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AUGUST, 1960

40 Cents


(see page 2)



The 1926 Gold Rush to Wahmonie is over; the tent city

The Gold Rush June cover Mining Camp has come into being; and now it is time for lumber
to replace canvas, for the Mining Town to take its place under
the Nevada sun. But Wahmonie fails to reach this pinnacle—
the gold vein disappears—the boom fizzles—the camp dies.
The artist, ever resourceful and licensed to portray "essential
truth" (in this case: gold strikes become mining camps and then
mining towns), decides to do what the miners could not: create
a town. In the following chapter, Clyde Forsythe tells how he
came to paint "The Mining Town."

O UR WEEK AT Wahmonie, Nevada, had paid off in rich

experience. I realized that I had been most fortunate in hav-
ing participated in that rare event: the start of a gold strike.
But there was no thought as yet of doing a painting.
We sent a wire to my wife's brother-in-law, Harold Gay, a
mining engineer working in Mexico. Gay joined us in South-
ern California for a jaunt back to the camp to sample our claims.
Cotta's sister, Anabel Gay, went along. Going by way of Las
The Mining Camp July cover Vegas, we made the trip in a day.
In the two weeks we had been away, the camp had grown.
The cafe had moved to higher ground and was screened in. Very
fancy. Mr. Minette had put up an office and invited Gay and me
to sleep in it that night. Our wives slept in the luxurious Franklin,
a modest distance from the "congested area." At 2 a.m. Gay's
cot collapsed and dumped him on the board floor. My iron bed
was sturdy.
After a breakfast at "The Palace" we got into the Franklin,
and with Davis and Ryan following in their wheezy little Chevie,
we proceeded up to our claims. Harold Gay had been mining
for 25 years. We walked the claims end to end for several hours,
taking samples of small outcrops, mostly jasper and quartz with
a few white streaks. With ore sacks filled, we returned to camp.
Then Gay paid a visit to the "strike" operation where the boss
gave him a sample of the rich ore. It looked good to his expert
The Mining Town This month's cover
Because Gay's time was limited, we said our "good-bys"
to our friends in camp and headed for home. We decided to
return by way of Death Valley, which none of us had ever seen,
and we followed a road to Death Valley Junction where we spent
the night at the hotel.
Next morning — Easter Sunday — found us rolling down
Furnace Creek Wash, stopping now and then to pick up float.
Gay found a chunk of fossil coral, proof that these mountains
were once under an ocean bed.
In 1926, Death Valley roads were winding trails of sand
—and the wind! We passed roadside graves—wagon wheels—
bones. It was a good place to leave behind, and it took the rest
of that day to get out—past the borax mill, through the Amar-
gosa Valley and into the hills at the southern-end of the Valley.
Then through the black night, past Garlic Springs and on to
Barstow for a late dinner—and home.
The Ghost Town September cover This episode has to do with "The Mining Town," the third
claims are gone with the wind. But
our memories are rich.
In 1938 I painted "The Gold Rush"
from those memories. A year later,
after showing the picture in Los An-
geles at the Biltmore and in the Allied
Here's How
Artists of America show in New York,
the idea came to me to paint "The
Mining Camp," using the same char-
acters, of course, as in "The Gold
Rush." This I did, and a few years
You CanOrder
later "The Mining Town" demanded
to be painted—again with some of
the same characters . . . the slim
gambler and his gal-friend, the pros-
High Quality
pector with his burro. . . The man
shaking his fist at the tipsy fellow is
myself, scolding a certain friend of
By now we had a house trailer, and SUITABLE FOR FRAMING
to get material for the "Town" we OR GIFT GIVING
headed one day for Randsburg and
Red Mountain on California's Mojave
Desert. The old stores and saloons
and mine mills were there to be used
at will. I sketched the stores and the
Clyde Forsythe's
DERS HAD BEEN A BOUNCER FOR TEX RICKARD. church at Randsburg, the Kelley Mine
at Red Mountain, and into the painting
painting in my Gold Strike series; but they went. They are real. The gambler
no town sprang up at Wahmonie! I and his dame seem to have prospered
had our ore samples assayed in Los and are waiting for the stage to take
Angeles. They ran 25c to the ton in them to Los Angeles for a high old
gold! Not rich enough to pay for the time.
shoe leather we used in picking them
up! After all, this is how Wahmonie
No town grew in Wahmonie because
might have looked if the "big strike" Series
had turned out to be another Goldfield
within three short months George —or a mine like Randsburg's fabulous now appearing on
Wingfield's crew came to the end of Yellow Aster. When I was a 14-year- DESERT MAGAZINE COVERS
the vein of good ore, drifted a few old at Elizabeth Lake, I heard the
yards—and pulled out of camp. Every- homesteaders talk of the Yellow Aster.
one else followed, leaving what they
could not carry to the lizards, coyotes
and the buzzards.
Our $170 lot has a 34-year-old
growth of new creosote bush. Our 14x17" with white margins,
on high quality paper stock.
No lettering or folds
The artist's personal account
of how each phase of the
series came to be painted is
lithographed on the back of
each painting.
Send your name and mailing
address and

ONLY $ ft.85
(postage and tax paid)
plications, and you'll understand why the
CANYON DE CHELLY - - Beauty at Navajos pined away in their exile at Bosque
Redondo. For, like them, once you leave
the area, you'll want to return—not to live,
perhaps, but surely to linger longer.

the End of the NAVAjO RAINBOW Here's this month's schedule of events in
Arizona: Aug. 5-7—76th Annual Payson
Rodeo (billed as the world's "oldest" Wild
West show); Aug. 6-7—12th Annual Square
Dance Festival, Flagstaff; Aug. 13—41st
By THOMAS LESURE Annual Smoki Ceremonials at Prescott
(white men re-enact Indian dances); Aug.
Desert Magazine's Arizona Travel Correspondent 15-Sept. 18—Indian Artists Exhibit at the
Museum of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff;
Aug. 28-30—Coconino County Fair, Flag-
the canyon is a blessing; yet it's a shame staff; Latter part of August—Hopi Snake
that more people don't include this high Dances (for exact dates, set 16 days before
plateau country in their itinerary. the ceremonials, write to the Winslow
Chamber of Commerce). ///
Nearest main-line departure point is Gal-
lup, N. M., on U.S. 66. The canyon may One California event of special interest
also be reached from Holbrook via the in August: The Old Miners Burro Race
reservation route to Keams Canyon. Since at Apple Valley, Aug. 4-7.
the Canyon de Chelly turn-off point is just
west of Ganado on Reservation Route 3,
the gorge is a logical addition to any trip
across the Navajo and Hopi Reservations.
The 33-mile drive over a dirt road north THE LAPIDARY'S
from Route 3 brings you to Chinle, one
mile away from the national monument STANDARD OF VALUE
O SPANISH settlers some 250 years If you depend entirely on your car for Congo Dia Blades

T ago and to Kit Carson a century-and-a-

half later, Canyon de Chelly was just
another obstacle in the struggle to eliminate
transportation, your sightseeing will be lim-
ited in this 83,840-acre preserve. Main
route is Rim Drive Road which—despite
Sizes range from
4 to 24"

the Navajo menace of costly and murderous its relatively short length—manages to show
raids. To the Navajos, though, this highly off a representative array of the section's
scenic National Monument has been and Indian ruins and awesome formations. Best
still is "home." methods, however, are hiking into the can-
yon or taking a half-day or full-day trip A LEADER
During the ages, three distinct Indian cul- along the canyon bottom. For the latter, IN ITS FIELD
tures have dominated these sheer red sand- the Thunderbird Guest Ranch operates spe- Highland Park
stone canyons. Earliest were the Anasazi cial vehicles that negotiate the tricky floor Slab Saws
who built pithouses around 350 A.D. In of the gorge. Minimum effort should be Sizes range from 12" .1-2 & J-3
the self-guiding trail to the White House to 24". Metal or Lu- Slab Saw
later centuries, Pueblo Indians erected elab- cite hood.
orate apartment - cities such as Antelope ruin which stands like bared teeth in the
House, Standing Cave, White House Pueblo red lips of the sheer canyon wall. Park
and others. Today, some 300 Navajos, liv- rangers are on hand during the day to
ing in summer hogans, pasture their cattle assist you. And if you'd like to linger, there
are camp and picnic grounds.
on the canyon bottom.
The National Monument actually em-
Canyon de Chelly certainly is much easier braces three canyons — main gorge is 27-
to reach nowadays than in Carson's time, mile-long Canyon de Chelly with its smooth
yet it remains an off-the-beaten-path destina- weather-stained walls rising some 700-1000
tion as far as most travelers are concerned. feet above the river. The other two gorges
To those who like their West uncrowded, are Canyon del Muerto (so named because Highland Park Combination Unit
of the Spanish massacre of Indians there) Available in all sizes. Perfect combina-
tion unit for Lapidary work. Handles saw-
and Monument Canyon near which Spider ing, grinding, sanding, and polishing. Ex-
Rock and Face Rock—two giant monoliths ceptionally quiet operation.
some 800 feet high—rear from the canyon Arbors of All Sizes—Tumblers, Belt Sanders,
Trim Saws — 41 Models to Choose From
floor like natural skyscrapers taller than The most complete line of lapidary ma*
New York's Woolworth Building. chinery offered by any manufacturer. See
these at your local Highland Park dealer
The breath-taking scenery is the chief or write for free literature.
reason for visiting Canyon de Chelly, but HIGHLAND PARK MANUFACTURING CO.
you must never lose sight of its historic 1009-1011 MISSION STREET
implications. For here—in a section cele- SOUTH PASADENA, CALIFORNIA
brated for both its scenic and historic ele-
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on the march of Indian civilizations in
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work of nature plus a sense of limitless
time and space. Within just a few hours, Fits any pick up.
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Give yourself sufficient time, meet the VaqaBtmdia. 25323 S. NORMANDIE AVE.
canyon and feel the impact of all its im-

4 / Desert Magazine / August, 1960

Volume Number

Comments on the "Heat" I s s u e . . .
To the Editor: Mary Jones Blackwell's
"desert ordeal" in the July issue was a
fascinating story. In fact it read like fiction.
-magazine of the Outdoor Southwest-
Why no picture of the woman who was lost
on the Mojave Desert for five days in 1947? CHARLES E. SHELTON
Chicago, Illinois publisher
(See below for a recent photograph of EUGENE L. CONROTTO
Mrs. Blackwell which arrived too late to EVONNE RIDDELL
be included in our July issue.—Ed) editor circulation manager

Contents forAugust I960

COVER "The Mining Town" — the third scene in
artist Clyde Forsythe's "Gold Strike" series.
BACKGROUND 2 The story behind the cover Clyde Forsythe
GHOST TOWN 8 Silver City, Idaho Robert F. Harrington
ECOLOGY 11 The Desert of Owyhee Earl J. Larrison
EXPERIENCE 12 Tony the Pony Laura Adams Armer
ARCHITECTURE 14 Adobe and the Southwest Henry Chapman
ARCHITECTURE 17 Adobe and You Harry Oliver
INSECTS 19 Scorpion Sting Herbert L. Stahnke
NATIVE CRAFTS 20 The Last Basket Weaver Sam Hicks
HISTORY 22 Arizona's Bogus Baron Oren Arnold
GARDENING 26 Cactus for the Beginner Ladislaus Cutak
HOMEMAKING 40 Desert Gardens Louise Price Bell

— also —
Arizona Travel— 34: Southwest News Briefs
Canyon de Chelly: 4 35: Book Reviews
Readers' Letters: 5 35: Utah Travel —
V Desert Quiz: 18 Bluff Environs
To the Editor: I cannot refrain from mak- Poem of the Month: 18 36: Hard Rock Shorty
ing a few comments on the "Desert Ordeal"
story. The participants admitted making Southwest Photo Tips: 31 41: New Mexico Travel —
mistakes in judgment, the worst of which, Nevada Travel— Billy the Kid Country
in my opinion, was allowing their misad-
venture to appear in print. Humboldt River Trail: 32 42: Editorial
They ventured on and on into the desert
without enough gasoline to bring them back The Desert Magazine, founded in 1937 by Randall Henderson, is published monthly
by Desert Magazine, Inc., Palm Desert, California. Re-entered as second class
even had they not gotten stuck in the sand. matter July 17, 1948, at the postoffice at Palm Desert, California, under the Act
of March 3, 1879. Title registered No. 358865 in U.S. Patent Office, and contents
They carried no drinking water. copyrighted 1960 by Desert Magazine, Inc. Permission to reproduce contents must
be secured from the editor in writing.
They back-tracked 18 miles to water (the
one and only act of good judgment shown
throughout)—and then instead of walking SUBSCRIBE or let us
on to the highway (12 miles) they doubled- Unsolicited manuscripts and
back to the stalled car, and took-off for a
seemingly green spot in the desert without
blazing a return trail!
In my wildest flight of imagination I can-
photographs submitted can-
not be returned or acknowl-
edged unless full return
postage is enclosed. Desert
Magazine assumes no re-
sponsibility for damage or

• One Year-$4
send it to a friend

• Three Years-$ 10.50

not conceive of two people breaking all the loss of manuscripts or pho- (Canadian subscriptions 25c extra, foreign 50c extra per year)
tographs although due care
rules of survival and surviving. will be exercised. Subscribers SEND DESERT MAGAZINE TO:
should send notice of change
L. C. DeSELM of address by the first of
San Diego, Calif. the month preceding issue.
To the Editor: I compliment you on the (mailing address)
Address all editorial and
exceptional interest of your July "heat" is- circulation correspondence to
sue. I do a fair amount of roaming by Desert Magazine, Palm Des-
(city, state)
four-wheel-drive vehicle in the Death Valley ert, California.
If this is a gift, indicate how gift card should be signed:
region and found your articles interesting
and accurate.
Address all advertising
I would, however, like to take mild issue correspondence to Edith K. Mail this information and your remittance to: Desert Magazine,
Whaley, 216 South Vermont, Palm Desert, California.
Continued on next page Los Angeles, California.

August, 1960 / Desert Magazine / 5

L e e ' s F e r r y i n 1925 . . .
L E T T E R S •• Continued from prece<iing page

with Harold O. Weight's statement in "A

Summer Visit to the Panamints" that a To the Editor: My very best thanks for the
"bragging time" for the hike up Telescope story by Weldon Heald in the July issue:
Peak from Mahogany Flats of two hours "With Patton On Desert Maneuvers." Heald
is "doubtful." I know definitely of a 1-hour is the foremost writer in the Southwest. I
53-minute climb earlier this year on a cold shall preserve this copy of Desert.
day by a young member of a mountain PAUL J. LINSLEY
rescue group who is a former college dis- Whittier, Calif.
tance runner. Faster time yet could be made
by running part way, or by a stronger hiker.
GEORGE H. BARNES To the Editor: I buy Desert Magazine at
China Lake, Calif. the newsstands, and have not missed an
issue for years. I think the July issue on
V "Heat" was the best of them all.
To the Editor: I have read the July issue M. F. CLARK
of Desert Magazine, and I want to express To the Editor: The story in the June issue:
my appreciation to you and your staff for Whittier, Calif. "A Visit to Historic, Out-of-the-Way Lee's
publishing such a fine edition. You cer- V Ferry on the Colorado" brought back mem-
tainly are to be complimented. To the Editor: Perhaps it is because I know ories of our crossing at Lee's in 1925.
GRANVILLE B. LILES, Superintendent personally the writers of the majority of the
Death Valley National Monument articles in the special July issue, and possibly The photo herewith is of our '23 Buick
because I'm somewhat familiar with Death helping to pull the craft across the river.
V Valley, but in my opinion this was the most LAURA ARMER
To the Editor: I have been a subscriber to interesting and informative issue of Desert
the Desert Magazine since January, 1939, Fortuna, Calif.
in the history of the magazine.
and have all the copies in binders. I wish
to compliment you on the July issue. My In this day of "modern" art, I particu-
wife and I have visited Death Valley sev- larly appreciate the realism of the cover Lost Mines, Continued . . .
eral times. At no other place in the desert paintings by Clyde Forsythe.
are the various colors so beautiful and NATT N. DODGE To the Editor: F. L. Kistner, the reader
changing as in this National Monument. Santa Fe who said he was only interested in lost mine
C. F. ROMIG stories (July "Letters"), should be told that
V there is more than one kind of treasure
Los Angeles To the Editor: I must congratulate you on to be found on the desert.
the wonderful special July edition, featuring
Death Valley and heat. The stories are They are treasures of faith, peace and
most interesting and will be read many understanding; self-assurance and content-
PLANNING YOUR 1960-61 times. Having lived in Nevada for 45 years, ment; the fellowship of congenial friends; a
and being very familiar with Death Valley, deeper appreciation of the wonders of na-
ture; esthetic pleasure in the beauty of a
Club Program? I thoroughly enjoyed your coverage. Keep
up the good work, you are doing a splendid
desert sunset; the music of a bird song.
You can find a new awareness of the
. . . CONTACT MRS. PEARL C. ERICSON meaning of life itself buried deep in the
Lovelock, Nevada sands of the desert. It is a fascinating search,
VERL MARTIN and with increasing clarity Desert Magazine
pin-points the way.
"The Desert Nomad" To the Editor: The July issue was worth ELSIE A. HAGLE
the price of a year's subscription. The story Ramona, Calif.
for a free brochure and by Harold O. Weight, "A Summer Visit to
the Panamints," described a most interest- V
costs for more than a
ing trip. To the Editor: I too am interested in lost
dozen WALTER S. YOUNG mines and buried treasure—in fact I have
Genoa, Nevada done quite a bit of study and research on
Desert Color Slide Shows V the subject—but unlike Mr. Kistner I be-
To the Editor: Last Christmas I received lieve "pretty rocks, flowers, snakes, lizards,
VERL MARTIN a gift subscription to your magazine. I have etc." have as much to do with the desert
enjoyed every issue so far received, but I as mines and treasures. In fact, some of the
16021 DENVER AVENUE believe the July issue surpasses them all. greatest producing mines were accidentally
GARDENA, CALIFORNIA Thank you for a wonderful magazine. discovered when a prospector wandered off
to examine a desert phenomenon other than
Phone DA 3-4757 FLORENCE MILLER an outcrop.
North Hollywood, Calif.
Keep up the good work.
Concord, Calif.

