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Matrix multiplication

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


In mathematics, matrix multiplication is a binary operation that takes a pair of matrices, and produces another
matrix. Numbers such as the real or complex numbers can be multiplied according to elementary arithmetic. On
the other hand, matrices are arrays of numbers, so there is no unique way to define "the" multiplication of
matrices. As such, in general the term "matrix multiplication" refers to a number of different ways to multiply
matrices. The key features of any matrix multiplication include: the number of rows and columns the original
matrices have (called the "size", "order" or "dimension"), and specifying how the entries of the matrices generate
the new matrix.
Like vectors, matrices of any size can be multiplied by scalars, which amounts to multiplying every entry of the
matrix by the same number. Similar to the entrywise definition of adding or subtracting matrices, multiplication
of two matrices of the same size can be defined by multiplying the corresponding entries, and this is known as the
Hadamard product.
One can form many other definitions. However, the most useful definition can be motivated by linear equations
and linear transformations on vectors, which have numerous applications in applied mathematics, physics, and
engineering. This definition is often called the matrix product.
[1][2]
Although this definition is not commutative, it
still retains the associative property and is distributive over entrywise addition of matrices, and leads to the
definitions of: an identity matrix (analogous to multiplying real numbers by the number 1), an inverse matrix
(analogous to the multiplicative inverse of a number), powers and nth roots of a square matrix, consequently the
matrix exponential can be defined by a power series of a square matrix, and so on. A consequence of this matrix
product is determinant multiplicativity. This matrix product is an important operation in matrix groups, and the
theory of group representations and irreps.
This article will use the following notational conventions: matrices are represented by capital letters in bold,
vectors in lowercase bold, and entries of vectors and matrices are italic (since they are scalars). Index notation is
often the clearest way to express definitions, and will be used as standard in the literature.
Contents
1 Scalar multiplication
1.1 General definition
1.2 Examples
2 Matrix product (two matrices)
2.1 General definition
2.2 Illustration
2.3 Examples
3 Properties of matrix multiplication
3.1 General
3.1.1 All matrices
3.1.2 Square matrices only
3.2 Linear transformations
4 Matrix product (any number)
4.1 Chain multiplication
4.1.1 General definition
4.2 Powers of matrices
4.3 Powers of diagonal matrices
5 The inner and outer products
5.1 Examples
6 Algorithms for efficient matrix multiplication
6.1 Communication-avoiding and distributed algorithms
7 Other forms of multiplication
7.1 Hadamard product
7.2 Frobenius product
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7.3 Kronecker product
8 See also
9 Notes
10 References
11 External links
Scalar multiplication
Main article: Scalar multiplication
The simplest form of multiplication associated with matrices is scalar multiplication.
General definition
Left scalar multiplication
The left multiplication of a matrix A with a scalar gives another matrix A of the same size as A. The entries of
A are given by
explicitly:
Right scalar multiplication
Similarly, the right multiplication of a matrix A with a scalar is defined to be
When the underlying ring is commutative, for example, the real or complex number field, these two
multiplications are the same, and are simply called scalar multiplication. However, for matrices over a more
general ring that are not commutative, such as the quaternions, they may not be equal.
Examples
For a real scalar and matrix:
For quaternion scalars and matrices:
Matrix product (two matrices)
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Arithmetic process of multiplying numbers
(solid lines) in row i in matrix A and
column j in matrix B, then adding the terms
(dashed lines) to obtain entry ij in the final
matrix.
Assume two matrices are to be multiplied (the generalization to any number is discussed below). If A is an nm
matrix and B is an mp matrix, the result AB of their multiplication is an np matrix defined only if the number of
columns m in A is equal to the number of rows m in B.
General definition
When multiplying matrices, the elements of the rows in the first
matrix are multiplied with corresponding columns in the second
matrix (depicted in the image right). One may compute each entry in
the third matrix one at a time.
For two matrices
where necessarily the number of columns in A equals the number of rows in B, in this case m, the matrix product
AB is denoted without symbol (no multiplication signs or dots) to be the np matrix:
[3][4]
where AB has entries defined by:
Treating the rows and columns in each matrix as row and column vectors respectively, this entry is also their
vector dot product:
(See below for further details). Usually the entries are numbers or expressions, but can even be matrices
themselves (see block matrix). The matrix product can still be calculated exactly the same way.
