Meeting 58'th Soc of ExplorationGeophysicists, Annual

rs RolrBy D S H e n n - v E L O c t r yE p r HS o u T D I N G S Arunlvs oF Gnourun
L . J . B a r r o w sa n d D . A . G a h r , L o c k h e e d - E M S C 0 l A . T . M a z z e l l a , U . S . E n v ' i r o n m e n t aP r o t e c t i o n A g e n c y

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S e i s m i c g r o u n d r o l l ' i s g e n e r a l) y d o m ' i n a t c d s b y R a y l e i g h - m o d e u r f ' a c ew a v e s . T h e g r o u p v e l o c i t y d i s p e r s i o n r e l a t i o n o f R a y l e i g h w a v e sc a n b e f o u n d by transformingthe signals into instantaneousa m p l l t u d e c o n t o u r m a p sa n d t h e n p j c k l n g a r r i v a l times of ridges on these maps. lhese data can be inverted into a modelof shear velocity versus depth b y u s ' i n g t h e L a n c z o si n v e r s e a l o n g w i t h a s u ' i t a b l e forward model. Werecorded ground rol'l at two sites near L a s V e g a s . O n e s i t e w a s o n a s a n d fl a t , a n d t h e s modelshowed hear velocity increasingwith depth. The other wason a desert p1aya,and the model s h o w e d h e a r v e l o c i t y i n v e r s i o n , c o n s ' i s t e n tw i t h ; a s c sun-baked lay crust overlying sol'ter mud. The i n v e r s e m o d e l i n gs t a t i s t i c s i m p l y t h e t e c h n i q u e c a n resolve the shear velocit'ies and thicknessesof one or two layers on a half space. I N T R O t ) UIC TN O I n g i n e e r i n g - s c a l e r e f r a c t j o n s o u n d i n g su s e t h e t r a v e l t ' i m e s o f c o m p r e s s i o n a lw a v e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e t h i c k n e s s e sa n d v q ) o c i t i e s o f s u b s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l s . T h e r e f r a c ' t i o n t e c h n i q u e f a i l s w h e na h i g h - s p e e dl a y e r o v e r l i e s s l o w e r m a t e r i a l . I t a l s o s u f f e r s b e c a u s e ,f o r s o m ee n g i n e e r i n gs t u d i e s , c o m p r e s s i o n av e l o c ' i t i e s a r e n o t a s u s e f u l a s s h e a r l v e l o c i t ' i e s . A n a ' l t e r n a t i v e s o u n d i n gt e c h n i q u e b a s e d o n t h e a n a l y s ' i so f s e i s m i c g r o u n d r o l I a v o i d s t h e s e s h o r t c o m i n g s . T h ' i s a l t e r n a t i v e m e t h o di s a n a d a p t a t i o n o f p r o c e d u r e s d e v e l o p e db y e a r t h q u a k e s e i s m o l o g ' i s t s o i n v e s t i g a t e r d e e pc r u s t a l a n d u p p e r t mantle properties of the earth. S e i s m i c g r o u n d r o l I u s u a ll y i s d o m ' i n a t e d y b R a y l e i g h - m o ds u r f a c e w a v e s . T h e v e l o c ' i t y o f t h e s e e w a v e s i s p r i m a r i l y d e p e n d e n to n t h e s h e a r v e l o c ' i t y o f t h e r n a t e r i a l s i n w h i c h t h e d i s p l a c e m e n to c c u r s , a n d d i s p l a c e m e n d e c r e a s e sw i t h d e p t h n o r m a l i z e d b y t wavelength. If shear velocity varies with depth t h e n t h e R a y ' l e i g hw a v e v e l o c ' i t y i s d e p e n d e n to n frequency. The dependence f veloc'ity on frequency o i s t h e d ' i s p e r s i o nr e l a t j o n , a n d d ' i s p e r s i o n r e l a t i o n s c a n b e ' i n v e r t e di n t o m o d e l s o f s h e a r v e l o c i t y v e r s u s depth. W e r e c o r d e dw a 1 - a w a y n o j s e s p r e a d s , k r e f r a c t i o n s o u n d i n g s ,a n d g r o u n d r o ' l l a t t w o s j t e s in the tldorado Val1eysouth of Las Vegas,Nevada. O n es i t e w a s o n a n a l l u v i a l s a n d fa t w i t h p o o r l y l c o n s o l i d a t e ds a n d y s o j l . Thc other was on hard, p sun-baked laya clay over softer mud. Both sltes a r e t o p o g r a p h i c a l ' l yf l a t a n d a r e u n d e r l a i n b y undeformed l I uvi um. a 0ur field equipmentncluded a l2-channcl i '100 seismograph, H z l a n d p h o n e s ,a n d t r j - a x j a l f o r c e - b a l a n c e d c c e le r o m e t e r s . T h e a c c e le r o m e t e r s a w e r e s e ' l e c t e df o r t h e s u r f a c e - w a v e t u d i e s b e c a u s e s

