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- 1- Reciprocating Compressors for industrial refrigeration / Grasso UM2012/v010

Reciprocating Compressors for industrial refrigeration


Grasso
Operating Manual (OM)
0089292
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Reciprocating Compressors for industrial refrigeration / Grasso UM2012/v010
Copyright
All Rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
copied or published by means of printing, photocopying,
microfilm or otherwise without prior written consent of
Grasso.
This restriction also applies to the corresponding
drawings and diagrams.
Legal Notice
This publication has been written in good faith.
However, Grasso cannot be held responsible, neither for
any errors occurring in this publication nor for their
consequences.
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General
This manual must be carefull read and understood prior
to servicing and running the compressor (package). For
all safety instructions refer to Chapter 1
This user manual is written with great care, but the
contractor/installer is held responsible for examining this
information and to take care of possible additional and/
or deviated safety measures. Please consult your
contractor (supplier).
Symbols used in this manual
WATCH OUT, BE CAREFUL, IMPORTANT
WARNING; This is an important warning. Ignoring these
warnings can result into considerable personal accidents
or considerable damage to the compressor or the
refrigeration plant.
TIP, HINT
Hint
Before consulting your contractor (supplier) for any
reason, make note of the data on the type plate fixed on
the compressor, package and/or other package
components.
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Table of Contents
Section Title Page
1 SAFETY 9
1.1 REGULATIONS 9
1.2 MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS 9
1.3 REFRIGERANT 9
1.4 OIL 9
1.5 OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS PRESSURE EQUIPMENT 9
1.5.1 Intended Use 10
1.5.2 Safety Notes and Warnings 10
1.5.3 Transport and Storage 10
1.5.4 Finishing and Installation 10
2 INTRODUCTION 13
2.1 SURVEY COMPRESSOR TYPES 13
3 INSPECTION 15
3.1 DAILY, WEEKLY AND MONTHLY INSPECTIONS 15
3.2 PERIODICAL INSPECTIONS TO BE CARRIED OUT BY YOUR CONTRACTOR (SUPPLIER) 17
4 FAULT ANALYSIS 19
4.1 GENERAL 19
5 MAINTENANCE 21
5.1 CONSULT YOUR CONTRACTOR (SUPPLIER) 21
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PREFACE
This operating manual is meant for the end-users of
Grasso reciprocating compressors and/or packages.
This manual describes all safety instructions, global
product information, required periodical inspections and
a trouble shooting list.
The users of this equipment have to follow all
instructions as given in this manual. In case of any doubt,
the supplier of the refrigeration plant should be
consulted.
For safety instructions refer to Chapter 1.
GEA Grasso herewith declares that the machines
mentioned are intended to be incorporated into a
refrigeration package (= assembly of refrigeration
components) or to be assembled with other equipment
to constitute machinery covered by Machinery Directive
2006/42/EC and do therefore comply with the provisions
of this directive that apply to partly completed machines.
Furthermore it is not allowed to put the machines
mentioned into service until the machinery in which it is
to be incorporated, or, of which it is to be a component,
has been found and declared to be in compliance with
the provisions of Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC i.e. as
a whole system including the machinery referred to in
this declaration.
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1. SAFETY
UM2012/v010
1. SAFETY
1.1 REGULATIONS
It is the task of the contractor (supplier) to inform and
explain to you as user, about the operation of the
compressor (Package).
Do respect all international, federal, state and local
safety regulations/legislations during inspection, trouble
shooting and operating this compressor (package).
1.2 MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS
All maintenance and repairs have to be carried out
only by your contractor (supplier), except the
maintenance as explicitly mentioned in this manual.
Do not open the compressor for service.
In compliance with the regulations of the Pressure
Equipment Directive it is mandatory that no changes be
made to the construction of pressurised parts such as the
crankcase housing, suction filter housing, oil
separator(s), etc.
After having run the initial 100 operating hours,it is
essential (in both new and modified plants) to replace