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Illustration
The figure to the right illustrates diagrammatically the product of two
matrices A and B, showing how each intersection in the product
matrix corresponds to a row of A and a column of B.
The values at the intersections marked with circles are:
Examples
Square matrix and column vector
If
their matrix product is:
yet BA is not defined.
The product of a square matrix multiplied by a column matrix arises naturally in linear algebra; for solving linear
equations and representing linear transformations. By choosing a, b, c, d in A appropriately, A can represent a
variety of transformations such as rotations, scaling and reflections, shears, of a geometric shape in space.
Square matrices
If
their matrix products are:
and
In this case, both products AB and BA are defined, and the entries show that AB and BA are not equal in general.
Multiplying square matrices which represent linear transformations corresponds to the composite transformation
(see below for details). Also, similarity transformations involving similar matrices are matrix products of square
matrices, which requires the notion of an inverse matrix (see also below).
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Properties of matrix multiplication
General
Analogous to numbers (elements of a field), matrices satisfy the following general properties, although there is one
subtlety, due to the nature of matrix multiplication.
All matrices
Not commutative:
In general:
because AB and BA may not be simultaneously defined, and even if they are they may still not be equal. This
is contrary to ordinary multiplication of numbers. To specify the ordering of matrix multiplication in words;
"pre-multiply (or left multiply) A by B" means BA, while "post-multiply (or right multiply) A by C" means AC.
As long as the entries of the matrix come from a ring that has an identity, and n > 1 there is a pair of nn
noncommuting matrices over the ring. A notable exception is that the identity matrix (or any scalar multiple
of it) commutes with every square matrix.
1.
Associative: 2.
Distributive over matrix addition: 3.
Scalar multiplication is compatible with matrix multiplication:
and
where is a scalar. If the entries of the matrix are real or complex numbers (or from any other commutative
ring), then all four quantities are equal. More generally, all four are equal if belongs to the center of the ring
of entries of the matrix, because in this case X = X for all matrices X.
4.
Transpose:
where T denotes the transpose, the interchange of row i with column i in a matrix. This identity holds for any
matrices over a commutative ring, but not for all rings in general. Note that A and B are reversed.
5.
Hermitian conjugate: If A and B have complex entries, then
where denotes the Hermitian conjugate of a matrix (complex conjugate and transposed).
6.
Traces: The trace of a product AB is independent of the order of A and B: 7.
Square matrices only
Main article: square matrix
Identity element: If A is a square matrix, then
where I is the identity matrix of the same order.
1.
Inverse matrix: If A is a square matrix, there may be an inverse matrix A
1
of A such that
If this property holds then A is an invertible matrix, if not A is a singular matrix. Moreover,
2.
Determinants: The determinant of a product AB is the product of the determinants of square matrices A and
B (not defined when the underlying ring is not commutative):
Since det(A) and det(B) are just numbers and so commute, det(AB) = det(A)det(B) = det(B)det(A) = det(BA),
even when AB BA.
3.
Linear transformations
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Main article: Linear transformations
Matrices offer a concise way of representing linear transformations between vector spaces, and matrix
multiplication corresponds to the composition of linear transformations. The matrix product of two matrices can
be defined when their entries belong to the same ring, and hence can be added and multiplied.
Let U, V, and W be vector spaces over the same field with given bases, S: V W and T: U V be linear
transformations and ST: U W be their composition.
Suppose that A, B, and C are the matrices representing the transformations S, T, and ST with respect to the given
bases.
Then AB = C, that is, the matrix of the composition (or the product) of linear transformations is the product of their
matrices with respect to the given bases.
Matrix product (any number)
Chain multiplication
Main article: Matrix chain multiplication
Matrix multiplication can be extended to the case of more than two matrices, provided that for each sequential
pair, their dimensions match.
