current is where the direction of
current flow changes. Current will travel from
positive to negative, and then reverse course
going from negative to positive. The DVOM
must be in AC scale to measure AC voltage.
There are different methods for measuring
AC voltage and some DVOMs use what is
known as a True RMS (Root Mean Square)
to measure voltage. It is important for you to
realize that the meter specified by the
manufacturer must be used to obtain
accurate results when compared to
manufacturer's specifications

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APPENDIX A: CIRCUIT INSPECTION




Slide 53
F. Power Side Switched Circuit





Slide 54
G. Ground Side Switched Circuit




Slide 55
H. Square Wave Duty Ratio Signals
1. When A and B are equal in length, the
pulsewidth is 50%. This is a true square
wave signal. A voltmeter connected to this
circuit will measure half the supply voltage.
The signal is said to have a low duty ration
when the on time is less than 50%.



Slide 56
I. Duty Ratio Solenoid
1. As the duty ratio (On time) increases, current
flow through the solenoid increases moving
the control valve. Oil pressure is then applied
to the component that needs to be regulated,
such as the variable valve timing mechanism,
or lock up control.

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APPENDIX A: CIRCUIT INSPECTION




Slide 57
J. Variable Duty Cycle/Variable Duty Ratio
Signal
1. Duty cycle frequency has changed. Duty
ratio has changed.




Slide 58
K. Measuring Available Voltage on a Ground
Side Switched Circuit
1. When the circuit is on, the DVOM will
measure nearly 0 volts at the ECM.




Slide 59
L. Ground Side Switch Voltage Pattern
Interpretation





Slide 60
M. Measuring Across the Load
1. Connecting at the ECM is the most common
point used in the Repair Manual procedures.
However, it is also possible to connect the
oscilloscope or DVOM across the device. If
this is done, the interpretation is different.
The DVOM will read 0 volts when the circuit
is off, and nearly B+ when the circuit is on.

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APPENDIX A: CIRCUIT INSPECTION




Slide 61
N. Measuring Across the Load Pattern
Interpretation




Slide 62
O. Measuring Available Voltage on a Power
Side Switched Circuit
1. When the circuit is on, the DVOM will
measure +B at the ECM.




Slide 63
P. Pattern Interpretation for a Power Side
Switched Circuit.




Slide 64
Q. Checking Circuit Operation Across the
Load
1. The DVOM will measure nearly +B volts
when the circuit is on.




Slide 65
R. Normally Closed Solenoid
1. Most solenoids are normally closed. This
means that when they are off, they prevent
the passage of fluid, air vacuum, etc. When
turned on, the passage opens.

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APPENDIX A: CIRCUIT INSPECTION




Slide 66
S. Normally Open Solenoid
1. A normally open solenoid means that when
they are off, they allow the passage of fluid,
air vacuum, etc. When turned on, the
passage closes.



Slide 67
T. Multi-way VSVs
1. When energized, the condition changes (can
be either normally open or normally closed
type). Use an ohmmeter to check coil
resistance.



Slide 68
2. A Three-Way VSV has three passages.
When off, two passages are open and one is
closed. When on, one passage will be closed
and the other two opened.




TOYOTA Technical Training Toyota Engine Sensor Technology 38