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# MENG 212 Fall 2014 Dr. Jong B.

Lee, ME @NYIT 1
MENG 212
Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics (#1)
Sept. 03, 2014
2014 Jong B. Lee, PhD
ME @NYIT
Introduction to
Dynamics
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MENG 212
Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics Fall
2014
Class Hour
Wednesday 5:45PM ~ 8:25PM
Class room
HSH #212
Office Phone: (516) 686 7955
Course web site: http://iris.nyit.edu/~jlee26
Email: jongblee@nyit.edu
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MENG 212
Office Hours
I adopt an open door policy
You are encouraged to come to my office and
ask questions, consult, provide feedback, or
give suggestions at anytime during the day
However, I may not be available all the time
Set times for offices hours are the office this
semester are:
Mon. ~ Wed. 02:30 PM 03:30 PM
or by appointment via email or phone
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MENG 212
Description of Engineering Mechanics:
Dynamics
This course teaches students how to apply Newtonian
physics to relatively simple physical situations. It follows
on from the Statics course, but considers systems that
are not in equilibrium i.e. with velocity and acceleration.
Some of the topics covered are pure kinematics (a
mathematical description of motion only), while others
are kinetic (determine motion in problems involving the
concepts of force and energy). The course restricts
itself to 2-D (planar) mechanisms.
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MENG 212
Objectives
The student should understand the basic physical
concepts of dynamics.
The student should understand and be able to relate the
kinematics of particles and rigid bodies to the solution of
dynamics problems in straight line and curvilinear
motion.
The student should understand and be able to apply
Newtons Laws to particles and rigid bodies to solve
problems related to dynamic behavior.
The student should be able to apply the methods of
work, momentum and energy to particles and rigid
bodies associated with dynamic behavior.
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MENG 212
Course outcomes: After successful completion of this course, you will
have
1. Understand basic kinematics concepts displacement, velocity
and acceleration (and their angular counterparts).
2. Understand basic dynamics concepts force, momentum, work
and energy.
3. Understand and be able to apply Newtons laws of motion.
4. Understand and be able to apply other basic dynamics concepts
- the Work-Energy principle, Impulse-Momentum principle and
the coefficient of restitution.
5. Learn to solve dynamics problems. Appraise given information
and determine which concepts apply, and choose an appropriate
solution strategy.
6. Gain an introduction to basic machine parts such as pulleys and
mass-spring systems.
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MENG 212 Fall 2014 Dr. Jong B. Lee, ME @NYIT 2
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MENG 212
Class Discussion
Communication is very important in achieving our
collective goals and objectives
anytime during a class period
Remember you are here to learn and I am here to
teach and that teaching and learning are
intertwined
So you can help me teach you as much as I can
I urge you to be an active participant in the learning
process and recognize that it takes a team effort to
realize meaningful things in life
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MENG 212
Major Courses in mechanical engineering
Engineering mechanics: The study of how
bodies react to forces acting on them
Statics: The study of bodies in equilibrium
Dynamics
Strength and Materials
Vibration
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Solid Mechanics
Thermodynamics
Fluid Mechanics
3 Major
Mechanics
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MENG 212
Engineering Mechanics
9
Engineering
Mechanics
Solid
Mechanics
Fluid
Mechanics
Rigid Body
Mechanics
Deformable
Body
Mechanics
Statics: F=ma,
Dynamics:
v = 0
a = 0
E F = 0
F = 0
F = ma
a = ?
v = ?
Mechanics
of Materials
Elastics
Plastics
External
Stress
Strain
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by Numerical Method
Statics &
Dynamics
Applied
Mach. Design
Stress Analysis
MENG 212
Mechanical Course Flow
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Applied Solid
Mechanics
Strength and
Materials
Element
Mach. Design
Elastics
Senior
Mach. Design
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MENG 212
Topics covered
Kinematics of Particle
Kinetics of a Particle
Force and Acceleration
Work and Energy
Impulse and Momentum
Planar Kinematics of a Rigid Body
Force and Acceleration
Work and Energy
Impulse and Momentum
Three-Dimensional Kinematics of a Rigid Body
Three-Dimensional Kinetics of a Rigid Body
Vibrations
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MENG 212
Text Book
Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 13
th
edition,
R. C. Hibbeler
ISBN-10: 0132911272
Pearson
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MENG 212 Fall 2014 Dr. Jong B. Lee, ME @NYIT 3
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References
Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 7th ed., by by J. L.
Meriam and L. G. Kraige, Willey
Vector Mechanics for Engineers Dynamics, 10th
Edition by BEER
Engineering Mechanics: Statics and Dynamic, Google
eBook, C. L. Rao, J. LAKSHINARASHIMAN, R.
SETHURAMAN, S. M. SIVAKUMAR
Engineering Dynamics: A Comprehensive Introduction
N. Jeremy Kasdin & Derek A. Paley, Princeton
University Press.
Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 5th ed. A. M.
Bedford and W. Fowler, Pearson
Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 4th ed., I. H.
Shames, Pearson
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MENG 212
Complete class syllabus and rule will be
given today
Class syllabus can be changed without pre-
and let me know if you have any questions
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Exams and Quizzes
Ideally, all quizzes and exams are closed book
There will be two midterm exams which constitute 20% and 20%
Mid term Exam I: Oct. 08 (20%)
Mid term Exam II: Nov. 12 (20%)
There will be one final exam which constitutes 20% of the grade
Final Exam: Dec. 17
There will be number of quizzes which constitute 35% of grade
Eight to Ten Quizzes: (Mostly every week)
Participation (Homework and attendance, etc): 5%
Total: 100%
This schedule and constitution of the grade can be changed
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The following straight scale will be used:
University Catalog
Remember final drop day or add/drop from the
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A: 94-100
A-: 90-93
B+: 88-89
B: 83-87
B-: 80-82
C+: 78-79
C: 73-77
C-: 70-72
D+: 68-69
D: 61-67
F: 0-60
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How to curve an exam and assign grades
We have all given exams where the grades end up
lower than we hoped.
If the class does significantly lower than I think they