Protect the Devil's Playground . . .

To the Editor: The article in the June issue
of your magazine, "40 Years Ago From
30.000 Feet Up," got me to thinking again

The Alcan Camper is quickly transformed from its compact low silhouette on the road to
roomy walk-in living quarters. Drive safely at any speed with minimum drag and sway.
Moments later, enjoy the comfort and convenience of a weather tight, high ceiling home away . . . COMING
from home complete with three burner stove, sink, cabinets, ice box, beds, and many other IN NEXT MONTH'S DESERT MAGAZINE
luxury features.
The unique hydraulic mechanism which raises the Write today for more informa- A Guide To The Missions
camper top can be safely operated even by a small tion on the most advanced
child. Locks prevent accidental lowering. The top camper on the road. of Baja California
is lowered quickly by the simple turn of a valve. Patent No. 2879103 also: 5 gem-mineral field trips in the Colo-
"NORTH WEST-BRANCH" rado Desert of California — a current status
R. D. Hall Mfg. Inc. report by Glenn and Martha Vargas. Plus
13408 Saticoy St. Camper's Inc. many other illustrated feature articles of
No. Hollywood, Calif. lasting interest... in the SEPTEMBER Desert
88)9 Renton Avc. Magazine.
Seattle, Wash.

6 / Desert Magazine / August, 1960

about the area on the Mojave Desert known don't associate me with the violence of article in the March Desert Magazine about
as the "Devil's Playground." I have often men—my message is peace and quiet." the Fish Lake Valley, Nevada, Apache tear
visited this region. It is, I believe, com- Why can't we face reality? That amaz- collecting field is most gratifying.
parable on a smaller scale with Death ing stone is adequate in itself and surely Some of the people who wrote have
Valley. doesn't need a story of bloodshed to give asked if they could buy Apache tears from
The time is here that California should it "a peculiar new and significant meaning." us, but rockhounding is a hobby with my
set this area aside as a state park. It would Nature has great power to talk to us. wife and me, and we are not in the rock
be a sad thing if some private interest or Isn't it better to listen than to superimpose selling business.
the military decided to confiscate this area. our silly minds on her by saying: "Now To those readers of Desert Magazine
Arizona lost the interesting Crater Range nature you have a new and significant mean- who plan to visit the Fish Lake field I
between Gila Bend and Ajo to the military. ing because I have learned thus and so."
This area also would have made a wonder- extend an invitation to stop in Bigpine to
ful park but, alas, it is now part of a vast BESSIE SIMON visit us. Maybe we can exchange some
bombing and gunnery range. Ojai, Calif. rocks, yarns and ideas.
JOHN W. MAXON There are plenty of Apache tears at Fish
Upland, California Invitation to Rockhounds . . . Lake. The supply has not been dented.
To the Editor: The response I have re- F. B. TERRY
She Remembers Harper's Well . . . ceived following publication of my short Bigpine, Calif.
To the Editor: We have only one big com-
plaint about Desert Magazine—"There just
isn't enough of it!"
One day after receiving our June copy,
and already we have read it from cover
to cover.
The article by Walter Ford on "Harper's
Well" was especially interesting to me. I
passed the well several times in my travels
—always in a Model T Ford. How well I Gel started now, expand your collection . . . increase your work-
remember the washes and gullies and ruts ing knowledge of rocks. WIDE SELECTION! CHOICE PIECES!
in the old road. EDUCATIONAL! EXCELLENT VALUES! Never before has it been
IRENE V. HORN possible to get these "high-quality" stones in small quantities
Roseville, California and at AMAZINGLY LOW PRICES!


The Value of a Monolith . . . ON THE GLOBE
To the Editor: My apologies to very graci- Check the list, there's hardly a country that's
ous and kind Dr. Edmund Jaeger—but: been missed! Then check the prices . . . ai
the quantities offered. It's unbelievable—
Did any of the other readers share my it's sensational— its your opportunity .
shocked realization of mankind's blindness to add many items to your collection
. . . at "bargain basement" prices.
after reading Dr. Jaeger's article in the May
issue, "Trails to More Outdoor Enjoyment"?
He writes: "I cannot think that the men
I had with me that evening will ever forget t s 1
the story I told them. Surely the great rock GP-61 Z, Pink Rhodon
('Hercule's Finger', a prominent landmark Burma 2 sq. GP-62Z Fine Red
near Lucerne Valley on the Mojave Desert), :
Fine Red
that before was only a spectacular piece of Rhodonite
stone, now took on a peculiar new and sig- -33Z Jet GP 64 Zj Rote Quart
GP-65 Z Roie Quart
nificant meaning." CP-34Z, lepidolit* GP-66Z Aiteriated
GP-3SZ Upidolil. Roie Quart
And what was the story Dr. Jaeger refers GP-36Z Meenchaum Z Alteriated
to? One of violence — great suffering of GP-37Z Moonstone
horses and mules driven so hard they could ' Auorttd Col.
not stop for water or rest, and perhaps Z ~ fllu-Sheen
some 1500 of them perished on the hot Moonstone
desert; a gunfight between the horse thieves GP-39Z "
and the rancheros that took place in the GP-40Z G»ld Sheen
shadow of "Hercule's Finger." A retelling I Obiidian
: Smoky Light
of ignominious history: avariciousness, Quarti
Medium Smoky
greed, theft, resentment, anger, killing, cru- GP-47Z Prate Quartz Quartz
elty to animals, the burying alive of a little GP-4BZ Pr
GP^49z' Prat* C
I Dork Smoky
boy and girl to "serve" a dead Indian chief. IZ Block Morion
Smoky Quarti
Did the monolith take on "a peculiar Rut Noted CP-BOZ Red Tigereye
new and significant meaning"? If so, what? Golden Quarti
GP-I1Z 1 Rod Tigerey.
Did what took place near its base change Tourmaline
its quality, value or beauty? Is there any GP-89Z Pink

reason to associate it with violence and the GP-90 2

j Tourmalin*
dead past? Does the knowledge that blood J Tourmalin*
was spilt here add to the charm of this R inflated
Smoky Quart

giant of nature? If this stone could speak, Rhodochroiite Z Watermelon

would it not be more likely to say: "Please Rhodochroiit*
Pink and R*d I
GP-94Z Turquoii*
Pink and Red
GP-99Z Aventurine
PHOTO and ART credits GP-100Z Aventurine
(Unless otherwise specified below or in text, GP-10Z Green Most GP-25Z Almandine
photographs and art work are by authors of Agate
features in which they appear.) GP-26Z Speitariite
Page 4: D. Clifford Bond; Map by Nor- GP-27Z Cordierite
ton Allen. 5: Leta Herndon. 11: Map by
Norton Allen. 14: New Mexico State GP-2B Z T
Tourist Bureau. 15: (center) Fred Rags- Grey Jadeit
dale; (bottom) New Mexico State Tourist Z Gre.n and
Bureau. 16 (bottom) New Mexico State White Jadei
Tourist Bureau. 17: Bill King. 19: Rich-
ard L. Cassetl. 24: Map by Greenfield
Lawrel. 28: (top) Charles Redler. 32 and
35: Maps by Norton Allen. 40: Frank L.
Gaynor. 4 1 : New Mexico State Tourist Notice—cuitomerc ado receive FREE, lamoui "Rockhoundar'i New*
Bureau. Bulletin" containing many froth idea* and new gem *tone find* I


August, 1960 / Desert Magazine / 7

Silver City -- Queen of the Owyhee

The ghost of Silver City

marks the place
on Idaho's Owyhee Desert
where one of the
world's great mining
booms took place . . .
I Soil Conservation Service man who
commented that even the sagebrush
in Owyhee County shows the torture of
growth under rigorous conditions. We
were driving through the parched dusty
country between Bruneau and Mur- SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR VOLUNTEERS
phy, county seat of Owyhee County, the desert below us, spotted with rocky POSE FOR THEIR PICTURE BEFORE DE-
ridges and barren valleys, began to PARTING FROM SILVER CITY IN 1898
Idaho—the latter town having fewer
than 100 residents. Fickle desert crowd the horizon. Dust lay deep in
winds capriciously lifted spumes of the road, and vegetation was sparse. buildings, some boarded-up, others
sand and let them cascade back to Paradoxically, the only sound came with sagging doors, offered mute evi-
earth. from our motor as we approached the dence of historic days and deeds.
town where once the thunder of stamp
The Owyhee Desert claims the mills sounded above the creaking of Altogether there are about 30 struc-
southwestern corner of Idaho. It is a harness leather, the squeal of poorly- tures still standing in the town—the
land of superlatives. Near Bruneau greased wheels and axles, and the Masonic Hall, second oldest Masonic
are found some of the highest sand rumble of ore wagons on Silver City Hall west of the Mississippi; the Idaho
dunes in the world, the largest of streets. Our road had once been en- Hotel; the print shop where the Owy-
which, 452 feet high, is higher than livened by teamsters' oaths; the washes hee Avalanche was published; the
the dunes of the famed Sahara by 150 and canyons had hidden Indians intent Wells Fargo office is half-caved-in; a
feet. Cutting a ragged slash across on murderous deeds. church which time has stripped of de-
the face of the county is one of the nomination; the post office; powder
deepest and most narrow canyons on Miles rolled beneath our wheels. buildings; residences. Some of the
earth—the Bruneau Canyon. In its We entered a side-canyon where a latter are shuttered. They are reputed
67-mile length only one place has been stream suddenly made its appearance. to be completely furnished. It was
found where a horse can get to water, The water seemed out-of-place, but expensive to freight heavy pieces to
and in only four places have men been the dry dustiness of the air disappeared and from Silver City.
able to scale the rock walls. And 6000 and the scent of growing things took
its place. We walked through Silver's dusty
feet up in the Owyhee Mountains, streets and fancied we could hear the
where freezing winter winds whip The 2 3-mile road into Silver City tramping of miners' boots and feel the
snow into drifts higher than a house, from Murphy is a good road as moun- throbbing of the earth as blasting took
there lies for me the greatest superla- tain roads go. It is narrow—in many place in the mines. Behind these
tive of all—the Queen of the Owyhee places a one-car road—but certainly shuttered walls the social life of a van-
—the ghost town of Silver City. passable. ished age had taken place: whist
At Murphy we turned west on a Past New York Summit, where stage parties, stately dinners attended by
dusty county road, winding and un- drivers wrapped the reins around the Governor Steunenberg and young at-
dulating with the terrain toward the brake and spurred their teams into the torneys such as Bill Borah, who later
Silver City Mountains in the distance. spirited run which gave newcomers an was to achieve national renown as a
As we ascended, the grand sweep of unforgettable first view of Old Silver, senator from Idaho.
we entered a new world. The green- Once there was a half-dozen busy
Robert F. Harrington, who wrote the Silver
ness of Alpine fir reached out to wel- general merchandise stores, two hotels,
City story with the assistance of Nancy Felts, come us. three barbershops and many other
is the superintendent of schools at Elk River, business enterprises, including eight
Idaho. The 34-year-old educator does summer
Silver City is a place of crumbling
work as a naturalist at Grand Teton National buildings set amidst hills scarred with saloons where the boys celebrated suc-
Park. the usual mining wounds. Weathered cess and forgot their failures. The

8 / Desert Magazine / August, 1960


ravages of time and fire have taken district were made, and claims were son, thus acquiring the name "Ruby
their toll, and the surviving buildings located. The party thereupon returned Silver."
seem to lean nostalgically toward the to Boise Basin with news of the find.
Throughout the district were found
vacant gaps left by their departed There followed a stampede into the
solid slabs of white, shining silver.
companions. Owyhee country.
Such occurrence is atypical, for silver
Leading from the ghost town like In July of '63, the first quartz ledge is normally found in association with
threads of a spider web are the many was discovered in Whiskey Gulch by lead, copper and zinc. But nothing
roads and trails to the once-active R. H. Wade and Company. Several about the Silver City boom area was
mines and prospect holes. Some of days later the Oro Fino quartz ledge commonplace. This strike was one of
these roads are in fair shape, but most was located by A. J. Sands and Svale the world's great bonanzas.
exploring has to be done afoot or in Neilson. A month later the same two
a jeep. We found some interesting men hit the Morning Star ledge. At the Poorman's 100-foot level a
mineral specimens in the old mine solid mass of ruby silver crystals,
Most spectacular of all the strikes weighing 500 pounds, was unearthed.
dumps — nothing of much material of the Silver City heyday was the dis-
value—just "souvenir stuff." Specimens of this ore mass were ex-
covery of the Poorman Mine in 1865. hibited at the 1866 Paris Exposition
It all started in May, 1863, when The mine took its name from the fact where they won a gold medal. First
29 adventurous men left Placerville, that the discoverers were too poor to class rock from the Poorman yielded
Idaho, to search for the famed "Blue work it. In a fight for possession of $4000 to $5000 a ton, with 2000 tons
Bucket Diggings." According to a the property, one set of "owners" of second and third class rock bring-
legend of early Oregon emigrants, a barricaded the mine entrance and ing the sum of $546,691.59. Tailings
gold field of such richness lay at the mounted two pieces of ordnance. They went over $70 to the ton. Ore from
foot of the Owyhee Mountains that named the fortified mine "Fort Baker." the Poorman was so rich that large
the pioneers used gold for sinkers Ore taken from the Poorman readily amounts were shipped across the ocean
while fishing in the streams issuing sold for $4 an ounce, a figure said to to Wales for treatment.
from the hills. It was this fabulous be well below real value! The ore was
wealth that the 29 prospectors sought an amalgam of gold and silver chlor- The electric-quick boom saw more
as they ventured into the unexplored ide, resembling lead, but tinted crim- than 250 mining locations recorded
deserts of the Owyhee, populated at
that time only by bands of hostile
After crossing the Snake River at
the mouth of the Boise River, the
party traveled in a southwesterly di-
rection until it came to a large stream
whereat it camped for one day. The
stream was named Reynolds Creek
after one of the men in the party. The
following excerpt from the diary of
O. H. Purdy, a member of the group
and later a well-known citizen of Silver
City, describes the discovery which
". . . Dr. Rudd, a verdant emigrant,
not waiting to unpack his mule, took
his shovel, and scooping up some of
the loose gravel on the bank of the
creek, panned it out and obtained
about a hundred 'colors.' The excite-
ment and amazement which followed
this 'discovery' can better be imagined
than described."
The men continued to prospect up
the creek for a dozen days. At a place
called Happy Camp, the laws of the



August, 1960 / Desert Magazine / 9

their reservation in small bands. Along
the return route they massacred whites
at every opportunity. It is believed
that more than 100 persons were
killed by these Indians in this uprising.
In the late '80s a revival took place
in the Silver City area. A mining
capitalist, Captain Joseph DeLamar,
became the owner of a number of
properties in September, 1888. These
mines were vigorously developed by
DeLamar until 1891 when he disposed
of all his holdings to an English com-
pany for $2,000,000 plus a stock in-
terest which brought a considerable
between 1863 and 1865. A number A SILVER CITY "SUBURB." 1895 PHOTOGRAPH. The happy days did not last long,
of these mines, up to 1881, were for the handwriting was on the wall.
worked to depths between 150 and In the next score of years mining ac-
1500 feet. offered at Fort Boise for his scalp and tivity gradually shrank, and by 1920
"Old Silver" was well on its way to
A dozen years of prosperity fol- his feet. Nampuh was finally killed becoming the ghost town that it is
lowed the initial Silver City discovery, by John W. Wheeler in 1868.
in spite of the fact that only about Ten years later the Bannock Indi-
half of the silver could be extracted ans, led by Buffalo Horn, went on the In its brief history Silver City pro-
by milling methods known there. Much warpath and crossed the Snake River duced an amount of precious ore sec-
of the ore was hauled by mule, horse at Glenn's Ferry, heading west in the ond only to that which came from the
or wagon train to the smelter at Salt general direction of Silver City. Along famed Comstock Lode of Nevada. It
Lake City, where the silver was re- their route a number of white men still ranks second in Idaho in the total
moved and made into bricks for ship- were killed. News of the uprising was production of mineral wealth (the in-
ment to the Denver Mint. The cost received in Silver City by telegraph, ternationally famous Coeur d'Alene
of freighting a single ton of ore from and on June 4 a meeting of the citizens area is first in the state).
Silver City to Salt Lake City was was held at Champion Hall for the
around $50, but such high overhead purpose of organizing volunteers to Silver City did have some "firsts,"
pales into insignificance in view of the protect the settlement. The citizen however — the first telegraphic news
fact that one mine, The War Eagle, militia decided that the best defense wire in Idaho, the first daily newspaper
had a credited production record of was a strong offense, and on June 7 in Idaho, and the first (and only)
$30,000,000, this value being taken it left Silver City to meet the raiders. legal hanging in Owyhee County.
out in the first 10 years of the camp's At noon of the following day the vol- As we started out of town we
history. unteers were attacked by Indians at stopped to look back at the dying
In spite of the prosperity of the South Mountain Creek. In this en- camp. The shuttered, sightless win-
camp at Silver City, bad days came gagement two of the white men were dows of the buildings stared in the
sooner than expected. The Bank Panic killed, one of them being Oliver Haz- direction of the Florida and War Eagle
of 1873, leading to the eventual sus- ard Purdy, from whose diary the de- mountains, as though pointing to vast
pension of the Bank of California in tails of discovery were quoted. Buffalo riches yet locked in these hills.
'75, brought the camp to its knees. Horn also was killed in the fight. The Most of the 5000 people who once
The failure of this bank caused finan- whites retreated to O'Keefe's ranch trod Silver City's streets have vanished
cial paralysis, and many large Silver and remained there until the next day
City operators withdrew. when it was learned that the Indians into the dim hallway of the past. To-
had moved on into Oregon. night and every night the lonely wind
During these years of activity, will rove unchecked through vacant
sporadic Indian outbreaks occurred The Bannocks tried to induce the alleys and along deserted streets, and
throughout the Owyhee. As in all Umatillas to join them, but failing in the Owyhee's Queen will sleep her
other things related to this county, this undertaking, straggled back to restless slumber. ///
it seems that here again a giant of
no mean dimensions was involved.
Throughout the South Idaho area,
especially in the narrow canyons a
few miles south of the Snake River,
the name of Nampuh was a scourge
to travelers. This huge Indian, whose
name means Bigfoot, was 6 ' 8 W tall,
and weighed 300 pounds. His feet
measured 17 Vi inches in length and
were six inches wide. He was rep-
uted so fast afoot that he could cover
50 to 80 miles in one day. His depre-
dations included the killing of many
settlers, and attacks on stage and emi-
grant trains. So serious a problem did
he become, that a $1000 reward was

