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General Chemistry 4

th

edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry

20

Temperature

Temperature is the property that tells us the

direction that heat will flow.

The base unit of temperature is the kelvin

(K).

We often use the Celsius scale (C) for

scientific work.

On the Celsius scale, 0 C is the freezing point !

.of water, and 100 C is the boiling point

The Fahrenheit scale (F) is most

commonly encountered in the U.S.

On the Fahrenheit scale, freezing and boiling !

.water are 32 F and 212 F, respectively

T

F

= 1.8T

C

+ 32

T

C

= (T

F

32)/1.8

Chapter One Prentice Hall 2005

General Chemistry 4

th

edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry

21

Example 1.3

At home you like to keep the thermostat at 72 F. While

traveling in Canada, you nd the room thermostat

calibrated in degrees Celsius. To what Celsius

temperature would you need to set the thermostat to get

the same temperature you enjoy at home?

Chapter One Prentice Hall 2005

General Chemistry 4

th

edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry

22

Example 1.3

At home you like to keep the thermostat at 72 F. While traveling in Canada, you nd the

room thermostat calibrated in degrees Celsius. To what Celsius temperature would you

need to set the thermostat to get the same temperature you enjoy at home?

Strategy

The general approach to conversions between the Fahrenheit and Celsius

temperature scales is to use the appropriate form of the equations written above.

The equation for converting a Fahrenheit temperature to the Celsius scale is

T

C

=

T

F

32

1.8

Solution

You merely need to substitute the given Fahrenheit temperature and solve for T

C

:

T

C

=

72 32

1.8

=

40

1.8

= 22 C

Assessment

One simple check of this calculation is to see that the numerical value of the

temperature in degrees Celsius is less than the original temperature in degrees

Fahrenheit, as suggested in Figure 1.7. (Note that this statement is true only for

temperatures greater than 40 F.)

Carry out the following temperature conversions.

(a) 85.0 C to F (b) 12.2 C to F (c) 335 F to C (d) 20.8 F to C

Exercise 1.3A

Chapter One Prentice Hall 2005

General Chemistry 4

th

edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry

23

Precision and Accuracy in

Measurements

Precision how closely repeated measurements approach

one another.

Accuracy closeness of measurement to true (accepted)

value.

Darts are close together

(precise) but they arent

bullseyes (accurate).

Darts are close together

AND they are bullseyes.

Chapter One Prentice Hall 2005

General Chemistry 4

th

edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry

24

Precision and Accuracy in

Measurements

In the real world, we never know whether the

measurement we make is accurate (why not?)

We make repeated measurements, and strive for

precision.

We hope (not always correctly) that good

precision implies good accuracy.

Chapter One Prentice Hall 2005

General Chemistry 4

th

edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry

25

A Problem-Solving Method

The unit-conversion method is based on two

general concepts:

Multiplying a quantity by one does not change

the quantity.

The same quantity (or unit) in both numerator

and denominator of a fraction will cancel.

Chapter One Prentice Hall 2005

General Chemistry 4

th

edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry

26

1 in.

= 1

2.54 cm

Unit Conversion:

Conversion Factors

Example: 2.54 cm = 1 in.

2.54 cm

= 1

1 in.

We use these conversion factors to

convert in. to cm and to convert cm to in.

Multiply the quantity we are given by

the appropriate factor.

Question: Which factor is used for each

task?

Answer: Use the one that cancels the

unit we do not need, and leaves the unit

we want.

We can write two conversion factors:

Chapter One Prentice Hall 2005

General Chemistry 4

th

edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry

27

Example 1.7

What is the length in millimeters of a 1.25-ft rod?

Example 1.8

What is the volume, in cubic centimeters, of the block of wood

pictured here?

Chapter One Prentice Hall 2005

General Chemistry 4

th

edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry

28

Example 1.7

What is the length in millimeters of a 1.25-ft rod?

Strategy

We could make this conversion with a single conversion factor if we had a

relationship between feet and millimeters. However, Table 1.6 does not provide

such a relationship. We therefore need to do three successive conversions:

1. From feet to inches using the fact that 1 ft = 12 in.

2. From inches to meters with data from Table 1.6.

3. From meters to millimeters based on the prexes in Table 1.4.

Solution

We can write three answers, one for each conversion, with the third answer being

our nal result. It is just as easy, however, to combine the three conversions into a

single setup without writing any intermediate answers. This is the procedure

sketched below.

Chapter One Prentice Hall 2005

General Chemistry 4

th

edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry

29

Example 1.7 continued

Assessment

Now lets look at the use of signicant gures in this problem. The measured

quantity, 1.25 ft, is given with three signicant gures. The relationship 12 in. = 1 ft

is exact, and this will not affect the precision of our calculation. It is understood that

the relationship 1 m = 39.37 in. is stated to four signicant gures; there is no need

to write 1 m as 1.000 m. Finally, the relationship 1000 mm = 1 m is exact; this

denes the way we relate millimeters and meters. Our answer should therefore have

three signicant gures.

Carry out the following conversions.

(a) 76.3 mm to meters (b) 0.0856 kg to milligrams

(c) 0.556 km to feet

Exercise 1.7A

Carry out the following conversions.

Exercise 1.7B

Chapter One Prentice Hall 2005

General Chemistry 4

th

edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry

30

Example 1.8

What is the volume, in cubic centimeters, of the block of wood pictured here?

4.41 in.

4.13 in.

7.36 in.

Strategy

The volume of the block is the product of the three dimensions given in the

drawing. We can proceed in one of two ways: (1) change each dimension from

inches to centimeters and obtain the product in cubic centimeters or (2) obtain the

volume in cubic inches and then convert to cubic centimeters.

Solution

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