should have, I will consider curving the exam. How do I
do it?
Whats the goal of the curve?
How do I curve an exam?
Flat scale
Least squares regression
Linear scale
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Exams
Only neatly written problems will be graded
A correct answer without a correct outline of the work
All incorrect work must be clearly crossed out on the
page
In cases where more than one solution is presented
for a problem, the solution with the most errors will be
Each solution must have proper units
No units or inappropriate units: 0 credit
Class attendance and participation in discussions are
not strongly recommended, it is mandatory
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MENG 212 Fall 2014 Dr. Jong B. Lee, ME @NYIT 4
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MENG 212
Quizzes
Will cover theoretical aspects (definitions and
derivations) and problem solving skills
Will be closed book, closed notes, with no crib sheet
Will be announced couple of days before the exam
Will contain one to four problems
No formula sheet
No makeup quizzes will be given
Homework
Due of the homework will be after they are assigned
Problems will be graded only if they are written neatly
Late assignment is no credit
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MENG 370
Midterm and Final Exams
Will contain four to eight problems
Will be comprehensive
Closed book and closed notes
No formula sheet
No makeup exams will be given
Remember, Make-up exams will not be available
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MENG 212
Class Rules
Cheating will be dealt with
according to the rules of the
University
Materials to be covered in an exam
will be announced at least one
week prior to the exam
Cell phone is not allowed, only
calculator
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MENG 212
Student Code of Conduct
It is the responsibility of each student to adhere to
Academic integrity means that a student is honest
with him/herself, fellow students, instructors, and
the University in matters concerning his or her
educational endeavors
Thus, a student should not falsely claim the work of
another as one's own, or misrepresent him/herself
so that the measures of one's academic
performance do not reflect his/her own work or
personal knowledge
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MENG 212
Student Code of Conduct
In this regard, cheating will not be tolerated
Cheating includes (but is not limited to) any
communication (written or oral) during
examinations and sharing of work, such as
using the same models or computer
programs or copying work
All homework and projects must be an
individual effort unless specifically noted
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MENG 212
Student Code of Conduct
Students who cheat on any assignment or during
any examination will be assigned a failing grade for
the course
Therefore, avoid all appearance of improper
behavior!
Students who witness cheating should report the
incident to the instructor as soon as possible.
Students are also welcome to discuss any concerns
related to cheating with Dr. Lu, Chair of Mechanical
Engineering
Dropping: Find the last day to drop this course form
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MENG 212 Fall 2014 Dr. Jong B. Lee, ME @NYIT 5
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MENG 212
Attendance Sheet
id number is corrected on the
attendance sheet, otherwise make
correction
Please fill in the entire line on the
form if your name is missed
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MENG 212
Questions
time when you have a question.
during the lecture. If you absolutely need
to speak with someone, please feel free
to go out the classroom
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MENG 212
Class Materials
Lecture notes will be provided prior to or after
the class time through course website
User Name: students
Any changes will be mentioned in class
Please visit and check here frequently for
updates? Even though you are not able to
catch up class.
Detailed homework, quizzes and exams
information will be noticed via course website
so that problems caused by not visiting
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Course Schedule & Outline
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- Class schedule, outline and office hours can be changed without pre-notification
Week # Date Course Contents
1 Sept. 03 Introduction to Dynamics
2 Sept. 10 Kinematics of Particle
3 Sept. 17 Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration
4 Sept. 24 Kinetics of a Particle: Work and Energy
5 Oct. 01 Kinetics of a Particle: Impulse and Momentum
6 Oct. 08 Mid Term Exam I
7 Oct. 15 Planar Kinematics of a Rigid Body
8 Oct. 22 Planar Kinematics of a Rigid Body: Force and Acceleration
9 Oct. 29 Planar Kinematics of a Rigid Body: Work and Energy
10 Nov. 05 Planar Kinematics of a Rigid Body: Impulse and Momentum
11 Nov. 12 Mid Term Exam II
12 Nov. 19 Three-Dimensional Kinematics of a Rigid Body
13 Nov. 26 No Class - Thanksgiving Holiday
14 Dec. 03 Three-Dimensional Kinetics of a Rigid Body
15 Dec. 10 Vibrations
16 Dec. 17 Final Exam
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Wrap Up
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Please visit course web site frequently
http://iris.nyit.edu/~jlee26
Course information is subject to change,
so always check here for the latest info
Office hours will not be held this week.
They begin next week.
Welcome, good luck, and enjoy!
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Dynamics
Dynamics is that branch of mechanics which
deals with the motion of bodies under the
action of forces
Kinematics
study of motion w/o reference to the forces causing motions
study of the geometry of motion. Kinematics is used to relate
displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time without reference
to the cause of motion.
Kinetics
relates the action of forces on bodies to their resulting
motions
study of the relations existing between the forces acting on a
body, the mass of the body, and the motion of the body.
Kinetics is used to predict the motion caused by given forces or
to determine the forces required to produce a given motion.
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MENG 212 Fall 2014 Dr. Jong B. Lee, ME @NYIT 6
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Dynamics
Dynamics includes
Rectilinear motion: position, velocity, and
acceleration of a particle as it moves along a
straight line.
Curvilinear motion: position, velocity, and
acceleration of a particle as it moves along a
curved line in two or three dimensions.
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Dynamics
Basic Concepts
Space: geometric region occupied by bodies
Time: a measure of the succession of events
and is considered as absolute quantity in
Newtonian mechanics
Mass: quantitative measure of the inertia or
resistance to change in motion of a body
Force: vector action of one body on another
Particle: a body of negligible dimensions