10 / Desert Magazine / August, 1960

Associate Professor of Zoology at the University of Idaho,
and author of
• Transitions be- flanks roughened
tween desert and by growing shrubs
irrigated land are and t r e e s , and
often abrupt, but their higher peaks
you will never see striped with banks
so s t r i k i n g a of summer snow.
change from lux- There are few
uriant lushness to sites which indi-
arid harshness as cate the possibil-
is found in a drive ity of shade and
south from Nam- moisture on the
pa, Idaho. You Desert Owyhee.
start in a land of Oregon bounds it
plenty where on- on the west, the
ions, alfalfa and Snake River on
corn p r o s p e r as the north, Nevada
only such crops on the South, and
can when raised its eastern boun-
on fertile well- dary lies a hun-
watered soil. Hay- dred miles from
stacks, large and its western. It is
closely spaced, a large county
fine homes, well- even as Western
maintained barns, counties go, con-
and tidy lanes all taining only 300
reflect the wealth square - miles less
a n d productive- than the combined
ness of the area. area of Connecti-
But, before you cut, Delaware and
have traveled the Rhode Island.
18 miles to the One wonders
Snake River, the how so much land
irrigated section can look so bar-
ends with an al- ren. Stunted jun-
m o s t startling ipers grow in scat-
abruptness. tered clumps in
Browns and grays some sections, but
replace g r e e n there is little of
lushness, and only softness to relieve
small clumps of the scenery. Flow-
grass a n d other ering plants spring
vegetation have a up early in the
foothold in the season, hastening
desert which now to produce seed
stretches before you. The vistas within the irrigation which may lie for years before the time is favorable for
limits are shortened by lines of trees raised for protec- germination. Nothing breaks the view; nothing appears
tion, but there are no such windbreaks beyond the Snake. to limit it. The whole scene reaches magnificently into
Instead, great light-colored patches mark the miles of space as the road leaves the lake-bed area and climbs
ancient lake beds which lie between dark masses of rock toward the steppe plateau which lies between the Snake
of the higher levels. Cliffs and odd-shaped mounds pro- River and the Nevada line. But this land's impressive-
ject here and there with an irregularity which makes a ness gives no feeling of softness and kindliness. It is the
spectator feel he is looking at a scene of confusion and desert—mysterious and harsh.
disorderliness. The hard-surfaced road is the one mark The human population is as limited as vegetation
of modernity in a desert which embraces, except for a is sparse. The last census listed 6307 in Owyhee
few strips bordering the mountain streams and highlands County's 7648 square-miles. Of this number about
and a little irrigated land, all of Owyhee, the southwest three in 10 reside in small towns. Murphy, the county
county of Idaho. Mountain ranges stand in the distance, seat, has a population of only several dozen persons,
their lower elevations dry, brown and smooth, their upper continued on page 30

August, 1960 / Desert Magazine / 11

weird a tale to take seriously, but it
fitted the eerie atmosphere of the cliff
dwelling country which for thousands
of years had known the struggle of
man's mind and body to come close
to the powers of nature in his great
need to survive and to know that
"Which is, and which was, and which
is to come." The guide continued:
"You know I'm a born horse-wrang-
ler. I had my ropes and I started out
at sunrise one morning to look for
wild ponies. I was riding Tony, the
toughest little pony for getting over
rough places. Now Tony, with no
lead from me, frisks straight up a
mountain with the sun in our faces.
He was quivering to beat the band.
Once in a while he whinnied, excited-
like. I gave him the reins and he
landed on top of a ledge where grew
a bunch of aspens. The leaves were
not shaking, but there seemed to be
something alive in the trees. Maybe it
was only the light shining through
them, but that Tony, he saw some-
thing else. He went tearing along be-
tween the scattered aspens, with the
sun still in our faces. Believe it or not
Tony and I found ourselves viewing
ten small white ponies pawing the
ground in a circle near a dark pool
of water. I made Tony stand still. He
was trembling. It was enough to make
". . . HE HAD BEEN IN GRAND CANYON AT THE a man feel queer, let alone a horse."
The guide looked wistful and dis-
CANYON . . ." turbed as he continued:
"The queer thing is about me, a
HEN WE LEFT Blue Canyon, minute, things usually happen to let born horse-wrangler. I never thought
W traveling to Kayenta, we decided
to visit the cliff dwellings of Be-
tatakin. Horses for us and a guide
him know there are other inhabitants
around. For instance, there was that
rubber mattress of his. It had to be
of roping those white beauties. They
were undersized animals, who acted
different from any breed I knew. They
with pack animal were procured at pumped full of air every night. He pawed the ground on the east side
the Wetherill Post. The trip up a can- couldn't sleep on the ground. I had to of the pool, then on the south, then
yon of red rocks was glorious. The pump it at night and pack it on the west, then north. I couldn't help think-
guide chose our camp for the night mule in the morning. It was sort of ing about the Fire Dance in the corral
and took care of the horses while we natural toward the end of the trip to when the Navajos, all painted white,
prepared the supper. I wondered what stow the rubber contraption so it would move around the fire in the same di-
hurt he had suffered in the past, for get a puncture." rection. While I was thinking about
he seemed so reserved. We opened The young guide joined us at the those spooky Fire Dancers, I heard
a can of peaches for dessert and passed fire, all shyness gone as he repeated: an owl hoot. The ponies vanished. By
some to him. His acceptance answered "I sure do like peaches." We opened that time the sun was no longer in
my pondering. another can. When twilight came as a my eyes. I got off Tony and walked
soft blanket to enfold us, the guide to the pool. There wasn't a hoof
"Thank you, folks. I sure do like mark in sight. Tony followed after
peaches. That last party I took to told stories of remote cliff dwellings
in Utah, in some green, watered val- me, nibbling at grass. He seemed as
Rainbow Bridge liked them too, most much at home in this green place as
as much as he liked himself. He ate ley which must have been Eden, so
alluring did he make it. He told of you and I do on Thanksgiving Day
them all without so much as giving when we eat turkey with the old folks.
me a sniff." old pottery, remains of baskets, the
usual mummy or two, but he said It seemed like he was extra happy on
"Why was that?" what he liked best in that watered that high mesa."
"Must have been a habit learned valley were the wild ponies. He pro- My son asked if there were any cliff
in a city. Out in this country when ceeded to tell us a yarn which is of dwellings in the neighborhood, and
a man thinks of number one every no archeological value. It was too was told there was a cave facing south,

"Tony the Pony" is the fifth in a series of

aura fidams firmer articles by Mrs. Armer telling of her ex-

periences in the land of the Navaios. This
episode occurred in 1925.

12 / Desert Magazine / August, 1960

good-by to Hillside House and rode
back down the canyon. The spell of
the country stayed with me. When
the guide told the legend of a spring
in the neighborhood which occasion-
ally gushed forth, showering the rocks
with carved turquoise, I felt that my
mind could absorb no more. I knew
that the desert had claimed me for all
time. There was no turning back on
the turquoise trail. I played with the
thought that man's unconscious mind
goes back to the time when he was
brother to the animals, understanding
them, loving them at the same time
that he ate certain of them for food.
I knew that I had touched early ani-
TWENTY-FIVE-YEAR-OLD PHOTOGRAPH SHOWS mistic belief. I knew that our guide
A SMALL SHEPHERD BOY TENDING HIS FLOCK to Betatakin could not help but feel
not a very big one, with ruins of a its influence. To him, Tony the pony
small village in it, with plenty of had as much right to a soul as him-
broken pottery, coiled ware and some which was a curved line. Next to self. In a desert land, living is so
fine pieces of black on white. The this personage some kind of horned difficult, providing of food so con-
story teller resumed his yarn. animal had been painted. The guide stant an occupation, that man needs
said: recreation. He finds it in fancy, in
"While I was poking around in the the making of ephemeral sand paint-
rubbish at the back of the cave I came "It can't be a mountain sheep be- ings on the floor of the medicine lodge,
across some fossil bones. They were cause the horns are not spiraled. May- and the dancing of Katchinas in the
horse bones, but so small I couldn't be it's an antelope. Now let us view pueblo plazas.
believe my eyes. When I found a the old houses. The cave is 450 feet
skull it wasn't much bigger than a long and 250 deep." It was years later when my husband
coyote's head. The jaws showed where and I had moved to the redwood coun-
there had been forty-two teeth just Hillside House was my idea of a
try of northern California that a pho-
the same as Tony has. If you have homesite. Here were what could have
tographer came to our little town. He
any dealings with horses you look in been advertised in cliff dwelling days
had been in Grand Canyon at the time
the mouth. Here was I finding a fos- as modern improvements: running
certain very small ponies were found
sil horse in an old cliff dwelling. That's water, solar heating, shade and shelter
there. He photographed the finder and
strange too, because today Indians made by a beautifully colored sand-
the ponies on the north bank of the
don't associate with bones. The Nav- stone roof. My desire for a house in
canyon. Generously, he gave me the
ajos call them chinde. That means the wilderness increased as I pictured
negatives and prints he had made. To
ghost in their language. What I liked the possibility of working quietly,
be sure, the ponies were not white,
best up there on the mountain was the painting murals in my private apart-
but they were so small the finder could
way I felt about Tony. I knew he ment, weaving perhaps, and studying
hold one in his arms. In that great
was back where his ancestors came trees and flowers of the magic land.
Southwest, I agreed that there was no
from. He knew it too. He had that I was brought back from the flight use asking questions. ///
feeling of belonging to a place." of fancy by the guide's remark that —Next installment: "When the Thun-
The guide looked wistfully into the we must return to Kayenta. We said der and the Snake Are Asleep"
dying embers of the campfire. He
sighed and said:
"Sometimes I wish I was a horse."
He moved off into the dark. We
lay down in our bedrolls, quite con-
tent to be together in the great wilder-
ness. In the morning we saw Betata-
kin. That is a Navajo name meaning
Hillside House. On our horses we
approached a reddish sandstone cliff
made all the redder by the comple-
mentary green of the woods at its
base. A shadowed cave in the cliff
yawned wide, roofed by the overhang-
ing ledge. The trail to Hillside House
left the woods to wind around the foot
"of a tallus slope dotted with pinyons.
Just as we climbed to the floor level,
our guide, who overnight had become
the official statistician and exponent
of material facts, pointed to a spring
coming out of the rock. Above it a
pictograph showed a human figure EARLY-DAY PHOTOGRAPH BY MRS. ARMER
with upraised arms on each side of

August, 1960 / Desert Magazine / 13




LONG BEFORE THE GILDED These mud metropolises are still in existence; they are still
breastplates and plumed helmets of populated.
Spanish Captain-Generals flashed in In northern New Mexico stood the architectural wonder
the Southwestern sun, multi-storied of the strange arid land. Mountains of mud were shaped
Indian apartment houses rose out of by Taos Indian hands into "skyscrapers"—four and five-
the desert to scrape the turquoise storied apartment houses. If Coronado's Captain Hernando
skies. de Alvarado, who rode into the Taos Pueblo's plaza in
In 1539, when the exploring 1540, were to return today he would find it the least
monk Marcos de Niza returned to changed of all the pueblos. The 1210 Taosenos living here
Mexico City after his expedition to today are forbidden the use of natural gas, electricity, a
"the northern wilderness" (New Mexico), he told thrilling domestic water system, sanitation facilities and telephones
tales of discovering the legendary Seven Golden Cities of by their Pueblo Council. Water for drinking and cooking
Cibola. Each of the cities was reputed to be larger than is hauled in ollas and tin cans from the silver stream that
Seville; each outglowed the cities of the Aztecs in richness runs through the village. In many other Rio Grande
and magnificence. It was later learned that what the good pueblos bread is baked in modern electric or gas ranges.
Fray Marcos had actually seen were Hawikuh, Kyanawa, At Taos the baking is done as it has always been done—
Kwakina, Kiakima, Matsaki and Halona—the six sun- in homos, igloo-shaped mud ovens lumped in groups out-
gilded metropolises of the Zuni Indians. side the mud mansions. This freezing of "progress" stems
from a desire on the Indians' part to cultivate the important
The disappointment in finding cities of mud instead of tourist trade.
gold failed to discourage the march of the conquistadores
into the Southwest. Coronado came first, in 1540, resplen- Indians who built the first mud mansions of the South-
dent in chased gold armor and leading over a thousand west used the "puddled mud" (or "poured mud" or "pice")
soldiers, servants and slaves. Chamuscado followed in method of construction. Walls were raised by pouring a
1581, Espejo in 1583, Sosa in 1590, Bonilla and Humana layer of puddled mud into forms made out of animal hides.
in 1593, and Don Juan de Onate in 1598. After the sun dried one layer of mud, another was poured
"Pueblo" was the Spanish word that the first fortune- atop it, and so on until the desired height was reached.
hunters applied to the cluster of mud dwellings that made Beneath the New Mexican sun, in Santa Fe, there still
up an Indian settlement. The parada of conquistadores bakes an ancient and excellent specimen of puddled mud
who followed in Captain-General Coronado's footsteps architecture known as "The Oldest House in the United
discovered a prodigious distribution of these mud pueblos, States." Its exact vintage is plastered in mystery, but it is
populated by hunters and farmers, in "the wild new Mex- believed to be pre-Spanish. During recent restoration work
ico" they had come to tame. They rode upon one thriving it was detected—accidently or purposely—that this build-
Indian "city" after another: San Felipe, Santo Domingo, ing's venerable and anonymous architect employed amaz-
Zia, Jemez, Tesuque, San Udefonso, San Juan, Acoma . . . ingly sound engineering principles, among them the "taper-

14 / Desert Magazine / August, 1960

ing wall." Walls were made three-feet thick at the base,
lessening to a two-foot thickness at the top.
Mixed into the mud mortar of this old house is a
legend that Montezuma's Aztec chieftains often parleyed
here. During the Pueblo Rebellion of 1680 Indians tried
to destroy all the mud mansions in the Santa Fe area, but
left this building standing. Its puddled mud construction
mutely testified to the fact that the house was built by In-
dians, not in the fashion of the hated Spanish conquerors,
and thus it was saved from destruction.
Casa Grande, 50 miles southeast of Phoenix, is the
only existing example of another method of earth construc-
tion employed by prehistoric Southwestern Indians. Six-
hundred years ago a shifting band of Pueblo Indians peace-
fully settled among the Hohokam (a modern Pima Indian
designation meaning "The Ancient Ones" as applied to
the Indians who tenanted the Gila Valley about the time
of Pompeii's destruction by an eruption of Mt. Vesuvius).
fe ...
To protect their crops and villages, the Puebloans PREHISTORIC CASA GRANDE . . .
raised a 30-foot combination watchtower and apartment
house from which they could spot approaching marauders
10 miles away in all directions. Their building material
was caliche mud, made from nitrate of soda clay found
on the subsurface of the desert floor. Without forms,
moulds or bricks, these Indians piled the putty-like mix-
ture in a two-foot high horizontal strip, allowed it to dry,
then added the next layer. The completed structure was
four-stories high, partitioned into 11 rooms. To this day
the hand swirls made by the builders while plastering the
walls may be seen etched inside the Casa Grande. The
watchtower is now a national monument.
Mansions of mud are indigenous to the arid areas of
the New and Old Worlds alike. Mud architecture extends
from our Southwest through Mexico and Central America
into Peru. It is prevalent in Spain, North Africa and in
the desert countries east of the Mediterranean Sea. It was
the conquering Moors who introduced into Spain during
the Middle Ages a new method of preparing mud for
construction purposes which was later to become wont
in our Southwest.
In 1598, when one of the Hispanic knights, Don Juan . . . TAOS PUEBLO . . .
de Onate, established San Gabriel, Nuevo Mejicu's first
Spanish colony, he imbued the Southwestern Indians with
their first knowledge of the Cross, of King Philip II and
of the Moors' adobe—"sun-dried brick."
Upon the site chosen for the first capitol of the new
territory there sprawled poured-mud ruins of part of the
Yunque-Yunque Pueblo on the Rio Grande River. Onate
renamed the populated Indian village on the east bank
San Juan de Los Caballeros. The ruins on the opposite
side were rebuilt as homes and stables for the colonists, and
called San Gabriel. Indian labor was conscripted for the
reconstruction, during which time these people learned the
Spanish-Moor method of building with bricks. They were
shown how to mix straw into the clay mud for added
cohesion. This mixture was poured into moulds and laid
out in the sun to bake into adobes. Some of the San
Gabriel walls were put up in the old poured-mud manner, . . . " M O D E R N " SANTA FE
but for strength and durability rough stones and rubble
were added as reinforcement. In less than two weeks the into history, the salas of this royal mud mansion served as
first church in New Mexico was erected. headquarters for an assortment of authorities: Spanish
In 1610, after the failure of San Gabriel, Don Pedro hidalgos, Indian rebel chiefs, Mexican politicos, Confeder-
de Peralta, third governor of New Mexico, chose a site ate generals and American governors. In one of these mud-
for the new capital city. He named it La Villa Real de la plastered rooms Territorial Governor Lew Wallace penned
Santa Fe de San Francisco de Assisi, and he decreed that the final chapters of his famous novel, Ben Hur. The royal
a Palacio Real, "fit for a king," be built. It was—out of a mud mansion endures to this day as "The Palace of the
mixture of straw and mud. Governors," and its three-foot-thick walls guard the South-
western historical treasures of the Museum of New Mexico.
Through the turbulent centuries that aged New Mexico On June 17 a WA cent postage stamp was issued by the