the running-in filter element with the permanent filter
element supplied. This operation is only to be carried out
by well-trained and qualified personnel. Consult your
supplier to carry out this service.
This manual includes a check list for daily, weekly and
monthly inspections. Temperatures and pressures need
to be checked at several point (eg setting of all pressure
safety switches). In case this manual does not give these
values then your contractor (supplier) should instruct
you with regard to their correct setiings. When reference
is made to the plant manual, your contractor (supplier)
should take care that your are instructed in being able to
undertake proper inspections and trouble shooting.
Hint
In case of shut downs longer than 1 month, it is advisable
to put warning labels on vital parts of the compressor
saying that the plant is out-of-operation and must not be
started up. Consult your contractor (supplier).
1.3 REFRIGERANT
The compressor/package must be filled with
REFRIGERANT, to be able to operate.
For safety instructions in relation to the refrigerant used
in this refrigeration plant, refer to separate information,
to be supplied by your contractor (supplier).
1.4 OIL
The compressor/package must be filled with oil, to be
able to operate.
For safety instructions in relation to the oil used in this
refrigeration plant, refer to separate information, to be
supplied by your contractor (supplier).
1.5 OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS PRESSURE
EQUIPMENT
For pressure equipment (oil separator OS, housing
suction gas strainer, Economizer ICH, compressor
package) manufactured by Grasso according to the
European Parliament's and the European Council's
Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EG of 29 May 1997
General
The following operating instructions according to the
European Pressure Equipment Directive No. 97/23/EG
(subsequently referred to as PED) describe how to
handle the pressure equipment for finishing and
installation.
The pressure equipment is intended for installation in
compressor packages or refrigeration plants and can be
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1. SAFETY
UM2012/v010
equipped with specific accessories during installation by
the customer.
The pressure equipment has been manufactured
according to the requirements of the PED. Its design
meets the requirements of the AD2000 regulations.
If applicable the finisher/installer (at installation in
compressor package or refrigeration plants and
equipping ready for operation) is obliged to prepare his
own risk analysis and operating manual according to the
European Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EG.
The type plates for identification of the pressure
equipment looks like this:
Fig. 1.5-1 Example type plate Housing suction gas strainer, Economizer
ICH, Compressor package
Fig. 1.5-2 Example Type plate oil separator
If the type plate is covered by finishing/installation,
make sure that the information can be seen by the end
user on another location on the pressure equipment.In
case of queries regarding the operating instructions,
please contact Grasso.
1.5.1 INTENDED USE
The pressure equipment described here may not be used
for any other than the stated purpose. The equipment
may only be installed by the finisher/installer and not by
the end user.
If the pressure equipment is not used according to these
regulations, safe operation of the equipment is not
guaranteed.
The finisher/installer or the operator and not the
manufacturer is responsible for all personal injury and
damage to property resulting from unintended use.
When not installed by Grasso the finisher/installer has to
properly install accessories for the pressure equipment.
The pressure equipment may not be damaged during
installation and it shall be painted after installation.
The pressure equipment may only be filled with
refrigerant of refrigerant groups L1 and L2, substance
groups 1 and 2. The pressure equipment has to be
installed in the compressor package or plant so that no
vibrations or pulsations can be transmitted to the
equipment.The connecting lines have to be installed to
be tension free. The pressure equipment is not designed
for dynamic loads.Where there is a risk of lightning
strikes, the pressure equipment must be earthed. The
finisher/installer has to include instructions for regular
inspection of the pressure equipment in his instruction
manual and has to define the end user's behaviour in
case of damage.
To avoid burns or frostbite, the pressure vessel may not
be touched in the operating state. This can be achieved
by means of contact guards. Install appropriate warning