Rigid body: a body whose changes in shape
are negligible compared w/ the changes in
position of a body as a whole
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Dynamics
Newtons Laws
Law 1: A particle remains at rest or continues to
move w/ uniform velocity (in a straight line w/ a
constant speed) if there is no unbalanced force
acting on it
Law 2: The acceleration of a particle is
proportional to the resultant force acting on it
and is in the direction of this force (F=ma)
Law 3: The forces of action and reaction b/w
interacting bodies are equal in magnitude,
opposite in direction, and collinear
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Dynamics
Units
SI Units (US Customary Units)
Mass: kg (slug)
Length: m (ft)
Time: sec. (sec.)
Gravitation:
F: the mutual force of attraction between two particles
G: a universal constant called the constant of gravitation
m
1
,m
2
: the masses of the two particles
r: the distance b/w the centers of the particles
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2
2 1
r
m m
G F =
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Dynamics
Gravitation
Gravitational acceleration
M is the mass of the larger body, is a unit vector
directed from the large mass to the smaller mass.
Negative sign means the force is an attractive force
In the same way,
g =9.80665 m/s
2
(32.1740 ft/s
2
)
Variation of g with altitude
g
o
: gravitational acceleration at the sea level, h:
altitude, R: the radius of the earth, m
e
: the mass of
the earth
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2
2 1
r
m m
G F =
r
r
GM
g
2
=
r
( )
2
2
h R
R
g g
o
+
=
2
R
m
G g
e
=
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Kinematics of a Particle
Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous
Motion
Find the kinematic quantities (position,
displacement, velocity, and acceleration) of a
particle traveling along a straight path.
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Applications
Relations between s(t),
v(t), and a(t) for general
rectilinear motion.
Relations between s(t),
v(t), and a(t) when
acceleration is constant.
MENG 212 Fall 2014 Dr. Jong B. Lee, ME @NYIT 7
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Kinematics of a Particle
Applications
The motion of large objects,
such as rockets, airplanes,
or cars, can often be
analyzed as if they were
particles.
Why?
If we measure the altitude
of this rocket as a function
of time, how can we
determine its velocity and
acceleration?
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Kinematics of a Particle
Applications
A sports car travels along a straight road.
Can we treat the car as a particle?
If the car accelerates at a constant rate, how
can we determine its position and velocity at
some instant?
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Overview of Mechanics
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Statics: The study of
bodies in equilibrium.
Dynamics:
1. Kinematics concerned with
the geometric aspects of motion
2. Kinetics - concerned with
the forces causing the motion
Mechanics: The study of how bodies
react to forces acting on them.
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Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion
A particle travels along a straight-
line path defined by the coordinate
axis s.
The position of the particle at any
instant, relative to the origin, O, is
defined by the position vector r, or
the scalar s. Scalar s can be positive
or negative. Typical units for r and s
are meters (m) or feet (ft).
The displacement of the particle is
defined as its change in position.
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Vector form: A r = r - r Scalar form: A s = s - s
The total distance traveled by the particle, s
T
, is a
positive scalar that represents the total length of the
path over which the particle travels.
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Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion
Velocity
Velocity is a measure of the rate of change in the position of a
particle. It is a vector quantity (it has both magnitude and direction).
The magnitude of the velocity is called speed, with units of m/s or
ft/s.
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The average velocity of a particle during a
time interval At is
v
avg
= Ar / At
The instantaneous velocity is the time-derivative of position.
v = dr / dt
Speed is the magnitude of velocity: v=ds/dt
Average speed is the total distance traveled divided by elapsed
time: (v
sp
)
avg
= s
T
/ At
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Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion
Acceleration
Acceleration is the rate of change in the velocity of a particle. It is a
vector quantity. Typical units are m/s
2
or ft/s
2
.
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As the text indicates, the derivative equations for velocity and
acceleration can be manipulated to get a ds = v dv
The instantaneous acceleration is the time
derivative of velocity.
Vector form: a = dv / dt
Scalar form: a = dv / dt = d
2
s / dt
2
Acceleration can be positive (speed
increasing) or negative (speed decreasing).
MENG 212 Fall 2014 Dr. Jong B. Lee, ME @NYIT 8
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Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion
Summary
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Differentiate position to get velocity and acceleration.
v = ds/dt ; a = dv/dt or a = v dv/ds
Integrate acceleration for velocity and position.
Note that s
o
and v
o
represent the initial position and
velocity of the particle at t = 0.
Velocity:
} }
=
t
o
v
vo
dt
a
dv
} }
=
s
s
v
v o o
ds
a
dv v or
} }
=
t
o
s
so
dt v ds
Position:
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Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion
Constant Acceleration
The three kinematic equations can be integrated for the
special case when acceleration is constant (a = a
c
) to
obtain very useful equations. A common example of
constant acceleration is gravity; i.e., a body freely falling
toward earth. In this case, a
c
= g = 9.81 m/s
2
= 32.2 ft/s
2
downward. These equations are:
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t a v v
c o
+ =
yields
=
} }
t
o
c
v
v
dt a dv
o
2
c o o
s
t (1/2) a t v s s + + =
yields
=
} }
t
o s
dt v ds
o
) s - (s 2a ) (v v
o c
2
o
2
+ =
yields
=
} }
s
s
c
v
v o o
ds
a
dv v
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Example
A particle travels along a straight line to
the right with a velocity of v = (4t3t
2
)
m/s where t is in seconds. Also, s = 0
when t = 0.
The position and acceleration of the
particle when t = 4s.
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Example: Solution
Take a derivative of the velocity to
determine the acceleration
(or in the direction) when t = 4s
Calculate the distance traveled in 4s by
integrating the velocity using s
o
= 0:
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( )
( ) m t t s s
dt t t ds vdt ds
dt
ds
v
o
s
s
o
32 2
3 4
4
0
3 2
4
0
2
= =
= = =
} }
( )
2
2
/ 20 6 4
3 4
s m a t
dt
t t d
dt
dv
a = =