t h e y h a v e f l a t p h a s e a n d a m p l i t u d e r e s p o n s e so v e r t h e f r e q u e n c yr a n g e o f i n t e r e s t ( 1 0 t o 1 0 0 H z ) . A t the sandl'lat site, the sourcewas a 12-gauge drop-rod seisgutr. At the playa site, wc used a s l e d g e l r a n r n ew i t h s t r i k e p l a t e b e c a u s et h e s u r f a c e r was too hard to al low us to dig holes f or tlte s e i s g u n . T h e d a t a w e r e p r o c e s s e do n p e r s o n a l computers. The sandflat site The noise spread from the sandilat site s h o w e dc l e a r f i r s t a r r i v a l s a n d a t l e a s t t w o p a c k a g e so f s u r f a c e - w a v ee n e r g y . T h e s h a ll o w l r e f r a c t i o n s o u n d i n g s h o w e da c o m p r e s s i o n a v e l o c i t y ' l n c r e a s ef r o m l l 4 l t o 2 6 . | 0 f t / s e c a r o u n d f o u r f e e t . Figure f is representative of the vertical-axis accilerometer records from this s'ite.
t

, To find the dispersion relation, we transformed the accelerometer records into t i n s t a n t a n e o u s - a m p l i t u d ec o n t o u r m a p s s h o w ' i n g h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e n e r g y o n a t i m e a n d f r e q u e n c yp l a n e ( D z i e w o n s k i , t l l o c h , a n d L a n d ' i s m a n1; 9 6 9 ) . T h e s e were formedby first comb-filtering the signals, w h e r e t h e c o m bw a s a s u ' i t e o f 5 l n a r r o w - b a n d p a s s G a u s s i a nf j ' l t e r s w i t h c e n t e r f r e q u e n c .i le s0 0 Hertz. l o g a r i t h m i c a l 1 y s p a c e d b e t w e e nl 0 a n d l h e t i m e - d o m a i nr e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a G a u s s i a n n frequencyfilter is an exponent'ial1y rodulated c o s i n e w a v e , a n d t h e b a n d w i d t h so f t h e f i l t e r s w e r e selected so that the plot-bandwidthin the Irequency d ' i r e c t ' i o n e q u a I s t h e p l o t - b a n d w ' i d t ho f t h e exponential envelope'in the time direction. Complex s i g n a l s w e r e f o r m e df r o m t h e f i l t e r e d s ' i g n a l s ( r e a 1 part) and their Hilbert transforms ('imaginary part). T h e c o n t o u r e d q u a n t ' i t ' i e s a r e t h e n r o d uil o f l t h e c o m p e x s i g n a ls . i F ' i g u r e 2 i s t h e j n s t a n t a n e o u s - a m ptfu d e c o n t o u r m a p o f t h e s i g n a l s h o w ni n f i g u r e 1 . F ' i g u r e 2 s h o w st w o d ' i s t ' i n c t r i d g e s . T h e a r r i v a l t i m e s o f the crests of these ridges were picked at s'ix f r e q u e n c ' i e so n t h e m a i n r i d g e a n d a t t w o f r e q u e n c i e s o n t h e s m a l ' l e r r l d g e . T h e s ea r r i v a l t i m e s , a l o n g w with those from the other acce'lerograms, ere used to define the dispers'ionrelat'lons (frequency, group v e l o c i t y , a n d s t a n d a r d d e v ' i a t i o n ). The inverse problem'is to find the model g w h o s e R a y l e i g h - w a v e r o u p v e l o c i t ' i e s a r e s i r n il a r t o t h e o b s e r v e dd a t a . F o r t h e c u r r e n t a p p l i c a t i o n , t h e m o d e l c o n s i s t s o f a f i n i t e n u m b e ro f f l a t l a y e r s o n an infinite half-space. All materials were assumed i, t o b e h o m o g e n e o u s s o t r o p i c , P o i s s o n i a n ,a n d t o h a v e a d e n s i t y o l ' 2 . 5 g n / c c . L a y e r t l l i c k n e s s e sa n d shear velocit'ies are modelvariables and the b a s e m e n ts h e a r v e l o c i t ' i e s a r e f i x e d . T h e f o r w a r d p r o bI e m h a s b e e n s o I v e d ( T h o m s o n , 9 5 0 ; H a s k e I , I I 'l953). a Schwab nd Knopoff (.|972) list an p a p p r o p r i a t e F 0 R T R A Nr o g r a m w h i c h w a s c o n v e r t e d t o B A S I Cf o r o u r a p p l ' i c a t ' i o n .