signs.
Optionally supplied safety valves are only intended for
the protection of the oil separator against excessive
presssure caused by an external heat source during
standstill. This device may not be used for the protection
of the complete refrigeration system. (The
finisher/installer has to equip the installation with a
safety valve acc. EN 378)
The oil separator may only be installed vertically. The
foundation has to be of sufficient stiffness.
1.5.2 SAFETY NOTES AND WARNINGS
Visually inspect the pressure equipment with the naked
eye for corrosion, scoring and similar damage.
Check the equipment for shape consistency of the
connection areas. In particular check and assess the
sealing surfaces for possible damage such as scratches,
scoring or similar.
Keep corrosive substances such as acids away from the
oil separator.
Wall thicknesses may be no more than 1 mm less than
those given in the drawing.
Drain or suck off the medium (refrigerant/oil) prior to
service and repair. These tasks may only be carried out by
trained professionals and in compliance with the
appropriate safety regulations, see standard EN 378.
Carry out a detailed check of the previous operating
history, when an oil separator that has already been in
service is newly finished, installed and equipped. This
includes visual inspection (as described above for the
new part). For recurring tests please refer to EN 378 T1
to T4 and local regulations.
1.5.3 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE
Transport and store the oil separator in a dry
environment. Ensure that the oil separator is not subject
to damage relevant to its further use.
In case of transport damage notify Grasso immediately.
1.5.4 FINISHING AND INSTALLATION
Design details can be seen in drawings at Grasso.
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1. SAFETY
UM2012/v010
Compare the identification (type plate) with the
documentation included in the delivery before finishing,
installing and equipping the oil separator. Mark the oil
separator with the note "Do not use" until the issue has
been resolved with Grasso or an authorised third party
(named authority according to the PED).
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1. SAFETY
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2. INTRODUCTION
UM2012/v010
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 SURVEY COMPRESSOR TYPES
General
A survey of the full range of Grasso reciprocating
compressors, is given in the table below. Please refer to
the type plate of the compressor to determine the type
of compressor you are currently using.
Series
Type
a
Single stage Two stage
Grasso 12E
Grasso 212E
b
Grasso 2112E
c
Grasso 312E Grasso 3112E
Grasso 412E Grasso 4212E
Grasso 612E Grasso 5112E
Grasso 912E Grasso 6312E
Grasso 1212E Grasso 7212E
- Grasso 8412E
- Grasso 9312E
- Grasso 10212E
Grasso 12
Grasso 212 Grasso 2112
Grasso 312 Grasso 3112
Grasso 412 Grasso 4212
Grasso 612 Grasso 5112
Grasso 912 Grasso 6312
Grasso 1212 Grasso 7212
- Grasso 8412
- Grasso 9312
- Grasso 10212
Grasso 10
Grasso 210 Grasso 2110
Grasso 310 Grasso 3110
Grasso 410 Grasso 4210
Grasso 610 Grasso 6210
Grasso 810 -
Grasso 6
Grasso 46 -
Grasso 66 -
Grasso 86 -
Grasso 7S
Grasso 37S -
Grasso 47S -
Grasso 57S -
Grasso 67S -
Grasso 77S -
Grasso 87S -
Grasso 8S
Grasso 58S -
Grasso 68S -
Grasso 5HP
Grasso 35HP -
Grasso 45HP -
Grasso 55HP -
Grasso 65HP -
Grasso V
Grasso V 300 -
Grasso V 450 -
Grasso V 600 -
Grasso V 700 -
Grasso V 1100 -
Grasso V 1400
Grasso V 1800
Grasso V 2200
Grasso VCM
Grasso V 700 CM
Grasso V 1100 CM
Grasso V 1400 CM
Grasso V 1800 CM
Grasso V 2200 CM
a. Type designation CAN BE extended on the type plate of the compressor with
K(Approval), M(Marine application), ...
b. Grasso 12E compressor, with 2 cylinders.
c. Grasso 12E compressor, with 2 low pressure cylinders and 1 high pressure
cylinder.
Series
Type
a
Single stage Two stage
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2. INTRODUCTION
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3. INSPECTION
UM2012/v010
3. INSPECTION
3.1 DAILY, WEEKLY AND MONTHLY
INSPECTIONS
These inspections should be made during the operating
periods.
The table below sums up all the points on the
compressor that have to be inspected by the user.
The compressor can be factory fitted with gauges and
switches and/or with a micro processor system. In the
case of a micro processor system, refer to the user
manual(s) of the micro processor and/or to the plant
manual. Consult your contractor (supplier).
CHECK
POINTS
a
FREQUENCY
REMARKS
b
d
a
i
l
y
w
e
e
k
l
y
m
o
n
t
h
l
y
Oil level in
crankcase