August, 1960 / Desert Magazine / IS

Post Office Department to commemorate Santa Fe's 350th Kentucky. In Commerce of the Prairies Josiah Gregg con-
anniversary. Featured on the stamp, first of its denomina- fesses mistaking Adobe Town's mud architecture for brick-
tion, is the ancient mud palace. kilns scattered over the countryside, until a friend informed
Not far from the old capitol and directly across the him that: "It is true those are heaps of unburnt bricks,
narrow calle from The Oldest House stands another sun- nevertheless they are houses—-this is the city of Santa Fe."
baked Spanish mud mansion—the San Miguel Chapel. Its An imposing tribute to building with mud is the historic
adobes still wear scars inflicted during the uprising of 1680. "Queen of the Desert" which reigns over the cactus king-
After failing to breach the mud walls with lances and fire, dom of southern Arizona. Guided by Franciscan padres,
the Indians stabbed fire-tipped poles into the protruding the Pima, Papago and Sobaipuri Indian builders of the
wooden vigas supporting the heavy foot-thick dirt roof. San Jose de Tumacacori Mission, went a step further in
An hour later the roof caved in. The smoke-stained walls preparing some of their mud bricks. They baked them
of adobe, which had echoed the Te Deum of monk chor- under extreme heat inside kilns. The result was a red
uses from the first days of Santa Fe, stood as silent as brick, much harder than the sun-dried ones. These burnt
shrines for 12 years. Then came General Don Diego de (or fired) adobe bricks were used for greater strength and
Vargas' peaceful reconquest of the Adobe City and repairs endurance in such sections as the exposed tops of walls
were begun on the church. Tradition insists that General and the bell tower. Enough bricks, both fired and sun-
de Vargas is buried beneath the sanctuary, but there is no baked, went into the building of this mission to form a
substantiating evidence. stack three feet high, three feet wide and a mile long.
The capital city of New Mexico was plastered with the Secularization of the mission by Mexico kept the queenly
names "Adobe Town" and "Mud City" by American mud mansion of the desert from being completed.
trappers and traders who pioneered commerce with the
Today new mud mansions rise in the vicinity of the
then Mexican villa in the early 1800s. "Folks hereabouts
live inside piles of mud," accounted a mountain man from Southwest's ancient mud mansions. Only 20 years ago—
four centuries after Coronado's entrada into New Mexico
—the Cristo Rey Church was built on Canyon Road in
Santa Fe. Into this job went 15,000,000 pounds of mud.
Not too long ago the least expensive item on a South-
western home-builder's list were adobes at $15 per thou-
sand. Today the going price is five times fifteen. Paying
$75 for every thousand mud bricks needed for an adobe
casa is enough to make many budget-minded builders for-
sake adobes for the less romantic commercial cinder blocks.
Some people beat the high price by making the adobes
Southwestern paisanos who can determine the quality
of soils by gritting them between their fingers, snort at the
popular belief that the more clay in the soil the better the
adobes. Through their graying mustaches they will tell
you that too much clay will result in adobes that shrink
. % »•*' mfr> r w ^ v ^ : ••••"v. ' ••• and crack. Too much sand will make adobes crumble. In
many areas of the Southwest, Mother Nature has already
mixed the soil in proper proportions of quartz sand and
clay for superior adobe material. Where such a ready-mix
is not available, sand and clay are brought together and
blended into a satisfactory mixture.
Mud for the adobes is prepared in a hole about three
feet wide and twice as deep. After an all-night soaking
which allows the water to thoroughly saturate the mixture,
straw is kneaded into the mud. Old-timers can recall when
corn husks and horse manure were used instead of straw.
Forming the adobes comes next. The mud mixture is
poured into a wooden form which shapes four bricks, each
14 inches long, 10 inches wide, 2>Vi inches deep. After the
form is lifted, the bricks are left undisturbed to dry in the
sun for several days. When sufficiently dried for handling,
the adobes are loosely ricked on edge, three or four high,
and left to the sun and wind for further drying and curing.
Like vino, adobes improve with age. When ready for build-
^ ing, the same mud mixture used for forming the adobes is
prepared for the mortar.
Old Fort Union, the largest U.S. Army fortification
of the Southwestern frontier during the third quarter of the
1800s, was built with adobes prepared in the manner de-
scribed above. But, it was at Fort Union that adobe walls
were first topped with burned-brick copings in New Mexico
. . . CRISTO REY CHURCH IS OF RECENT CONSTRUCTION Territory, a practice which led to the "Territorial" type

16 / Desert Magazine / August, 1960

ot architecture which today vies with the "Pueblo" style American adobe architecture mingles as harmoniously
for popularity in Santa Fe. The ruins of Fort Union re- as its peoples. From New Mexico to California pueblos
cently became New Mexico's ninth national monument, and royal palaces, mission churches and kivas, forts and
The Southwest is strewn with mud mansions hand- museums, stagecoach stations and office buildings, cantinas
built by four cultures. Indian, Spanish, Mexican and and modern homes stand side by side. ///

The Old
has these comments
on the subject of
CJ If built right a one-story adobe
house is fireproof. It's earthquake-
proof, dustproof, soundproof, heat-
and cold-proof, rat- and termite-proof,
bulletproof—and almost proof against
bad design. This is due to the thick-
ness of the walls, and danged if these they make adobes for a new home, the C| If the soil is not right for adobe
walls don't take on more character as home will always be a happy one. bricks, don't make the bricks some-
they age. where else and then haul them back
IJ Nine out of 10 adobe houses are to the building site—haul in the raw
<J The government has put out some never completed. The reason is that
silly pamphlets on adobe construction, materials, the clay and the gravel.
constructing with this free building ma- Always make the bricks near where
not worth sending for. Many other terial is not only hard work, it is lots
people have wrong ideas about adobe. you want to use them.
of hard work. To build an adobe
A big oil company is making "super" house you must move tons and tons C| Clay, mud, adobe—call it what you
adobe bricks that will "last longer." of material. will, but it must have gravel mixed
<I Last longer than what? Good old- into it to make good adobe brick. Use
<J So, when you plan your layout don't about a third mud and two-thirds
time well-made common adobe brick start by building a place for your car,
(if well-roofed) is good for about 300 gravel. This will make a strong brick.
or a chicken-coop to see how things Putting straw in bricks can only help
or 400 years. Why spend money with will go. Start right off with the living
the big oil company to get a brick that if there is to be a lot of handling. In
room. Make it a large room with a one year the straw dry-rots, and you
will last 500 years? big fireplace on one wall. On the two have nice tunnels through your walls
<][ It is said that if Mexicans sing as walls flanking the fireplace, build open for the bugs.
arches. These will lead to the bed-
rooms and kitchen when you get <J If you want to use water-proofing
Before launching his unique "Desert Rat
around to building them. In the mean- on the outside walls, okay. But, in-
Scrapbook" ("the only newspaper you can side walls should be of plain adobe,
open in the wind"), Harry Oliver was for time, you can board up the arches.
many years one of Hollywood's leading art With your living room finished you especially if the house is in the Cali-
directors. He created the sets for such mem- have a place to sit when it's hot and fornia earthquake belt. Plain adobes
orable motion pictures as the first "Ben Hur," take the shock better. The harder,
"Good Earth," "Viva Villa," and "Seventh a place easily kept warm when it's
Heaven." cold. And if you get tired of building more brittle oil bricks can't take it.
with adobe (and you will), you can Witness the Brawley City Hall.
"Studying building materials and methods
was my job," he writes, "and of all the styles add rooms made of wood on either <| Which brings to mind an earth-
I ran across, adobe fascinated me most. I side of your living room. But, the
built four homes—including Old Fort Oliver
quake yarn. During a severe tremor
—out of adobe." Oliver's "fort" is located adobe living room makes your house in a certain desert town, the city hall
in Thousand Palms, Calif. a genuine adobe. took a bad jolt and the members of the

August, 1960 / Deserl Magazine / 17

city council, then in session, left in a ested in building with adobe back in a bargain counter Al Jolson, and the
hurry. The clerk, a man of rules and the '30s when John was situated across time I climbed hurriedly down the lad-
regulations, wanted the minutes of the the highway from Valerie Jean Date der and shook hands vigorously with
meeting to read legal. It took some Shop near Salton Sea. an old friend before she could protest.
thought, but finally he put down: "On CJ "John," I told him, "you should You should have heard her express
motion of the city hall the council herself!
build something out of adobe. I know
adjourned." you express yourself with paint and "Then there was the afternoon when
<J I once built a house with "Daily in writing and that guitar of yours, but I slipped on a gob of wet mud and
Dozens"—12 adobe bricks made each you don't know real self-expression landed on my cement floor with a 60-
day before breakfast. Many an old- until you build with adobe. Laying pound brick in my lap. And the other
timer has told me that he is 70-years- adobe bricks is good for the soul." time—but, why should I go on? There
young or 75-years-young because he is positively nothing on earth like
^ Here's what John wrote later: building with adobe to make one ex-
had always chopped the day's supply
of firewood before breakfast. "I discovered that Harry was so press himself."
very right about expressing oneself! CJ The Mexican builds an adobe house
<J The frame for adobe bricks should
be made out of 1x4 lumber. Regula- Why the first time a huge adobe brick because he wants a house. The Ameri-
tion brick size is 12x18x4 inches. broke while I was hoisting it in place can builds an adobe house because he
and each half landed on one of my wants an adobe house. These places
tj In September, 1887, fire destroyed feet, I expressed myself in a manner have all the romance, color and simple
the greater part of Calico, California, that brings a glow of pride to me even good taste of the early California pas-
in less than an hour. When rebuild- now. toral homes. They give us that solid
ing time came (and it came quick—
"Then there was the time a big and fine something to tie to. A child
before the ashes were cool), the pion-
blob of fresh mud dropped and plug- born in an adobe home will always
eers agreed that at least every fourth
ged my pipe and left ear while I was have something to boast of.
structure would have to be built of
adobe—this to prevent a repeat of stooping to pick up another brick, and f§ An adobe house puts you at ease.
the disaster. the days when I battled gnats with To live in one automatically makes
<J I got John Hilton, the artist, inter- mud-covered hands until I looked like you an aristocrat. ///

How much do you tribesmen of New Mexico is thought

Desert Quiz know about the
Great American
Desert? Here's a quick way to find out.
to be the: Blue Mesa... High
Mesa Red Mesa Enchanted

If you get 12 or less correct answers,

you're a tenderfoot; 13 to 16 right an-
swers rates a One-Who-Savvys-The-Des-
ert rating; 17 or better and you can tell
Correct spelling of one of the most
common plants on the Low Desert
is: Ocatillo__. Ocotillo
tilla . Ocotilla ....
the potter
your friends you are a Desert Rat. An- 10. Lorenzo Hubbell was a: Mission- By
swers are on page 3 1. ary .. Governor of Utah Indian
1. The parasite plant, "Desert Mistle- trader.. .. Miner . EDNA S. SMITH
toe," never grows on one of the 11. Color of the Nolina blossom is: San Jose, California
following trees: Joshua Tree Red . White . Blue.... Orange...
Palo Verde- . Mesquite Iron- 12. The famous Goosenecks are on the:
wood ,.. Gila River.... San Juan River Up and down,
2. The Mohs' Scale is used in measur- Rio Grande..... Furnace Creek..... the sandalled foot
ing the: Purity of gold _.. Age of 13. Largest city visible from Nevada's
carbon Velocity of a river . . Charleston Peak is: Carson City Turns the potter's wheel;
Relative hardness of minerals . Reno . Humboldt.... Las Vegas While ageless hands
3. According to legend, he who drinks 14. Traveling west on U.S. 66, the first
from the Hassayampa River of Ari- California city you would come to with dextrous art,
zona will: Never tell the truth is: Needles Blythe .... Barstow Press and
again Never be thirsty again El Centro
Return to Arizona Adopt the 15. Mexico achieved its independence shape and feel.
ways of an Indian ..... from Spain in: 1801. . 1821
4. Hoover Dam was erected primarily 1841 . . 1861 A bulge in here,
to: Generate electricity Provide 16. Western history honors John Charles a dent in there,
irrigation waters for the Imperial Fremont as the: Law-Giver Path-
Valley Control the flood waters finder Discoverer Desert Scout As spinning wheel
of the Colorado Provide drink- turns round;
ing water for Los Angeles 17. The common occupation of Gay
5. Holacantha emoryi, so-called Cruci- Staveley. Harry Aleson and Art And from the
fixion Plant, is most often found Greene is: Writer __. River Guide shapeless mass, in time,
growing: Around brackish springs Archeologist Artist
On high desert peaks- . In the 18. In mining parlance, an excavation Springs beauty
dunes On the floor of dry lakes for the extraction of ore is known from the ground.
as a: Sluice Stope Vein...
6. "Chaparral Cock" is one of the Funnel .....
many common names given to the: 19. The field of science concerned with Into the kiln
Roadrunner..... Cactus Wren... Elf deserts is known as: Penology .... to smooth and purge,
Owl..... Gila Monster Aridology Anthropology Er-
7. Billy the Kid's reputation was large- emology Is placed the shapen bowl;
ly established in the: Bisbee Massa- 20. The big discovery that led to the And it comes out
cre.. . Tombstone Bank Robbery .... Rhyolite, Nevada, boom, was the
Lincoln County War..... O.K. Cor- mine known as: Bullfrog .... Copper in fiery glow,
ral Gunfight—.. Queen.... United Verde Lost A part of potter's soul.
8. Ancestral home of the Acoma Dutchman

18 / Desert Magazine / August, 1960

Dr. Stahnke is head of the Division of
Life Sciences and director of the Poi-
sonous Animal Research Laboratory at
Arizona State University. As the per-
fecter and principal advocate of the
Ligarure-Cryotherapy (immersing wound
in ice water) method of treating snake
bite, his name has been much in the
news in recent years.

HE PROBABILITY of your be-
T ing stung by a scorpion is greater
than you think. Scorpions are
found in all of the continental United
States except the New England and
Great Lakes states.
In order to get stung you will have
to know where to find scorpions. Their
dwelling places are many and common.
This is indicated by the following list
compiled from collection reports of
thousands of individuals:
Scorpions are found under boards,
boxes, rocks, sheet metal, sacks, bricks,
rabbit pens, roots of trees, stumps,
loose bark of trees, cement blocks.
Other outdoor hiding places are:
sand boxes, outside walls of houses,
ditch banks, sidewalks, lawns, chick-
en-houses, walls of wash-houses.
Indoor hiding places reported were:
the floor of any room of the house, on
davenport, in washing machine, in
bread-box, under wash cloth in bath-
room, on dining room wall, on kitchen
wall, in egg crate, on bed, in bed 1 Vi Hand—reached for doll, scorpion Knee—playing on ground.
under covers, inside old mattress, in
cellar, in bath ti|b—practically any under doll's clothes. Finger—playing in sand.
place you can name. 1 Vi Foot — scorpion fell off ceiling 6 Finger—crawled under bed.
into bed. 6 Hand—on school grounds, scor-
If. in addition to observing the com- pion hiding in dust rag.
mon scorpion habitats, you give heed 1 Vi Leg — sleeping on floor of jail
to a few scorpion behaviors, your suc- with mother. 7 Chest—stung while asleep.
cess in setting up a "scorpion rendez- <S Foot—scorpion on towel, mother
2 Thumb — picked up sprinkler,
vous" is greatly enhanced. For ex- brushed it off, landed on foot of
scorpion in sprinkler.
ample, scorpions are nocturnal. They patient.
do all their wandering around, court- 2 Thigh — dressing, scorpion in
clothes. Hip and thigh — scorpion in
ing and whatever else is a good night- trousers.
time activity, after dark. When hiding 2 Foot—getting out of bed, stepped
on scorpion. Hand—stung finger as scorpion
under an object during the day, many
species cling upside down on the un- 3 Foot—playing in rock pile. was brushed from trousers.
derside of the object. 3 Hand — reached up on top of 12 Thumb—playing with calf skin.
dresser for toy. 12 Finger — put hand on outside
Physicians' reports reveal the fol- 3 Fincer — lying on rug watching window sill.
lowing list of activities that a few TV.
members of the '"Scorpion Club" were 12 Finger—reached into floor drain.
4 Toe—stepped on scorpion in old Thumb—picked up newspaper.
engaged in w.hen stung: house.
17 Toe—sitting on lawn chair.
AGE PART OF BODY AND CIRCUM- 4 Hand — playing around cement
STANCF.S WHEN STUNG 17 Finger—working under car.
brick wall.
1 Thumb—reached for pan in kit- Wrist—cleaning house.
4 Hand — picking bark off tree,
chen cabinet, scorpion in pan. scorpion in crevice. continued on page 29

August, 1960 / Desert Magazine / 19


Last of the Basket Weauers

Into the pine needle baskets of 77-year-old Juanita Nejo
are woven the memories of childhood

UANITA NEJO was raised on the apparently an Indian noun that fur- not the right kind for her baskets.