Theridges on the 'instantaneous-amplitude

SHrnn-vELcctrY EPTHouNDI GS s D N
c o n t o u r m a p sa r e c o n t i n u o u s , s o t l t e d a t a m a y c o n t a i n o on arbitrarily large number f valucs. Also, the m o d e l m a y c o n t a i n m a n y l a y e r s . H o w e v e r ,t h e a m o u n t 'in the data 'is Iimited and can of real information s a t i s f i e d w i t h a m o d e lh a v i n g o n l y a f e w l a y e r s . be l h e j n v e r s e p r o b l e n rt h e n j s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i o v e r d e t e r mn e d a n d u n d e r c o n s t r an e d . J a c k s o n ( I 9 ? 2) i h a s s h o w nh o w t h e L a n c z o si n v e r s e c a n b e u s e d t o s o l v e t h i s g e n e r a ' lc l a s s o f p r o b l e m , a n d B r a i l l e a n d K e l l e r ( . l 9 7 5 ) h a v e s h o w nh o w i t c a n b e a p p l i e d t o R m o d e l ' i n g a y ) e i g hw a v e s f r o m e a r t h q u a k e s . I n addltiorr to a best-fitting model, the Lanczos j n v e r s e a l s o p r o v i d e s t h e s t a n d a r dd e v i a t i o n s i n t h e m o d e l p a r a m e t e r s a n d a m e a s u r eo f t h e a m o u n t o [ ' i n d e p e n d e n'ti n f o r m a t j o ni n t h e d a t a . truly F ' i g u r e3 i s a f o u r - l a y e r m o d e l f i t t o t h e A m o d e lw a s d i s p e r s l o n d a t a l ' r o mt h e s a n d l ' l a t s i t e . f irst fit to the six data points on the majn rldge (the fundamental-modllayleiglt wave) and then was e m o d l f i e d f o r t h e t w o p o i n t s o n t h e s e c o n dr i d g e . t T h i s r i d g e i n i t i a l l y w a s a s s u m e do b e t h e w f l r s t - h i g h e r - m o d eR a y l e ' i g h a v e , b u t t h e m o d e l d i d not converge. We then noted that the secondridgc f a ! / a s c l o s e t o t h e s e c o n d - h ' l g h e r - n r o d{e y l e i g h w a ' v eo l ' t h e m o d e l t h a t w a s d e v e l o p e df r o m t h e f u n d a m e n t a l t m o d ed a t a . T h e m o d e l i n f i g u r e 3 a s s u m e s h a t t h i s n ridge is the second-higher rode. Ihe error bars on figure 3 correspondto the actual standard d e v i a t i o n s ' i n t t r e d ' i s p e r s j o nd a t a a n d s i x d e g r e e s o l ' s f r e e d o m' i n t h e i n v e r s i o n . A s s u m i n g h e a r - v e o c i t y l d e p t h s o u n d i n g so f t h e u p p e r 1 0 f e e t a r e u s e f u l i f l a y e r t h i c k n e s s e s a n d v e l o c ' i t i e s a r e d e t e r m i n e dt o w ' i t h ' i n+ I f o o t a n d 1 . l 0 0 f t , / s e c r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e n these data are sufficient to uniquely resolve a modelof two layers on a half-space. The playa site The playa site was selected for the b v e l o c i t y i n v e r s i o n f o r ^ m e d y t h e s u n - b a k e dc l a y overlying mud. The noise spreadfrom th'is site s h o w e do n e g r o u n d r o l l w a v e \ r a ' i n , a n d t h e s h a l l o w u r e f r a c t i o n s o u n d i n g s h o w e d n ' i f o r mv e l o c i t i e s o f 1204 ftlsec, consistent with headwavein the clay s crust. Thegroundro'll is noisy at this site, so e t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s - a m p l i t u d c o n t o u r m a p so f a ' l l v e r t i c a ' l a n d r a d ' i a l a c c e l e r o g r a m sr e c o r d e d a t 2 0 0 f e e t ( f o u r s i g n a l s ) w e r e n o r m a l ' i z e d ,t h e n a d d e d t o g i v e o n e c o m p o s i t em a p ( f i g u r e 4 ) . T h e c i r c u ' l a r d e p r e s s i o no n t h e r i d g e o n t h i s m a p j s d u e t o d e s t r u c t i v e ' i n t e r l t e r e n c er a t h e r t h a n t o a l a c k o f 'The dots on figure 4 are the picked arrival energy. times usedto derive the dispersion data, and the solid line is the dispersion relation of the model fit to these data (figure 5). The error bars on f i g u r e 5 c o r r e s p o n dt o a s s u m e d t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s s o f t 2 0 f t / s e c ' i n t h e d a t a a n d t h r e e d e g r e e so f f r e e d o mj n t h e i n v e r s i o n : e n o u g ht o r e s o l v e t h e t h i c k n e s s a n d s h e a r " v c ' l o c i t i e so f t l r e h i g h - v c l o c i t y crustal'layer. CONC I (JNS LUS lhese exper.imentsuggesttlrat th'is techniqueprovides valid shear-ve'loc"ity epth d sound'ings. Suchsound'ings ight be used to m d c t e r m i n ct h e c x c a v a t i o n p r o p e r t i e s o f s h a I l o w m a t e r i a l s o r t o a n a l y z e t l r e d y n a m i c r e s p o n s eo f f o u n d a t ' i o n s . D e e p e rp e n e t r a t ' i o nm i g h t b e o b t a i n e d b y e x t e n d i n g t h e l o w e r e n d o f t h e f r e q u e n c yw i n d o w .