= =
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Example
A particle is moving along a straight line
such that its velocity is defined as v = (-
4s
2
) m/s, where s is in meters.
The velocity and acceleration as
functions of time if s = 2 m when t = 0.
Since the velocity is given as a function
of distance, use the equation v=ds/dt.
Express the distance in terms of time.
Take a derivative of it to calculate the velocity
and acceleration.
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Example: Solution
Since v=-4s
2
Determine the distance by integrating using s
o
=2
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2
2
4 4
s
ds
dt s
dt
ds
v = = =
( )
1 8
2 1
2
1
4
2
1 1
2
1 1
4
1
4
4
2
2
1
0
2
2
2
0
+
= = +
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
= = =
= =

} } }
t
s
s
t
s s
t
s
s t
ds s
s
ds
dt
s
s
t
s s
s
t
o
MENG 212 Fall 2014 Dr. Jong B. Lee, ME @NYIT 9
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Example: Solution
Take a derivative of distance to calculate
the velocity and acceleration
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( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
3 3 2
2 2
/
1 8
256
1 8
8 2 16
1 8
16
/
1 8
16
1 8
8 1 2
1 8
2
1 8
2
s m
t t t dt
d
dt
dv
a
s m
t t t dt
d
dt
ds
v
m
t
s
+
=
+