J Aynaja Reservation of eastern San

Diego County where the high roll-
ing hills of the California Coast Range
are spotted with stands of pine timber.
ther identifies the basket.
Juanita and her husband, Angel,
now live in the south-end of the Te-
mecula Valley. Once each year they
My observations lead me to believe
that needles from the young Colter
and Ponderosa pines of Palomar are
identical with the ones she and Angel
These trees remain the unchanged drive their ancient Pontiac past Lake gather another 30 miles beyond. But,
color of green jade in spite of a sum- Henshaw and Santa Ysabel to the Juanita has little interest in the shin-
mer heat treatment which tempers the Julian country to gather pine needles. ing aluminum dome which houses the
surrounding vegetation to a burnished On their way they skirt the base of famous 200-inch astronomical mirror,
gold. In this high timber country— pine-covered Palomar Mountain, but nor does she hold any special affection
over 70 years ago—Juanita Nejo was they pass the side-road that leads to for the pine trees atop Palomar Moun-
taught the tribal art of weaving baskets the great observatory because Juanita tain which she regards as comparative
from pine needles. insists that the pine needles there are strangers. At Julian are the trees un-
Indian baskets served many pur- der which Juanita gathered pine need-
poses. Some of these household uten- les when she was a little girl.
sils were so tightly woven they held The cluster of needles used in Jua-
water; all were so carefully handcrafted nita's baskets are carefully picked
that the finest meal could not sift from the boughs of young pine trees
through them. The fresh appetizing — the three-needles-to-the-cluster va-
scent of pine constantly surrounds riety; selected for matching length and
these baskets, and their hard smooth thickness, then neatly arranged in card-
interior surfaces are easily cleansed. board boxes for the trip back home.
They are attractive in appearance, ex- After filling all the empty cartons oc-
tremely durable, and were formerly cupying the back seat of their Pontiac,
fashioned in a host of sizes and shapes the Nejos return to their place in
to fit the Indians' various needs. Temecula Valley where the harvest is
These pine needle baskets are called spread out in the shade to cure. Care
canasta jimaras by Juanita and the is required in this process. Sunlight
few remaining people of her tribe. Al- dries them too quickly and causes
though these tribesmen of the Aynaja them to become brittle. Too much
stem from the Mission Indians, they shade triggers a black fungus growth
speak their own tongue — a definite that permanently discolors the needles
Indian dialect softly intermingled with and makes them useless. From each
Spanish. The word canasta is, of carton of needles, roughly the size of
course. Spanish for basket; jimara is TERMINED, JUANITA BEGINS SHAPING SIDES
an apple box, Juanita estimates she

20 / Desert Magazine / August, I960

can make two large baskets. To her
a basket 12 to 14 inches in diameter -r*-
is grande.
After the curing is completed, the
butt-ends of the needle clusters are
skillfully cleaned of excess bark and
pitch. Then with a string Juanita ties
the needle clusters into bundles to be
stored until basket-making time.
A tubular green reed grass (called
kuanaya by Juanita) that grows around
the spring at the head of Pachanga
Wash, is next gathered by the Nejos
for the baskets. These peculiar hollow
reeds grow long and pointed, some
reaching five feet in length. The bot-
tom 12 or 18 inches of each stem is
a pretty reddish brown color which
remains permanent while the upper
two-thirds of the stem changes from
green to yellow as the reed is cured.
Shortly after these reeds are pulled
from the moist earth where they grow,
each stem is carefully split into thirds
and slowly allowed to dry. The pitch
is then scraped from the inside surface
of the reeds. After scraping each
strand, Juanita wraps them into iden-
tical circular coils, and stores them
These reed strands are amazingly
strong, and after soaking them in water
to make them pliable, the thongs are
pointed on one end with a razor-sharp
blade. They are used to bind the pine
needles, layer on layer, to eventually
form the basket. Juanita uses a sim- WHICH SHE PUNCHES HOLES FOR BINDING,
ilar binding material—the long tender JUANITA ADDS PINE NEEDLES TO BASKET
shoots of squaw bush which she calls stem of grass can be added without
paschaa—to form the nucleus of her changing the diameter of the layer of petuating this phase of her people's
basket. Occasionally, as work on the material being bound in place. As heritage.
basket progresses, Juanita intersperses the basket material is woven outward It is true that when Juanita's wistful
sections of this paschaa bind so that it from the center of the bottom and up- eyes fondly examine her last completed
appears in pleasing white contrast to ward to form the sides, an interesting pine needle basket, the art of making
the reddish-brown and yellow of the spiral effect is created by the exposed them still will not be considered "lost."
Kuanaya reed. butt-ends of the needles. The Smithsonian Institution in Wash-
A long tough broom grass gathered It takes Juanita about one week to ington, D.C., has, for instance, recon-
from the high ridges surrounding Rain- make a small basket, two weeks to structed the method used by the Rocky
bow Valley is added one stem at a weave a large one. These particular Mountain Indians in the complicated
time by Juanita as a filler during her baskets have never been regarded as process of making hunting bows from
basket weaving. As she works, the show pieces by Juanita or the other mountain sheep horns. It is the Smith-
pine needles are placed with skill so members of her tribe, but are consid- sonian's stated opinion that this par-
that they completely surround the ered as practical utensils much in de- ticular art, though now unused for
stems of coarse grass, thereby prevent- mand because of their great strength many years, is still not officially lost.
ing the latter from showing on either and durability. And so it will be with Juanita's
the inner or outer walls of the finished baskets. The white man will know
basket. To me they are a fascinating piece
of American handicraft and one of what materials to use and may some-
At approximately every two - inch the most interesting products of the day eventually become proficient in
interval on the growing basket, Juanita Indians' weaving skill. As nearly as the art of making these baskets from
adds three clusters of pine needles held I can determine, Juanita, now 77 years pine needles, grass and reeds. He
evenly so that the butt-ends of the old, is the last living person who makes might even invent a machine that will
needles are exposed on the outside these pine needle baskets in this area. manufacture these baskets by the
wall of the basket and there, with the Local Indians have told me there was thousands at the mere touch of a
use of her awl and the reed thong, one other Indian lady who lived near button. But no white man, regardless
she binds them securely in place. The Warner Hot Springs who made and of his ability to perpetuate knowledge
point of one needle from each individ- sold similar baskets in the last decade, or to produce in quantity, can ever
ual cluster of three is broken off about but she passed away four years ago. weave into the form of a pine needle
two inches back in order that more So upon Juanita Nejo there probably basket Juanita's childhood memories.
pine needles and occasionally another depends the sole responsibility for per-

August, 1960 / Desert Magazine / 21

Bogus Baron of Arizona
Amazing Jim Reauis and his magnificent fraud
Uy Oren Arnold
I challenge any author to put Jim Reavis in fiction and not have
first the editor and then the public say it is gross exaggeration. And yet
—// was here to our Southwest that the most extraordinary men and
women came to fight, and live and love and play. 1 swear to you now,
in preface, that the story I am about to tell is taken from authentic
sources, especially the cold factual records of a United States court.
—Oren Arnold

N ONE SUNNY morning in the body, that is, except the officers, and it up to a group, a serious committee,
O 1880s, loafers in the courthouse
plaza at the frontier town of
Phoenix were startled to see a mag-
they were reluctant to explain its con-
tent. The few citizens who had both-
ered to ask were told, and then mostly
"whether you like it or not, friends,
this here is the real owner of most of
this state. He is the real Baron of
nificent horse-drawn carriage coming went away scoffing. The whole thing Arizona, just like he says, and he got
into view. Not two or four, but six was fantastic, too much so for them all this land from the Spanish king.
gorgeous white animals were dashing to accept. He has been investigated thoroughly,
up the dusty street, and the coach Now here, however, was the Baron and it's every doggoned bit true, I'm
they pulled was rich with color topped himself. He presented credentials— sorry to say. Everybody here is squat-
by a golden coat of arms. The driver not that any were necessary for so ters on his land, and under law he
was in uniform, and a footman sat imposing a man—and stated that his can run you off or make you pay.
beside him—just like something out agents would be here immediately to That's just what he's here to do."
of a storybook. attend to business details. "But my lord, man, this here is
"Ho-o-o-o-o!" the driver reined in "Dona Sofia Loreto, the Baroness, America!" the chairman objected
beneath a shade tree. The footman and I will remain for a short time strenuously. "This is not Spain! He
bounced around to open the coach also," he stated. "We wish to relax a can't come in here and . . ."
door. Slowly, with infinite dignity and bit, hiking and hunting in the baronial "That don't matter. Under the
hauteur, a tall gentleman of obvious hills." Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, in 1848,
Spanish heritage stepped down. He when the United States got Arizona,
wore the picturesque clothes of old "Yes sir," said the commissioner.
News of the baron and his equipage this nation agreed to respect the pri-
Spain. vate land claims as granted under
—followed promptly by a more effici-
"Proceed to the leading hotel and Spanish dominion. And away back in
see that the Baroness is made thor- ent retinue of secretaries and such—
took the countryside by storm. 1748 old King Fernando VI granted
oughly comfortable," His Excellency this Barony to a friend. This man here
commanded. "I shall first make my Arizona farmers and ranchers and now, by marriage to that Spanish wife
official call." miners dropped their work and came of his, is the legal heir. Shucks, men,
The carriage drove on, and the to town. Quite a few, it is told, even I don't blame you! But there's noth-
stately gentleman, nodding to the knot came with rifles and knives, being un- ing to be done, 1 tell you! We been
of staring men, asked at once to see sure of the kind of catastrophe now trying for weeks to dodge this thing.
the commissioner in charge of United threatening. But it was not a matter It can't be dodged. It's been taken to
States lands. When he had been es- for violence (although the talk did Washington, and to Madrid, and to
corted to that official, he spoke. become vehement at times). It was Mexico City and everywhere. It's
a matter of convincing the people that legal as night and day!"
"I have the honor to announce my- the startling news was true, a task in
self, sir," he bowed formally, "as Don which the officers for both the federal "Good god!" breathed the commit-
James Addison de Peralta - Reavis, government and the Territory had to teeman, a prayer more than a pro-
owner of La Baronia de Arizonac." cooperate. fanity. "His papers—the inheritance
The commissioner, duly impressed, —it—?"
"Yes sir," the commissioner summed
hastened to give him a chair, and then "Yes sir!" the commissioner em-
said, "Please be seated, Don James. phasized. "We've looked into that
I have been expecting you." Oren Arnold of Phoenix (in the winter thoroughly. Had certified copies of
The land commissioner had truly months) and Laguna Beach. Oilif., (in the whole thing sent here from Madrid
the summer) has heen a free lance writer
been expecting Don James, but no one for 25 years. His work has consistently and Mexico City, right from the mon-
else had. There had been posted a appeared in top national periodicals, and asteries where they keep official docu-
certain "manifesto," suggesting that he he is the author of 22 books (two more ments over there. The line of con-
would be coming. But the manifesto are scheduled for publication in the next sanguinity, the blood relationship, is
few months). Adele and Oren Arnold
was a thing in legal phraseology and have three daughters, two granddaughters perfect. It comes down to this Dona
nobody had quite understood it. No- and a tiny grandson. Sofia, which Don James married. It's

22 / Desert Magazine / August, 1960

hers, right enough, and therefore his $50,000—fee for a right-of-way across to Spain once entertained the pictur-
by marriage. Men, I'm sorry as hell, his lands! Similarly did big mine op- esque couple at a formal banquet and
and we've done every possible thing erators look into his claims—and pay. ball. They were received by state of-
to find a crack somewhere, but there One estimate says that mines paid him ficials everywhere, honored by fiestas
ain't none. It's federal law." more than $100,000. in Mexico, presented with precious
"But say," a citizen cried, "I been When attorneys tried to find a loop- gifts. They gave generously to charity
on my ranch for nearly 20 years! Now hole in the legal armor of Don James and public service funds. One public
to stay on it I got to pay him over Addison de Peralta-Reavis, Baron of drinking fountain cost the Baron
$3000! I can't do it. I never had Arizona, they faced two things; first, $1500.
$3000 in my life! And I got friends a flat statement from the United States When in Arizona, the Baron and
who're being charged from $500 to government that this country had to Baroness would mingle democratically
$5000 for quit-claim deeds to their live up to its Treaty with Mexico; with the common folk, attending the
property. He oughta be hung!" second, the fact that Don James had larger dances and social functions.
The commissioner shook his head. become intimate, in a social way as After a while the couple had twins;
"I'm as sorry as can be, men," he well as in business and politics, with everybody said the little fellows,
repeated, "but there just ain't a thing such nationally-influential men as Ros- dressed like their parents in Spanish
to be done." coe Conkling, Charles Crocker, Rob- finery, were irresistibly sweet. All of
Incredible as it sounded, the situa- ert G. Ingersoll and Coin's P. Hunting- this served, in time, to impress the
tion had to stand. ton. The Baron went into their homes, Arizona citizens deeply. They who
Don James was not pre-emptory. heard them tell the public that they had been hardest hit, forced to pay
He regretted sadly (so he said) to see had looked into his records and found until it hurt, were actually developing
numerous families thrown out of their his astounding claims just and true. a loyalty to the Baron, saying that he
homes. But, business was business. The Baron and Baroness traveled was the outstanding citizen of the
He did not demand all the money extensively. They maintained elabo- American West.
instantly. If a few weeks or months rate homes in Washington, D.C., and The success of his amazing claim
would help — until crops could be St. Louis, and were planning to erect of course prompted other people to
harvested, ore smelted or sold, cattle a rancho grande in Arizona on their dig up forgotten land grants, and while
taken to market, or some other ar- own lands. They loved to go abroad. most of these were small in compari-
rangements made—why certainly. He In Madrid, the American ambassador son to the Barony, they did become
openly chastised an unrelenting agent
for being too hard on a pleading far-
mer; cut the farmer's feudal fee ex-
actly in half, from $2000 to $1000,
and gave him six months to gather
that. Oh no, Don James had no dis-
position to be unkind!
Meantime, too, the magnitude of
the land claim was gradually being
understood by the people, and with
this understanding came a new and *
transcendant awe of the Baron him-
self. People began to study a map of
the official Barony of Arizona. It be-
gan in New Mexico, near the town
of Silver City, and spread across east-
ern Arizona to a line west of Phoenix.
North and south, it was 75 miles; east
and west, 225! Twelve million acres!
In that decade of the 1880s, when
wild Apache Indians were still a prob-
lem in Arizona, the land was worth no
more than $5 an acre or so, on the •,••

average. But $60,000,000 has always

been a goodly sum.
Except for Tucson, virtually every
major town in the Territory was within
the baronial bounds. Some of the
world's finest grazing lands, mineral
deposits and lumber stands were there,
not to mention the farming sections.
A poor farmer could do nothing but
take his medicine, pay or get off. But
the big interests fought back. They
could afford it. A group of attorneys
were hired by the Southern Pacific
Railroad to defy the imperious Baron,
but in a few months the railroad closed
the matter by writing him a check for



August, 1960 / Desert Magazine / 23

an annoyance. These claims grew into revealed nothing then. He hastily printed in Madrid, Spain, in 1787.
a big political issue, resulting in the looked at several other sheets, holding But it's got a watermark on it from a
creation of the Federal Court of Pri- them up to the window light. "I—I Wisconsin paper mill. And that mill
vate Land Claims, charged with inves- got to go!" he cried, hastening away. wasn't even founded until after the
tigating all land difficulties. He went quickly but quietly to a Civil War!"
"It is an excellent idea," Don James federal officer. "Most amusing," said Don James,
the Baron said. "I am annoyed by "L-1-l-listen!" he stammered in his "as well as annoying. Give the man
constant bickerings anyway. For this excited whispering, "them Peralta- a little money and have done with
court, why not bring the original papers Reavis papers — the Baron's land — him."
from Mexico and Spain, not copies them papers is faked!" He was talking with his agents, who
but the actual signed grants, dating "Hey? What's that?" the officer had come to him with news of Tom
from the creation of the Barony? They Weedin's discovery.
was instantly alert.
can be brought here safely under seal, But they couldn't bribe Tom
inspected then returned." "It's a fact! I been looking at them.
The land commissioner in Phoenix Moreover, in a very short time Don
welcomed the suggestion. It would James himself was under arrest. At
indeed stop the lingering questions of first he acted indignant. He raved
suspicious folk, settling the matter grandly, denouncing and threatening
once and for all. and warning of reprisals, but the fed-
The Spanish and Mexican govern- eral officers went quietly ahead until
ments cooperated, and within a few court convened. They had not acted
months the original papers, from the impulsively. They had sent operatives
foreign monasteries, reposed in a everywhere to gather evidence — to
Phoenix vault. And this is where Tom California, to Missouri, to Mexico
Weedin comes in. City, to Madrid. They were prepared
when court convened.
Tom Weedin was a humble printer
from Florence, Arizona. For a hobby Don James still tried to maintain
he collected old documents, old man- his magnificent bluff. A lot of ordin-
uscripts, samples of old printing of any ary citizens were indignant for him,
sort, and loved to inspect those he declaring he was being "framed" by
could not own. Naturally, he was wealthy folk. But the federal officers
anxious to see the Baronial grant doc- went right ahead. They pounded at
uments, and obtained permission to him, tearing down his claims step by
do so, under guard. step. There had really been no land
He sat for long hours inspecting the grant, said the officers; no Baronia de
quaint old documents, reading them, Arizonac, no long line of inheritors,
AFTER BUBBLE BURST, D O N A SOFIA BECAME no baron or baroness. Don James de
comparing them, studying them with A CHAMBERMAID, FADED INTO OBSCURITY
a hobbyist's keen pleasure. Peralta-Reavis was simply Jim Reavis,
There's one printed from a type in- ex-Confederate soldier, former mule-
Then, with no preliminary hint at vented in 1875—but it's dated more'n car driver in St. Joseph, Missouri, who
all, he suddenly made a discovery. a hundred years earlier—1748!" dreamed of grandeur and had come
"Good lord!" he exclaimed, star- "You mean — ? Why Tom!" the to the desert country to make his
ing at a page. officer was amazed. dream come true! There hadn't been
The guard became curious, but Tom "Y-yep! And another'n says it was any Dona Sofia Loreto, she whom