General definition
The product of N matrices A
1
, A
2
, ..., A
N
with sizes n
0
n
1
, n
1
n
2
, ..., n
N 1
n
N
, is the n
0
n
N
matrix:
The same properties will hold, as long as the ordering of matrices is not changed. The number of possible ways of
grouping n matrices for multiplication is equal to the (n 1)th Catalan number.
For example, if A, B, C, and D are respectively mp, pq, qr, and rn matrices, then there are 5 ways of grouping
them without changing their order, and
is an mn matrix.
Powers of matrices
Square matrices can be multiplied by themselves repeatedly in the same way as ordinary numbers, because they
always have the same number of rows and columns. This repeated multiplication can be described as a power of
the matrix, a special case of the ordinary matrix product. On the contrary, rectangular matrices do not have the
same number of rows and columns so they can never be raised to a power. An nn matrix A raised to a positive
integer k is defined as
and the following identities hold, where is a scalar:
Zero power
where I is the identity matrix. This is parallel to the zeroth power of any number which equals unity.
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Scalar multiplication
Determinant
The naive computation of matrix powers is to multiply k times the matrix A to the result, starting with the identity
matrix just like the scalar case. This can be improved using exponentiation by squaring, a method commonly used
for scalars. For diagonalizable matrices, an even better method is to use the eigenvalue decomposition of A.
Another method based on the CayleyHamilton theorem finds an identity using the matrices' characteristic
polynomial, producing a more effective equation for A
k
in which a scalar is raised to the required power, rather
than an entire matrix.
Powers of diagonal matrices
A special case is the power of a diagonal matrix A.
Since the product of diagonal matrices amounts to simply multiplying corresponding diagonal elements together,
the power k of a diagonal matrix A will have entries raised to the power. Explicitly;
meaning it is easy to raise a diagonal matrix to a power. When raising an arbitrary matrix (not necessarily a
diagonal matrix) to a power, it is often helpful to exploit this property by diagonalizing the matrix first.
The inner and outer products
Given two column vectors a and b, the Euclidean inner product and outer product are the simplest special cases of
the matrix product, by transposing the column vectors into row vectors.
[5]
The inner product
is a column vector multiplied on the left by a row vector:
More explicitly,
The outer product
is a row vector multiplied on the left by a column vector:
where
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Matrix product (in terms of inner product)
Suppose that the first nm matrix A is decomposed into its row vectors a
i
, and the second mp matrix B into its
column vectors b
i
:
[1]
where
The entries in the introduction were given by:
It is also possible to express a matrix product in terms of concatenations of products of matrices and row or
column vectors:
These decompositions are particularly useful for matrices that are envisioned as concatenations of particular
types of row vectors or column vectors, e.g. orthogonal matrices (whose rows and columns are unit vectors
orthogonal to each other) and Markov matrices (whose rows or columns sum to 1).
Matrix product (in terms of outer product)
An alternative method results when the decomposition is done the other way around, i.e. the first matrix A is
decomposed into column vectors a
i
and the second matrix B into row vectors b
i
:
where this time
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What is the fastest algorithm for
matrix multiplication?
List of unsolved problems in
computer science
The bound on over time.
This method emphasizes the effect of individual column/row pairs on the result, which is a useful point of view
with e.g. covariance matrices, where each such pair corresponds to the effect of a single sample point.
Examples
Suppose
using the inner product approach:
while the outer product approach gives:
Algorithms for efficient matrix multiplication
The running time of square matrix multiplication, if carried out navely, is
. The running time for multiplying rectangular matrices (one
mp-matrix with one pn-matrix) is , however, more efficient
algorithms exist, such as Strassen's algorithm, devised by Volker Strassen in
1969 and often referred to as "fast matrix multiplication". It is based on a
way of multiplying two 22-matrices which requires only
7 multiplications (instead of the usual 8), at the expense
of several additional addition and subtraction operations.
Applying this recursively gives an algorithm with a
multiplicative cost of . Strassen's
algorithm is more complex, and the numerical stability is
reduced compared to the nave algorithm.
[6]
Nevertheless, it appears in several libraries, such as
BLAS, where it is significantly more efficient for matrices
with dimensions n > 100,
[7]
and is very useful for large
matrices over exact domains such as finite fields, where
numerical stability is not an issue.