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
+
=
+

=
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
+
=
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Kinematics of a Particle
Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
Determine position, velocity, and acceleration of
a particle using graphs.
Applications
s-t, v-t, a-t, v-s, and a-s diagrams
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Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
Application
In many experiments,
a velocity versus
position (v-s) profile is
obtained.
If we have a v-s graph
for the tank truck, how
can we determine its
acceleration at
position, s=1,500 feet?
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Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
Applications
The velocity of a car is
recorded from a
experiment. The car
starts from rest and
travels along a straight
track.
If we know the v-t plot,
how can we determine
the distance the car
traveled during the time
interval 0<t<30s or
15<t<25s?
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Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
Erratic motion
Graphing provides a good way
to handle complex motions that
would be difficult to describe
with formulas.
Graphs also provide a visual
description of motion and
reinforce the calculus concepts
of differentiation and integration
as used in dynamics.
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The approach builds on the facts that slope and
differentiation are linked and that integration can be
thought of as finding the area under a curve.
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Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
s-t Graph
Plots of position vs. time can be
used to find velocity vs. time
curves. Finding the slope of the
line tangent to the motion curve
at any point is the velocity at
that point (or v = ds/dt).
Therefore, the v-t graph can be
constructed by finding the slope
at various points along the s-t
graph.
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MENG 212 Fall 2014 Dr. Jong B. Lee, ME @NYIT 10
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Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
v-t Graph
Plots of velocity vs. time can be
used to find acceleration vs. time
curves. Finding the slope of the
line tangent to the velocity curve at
any point is the acceleration at that
point (or a = dv/dt).
Therefore, the acceleration vs.
time (or a-t) graph can be
constructed by finding the slope at
various points along the v-t graph.
Also, the distance moved
(displacement) of the particle is
the area under the v-t graph during
time At.
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Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
a-t Graph
Given the acceleration vs.
time or a-t curve, the
change in velocity (Av)
during a time period is the
area under the a-t curve.
So we can construct a v-t
graph from an a-t graph if
we know the initial velocity
of the particle.
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Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
a-sGraph
A more complex case is presented by
the acceleration versus position or a-
s graph. The area under the a-s
curve represents the change in
velocity
This equation can be solved for v1,
allowing you to solve for the velocity
at a point. By doing this repeatedly,
you can create a plot of velocity
versus distance.
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} }
=
( )
graph s a under the Area
2
1
2
1
2
0
2
1
=
=
}
s
s
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Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion
v-sGraph
Another complex case is presented by
the velocity vs. distance or v-s graph.
By reading the velocity v at a point on
the curve and multiplying it by the
slope of the curve (dv/ds) at this same
point, we can obtain the acceleration
at that point. Recall the formula
Thus, we can obtain an a-s plot from
the v-s curve
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ds
dv
v a =
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Example
The s-t graph for a sports car moving
The v-t graph and a-t graph over the time
interval shown
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Example: Solution
The v-t graph can be constructed by
finding the slope of the s-t graph at key
points. What are those?
When 0<t<5s
When 5<t<10s
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v (m/s)
t (s)
30
5 10
( )
( ) s m t
dt
d
dt
ds
v
s m t t
dt
d
dt
ds
v
/ 30 75 30
/ 6 3
10 5
2
5 0
= = =
= = =

## MENG 212 Fall 2014 Dr. Jong B. Lee, ME @NYIT 11

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Example: Solution
Similarly, the a-t graph can be constructed by finding
the slope at various points along the v-t graph. Using
the results of the first part where the velocity was
found:
When 0<t<5s
When 5<t<10s
61
( )
( )
2
10 5
2
5 0
/ 0 30
/ 6 6
s m
dt
d
dt
dv
a
s m t
dt
d
dt
dv
a
= = =
= = =

a (m/s
2
)
t (s)
6
5 10
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Example
The v-t graph shown.
Find: The a-t graph, average speed, and
distance traveled for the 0-50s interval.
Find slopes of the v-t curve and draw the a-t graph. Find
the area under the curve. It is the distance traveled.
Finally, calculate average speed (using basic
definitions!).
62
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Example: Solution
Find the at graph:
When 0<t<30s
When 30<t<50s
63
0.4
a (m/s)
30 50
t (s) 0
a-t graph
2
50 30
2
30 0
/ 0
/ 4 . 0
s m
dt
dv
a
s m
dt
dv
a
= =
= =