• Winslow
• Prescott

ri • Phoenix 1
Gila Bend • I
• Florence
j j • Silver City

• Tucson

Jim had described as an "exquisite, into the monastery vaults, tear out a All told, the documents tracing the
dainty Andalusian beauty" descending few of the old true pages, and insert ancestors, personages, titles, descrip-
direct from the first Baron of Arizona. the faked ones of my own. The priests tions, emoluments, boundaries and
She had really been not a Spanish never knew. incidentals of the vast Baronia de Ari-
senorita, but an Indian waif, parentage "In curio shops of Madrid," Reavis zonac, brought right down to 1885,
unknown, reared in poverty in Arizona testified, "I found a number of old totaled in excess of 80,000 words!
or California by a white family named hand-painted miniatures of men and Imagine the patience and industry
Snow. women, people long forgotten. I necessary to forge so many documents.
The lady herself admitted that, in bought them for a few centavos, gave Few modern novels are that long.
court. each a name, told my wife they were (This article runs about 4000 words,
"Oh it is true!" she sobbed dramati- her ancestors. They were pretty paint- as a further basis of comparison.)
cally. "He took me from my home ings, aged just enough to be convinc- That Jim Reavis, a mule-driver,
there, told me I was really a Spanish ing. She believed." These were intro- should have the imagination to con-
girl with a rich inheritance. I loved duced in court as evidence against ceive so audacious a forgery, is the
him, and believed him. But I know Jim. One named the first Baron of first miracle in his career. Second—
now it wasn't true!" Arizona—he who was so close a per- and greatest—is the fact that he actu-
He had faked records of her an- sonal friend of King Fernando in 1748 ally carried it out, did all the work,
cestry there, saying she was born of that the king gave him 12,000,000 did it so perfectly that he completely
wealthy Spanish travelers during a acres in Arizona. hood-winked first his wife and then
rainstorm. The records told every de- That first baron, incidentally, had the shrewdest investigating officers of
tail, even the birth pains of the mother been given a very thorough build-up three countries.
when Sofia Lore to was born. by his creator, Jim Reavis. His name Despite the fact that she had never
Still further, Reavis had never really was recorded as Don Miguel Nemecio really been married, Dona Sofia Loreto
married her. The wedding ceremony "the legitimate son of Don Jose Gas- was granted a legal divorce. Penniless
was false; her twin sons were illegiti- ton Gomez de Silva y Montes de Oca —a Cinderella with not even a golden
mate. She never suspected until he de la Cerda y de Carrillo de Peralta slipper left—the ex-Baroness got a job
admitted it on the witness stand. de las Falces de la Vega." as chambermaid.
But as to the astounding land claim Of course Jim Reavis was guilty—
—how was it created? Were not the 9t his confession settled that — and so
land records taken direct from the of- was faced with court sentence. Horse-
ficial monasteries in Mexico City and thieves they hang—but the Baron of
Madrid? Did not the government Arizona drew a six-year sentence, and
agents go there and verify that fact he only served two of them!
when the "Baron" first notified the He came out a free man and im-
U.S. Surveyor General? mediately set out brazenly to rebuild
Truly so. But for a man of Jim his empire. He returned to Phoenix,
Reavis' energy and imagination, get- claiming he was a victim of circum-
ting the records placed there presented stance. He had plans for promoting
but little obstacle. a vast irrigation project. He would
He had conceived his daring plan, take water from the Salt River, he
he told, when he first heard of a small said, and move it onto desert land in
faked Peralta grant in the Southwest, south-central Arizona, transporting it
an item mostly forgotten. On that by canal and 20-mile tunnel through
thought he began building. Heading the Superstition Mountains.
west from Missouri, he got a job as His proposal received considerable
traveling correspondent for a San serious attention—until a government
Francisco newspaper. It paid him a engineer pointed out that the land to
little, gave him precious credentials. be irrigated was many feet higher than
With them he went to Mexico, then the proposed damsite.
sailed for Spain. In the meantime he "I saw Reavis in Phoenix about
had mastered the Spanish language— 1910," one resident there tells now,
both "modern" and "ancient." "and he was an old man talking all
He went into the monasteries and sort of crazy schemes. He was going
asked to see the ancient records in to launch a big magazine. He had
order to write newspaper articles about invented some weighing scales that
them. Obligingly, the guardian priests would replace all others known. He
and monks let him in, even aided him. was going to do this and do that.
So Jim Reavis poured over the old "He had, I remember, a deformity
papers long and studiously, returning by the side of his nose, and people
daily for several days. said it was caused by a bullet or knife
"It was easy to hire printers or wound, but I never knew anything
street scribes in Madrid," Reavis' con- about it for sure. Never heard of him
fession tells, "to print or write any having any trouble of that sort. He
document I desired. They could im- operated in a different way."
itate old script and language style per- .*•* The superintendent of the New
fectly. By careful study, I was able Mexico State Prison, where the Baron
to dictate documents in the same style served his two years, stated that Reavis
of those filed in the 1700s. I even TO PROVE HIS CLAIMS, JIM REAVIS INVENTED was seen in Washington, D.C., in
imitated their quaint phraseology and ARISTOCRATIC PROGENITORS FOR HIS WIFE.
1916. The record ends here. Reavis
idiom. IN PORTRAIT WAS "DON MIGUEL NEMECIO, fades out of the Arizona scene as
"I would take these faked sheets THE FIRST BARON OF ARIZONA, AT AGE 30." mysteriously as he faded into it. / / /

August, 1960 / Desert Magazine / 25

for the

THE PERSON or a cactus display in a friend's garden,

who enjoys him- or a lone potted cactus on a city win-
self most in life dow sill. Usually — after this initial
is usually the one interest takes hold — the neophyte
who cultivates a makes a search for cactus information
hobby. More and suddenly a whole new world opens
people would be up.
happier in t h i s Did you ever stop to think, for in-
- busy world if they stance, how the cacti originated and
- had some kind of why they assume such grotesque and
T recreational p a s - bizarre shapes? Mother Nature cov-
time to ease their ered the mountains in temperate zones
minds and bodies. with towering pines and firs. She
I know that I'm biased, but I think clothed the plains and meadows with
gardening — especially cactus garden- luxuriant grasses and colorful flowers.
ing—is a wonderful hobby. It is cer- She endowed the tropics with lofty
tainly relaxing, and it doesn't take a palms, delicate tree ferns and lush /• '
great deal of money or time. Every- vegetation of various sorts. But when BIRD NEST CACTUS
one can participate — young or old, it came time to dress the desert she
city dweller or hermit. evolved the most fantastic creations,
realizing full well that plants of moun-
It's very easy to become a cacto- tains, plains and tropics could not sur-
phile ("cactus lover"). The urge to * The author is eminently
vive the rigors of arid lands. So she
cultivate cacti may come after a visit qualified to introduce
gave the desert cacti strong woody
to the desert when the cacti are in Desert Magazine readers
stems, she moulded layer upon layer
bloom, or you may catch the "fever" to the delights
of water-storing cells, and covered
from viewing a Josef Muench photo- of raising cacti as a
them with a tough thick skin so that
graph of a cactus in this publication, hobby. He is horticulturist
the moisture could not escape, the
in charge of the
sun burn or the fierce wind break.
great cactus collection at
Nature supplied some cacti with the Missouri Botanical
ribs or ridges so the plants could con- Garden in St. Louis, and a
tract and expand without dire conse- recognized world authority
quences when they had to use their in his chosen field.
stored water in times of drouth or Ladislaus Cutak is one
greedily replenish it after infrequent of the pioneers in the
rains. Leaves would be of no use to attempt to popularize
cacti, so the stems took on their work. science in order
The leaves became spines—long, short, to make it more interesting
straight, twisted and hooked—spines to the lay reader.
that would act like lath to protect the But "when necessity
plant from the burning sun, or like demands he can become
spears to turn back thirsty animals technical as evidenced
trying to get at the precious stored in some of his
water within the plant. Thus, cacti masterful theses published
present a fantastic array of weird, gro- on the 'Cactaceae'," writes
tesque and often ludicrous shapes— the "Cactus and Succulent
adaptations necessary to survive the Journal" of Cutak.
hardships imposed by their inhospit- In the main, however.
SAND DOLLAR CACTUS able environment.

26 / Desert Magazine / August, 1960

Although cacti seem repulsive to is derived from the plant's undulating
the unknowing person, they produce or spiraling ribs. This variety is glob-
some of the daintiest and most gor- ular to columnar in shape and may
geous blossoms in the entire kingdom reach a foot in height.
of plants. Here is found a bewilder-
Another easy flowering cactus is the
ing array of color in all its various
Bishop's Cap (Astrophytum myrio-
hues. The texture of the petals is as
stigma), a remarkable deeply-lobed
delicate as that of an orchid's, often
plant, entirely spineless, usually with
possessing the sheen of velvet and
five very pronounced ribs along whose
satin. People are often amazed when
edges grow rows of wooly areoles. The
they see blossoms of such rare beauty
plant body is densely dotted, giving
produced by these lumpy spiny stems!
it a grayish-white stonelike appear-
Not all cacti live on the desert. ance. Its pale yellow flowers are fair-
Some have wandered to the jungle ly large, borne near the top of the
forest and there attached themselves plant. These blossoms begin to ap-
to the trunks and branches of trees. pear early in spring and continue into
Often hanging in dense festoons, their fall.
stems have assumed slender cylindrical
Closely related to the Bishop's Cap
shapes. Other cactus stems have be-
is the Sand Dollar Cactus {Astrophy-
come flattened and leaflike, spread-
tum asterias). It has a flat dome-
ing out in the manner of orchid plants.
shaped body divided by deep grooves
These plants don't need spines to
resembling the marine animal by the
shield their bodies from bright sun or
same name which lives on the sandy
for protection against animals, but
floor of tropical waters. The flowers
when spines do appear they usually
EASTER LILY CACTUS are yellow, shading to red in the cen-
are hairlike and sparse in comparison
ter. The fully-expanded petals often
to the wicked armament found on the
obscure the small plant.
forest cacti's desert cousins.
The Dumpling Cactus (Lophophora
In the cactus family there is much williamsii) is a curious small plant
mimicry. Some of this is understand- with a globular body sometimes shaped
able, especially in the spineless forms. like a toy top above ground and a
Cutak "does not care In order to escape detection the plant
to become too scientific." thick turnip taproot below. The plant
evolves a general appearance that re- body is soft and pliable like a dump-
He made his first cactus sembles the object nearest it. Often ling, hence its common name. Flow-
collecting trip it takes an expert to spot one of these ers are borne in the center at the top,
to the desert in 1935. plants, good examples of which are the and are pinkish in the Texas forms
Many cactus expeditions many "living rocks" almost indisting- and nearly white to greenish in the
into the Southwest and uishable from the stones among which Mexican varieties. Slender pinkish
Mexico have followed. they grow. With some, the mimicry club-shaped fruits follow.
He takes photos as he is not so pronounced, but on the whole
botanizes, and his (and using a little imagination) one The Chin Cacti are very popular
slide-show lectures are can visualize similarity to many inani- for window sill displays. They hail
among the most popular mate objects as well as other plants from South America and are globular
in the St. Louis area. (and even people). to cylindrical in shape, very free flower-
ing and therefore popular with cactus
Cactophile Cutak goes I get a kick out of cacti that put me fans. The flowers come in shades of
out of his way in mind of something else. 1 think
to champion his often everyone should look deeper into the
maligned "babies."
plants growing around us. When you
"You don't have to
pamper cactus." he says. do, you will learn to appreciate the
"Just give them a little common names these plants bear—
attention and they Chain Cactus, Chin Cactus, Christmas
will more than reward Cactus, Cow Cactus, Crab Cactus . . .
your efforts." Often, when The long Latin botanical names will
describing how little care come later.
a particular cactus I recommend that the beginner start
might need—or how much a collection of the better-known cac-
abuse one can take—he tus types, graduating in time to the
will end up with a
scornful: "Try doing that field of rare cacti that challenge- even
to a rose," or "Try that the experts' horticultural prowess.
on a begonia and One of the easy flowering plants is
see what happens." the Twisted Rib Cactus (Hamatocac-
Cutak is author of two tus setispinus) from Texas. This plant
books, "Cactus Guide" usually starts blooming in early spring
(1956) and "Cactus and continues into fall. The flowers,
Personified" (1959), as well a beautiful satiny yellow with red
as numerous articles and centers, are followed by a tiny ball-
papers on cacti. like scarlet fruit about the size of a
cranberry. The name. Twisted Rib, BISHOP'S CAP CACTUS

August, I960 / Desert Magazine / 27


giving and Christmas cactus flowers in

shape and color. The latter two cacti
are almost identical in appearance,
with flashy flattened leaflike joints.
They do exceptionally well when
grafted onto a sturdy upright stock,
for then the plants are able to display
white, green, yellow, pink and red. fit subject for the window sill. These their lovely flowers to better advant-
Botanically known as Gymnocalyci- globose, hemispherical or cylindric age.
ums, there are about 50 species to plants are characterized by nipples or The Mistletoe Cactus {Rhipsalis)
choose from. tubercles crowned with a diadem of is a hanging bush with tiny whitish
Another popular South American slender spines. In their native habitat flowers turning into white semi-trans-
cactus is the Echinopsis group which some Mammillarias produce clumps parent berries.
bears the common name Easter Lily of hundred or more heads, each pro-
ducing a coronet of charming blos- These are but a few of the cacti
Cactus or, as some prefer, Angel's recommended for the beginner. All
Trumpet Cactus. The individual glob- soms in various colors.
are easy of culture, flower freely, and
ose-to-short cylindric heads produce Some old-time favorites found in guaranteed to start you on an enjoy-
an abundance of "pups" which can be many homes are the Rat-tail, Christ- able hobby. ///
detached easily from the mother plant mas, and Mistletoe cacti. These are
and grown individually to maturity.
The long trumpet-shaped flowers be- classed as jungle inhabitants, usually
found growing on trees in tropical Coming in the
gin unfurling at dusk and stay open
until the following mid-day. Some- forests. The Rat-tail is a Mexican SEPTEMBER
times these flowers will bloom for two vinelike plant with weak pendent pen- Desert Magazine:
successive days. cil-thick stems up to six-feet long. It Ladislaus Cutak's
bears beautiful crimson-pink flowers The Cactus Hobbyist
There are a number of "Living that last for several days. These blos- Learns Propagation"
Rocks," but the best known is Ario- soms resemble somewhat the Thanks-
carpus fissuratus which hails from the
hot barren lands of the Big Bend
country of Texas. The upper-part of • • I
this cactus looks like a delicately-
chiseled stone object. It is composed
of horny triangular tubercles, fissured
and warty. From the center of this
crown arise beautiful pink to deep-
rose-purple flowers, succeeded by
small pale green fruits. One thing to
remember about the "rock cacti" is
that they should be kept on the dry
side, especially during the winter or
dormant season. Too much water will
reduce these plants to mush. This rule
holds for practically all desert cacti.
If you must err, it is best to give less
water than too much.
Darlings of the cactus family are
the "pincushions," botanically known
as Mammillaria. There are about 300
kinds to choose from, and each is a


28 / Desert Magazine / August, 1960
• How To Get Stung ByA Scorpion
24 Arm—scorpion under canvas.
24 Hand—picked up wash cloth.
— continued from page 19 —