The current algorithm with the lowest known
exponent k is a generalization of the Coppersmith
Winograd algorithm that has an asymptotic complexity of
O(n
2.3727
) thanks to Vassilevska Williams.
[8]
This
algorithm, and the Coppersmith-Winograd algorithm on
which it is based, are similar to Strassen's algorithm: a
way is devised for multiplying two kk-matrices with
fewer than k
3
multiplications, and this technique is
applied recursively. However, the constant coefficient
hidden by the Big O notation is so large that these algorithms are only worthwhile for matrices that are too large to
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Block matrix multiplication. In
the 2D algorithm, each
processor is responsible for one
submatrix of C. In the 3D
algorithm, every pair of
submatrices from A and B that
is multiplied is assigned to one
processor.
handle on present-day computers.
[9]
Since any algorithm for multiplying two nn-matrices has to process all 2n
2
-entries, there is an asymptotic lower
bound of operations. Raz (2002) proves a lower bound of for bounded coefficient arithmetic
circuits over the real or complex numbers.
Cohn et al. (2003, 2005) put methods such as the Strassen and CoppersmithWinograd algorithms in an entirely
different group-theoretic context, by utilising triples of subsets of finite groups which satisfy a disjointness
property called the triple product property (TPP). They show that if families of wreath products of Abelian groups
with symmetric groups realise families of subset triples with a simultaneous version of the TPP, then there are
matrix multiplication algorithms with essentially quadratic complexity. Most researchers believe that this is
indeed the case.
[10]
However, Alon, Shpilka and Umans have recently shown that some of these conjectures
implying fast matrix multiplication are incompatible with another plausible conjecture, the sunflower
conjecture.
[11]
Because of the nature of matrix operations and the layout of matrices in memory, it is typically possible to gain
substantial performance gains through use of parallelization and vectorization. It should therefore be noted that
some lower time-complexity algorithms on paper may have indirect time complexity costs on real machines.
Freivalds' algorithm is a simple Monte Carlo algorithm that given matrices verifies in time if
.
Communication-avoiding and distributed algorithms
On modern architectures with hierarchical memory, the cost of loading and
storing input matrix elements tends to dominate the cost of arithmetic. On a
single machine this is the amount of data transferred between RAM and cache,
while on a distributed memory multi-node machine it is the amount transferred
between nodes; in either case it is called the communication bandwidth. The
nave algorithm using three nested loops uses communication bandwidth.
Cannon's algorithm, also known as the 2D algorithm, partitions each input matrix
into a block matrix whose elements are submatrices of size by ,
where M is the size of fast memory.
[12]
The nave algorithm is then used over the
block matrices, computing products of submatrices entirely in fast memory. This
reduces communication bandwidth to , which is asymptotically
optimal (for algorithms performing computation).
[13][14]
In a distributed setting with p processors arranged in a by 2D mesh, one
submatrix of the result can be assigned to each processor, and the product can be
computed with each processor transmitting words, which is
asymptotically optimal assuming that each node stores the minimum
elements.
[14]
This can be improved by the 3D algorithm, which arranges the
processors in a 3D cube mesh, assigning every product of two input submatrices
to a single processor. The result submatrices are then generated by performing a
reduction over each row.
[15]
This algorithm transmits words per
processor, which is asymptotically optimal.
[14]
However, this requires replicating
each input matrix element times, and so requires a factor of more
memory than is needed to store the inputs. This algorithm can be combined with
Strassen to further reduce runtime.
[15]
"2.5D" algorithms provide a continuous
tradeoff between memory usage and communication bandwidth.
[16]
Other forms of multiplication
There are other ways to multiply two matrices, in fact simpler than the definition above.
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Hadamard product
Main article: Hadamard product (matrices)
For two matrices of the same dimensions, there is the Hadamard product, also known as the element-wise
product, pointwise product, entrywise product and the Schur product.
[17]
For two matrices A and B of the
same dimensions, the Hadamard product A B is a matrix of the same dimensions, which has elements
explicitly:
Due to the characteristic entrywise procedure, this operation is identical to many multiplying ordinary numbers
(mn of them) all at once; hence the Hadamard product is commutative, associative and distributive over addition,
and is a principal submatrix of the Kronecker product. It appears in lossy compression algorithms such as JPEG.