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Example: Solution
Now find the distance traveled:
64
v = 12
( )
( )
s m
v
m
s s s
m dt vdt s
m dt t vdt s
s avg
/ 4 . 8
50
420
time
distance total
420 240 180
240 30 50 12 12
180
2
30
4 . 0 4 . 0
) 50 0 (
50 30 30 0 50 0
50
30
50 30
2 30
0
30 0
= =
=
= + =
A + A = A
= = = = A
= = = = A

} }
} }
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Example
The v-t graph shown.
Find: The a-t graph, average speed, and distance
traveled for the 0-48s interval.
Find slopes of the v-t curve and draw the a-t graph.
Find the area under the curve. It is the distance
traveled. Finally, calculate average speed (using basic
definitions!).
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Example: Solution
Find the a-t graph
When 0<t<30s
When 30<t<48s
66
( )
2
48 30
2
30 0
/ 333 . 0 48
3
1
/ 2 . 0
5
1
s m t
dt
d
dt
dv
a
s m t
dt
d
dt
dv
a
= |
.
|

\
|
= =
= |
.
|

\
|
= =

-0.33
0.2
a(m/s)
30 48
t(s)
a-t graph
MENG 212 Fall 2014 Dr. Jong B. Lee, ME @NYIT 12
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Example: Solution
Now find the distance traveled:
67
( )
( ) ( )
s m
v
m
s s s
m t dt t vdt s
m dt t vdt s
s avg
/ 3
48
144
time
distance total
144 54 90
54 48
2
1
3
1
48
3
1
90 30
2
1
5
1
5
1
) 48 0 (
48 30 30 0 48 0
48
30
2
48
30
48 30
2
30
0
30 0
= =
=
= + =
A + A = A
= =
|
.
|

\
|
= = A
= =
|
.
|

\
|
= = A

} }
} }
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Kinematics of a Particle
Curvilinear motion: General and rectangular
components
Describe the motion of a particle traveling along a
curved path.
Relate kinematic quantities in terms of the rectangular
components of the vectors.
Applications
General Curvilinear Motion
Rectangular Components of Kinematic Vectors
68
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Curvilinear motion: General and rectangular components
Applications
The path of motion of a
plane can be tracked
with radar and its x, y,
and z coordinates
(relative to a point on
earth) recorded as a
function of time.
How can we determine
the velocity or
acceleration of the plane
at any instant?
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Curvilinear motion: General and rectangular components
Applications
A roller coaster car
travels down a fixed,
helical path at a constant
speed.
How can we determine its
position or acceleration at
any instant?
If you are designing the
track, why is it important
to be able to predict the
acceleration of the car?
70
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General Curvilinear Motion
A particle moving along a curved
path undergoes curvilinear motion.
Since the motion is often three-
dimensional, vectors are used to
describe the motion.
A particle moves along a curve
defined by the path function, s.
The position of the particle at any
instant is designated by the vector r =
r(t). Both the magnitude and
direction of r may vary with time.
If the particle moves a distance A s
along the curve during time interval
At, the displacement is determined by
vector subtraction: Ar = r - r
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General Curvilinear Motion
Velocity
Velocity represents the rate of change
in the position of a particle.
The average velocity of the particle
during the time increment At is, v
avg
=
Ar/At .
The instantaneous velocity is the time-
derivative of position, v = dr/dt .
The velocity vector, v, is always
tangent to the path of motion.
The magnitude of v is called the speed.
Since the arc length As approaches the
magnitude of Ar as t0, the speed can
be obtained by differentiating the path
function (v = ds/dt). Note that this is
not a vector!
72
MENG 212 Fall 2014 Dr. Jong B. Lee, ME @NYIT 13
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General Curvilinear Motion
Acceleration
Acceleration represents the rate of
change in the velocity of a particle.
If a particles velocity changes from v to v
over a time increment At, the average
acceleration during that increment is:
a
avg
= Av/At = (v - v)/At
The instantaneous acceleration is the
time-derivative of velocity: a = dv/dt =
d
2
r/dt
2
A plot of the locus of points defined by the
arrowhead of the velocity vector is called
a hodograph. The acceleration vector is
tangent to the hodograph, but not, in
general, tangent to the path function
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General Curvilinear Motion
Rectangular components
It is often convenient to describe the
motion of a particle in terms of its x, y,
z or rectangular components, relative
to a fixed frame of reference.
The position of the particle can be
defined at any instant by the position
vector, r=xi+yj+zk.
The x, y, z components may all be
functions of time, i.e., x=x(t), y=y(t),
and z=z(t).
The magnitude of the position vector
is: r=(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)
0.5
The direction of r is defined by the unit
vector: u
r
= (1/r)r
74
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Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components
Velocity
The velocity vector is the time derivative of the position vector:
v=dr/dt=d(xi)/dt+d(yj)/dt +d(zk)/dt
Since the unit vectors i, j, k are constant in magnitude and
direction, this equation reduces to v=v
x
i+v
y
j+v
z
k, where
75
dt
dz
z v
dt
dy
y v
dt
dx
x v
z y x
= = = = = = , ,
The magnitude of the velocity
vector is
The direction of v is tangent to the
path of motion.
( )
2 2 2
z y x
v v v v + + =
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Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components
Acceleration
The acceleration vector is the time derivative of the
velocity vector (second derivative of the position vector):
a=dv/dt=d
2
r/dt
2
=a
x
i+a
y
j+a
z
k
where
76
dt
dv
z v a
dt
dv
y v a
dt
dv
x v a
z
z z
y
y y
x
x x
= = = = = = = = = , ,
The magnitude of the acceleration
vector is
The direction of a is usually not
tangent to the path of the particle.
( )
2 2 2
z y x
a a a a + + =
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Example
The box slides down the slope described
by the equation y=(0.05x
2
)m, where x is in
meters. v
x
=-3m/s, a
x
=-1.5m/s
2
at x=5m.
The ycomponents of the velocity and the
acceleration of the box at x=5m.
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Example: Solution
Find the y-component of velocity by
taking a time derivative of the position y
=(0.05x
2
)
Find the acceleration component by
taking a time derivative of the velocity
Substituting the x-component of the
acceleration, velocity at x=5into
78
( )
( ) x x x x x x
dt
d
dt
dv
y
x x x x y v x y
y
y