Between 25% and 75%


height of the sight glass.
For topping up oil, consult
your contractor (supplier).
Colour of the
oil

The oil should be


transparently clear. A
disappearing white colour
points to dissolved
refrigerant.
Lubricating oil
pressure
difference

Grasso 12E, Grasso 12,


Grasso 10;
b
Range1.5-3.0
bar
Setting 2.0 bar
Grasso 6, Grasso 7;
b
Range 1.7 - 2.5 bar
Setting 2.2 bar
Min. control oil
pressure

Consult your contractor


(supplier):
Min. __________bar
b
Oil
temperature
max.

Refer to plant manual,


consult your contractor
(supplier);
Max. __________
o
C
Oil leakage of
shaft seal

Consult your contractor


(supplier).
Suction
pressure

Check against design


conditions. Refer to plant
manual, consult your
contractor (supplier);
Min./Max. __________
o
C
Discharge
pressure

Refer to plant manual,


consult your contractor
(supplier);
Min./Max. __________
o
C
Suction
superheat
Intermediate
superheat

R404A/R507 15 K
b
Other refrigerants 0K
b
Min. __________
o
C
Discharge
temperature
max.
Max. 170 C
b
.
Oil
temperature
min.

During compressor
standstill the lower part of
the crankcase must remain
warmer than the
surroundings: 20 C
(NH
3
) and 30 C
(halocarbons).
Cooling water
temperature
(if present)

Min. Actual condensing


temperature + 10 K
( Tc + 10 K)
b
a. During the first 50 operating hours the compressor should be checked
regularly for all the points mentioned above, at least twice every 24 hours
and more frequently in cases where irregularities are found.
b. Values of temperatures, pressures etc. as mentioned in this table, are given
by the manufacturer. Actual values for this refrigeration plant, currently used
can differ for the min./max. values as given in this table. Your supplier has to
inform you about the actual/currently used values for this plant.
CHECK
POINTS
a
FREQUENCY
REMARKS
b
d
a
i
l
y
w
e
e
k
l
y
m
o
n
t
h
l
y
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3. INSPECTION
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3. INSPECTION
UM2012/v010
3.2 PERIODICAL INSPECTIONS TO BE
CARRIED OUT BY YOUR CONTRACTOR
(SUPPLIER)
SAFETY
For a safe operation of the compressor/package, your
contractor (supplier) must carry out the checks as
mentioned in the table below.
Table 3.2-1 Inspections by contractor
CHECK
POINTS
a
a. During the first 50 operating hours the compressor should be checked
regularly for all the points mentioned above, at least twice every 24 hours
and more frequently in cases where irregularities are found.
FREQUENCY
REMARKS
d
a
i
l
y
w
e
e
k
l
y
m
o
n
t
h
l
y
Condition of
V-belts

Wear (fraying, cuts etc.)


and ensure that they do
not touch the groove
bottom.
Tension. Too low a tension
gives rise to excessive
flapping or oscillation in
operation. For correct
tension consult the
instructions given by the
V-belt supplier.
Adjustment
and operation
of pressure
safety switches

Refer to instructions of
switch manufacturer.
Capacity
control (if
provided)

The time lag between the


unloading and loading of
one cylinder or cylinder
group should generally be
at least 3 - 5 minutes.
Switching
frequency of
the
compressor

The time interval between


stopping and starting
should be at least
10minutes and between
starting and restarting 15
minutes.
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3. INSPECTION
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4. FAULT ANALYSIS
UM2012/v010
4. FAULT ANALYSIS
4.1 GENERAL
In case you find any problems in the installation, or one
of the issues mentioned in the inspection list are not OK,
(temperatures, oil level, pressures , ...), the compressor
must be switched off. Your contractor (supplier) should
inform you how the compressor has to be stopped
safely. Refer also to the plant manual.
If crankcase is frosted or wet: stop compressor
immediately.
Instructions in case of any failure;
1. Stop compressor
2. Make note of the information on the type plate of
the compressor
3. Consult your contractor (supplier)
Typical faults, to be solved by your contractor
(supplier) are:
Table 4.1-1 Typical faults
FAULTS
1 Discharge pressure too high
2 Discharge temperature too high
3 Suction pressure too high
4 Suction pressure too low
5 All cylinders inactive while compressor is operating
6 Too high oil consumption
7
Too high oil pressure during normal operation at working
temperature
8 Too low lubricating oil pressure
9
Too low or no control oil pressure (For Grasso 12, Grasso 12E
and Grasso10 only)
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4. FAULT ANALYSIS
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5. MAINTENANCE
UM2012/v010
5. MAINTENANCE
5.1 CONSULT YOUR CONTRACTOR
(SUPPLIER)
All maintenance works are only to be carried out by the
contractor (supplier).
Example of works to be carried out by your contractor;
Leak testing
Evacuation, drying the refrigeration system
Initial oil charging
Initial refrigerant charging
Adjustment of all safety devices
Checking direction of rotation compressor
Installing drive guard
Initial start of the compressor
Preparing the compressor for a shut down period (>6
months)
Topping up oil
Draining and change of oil
Evacuation and purging compressor
Replacement of filters
Etc.