Frobenius product
The Frobenius inner product, sometimes denoted A : B, is the component-wise inner product of two matrices as
though they are vectors. It is also the sum of the entries of the Hadamard product. Explicitly,
where "tr" denotes the trace of a matrix and vec denotes vectorization. This inner product induces the Frobenius
norm.
Kronecker product
Main article: Kronecker product
For two matrices A and B of any different dimensions mn and pq respectively (no constraints on the dimensions
of each matrix), the Kronecker product denoted A B is a matrix with dimensions mpnq, which has
elements
[citation needed]
,
where represents the floor function.
Explicitly:
This is the application of the more general tensor product applied to matrices.
See also
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Basic Linear Algebra
Subprograms
Composition of relations
CoppersmithWinograd
algorithm
Cracovian
Logical matrix
Matrix addition
Matrix exponentiation
Matrix inversion
Strassen algorithm
Notes
^
a b
Encyclopaedia of Physics (2nd Edition), R.G. Lerner, G.L. Trigg, VHC publishers, 1991, ISBN (Verlagsgesellschaft)
3-527-26954-1, ISBN (VHC Inc.) 0-89573-752-3
1.
^ McGraw Hill Encyclopaedia of Physics (2nd Edition), C.B. Parker, 1994, ISBN 0-07-051400-3 2.
^ Linear Algebra (4th Edition), S. Lipcshutz, M. Lipson, Schaum's Outlines, McGraw Hill (USA), 2009, ISBN
978-0-07-154352-1
3.
^ Mathematical methods for physics and engineering, K.F. Riley, M.P. Hobson, S.J. Bence, Cambridge University Press, 2010,
ISBN 978-0-521-86153-3
4.
^ Mathematical methods for physics and engineering, K.F. Riley, M.P. Hobson, S.J. Bence, Cambridge University Press,
2010, ISBN 978-0-521-86153-3
5.
^ Miller, Webb (1975), "Computational complexity and numerical stability" (http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc
/download?doi=10.1.1.148.9947&rep=rep1&type=pdf), SIAM News 4: 97107
6.
^ Press 2007, p. 108. 7.
^ Virginia Vassilevska Williams. "Multiplying matrices faster than Coppersmith-Winograd" (http://www.cs.stanford.edu
/~virgi/matrixmult-f.pdf). The original algorithm was presented by Don Coppersmith and Shmuel Winograd in 1990, has
an asymptotic complexity of O(n
2.376
).
8.
^ Robinson, Sara (2005), "Toward an Optimal Algorithm for Matrix Multiplication" (http://www.siam.org/pdf/news
/174.pdf), SIAM News 38 (9)
9.
^ Robinson, 2005. 10.
^ Alon, Shpilka, Umans, On Sunflowers and Matrix Multiplication (http://eccc.hpi-web.de/report/2011/067/) 11.
^ Lynn Elliot Cannon, A cellular computer to implement the Kalman Filter Algorithm (http://portal.acm.org
/citation.cfm?coll=GUIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=905686), Technical report, Ph.D. Thesis, Montana State University, 14 July 1969.
12.
^ Hong, J.W.; H.T. Kung (1981). "I/O complexity: The red-blue pebble game". STOC 81: Proceedings of the thirteenth annual
ACM symposium on Theory of computing: 326333.
13.
^
a b c
Irony, Dror; Sivan Toledo, Alexander Tiskin (September 2004). "Communication lower bounds for distributed-
memory matrix multiplication". J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 64 (9): 10171026. doi:10.1016/j.jpdc.2004.03.021
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.jpdc.2004.03.021).
14.
^
a b
Agarwal, R.C.; S. M. Balle, F. G. Gustavson, M. Joshi, P. Palkar (September 1995). "A three-dimensional approach to
parallel matrix multiplication". IBM J. Res. Dev. 39 (5): 575582. doi:10.1147/rd.395.0575 (http://dx.doi.org
/10.1147%2Frd.395.0575).
15.