+ = = =
= = = =
1 . 0 1 . 0 1 . 0
1 . 0 2 05 . 0 05 . 0
2
y y and
MENG 212 Fall 2014 Dr. Jong B. Lee, ME @NYIT 14
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Example: Solution
Since
79
( )( )
( ) ( )( )
| =
+ = =
=
= + =
+ =
= = =
= = = = =
2
2 2
2
/ 15 . 0
/ 5 . 1 / 5 . 1 v
5 at
/ 15 . 0 5 . 1 5 1 . 0 3 1 . 0
1 . 0 1 . 0
/ 5 . 1 3 5 1 . 0 1 . 0
5 / 5 . 1 , / 3
s m a
s m s m
m x
s m
x x x x y
s m x x y
m x at s m a x s m v x
y
y
x x

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Example
The particle travels along the path
y=0.5x
2
. When t=0, x=y=z=0.
The particles distance and the
magnitude of its acceleration when t=1s,
if v
x
=(5t)ft/s, where t is in seconds.
80
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Example: Solution
x-components
y-components
81
( )
( )
( ) s t at s ft t
dt
d
x a
s t ft t x dt t dt
s t s ft s ft t x
x
t
x
x
1 / 5 5 : on Accelerati
1 at 5 . 2 5 . 2 5 v : position
1 at / 5 / 5 v : as know Velocity
2
2
0
= = =
= = =
= = =
} }

( )
s t s ft x x x x y a
s t s ft x x x x y
s t ft x y
y
1 at / 5 . 37 : on Accelerati
1 at / 5 . 12 2 5 . 0 : Velocity
1 at 125 . 3 5 . 0 : as know position
2
2
= + = =
= = =
= =