25 Lower leg — scorpion ran up the site of venenation and prepare a ored. No visual local symptom is
pants leg in cotton field.
The last-mentioned species, Centru-
roides sculpturatus, has a potent neu-
rotoxic venom. The natural sting of
a single scorpion has been responsible
for the death of a 16-year-old boy in
Immediately after the tourniquet has good health. The site of the sting
been applied, place a piece of ice on does not swell or become discol-

pan with ice and water. Now place produced. The site of the sting
the member in the iced water well
26 Elbow — scorpion on pillow on above the point of ligation. After five becomes hypersensitive to touch, a
slight bump sends a tingling sensation
bed. minutes, remove the tourniquet. If through the stung member. This is an
26 Finger — removing soiled jeans this cryotherapy is kept up for two excellent characteristic to use in diag-
from hamper. hours, the venom will be adequately nosing venenation by a lethal scorpion.
28 Wrist — handling used adobe dissipated and serious consequences Other scorpion or rattlesnake venoms
can be avoided. After this, you can will not produce this hypersensitivity
bricks. brag to people how cool you were in to touch. Severe reactions to the ven-
31 Finger — tried to kill scorpion the emergency.
om consist of very copious drooling,
with piece of tissue.
There are approximately 30 species chaotic convulsions, distended abdo-
33 Hand—while sorting laundry. of scorpions in the Southwest. The men, blue lips and fingers, and perhaps
38 Hand—scorpion in vegetable bin. most widely distributed are: respiratory or heart failure with con-
sequent death. A severe sting of a
42 Thigh—rolled over on scorpion Hadrurus hirsutus, H. arizonensis, single scorpion will be lethal to chil-
in bed. and H. spadix. The giant hairy scor- dren unless proper treatment is insti-
44 Breast and chest — scorpion fell pion, attaining a length of 5 inches. tuted at once.
from drapes, down neck and in- Vejovis spinigerus. The stubby,
side brassiere. striped-tailed scorpion. Average size The lethal species are largely con-
45 Finger—reached into paper sack about 2 inches. fined to central and southern Arizona
which had been on ground over- and small portions of adjacent states.
night. Vejovis flavus. A light yellowish The Poisonous Animal Research Lab-
53 Finger—unboarding windows of scorpion with moderately slender tail oratory of the Arizona State University
cabin. and pincers. Average size about Wi of Tempe, Arizona, manufactures and
inches. distributes scorpion antitoxin gratus to
55 Forearm — putting clothes in
closet. Paruroctonus mesaensis. A light Arizona physicians. ///
yellowish scorpion with slender tail
62 Arm—brushed against bush. but broad pincers. Average size about
73 Foot and finger—picked up wash 2Vi inches.
cloth in sink and was stung on
finger; threw scorpion to floor Superstitionia donensis. A small,
and was stung on foot. brown, very shiny scorpion. Average
size about % inch.
75 Toe—walking barefoot in bath-
room. Anuroctonus phaiodactylus. A
brown, moderately slender tail and
After studying the above tabulation broad pincers, with a lighter colored
of "successes," undoubtedly your cre- sting-bearing ampulla. Often called
ative personality can add other tech- the shiny stinged scorpion. Average
niques. Incidentally, the experience size about 2 inches.
may not be as thrilling as you had ex- GOLDAK
pected, and then again it may go be- Uroctonus mordax. A small, light
yond your expectations. In either case, to dark brown, moderately slender- LOCATOR
it would be wise to react appropriately. tailed scorpion. Average size about
This consists of putting a tight tourni- 1V2 inches.
quet between the site of the sting and sculpturatus. A straw-
the body, if the spot is on one of the colored scorpion with slender tail and
extremities. Of course, if you should pincers. Also, a small tooth or tuber-
be stung on the face, it might prove cle at the ventral base of the sting. -You have heard the many stories of buried
treasures, lost mines, and ghost towns through-
embarrassing to follow this advice. The other species are not widely •out the west: the lost Sublett mine near Carls
'bad Caverns, the lost Dutchman mine, Super-
distributed and the populations are s t i t i o n Mountain, and many more. Using the
'right kind of modern equipment, treasure hunt-
generally small. " ing can be fun and exciting.
. Your next trip to the desert can be excitingly
GOLD, s i l v e r , c o i n s , Of the above species, all but the different if you take along a GOLDAK metal
j e w e l r y , strongboxes, last mentioned have a venom that pro- r
locator. Using the latest electronic principles, a
battle relics! M-SCOPE GOLDAK locator can detect metals up to 27
transistorized electronic duces a local reaction primarily. In a feet below the surface of the ground.
Treasure-Metal Locators
detect them all. Used severe case, the venom at most will 5 models include, transistorized instruments,
world-wide by successful produce a moderately swollen and dis- underwater metal detectors, geiger and scintil-
explorers. Exciting! Re- lation counters.
warding! Super-sensitive, colored area at the site of the sting
lightweight M-SCOPE You may find . . .
offers greater depth pen- and will produce a mild-to-very-pain- • Indian relics • Western lore • Valu-
etration, no ground in-
t e r f e r e n c e , over 200 ful burning sensation. People do not able coins • Gold ore • Buried treasure
treasure-hunting days of show a hypersensitivity to scorpion
battery life. Indestruc- Write for free literature and information on new
tible fiberglass cases. Guaranteed. From venom, except for Vejovis flavus. Out- book of known treasuies.
$59.50, Easy Terms. Write today for FREE
catalog. side of such a reaction, the venom of
these seven scorpions would not be The GOLDAK Company
Dept. D-2. 1'ulo Alto. Calif. 1 5 5 9 W. GLENOAKS BLVD. GLENDALE, CALIF.
lethal, not even to a tiny infant.

August, 1960 / Desert Magazine / 29

From a study of these fossils, the ex-
The Desert of Omyhee perts have established that ancient
horses, mammoths, elephants and mas-
todons once lived in the area.
— continued from page 11 —
Though a desert area, Owyhee
County has been the scene of much
which, of course, includes the county The lake-bed desert is roughly di-
activity. Few regions have been so
officials. There is no feeling of being vided into two parts, the first of which,
fervently cursed by their first visitors!
hemmed-in in this part of the world. from 2200 to 2500 feet altitude, lies
Its early history matches the harsh-
along the Snake River and is com-
Owyhce presents a broken kind of ness of its physical characteristics.
posed of more or less unconsolidated
topography. Seven mountain ranges, Wagon trains traversed it; fur com-
sand, silt and gravel in flood plains,
the Ruby, Silver City, Juniper, South panies exploited it; miners found
landslides and dunes. The rest of the
Mountain, White Rock, Elk and Owy- precious minerals in quantity. But
lake-bed desert, above 2500 feet and
hee Highlands, are haphazardly scat- people made no easy bargains with the
below 3300 feet, is mainly what the
tered over the county. Between them Owyhee area. The tales of the fur
geologists have called in the past the
are more or less level areas, except traders record the lack of grass and
"Payette Formation." This consists of
where intersected by the river canyons. a shortage of game which forced them
somewhat more consolidated sand,
Generally speaking, the altitude of to live on the carcasses of the beaver
silt and gravel from the shores, tribu-
these flat areas is lowest at the north- whose fur they sought. Travelers
taries and beds of ancient Lake Idaho.
ern boundary and increases in eleva- found the mountain passes difficult
In the "Payette" are also found sand-
tion to the south. The northern area and rocky. Freighters tested the Snake
stones, tuffs, diatomaceous earth and
is known as the "lake-bed desert" as a possible means of transportation.
a little lignite. Thin basalt caps are
portion because it is closely associated The river, unnavigable in spots,
seen on some of the erosional buttes
with ancient Lake Idaho, the size of crushed the frail boats and, after
and mesas here.
which is roughly outlined by the ex- strewing their contents on the water,
posed lacustrine sediments which ex- The lake-bed desert is the driest often drowned the rivermen.
tend from east of Glenn's Ferry west part of the county. The vegetation is
into Oregon—an area of almost 20,- low and sparsely distributed. It sup- The name "Owyhee" was given to
000 square - miles. This tremendous plies meager spring pasture for sheep. the region after three Sandwich Island-
lake lasted until a break occurred in Some of the soil is nearly as white as ers, employed by the Hudson's Bay
its northern wall, causing its water to chalk. In places the whiteness is over- Company as expert boatmen, were
drain out through the present Hell's laid by dark basalt so that the effect killed here by the natives. The name
Canyon of the Snake River. might be compared with vanilla ice Owyhee is said to be a corruption of
cream topped with chocolate sauce. Hawaii, the island from which the men
Murphy concentrates its few buildings came.

SPORT KING in a corner of the lower lake-bed

Owyhee appears peaceful enough
The thieving Snake and Bannock
Indians became actively hostile, but
not all the crimes of the Owyhee were

COACH Sleeps 6 now, but amateur geologists can find

many records of past activity. As the
old rocks of the district wore down,
perpetrated by Indians. White des-

lake and stream deposits covered the

low places, and lavas welled up to add ASSAYS
their layers. The various seams are COMPLETE • ACCURATE
still in evidence. Crustal pressures
produced uplifts and faultings, and GUARANTEED
mountains again rose to great heights. Highest quality spectrographic.
In the meantime, the streams began
their destruction so that channels and Only $8 per sample.
canyons were deepened. Obstructions
had caused the ponding of the river REED ENGINEERING
NEW and the creation of Lake Idaho. Into
it the streams poured their loads of
620-R So. Inglewood Ave.
Inglewood 1, Calif.
10' Bunk-over-Cab Model
Here is the KING of ALL pickup coaches!
material and the wind blew volcanic
dust until the lake was filled to a depth
Every deluxe feature for travel and living . . .
ideal for hunters and sportsmen . . . made to
of approximately a quarter of a mile.
fit all pickups . . . 8', 9', and 10' models. Intermittent lava flows further in-
Constructed from heavy gauge aluminum with creased the deposits.
beautiful decorator birch paneled interior. De-
signed with all trailer facilities, the SPORT
KING COACH is sway-proof and insulated for Traveling south you pass from the
top comfort. Your best bet for travel fun. lake-bed desert to the escarpment of
NOW available in your choice of 8', 9', and 10'
models, the "BUNK-OVER-CAB" models feature the Owyhee Plateau. The sediments
front style kitchen, refrigerator, sink, butane
stove, large wardrobes, under seat storage, of the lower region are replaced by
dinette or twin beds, bunk-over-cab, all ap- material called the Snake River basalt,
pointments, 12 gallon water tank and pump,
interior lights and many other features. but some of the streams have cut
Write today for free brochure—and be sure
and ask about the King originated travel down through this basalt to an acid
caravans. volcanic lava, rhyolite.
SPORT KING TRAILER SALES, INC. The occurrence of fossils presents
other information about early condi-
SPORT KING COACHES, INC. tions. These evidences of ancient life
have been widely found in the county.

30 ' Desert Magazine / August, 1960

peradoes, in the best Western tradition, animals build their burrows in the
held up the stages and robbed men DESERT QUIZ ANSWERS selfsame areas or roam the hills in
who had accumulated stakes at the Questions are on page 18 search of prey, carrying on their daily
mines. l. Joshua Tree. activities as they did centuries ago.
2. Relative hardness of minerals.
Nothing deterred newcomers; dur- 3. Never tell the truth again. But, what is the future of the Owy-
ing much of the 19th Century this 4. Control flood waters. hee Desert? Much of it will probably
desert area was constantly visited by 5. Dry lakes. remain as it is. Grazing will continue
6. Roadrunner.
emigrants, miners, explorers, fur trap- 7. Lincoln County War. to utilize large areas of the mountain
pers and adventurers. Idaho became 8. Enchanted Mesa. slopes and uplands where relatively
part of the battleground of the great 9. Ocotillo. greater rainfall produces more vegeta-
competing fur companies. 10. Indian Trader. tion than is to be found in the lake-
11. White.
12. San Juan. bed desert. Water pumped from new-
The names of traders and trappers 13. ly-drilled wells is putting more land
Las Vegas.
regularly appeared in the records of 14. Needles. into crops along the Snake River Val-
the period. Pack outfits carried the 15. 1821. ley. New methods in dry-land farming
fur to St. Louis and other markets. 16. Pathfinder (also Pathmaker).
17. River Guide.
may add additional acres to those cur-
The mines brought in eager fortune 18. Stope. rently cultivated, but large increases in
hunters and filled the hills with mining 19. Eremology. agricultural land are not likely to be
camps, some of which had populations 20. Bullfrog. made in the foreseeable future. Con-
of several thousand. They are now siderable mineral wealth undoubtedly
ghost towns whose buildings are fast remains in Owyhee mountains, but
crumbling. the forage areas almost to their pro- new exploration and higher metal
duction limits. A few strip oases sup- prices are needed to revive mining in
The population of these districts the region. A currently unexploited
port hay and stock ranches which are
and the activity of the fur traders de- mostly the basing points for extensive resource is recreation. Development
creased with the exhaustion of the range operations. Holdings among the of the many scenic wonders in the
mineral and animal resources, and large operators are figured in square- county will draw an ever-increasing
today the county has largely lost its miles, not acres. The little-traveled number of tourists. It may be that the
importance as a fur and mineral pro- roads are much as they were a century ultimate future of the Owyhee Desert
ducer. In the meantime, perhaps 90 ago—the soil undisturbed by the plow, lies in recreation, after a colorful his-
percent of this desert area has gone the hills unfrequented by settlers and tory of exploration, trapping, mining
along with little change. Stock grazes visited only by range riders. The wild and grazing. ///

Photo Hints for the Southwest By


• The trend in photography today is versatility and originality. Don't

be afraid to experiment with your camera. Many of us get into what I
call a "musclebound technical rut" and fear to venture from the usual
techniques and principles of photography.
Don't misunderstand. Techniques like correct exposure, composition
and lighting remain all-important; but you can still be creative with your
camera and seek a unique way of shooting a scene regardless of subject
matter. Maybe you have an idea which violates all rules of photography.
Shoot the picture anyway—the results might be what you are after.
Deliberate distortion, for example, has its place, and the Southwest
has many subjects on which to experiment: canyons, old buildings, ghost
towns, corral fences, missions, cactus. Did you ever get low on the ground
and shoot a saguaro cactus against the sky? Try it sometime. Take
several pictures at different distances from the cactus, using a yellow filter
to darken the sky.
Put more imagination and "searchtime" into your picture taking. Look
for new angles, which means a new picture of Monument Valley, the
Grand Canyon, the wide Mojave Desert.
It just isn't true that there are no new angles left for shooting even
less sweeping subjects than the trio mentioned above. The picture illus-
trating this article is of San Xavier Mission, which has been photographed
thousands of times. I will wager a bet that the angle shown here hasn't
been photographed very many times. I searched for a deliberate "different"
type of angle and purposely employed distortion and parallax to create
the impression that the two towers are converging. I shot from a low
angle, putting the white against the blue sky and used a yellow filter.
Because white reflects light, I decreased my exposure one stop. You must
do the same when shooting color.
Camera data: Rolleicord V, TriX film, exposure 1/125th at F16
with yellow filter. ///

August, 1960 / Desert Magazine / 31

People and Places Along Nevada's
Historic Humboldt River Trail
Desert Magazine's Nevada Travel Correspondent

HERE have been some changes along winding into the distance between its stark members have operated both places for
T the Humboldt River's course since
Mark Twain noted that it was interest-
ing to jump back and forth across the
banks, literally bursts into view. Straight
ahead is the dam; to the left is caretaker
B. C. Jarvis's neat house and the tree-
quite a while; Felix Turrillas is proprietor
of Felix's, and his sisters and brother-in-
law, Connie Turrillas, Clara and Martin
stream, and then, made thirsty by exertion, shaded picnic grounds; to the right is the Oroz, run the Big Meadow with old-fash-
to drink it dry. bathing beach and boat landing. Mark ioned hospitality.
Twain wouldn't believe it.
U.S. Highway 40 parallels the Humboldt A block west of the highway the unique
through much of northwestern Nevada, but The opaque lake waters may not at first Pershing County courthouse (an almost
the river keeps itself hidden from travelers appeal to you for a cooling dip. The water circular building) offers its shady lawns
most of the way. You'll scarcely believe is bitter to drink, but delicious for swim- for picnics. The municipal swimming pool
that in this big desert there are shade trees ming, and the beach slopes gently—safe is open to the public, and there is a theater
and picnic grounds at Rye Patch Dam a even for wading toddlers. If you've brought and a bowling alley.
mere mile from the highway, but go look! a boat along, you must get a launching
And I'll wager you won't want to leave permit from Mr. Jarvis. The permit costs You'll do well to spend some time in
this startling oasis until you've spent hours nothing, and the rest of Rye Patch is also Lovelock, and make a few side-trips into
swimming, boating, bass and trout fishing, "for free." the ghost camps. Arabia District (north
and water-skiing. and west of town some 20 miles) was one
Time was when the weary covered-wagon of the earliest mining areas (1860s), and
Perhaps you will only want to break a pioneers found the meandering and shallow its gold yield was fabulous. You can still
long trip with lunch and a swim. (Bring Humboldt hateful, as they followed its find a few crumbled stone cabins marking
your own lunch—there are no concessions the site of Trinity town, as well as a giant
here.) Or perhaps, like me, you'll camp rabbit-warren of inclined shafts and mine
nearby to see the full marvel of desert dumps, if you are equipped to tackle sandy
sunset and sunrise. In any case, don't make roads. It's best to ask locally for road in-
the mistake of thinking you have to suffer Scosso formation and routing — sometimes wet
through summer's dry heat trapped on the weather changes our geography.
scorching highway pavement.
Another, longer trip is to the sites of
Look for the sign, "Rye Patch Dam," on four towns that flourished 50 years ago on
the east side of U.S. 40, 22.5 miles from rich gold—Vernon, Seven Troughs, tragic
Lovelock, 50 miles from Winnemucca. The Mazuma and Farrell—30 miles almost due
oasis is well-hidden and the well-surfaced west of Lovelock. A stone jail marks the
entrance road apparently leads only into site of Vernon, and a few buildings remain
flat desert as you leave the highway and in Seven Troughs. Farrell's site is rubble
make two railroad crossings. (Watch these and bits of desert-purpled glass, while Ma-
crossings—visibility is good, but they are zuma, wiped out by a flash flood, is strewn
unguarded.) Then the "badlands" created downhill for a mile below its former locale.
by ancient action of the Humboldt River course westward. But, it meant life to them, This is real desert country—colorful craggy
begin to appear — cliffs, bare ochre hills and nowadays it means flourishing agricul- hills and long flats—so be sure to carry
eroded into miniature Cathedral Gorges. tural and recreational developments along plenty of water and gasoline. Any Love-
Suddenly the fantastic gray-green lake, its length. Rye Patch Dam was built in locker can tell you how to get there—just
1926, and its stored waters (179,000 acre- head for Lone Mountain and keep going
feet capacity) irrigate 40,000 acres in Love- around its north side. The road is graded
lock Valley—"Nevada's Nile." Accordingly, but rough in spots.
HICKORY FARMS OF OHIO the boating business in western Nevada has