[aTI cl
Althoughthe researchdescribed in this a r t i c l e h a s b e e n f u n d e dw h o ' l l y b y t t r e U n i t e d S t a t e s E n v i r o n m e n t a lP r o t e c t i o n A g e n c yt h r o u g h c o n t r a c t 68-03-3245 o Lockheed-IMSCO, has not becn t it subjected to Agencyreview and thereIore does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f ' l e c t t h e v ' i e w so f t h e A g e n c ya n d n o o f f i c i a l e n d o r s e m e ns h o u l d b e i n f e r r e d . t REFIRINCES Brailel, L. t,rland G. n. Keller, 1975, Fine . structure oI the crust inferred fronr I inear i r r v e r s ' i o n f R a y l e i g h - w a v e i s p e r s ' i o n : B u l ' l. , S e i s o d S o c. A f f i . 6 5 , 7 ' l - 8 3 . , .I969, D z i e w o n s k ' in . , S , B l o c h a n d M . L a n d i s m a n , A , t e c h n i q u e f o r t h e a n a l y s is o f t r a n s i e n t s e i s m i c signals: Bul1., Seis. Soc. Am.,5L, 427-444. Haskell, N. n., 1953, The dispersion oI surface wavesirr multilayered media: Bull., Seis. Soc. Am. _ 4 _ 3I_? - 3 4 . , Jackson,0. 0., 1912, I nterpretation of inaccurate ' i n s u ff i c i e n t a n d i n c o n s s t e n t d a t a : G e o p h y s . i J. R o y . A s t r . S o c ., ? 3 . , 9 - - ' t 0 9 . l S c h w a b ,F . A . a n d L . K n o p o f f , 1 9 7 ? , F a s t s u r [ a c e w a v e a n d f r e e m o d ec o m p u t a t ' i o n s i n B o l t , B . A . t d . , , M e t h o d si n c o m p u t a t i o n a l p h y s i c s : A c a d e m i cP r e s s Inc., Bl-.l80. .l950, T h o m s o nW . T . , , T r a n s m ' i s s i o orf e l a s t i c w a v e s r through a stratjfied solid medium: J. Appl. Phys., ? 1, B g - 9 3 .

f S a n d f l a t S i t e , S 1 / R 2 , A D R - v e r t , 2 g a u g e , 2 O Ot , W t o E 1
60

40

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-40

-60 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 10 0 0 Time(milliseconds)

Figure I

Representative ignal from the sandflat s site.

2 1.9 1.8 1.7
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S a n d f l a tS i t e , S 1 / R 2 , A D R - v i b r t i c a1,2 g a u g € , 2 O 0 t , W t o E f f

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F i g u r e2 .

tl I n s t a n t a n e o u s - a mjp u d e c o n t o u r m a p o f s i g n a l s h o w ni n f i g u r e l .

Shear Velocity(ft./sec.) 500 S u r fa c e 1000 1500

3
o. o

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F ig u r e 3 .

S h e a r - v e ' l o c ' i t y e p t h s o u n d i n go f t h e d sandflat site.

Playa Site 1, ADR-alf, hammer,2AO ft, average

1.8 1.7
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O c

1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1

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Ti me (mi l l i seconds)

Figure 4.

C o m p o s j t e f f o u r i ns t a n t a n e o u-sa m p j t u d e o I c o n t o u r m a p sf r o m t h e p l a y a s i t e .

Shear Velocity (ft./sec.) 400 S u r fa c e 600 800 10 0 0 1 200

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F i g u r e 5 . S h e a r - v e l o c i t y d e p t h so u n d 'n g o f t h e i
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