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Example: Solution
The position vector and the acceleration
vector are
Position vector: r = [ x i + y j ] ft
where x= 2.5 ft, y= 3.125 ft
Magnitude: r = (2.5
2
+ 3.125
2
)
0.5
= 4.00 ft
Acceleration vector: a = [ a
x
i + a
y
j] ft/s
2
where a
x
= 5 ft/s
2
, a
y
= 37.5 ft/s
2
Magnitude: a = (5
2
+ 37.5
2
)
0.5
= 37.8 ft/s
2
82
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Motion of a Projectile
Analyze the free-flight motion of a
projectile
Applications
Kinematic Equations for Projectile
Motion
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Motion of a Projectile
Applications
A good kicker instinctively knows at what angle, q, and
initial velocity, v
A
, he must kick the ball to make a field
goal.
For a given kick strength, at what angle should the ball
be kicked to get the maximum distance?
84
MENG 212 Fall 2014 Dr. Jong B. Lee, ME @NYIT 15
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Motion of a Projectile
Applications
A basketball is shot at a certain angle. What parameters
should the shooter consider in order for the basketball
Distance, speed, the basket location, anything else?
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Motion of a Projectile
Applications
A firefighter needs to know the maximum height on the
wall she can project water from the hose. What
parameters would you program into a wrist computer to
find the angle, u, that she should use to hold the hose?
86
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Motion of a Projectile
Projectile motion can be treated as two
rectilinear motions, one in the horizontal
direction experiencing zero acceleration
and the other in the vertical direction
experiencing constant acceleration (i.e.,
from gravity).
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Motion of a Projectile
For illustration, consider the two
balls on the left. The red ball falls
from rest, whereas the yellow ball
is given a horizontal velocity. Each
picture in this sequence is taken
after the same time interval. Notice
both balls are subjected to the
same downward acceleration since
they remain at the same elevation
at any instant. Also, note that the
horizontal distance between
successive photos of the yellow
ball is constant since the velocity in
the horizontal direction is constant.
88
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Motion of a Projectile
Kinetic equations: Horizontal motion
Since a
x
=0, the velocity in the horizontal direction
remains constant (v
x
=v
ox
) and the position in the x
direction can be determined by:
Why is a
x
equal to zero (what assumption must be
made if the movement is through the air)?
89
( ) t x x
ox o
+ = v
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Motion of a Projectile
Kinetic equations: Vertical motion
Since the positive y-axis is directed upward, a
y
=
g. Application of the constant acceleration
equations yields:
For any given problem, only two of these three
equations can be used. Why?
90
( )
( )
o y o y
oy o
oy y
y y g
gt t y y
gt
=
+ =
=
2 v v
2
1
v
v v
2 2
2
MENG 212 Fall 2014 Dr. Jong B. Lee, ME @NYIT 16
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Example
Given: v
A
and
Find: Horizontal distance it travels and
v
C
.
Apply the kinematic relations in x- and
y-directions.
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Example: Solution
Using v
ax
=10cos30 and v
ay
=10sin30
We can write
v
x
= 10 cos 30
v
y
= 10 sin 30 (9.81) t
x = (10 cos 30) t
y = (10 sin 30) t (9.81)t
2
Since y=0 at C
0=(10sin30)t- (9.81)t
2
t=0, 1.019s
92
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Example: Solution
Velocity components at C are
v
Cx
=10cos30=8.66 m/s
v
Cy
=10sin 30(9.81)(1.019)= -5 m/s=5m/s +
Horizontal distance the ball travels is;
x = (10cos30)t
x = (10cos30)1.019=8.83 m
93
( ) s m v
C
/ 10 5 66 . 8
2 2
= + =
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Example
Projectile is fired with v
A
=150m/sat point A.
The horizontal distance it travels (R) and the time in
the air.
Establish a fixed x, y coordinate system (in this
solution, the origin of the coordinate system is placed
at A). Apply the kinematic relations in x- and y-
directions.
94
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Example: Solution
Place the coordinate system at point A. Then, write
the equation for horizontal motion.
+ x
B
= x
A
+ v
Ax
t
AB
where x
B
= R, x
A
= 0, v
Ax
= 150 (4/5) m/s
Range, R, will be R = 120 t
AB
Now write a vertical motion equation. Use the distance
equation.
+| y
B
= y
A
+ v
Ay
t
AB
0.5 g t
AB
2
where y
B
= 150, y
A
= 0, and v
Ay
= 150(3/5) m/s
We get the following equation: 150=90t
AB
+0.5(9.81) t
AB
2
Solving for t
AB
first, t
AB
= 19.89 s.
Then, R = 120 t
AB
= 120 (19.89) = 2387 m
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Example
A skier leaves the ski jump ramp at u
A
= 25
o
and hits
the slope at B.
The skiers initial speed v
A
Establish a fixed x,y coordinate system (in this
solution, the origin of the coordinate system is placed
at A). Apply the kinematic relations in x- and y-
directions.
96
MENG 212 Fall 2014 Dr. Jong B. Lee, ME @NYIT 17
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Example: Solution
Motion in x-direction
Motion in y-direction
97
( ) ( )
A A
AB
AB A AB ox A B
v v
t
t v t v x x
27 . 88
25 cos
80
25 cos 0 100
5
4
= =
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+ =
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
s m v
v v
v
t g t v y y
A
A A
A
AB AB oy A B
/ 42 . 19
27 . 88
81 . 9
2
1 27 . 88
25 sin 0 64
2
1
2
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ =
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Example
The golf ball is struck with a velocity of 80 ft/s
as shown.
Find distance dto where it will land.
Establish a fixed x, y coordinate system (in
this solution, the origin of the coordinate
system is placed at A). Apply the kinematic
relations in x- and y-directions.
98
x
y
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x
y
Example: Solution
Motion in x-direction
Motion in y-direction
99
( ) ( )
( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
ft d
d d
d d d
t g t v y y
AB AB oy A B
166 , 0
007415 . 0 233 . 1 0
02146 . 0 2 . 32
2
1
02146 . 0 55 sin 80 0 10 sin
2
1
2
2
2
=
=
+ =
+ =
( ) ( ) ( )
d t
t d t v x x
AB
AB AB ox A B
02146 . 0
55 cos 80 0 10 cos
=
+ = + =