^ Solomonik, Edgar; James Demmel (2011). "Communication-optimal parallel 2.5D matrix multiplication and LU
factorization algorithms". Proceedings of the 17th international conference on Parallel processing. Part II: 90109.
16.
^ (Horn & Johnson 1985,Ch. 5) 17.
References
Henry Cohn, Robert Kleinberg, Balazs Szegedy, and Chris Umans. Group-theoretic Algorithms for Matrix
Multiplication. arXiv:math.GR/0511460. Proceedings of the 46th Annual Symposium on Foundations of
Computer Science, 2325 October 2005, Pittsburgh, PA, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 379388.
Henry Cohn, Chris Umans. A Group-theoretic Approach to Fast Matrix Multiplication.
arXiv:math.GR/0307321. Proceedings of the 44th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science,
1114 October 2003, Cambridge, MA, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 438449.
Coppersmith, D., Winograd S., Matrix multiplication via arithmetic progressions, J. Symbolic Comput. 9,
p. 251-280, 1990.
Horn, Roger A.; Johnson, Charles R. (1985), Matrix Analysis, Cambridge University Press,
ISBN 978-0-521-38632-6
Horn, Roger A.; Johnson, Charles R. (1991), Topics in Matrix Analysis, Cambridge University Press,
ISBN 978-0-521-46713-1
Knuth, D.E., The Art of Computer Programming Volume 2: Seminumerical Algorithms. Addison-Wesley
Professional; 3 edition (November 14, 1997). ISBN 978-0-201-89684-8. pp. 501.
Press, William H.; Flannery, Brian P.; Teukolsky, Saul A.; Vetterling, William T. (2007), Numerical Recipes: The
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Art of Scientific Computing (3rd ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-88068-8.
Ran Raz. On the complexity of matrix product. In Proceedings of the thirty-fourth annual ACM symposium on
Theory of computing. ACM Press, 2002. doi:10.1145/509907.509932 (http://dx.doi.org
/10.1145%2F509907.509932).
Robinson, Sara, Toward an Optimal Algorithm for Matrix Multiplication, SIAM News 38(9), November 2005.
PDF (http://www.siam.org/pdf/news/174.pdf)
Strassen, Volker, Gaussian Elimination is not Optimal, Numer. Math. 13, p. 354-356, 1969.
Styan, George P. H. (1973), "Hadamard Products and Multivariate Statistical Analysis", Linear Algebra and its
Applications 6: 217240, doi:10.1016/0024-3795(73)90023-2 (http://dx.doi.org
/10.1016%2F0024-3795%2873%2990023-2)
Vassilevska Williams, Virginia, Multiplying matrices faster than Coppersmith-Winograd, Manuscript, May
2012. PDF (http://www.cs.stanford.edu/~virgi/matrixmult-f.pdf)
External links
How to Multiply Matrices (http://www.mathsisfun.com/algebra/matrix-multiplying.html)
The Simultaneous Triple Product Property and Group-theoretic Results for the Exponent of Matrix
Multiplication (http://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0703145)
WIMS Online Matrix Multiplier (http://wims.unice.fr/~wims/en_tool~linear~matmult.html)
Matrix Multiplication Problems (http://ceee.rice.edu/Books/LA/mult/mult4.html#TOP)
Block Matrix Multiplication Problems (http://www.gordon-taft.net/MatrixMultiplication.html)
Wijesuriya, Viraj B., Daniweb: Sample Code for Matrix Multiplication using MPI Parallel Programming
Approach (http://www.daniweb.com/forums/post1428830.html#post1428830), retrieved 2010-12-29
Linear algebra: matrix operations (http://www.umat.feec.vutbr.cz/~novakm/algebra_matic/en) Multiply or
add matrices of a type and with coefficients you choose and see how the result was computed.
Visual Matrix Multiplication (http://www.wefoundland.com/project/Visual_Matrix_Multiplication) An
interactive app for learning matrix multiplication.
Matrix Multiplication in Java Dr. P. Viry (http://www.ateji.com/px/whitepapers
/Ateji%20PX%20MatMult%20Whitepaper%20v1.2.pdf?phpMyAdmin=95wsvAC1wsqrAq3j,M3duZU3UJ7)
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