No Pepper
No Garlic
No Vinegar
flourished and we Nevadans and our wel-
come visitors have an all-year playground
to enjoy.
Seven miles north of Lovelock Eagle-
Picher's diatomaceous earth mill sends up
a smoke plume that marks the turnoff to
Mineral Basin's flourishing open-pit iron
No Pork
Rye Patch, for all its surprise and pleas-
ure, isn't everything in the Lovelock-to- mines 20 miles east. Another five miles
• FOR SPORTSMEN • Winnemucca stretch. There are ghost towns beyond the mill on U.S. 40 is Oreana (site
A MUST for Fishing, Hunting, of Nevada's first ore smelter in the '60s)
Camping, Picnics, Boating, Pack- and modern towns, old and new mines, and
ing Trips — Because of its long no end of good arrowhead hunting and from which a dirt road takes off east for
lasting freshness—will keep with- rockhounding. Rochester, a gold camp of 40 years ago,
out refrigeration. 10 miles distant. Rochester still has some
Lovelock's prosperous ranches, trees and buildings and massive mine dumps on its
Guarantee of Satisfaction lawns are today's counterpart of the "Big juniper-dotted hills. Keep an eye out for
and Safe Delivery Meadows" of pioneer times where emigrants wild horses along here — there are still
No Charge for Mailing halted to gain strength for the long dry mustangs in this country.
march westward to the Truckee River, and
100% Pure Beef their wasted teams could feed on the lush For more ghost-towning there are the
Hickory Farms of Ohio wild grass. Long before the transcontin- stone buildings and pleasant stream that
Western Division ental railroad got here in 1869 there was mark Humboldt City, once-lively but dead
P. O. Box 3306, Van Nuys, Cal. a trading station; the town itself is named these 80 years, which you reach by turning
Approx. 4 Ib, beef sticks are $5.98 ea. includ-
for George Lovelock's ranch, founded in east a mile past Humboldt House. Hum-
ing all packing and mailing. Send check or 1862. The local folks make their livings bolt House itself (32 miles from Lovelock)
money order. today largely by ranching and mining, as has a store, gasoline and refreshments. Its
Please ship me Beef Sticks at $5.98 ea. they have for a century, and being on U.S. proprietor, Cecil Campbell, has lived his
New Customer Old Customer 40, they are also very conscious of tourist life in this country and if you find him with
traffic. The small, knowing town has ex- some spare time he can tell you plenty
To:. cellent motels, stores and restaurants —
Felix's for thick steaks, the Big Meadow about it. Humboldt House was a famous
Hotel for very good and inexpensive family "dinner stop" on the early transcontinental
dinners of all kinds. The Turrillas family railroad; in even earlier times it was near
here that the Lassen Cutoff Trail left the

32 / Desert Magazine / August, 1960

Humboldt for the long hard trek to Cali-
center of things knows what the traveling
public wants, and provides it. The newer MAN. WHAT A
Star Restaurant across the street already
For exploring the vicinity of the old trail,
a good graded road leads west from U.S.
40 nine miles farther on. This road (its
has a reputation for A-l meals.
If you want a special treat, go west on
take-off is marked with a sign) also leads the main cross-street (Bridge St.) to the
to Scossa, a mining camp of several dec- less obtrusive Winnemucca Hotel and have True West, Frontier Times,
ades ago, and to Majuba Mountain on dinner Basque-style with the railroadmen, and A Gallery Of Western
whose steep side was America's only tin sheepmen, cattlemen, miners and a few
mine. The road past Scossa heads back other representative Nevadans. Get there Badmen for two measly
to Seven Troughs District for a lengthy, by 6:15 p.m., because then (and then only)
interesting loop-trip back to Lovelock. There are the doors opened to the dining room. bucks!
are a few antelope along here, so watch You sit at long tables, and marvelous food
for the shy lovely beasts. flies by—as much as you want of soup, We ate some loco weed, pulled off our
salad, as many as four meat dishes and bridles and are R U N N I N G WILD! Just to
Imlay, the only real town between Love- four of vegetables, potatoes, rice, spaghetti. introduce you to our magazines, we're turning
lock and Winnemucca, is a true railroad With this comes a glass of wine or a cup our heads so you can steal us blind!
community that "turns its back on the high- of coffee or a glass of milk. Tariff is $1.75,
way," to quote George R. Stewart's "U.S. and youngsters (even little ones) are wel-
40." Imlay has a small well-stocked store comed by friendly Angel and Frank, who
down near the tracks, and Little "Nevada on run the place. WES' TRUE
the highway's edge caters to those who
want good food and drink. Presiding over Don't be squeamish about entering is published
the liquid refreshments is "Mac" Haines, through the bar—it's an old Western cus- bi-monthly
who has done such things as play oboe tom, and you'll probably find several ranch (6 issues
with the Minneapolis Symphony, and who families complete with children waiting for per year) —
has a son who catches whopping bass in the dinner-door to open. An old photo- 25c per
Rye Patch Reservoir. graph on one wall shows you what the copy, 12
Winnemucca Hotel looked like in earlier issues for
Mill City, a few miles farther on, has days—it really hasn't changed too much. $3.00.
no mill and no city any more though it At the opposite end of town the equally
offers refreshments and gasoline to travelers. unobtrusive Martin Hotel has much the
A couple of miles past here is the six-mile same setup. Take your choice.
road to Dun Glen, a thriving gold town of
the 1860s whose few poplar trees and melt- Winnemucca also offers a theater and
ing adobe houses are its only trace today. bowling alley, public pool and golf course,
You can go on past Dun Glen over the stores and garages. And speaking of gar-
East Range, and double back to U.S. 40 ages—Chris Swett's small establishment five
about 15 miles from Winnemucca if you're miles west of town combines Chris's me-
in the mood for wandering the back-roads. chanical genius with his thorough knowl-
They're good, though bumpy. edge and huge interest in all kinds of rocks. FRONTIER
Winnemucca is a larger town than Love- Genial Chris is another native Nevadan TIMES
lock; here U.S. 95 to Idaho intersects U.S. who really knows and loves this country; is published
if he isn't too busy, he'll tell you any num- quarterly
40, a reminder that Winnemucca has been (4 issues
a famous Humboldt River crossing for ber of places to look for ores or rock
specimens, and probably show you a few per year)
nearly 100 years. Winnemucca is the center
in his own collection. —25c per
of a rich ranching district extending north- copy, 12
ward, and those jeans and Western shirts With so much to see and enjoy, nobody issues for
you see on the streets are not rodeo cos- need dread paralleling the Humboldt River's $3.00.
tumes. A going, able town, Winnemucca strange course through northwestern Nevada
(named for a famous Paiute chief) has any more. Things have really changed since
what it takes for creature comforts. Its
motels range from plush to plain (my fa- Mark Twain's day; Mark himself would TRUE WEST and FRONTIER TIMES are
vorite is Scott's Shady Court down near like it now. authentic magazines crammed with articles and
the river, quiet, spacious and on the inex- photos on badmen, range wars, Indian fights,
Don't hurry along here. Take your time, gold rush, ghost towns, lost mines, buried
pensive side.) The Humboldt Hotel in the and it will be a good time. / / / treasures, outlaws, trail drives, frontier sagas,
cowboy and ranch life — they portray the
REAL T H I N G — they stick to the FACTS!
Where can you buy so much of the very
— f o r ten times the price?

— Printers of the Desert Magazine
With Each Subscription
Books This is a book of factual ac-
counts and photos on 21 famous
PampKlets gunslingers—Wyatt Earp, Billy
the Kid, Wes Hardin, Jesse James, Wild Bill
Brochures Hickok—twenty-one of them!

S P E C I A L ! We're making you a "see-what-

Resort Folders we've got" offer of a full year's subscription to
BOTH magazines for two germ-laden bucks
Color Production — a n d throwing in a copy of the BADMEN
book FREE—-just to get you on the prod! It's
our last printing on the BADMEN book so DO
Write for free estimates IT N O W while they last! Send $2.00 in bills,
check or M.O. by hi-lifed giraffe RIGHT

August, 1960 / Desert Magazine / 33

Send for this new, beautifully illustrated book!
(& The Peerless Oil and Gas Co. said that tourists will now be able
and the Midwest Oil Corp. of Denver
ntr i- u announced to Super-
to easily locate the spot where the
Spanish priests Escalante and Do-
Gmd Canyon Deeps
minguez made the first recorded Words Written by Mortals and Immortals
D.V. Gold intendent Granville
crossing of Glen Canyon in the year BENJ. J. KIMBER
Hush f ails B L i l e g t h a t t h e y are
abandoning their placer mining ven- 1776. The road to this historic cross- This book contains the descriptive work of an
illustrious array of explorers and authors . . .
ture in Death Valley National Mon- ing turns off U.S. 89 about five miles from Father Garces to J. B. Priestley! Thrilling
north of Glen Canyon Damsite. The witness of Arizona's spectacle by more than
ument (see editorial on page 42). 50 writers.
In the winter of 1959 newspapers car- narrow dirt road, approximately 20 Canyon Deeps cuts across the inadequate
ried banner headlines of a new gold miles long, has many blind corners. oft-repeated phrases, and uses only the keen-
est observations of Grand Canyon experience.
strike in Death Valley when the two It can be negotiated with caution by A delightful collection of expressions, interest-
ordinary passenger cars. ing illustrations. Souvenir edition.
companies took out options on 96 Size: 8Vfcxl1", 2-color matching buff-gold
claims covering almost l$,000 acres envelope
on the floor of Death Valley in the Order by Mail from:
southern portion of the Monument. <jf The Hercules Mining Company of ROADRUNNER GUIDEBOOKS & RESEARCH
P.O. Box 741, Modesto, California
Discovery pits were dug in the Am- Nevada has purchased outright the (California residents please add 4 % sales tax)
argosa River valley gravels by using .., _ „ Union Mine, one of
heavy construction equipment. Some Mine To Be Austin's most famous
of the pits were over 200 feet wide, Re-opened producers. Hercules
40 feet deep and 200 feet long. officials said an immediate start V c W HIDDEN TREASURES
Prospecting and mining in National would be made to get equipment on GOLD, SILVER, PRECIOUS METALS with lh« Famous Model
Park Service areas is permitted in the ground preparatory to clearing 27 Metal Delector. Lightweight, ultra-ionsitivo, low
only a few instances. In the case of the old shaft. The Union was the
coit. None finer. Alto GEIGER COUNTERS (or uranium '
ana the VIOLITE for tungsten. INFORMATION FREE .
Death Valley, Congress authorized last of the numerous mines in the BUT
prospecting and mining in 1933, sub- Austin area to operate prior to the
Ofttn Copied — Never Excelled
ject to surface use by general regu- complete shutting-down of the entire
lations as prescribed by the Secre- district. At that time the operators METAL DETECTORS
tary of the Interior. Since no minerals More accurate, it's the first metal detector
were shipping ore averaging 1000 designed specifically for detecting placer
of value were found in this current ounces of silver per ton. gold, nuggets, and other small metal ob-
jects. Depth range 7 feet—comes complete,
gold rush, Peerless Oil and Midwest ready to use.
Oil are backfilling all of their dis- MODEL 27—instructions included $119.95
covery pits in an attempt to restore MODEL 711—with 21 ft. depth range $138.30
<][ Skin diving for gold in California's
the area to its original condition. streams has become increasingly
_ . . _.. . popular during the
<][ The Rockefeller Foundation has Skin Diving p Q s t few y e a r S ( [he

given the University of Arizona a for Gold s t a t e ' s Division of

$93,100 grant to sup- Mines reports. This is closely asso-
Training port a four-year proj- ciated with the general increase in
Indian Artists ect which has as its interest in small-scale placer mining
objective the establishment of facili- by weekend prospectors, vacation-
ties for training Indian artists. The ists, tourists that recurs annually in
University will use the money to try the state. Many of the major Cali-
fornia streams have been prospected LAKEWOOD CHEMICAL KIT
to learn what type of formal training The Lakewood Chemical Kit can be used in
in art will most benefit the young by skin divers, and several strikes connection with all the principal texts on
Indian with artistic talent. have been made where small but minerals such as Dana, Pough, O. C. Smith,
Pennfield, Duke's Course, and many others.
highgrade concentrates in holes and The Lakewood Chemical Kit, because of
the acids it contains, is not recommended
crevices in the stream beds have for persons under 18 years old. Priced
yielded as much as several hundred $36.00 Express only.
<I Arizona State University w a s dollars worth of gold. Although con- SEND FOR FREE LITERATURE
awarded a $10,600 grant by the Na- siderable publicity has been given
e . tional Science Foun- to these strikes, the number of such
Scorpion d a t i o n tQ c ile a discoveries has been few, and the 1405 S. Long Beach Blvd., Compton, Calif.
NEwmork 2-9096
Classification c o m p l e t e c i a s s i f i c a . amount of gold produced by this South of Compton Blvd.
tion of the scorpions throughout the type of mining is small, the Mines
world. Dr. Herbert L. Stahnke (see Division noted. The value of produc-
page 19), director of the university's tion from skin diving in the state is
poisonous animals research labora- unknown, but it is estimated to
tory and head of the division of life amount to only a few thousand dol- Of
sciences, will direct the project. lars annually. Gold production fig- universal interest..
ures for California have shown no
increases since skin diving for gold The Classified Ads in the
<I New directional and informational has become popular. Occasionally
signs have been installed at the DESERT MAGAZINE'S
a few skilled divers have made ex-

Was Forded
"Crossing of the
Where a River F a t h e r s " site near
Glen Canyon Dam.
ceptionally good wages from this
type of mining for short periods oi
Direct line merchandising, seller to buyer,
time, but the majority of those who in the Trading Post (see pages 37, 38, 39)
A National Park Service spokesman pursue it do so as a hobby.
34 / Desert Magazine / August, 1960
Donald M. Powell, head of the reference
department of the University of Arizona li-
A MINERAL BOOK of their know-how into a booklet: So You brary, has written a book about James
Want To Start A Rock Shop. The 52-page Addison Reavis — the man who tried to
WITH EYE APPEAL paperback covers the field: from "Require- swindle half the land of Arizona with
At last — a mineralogy book with big ments of a Rock Shop Proprietor" to "Hon- forged land grants and other documents.
pictures of specimens, and in this book not esty In Business." There are chapters on (See page 22 of this issue for a feature
only are the illustrations big, they are good, "Insurance," "What About Credit," "Loca- article on Arizona's "Bogus Baron" by
too. "The purpose of Minerals and Rocks," tion and Size," "Competition" and many Phoenix author Oren Arnold.)
say the publishers of this handsome 96-page others. The book sells for $2—a good
volume, "is to present to the eye and mind investment for those hobbyists who dream Powell's 186-page book, called The
of the reader the beauty and orderliness of of the day when they can move into that Peralta Grant, moves effortlessly through
the mineral world." little shop of their own. the long and involved groundwork for the
Another $2 Victor booklet—Gem Tum- swindle; the court trial, as can be expected
This is essentially a book of photographs, in so bizarre a case, contributes its share of
the specimens coming from the British bling and Baroque Jewelry Making — has
gone into its sixth printing. It is authorita- interest.
Museum and the Museum National d'His-
toire Naturelle (France). Page size of this tive, and contains some illustrations. Both Reavis was an extraordinary man. His
volume is 7%xlOVi inches. Many of the books can be purchased from Desert Mag- attempt to steal 7500 square miles of land
photographs appear in color. azine Book Store—see footnote for details. (including the cities of Phoenix, Casa
Brief text is by H. W. Ball; and Minerals Grande, Florence, Safford and Morenci)
and Rocks also has a Table of Elements. FANCIFUL DESERT TALES must rank as one of the world's greatest
The List of Illustrations includes the origin FOR YOUNGSTERS crimes. But, the incredible thing about the
of the names and locality where specimens Reavis-Peralta story is that the man almost
were found. This handsome book sells for Colorful and fanciful tales about some succeeded. This speaks volumes for the
$4.95. (Details on how to order books by of the animals of the Southwest make up state of affairs in the West of 1882.
mail are found in the footnote on this page). Peetie the Packrat, a book for youngsters
from 6 to 9 years of age. Written by Van The Peralta Grant is well done and a
Clark, the 108-page hardback tells in good- book worth owning. It contains illustra-
BOOK FOR ROCKHOUNDS WHO sized type about Peetie and Sidney Centi- tions, maps, bibliography and index. Price
pede, Tabasco the Prairie Dog and Benny is $3.75 from Desert Magazine Book Store
WANT TO GO INTO BUSINESS Buzzard, and a host of other desert char- (see footnote).
Arthur Victor and his wife, Lila Mae, acters that live in and around Navajoland.
are in the gemstone business in the North- Best part of the book are the beautiful
west. They receive many letters beginning four-color and black-and-white illustrations
with some variation of the theme: "We are by the famous Indian artist, Andy Tsinajinie. Books reviewed on this page can be purchased
just starting a rock shop—can you help us?" The Peetie book sells for $5. It can be by mail from Desert Magazine Book Store,
Palm Desert, California. Please add 15c for
After years of setting forth information purchased through the Desert Magazine postage and handling per book. California
for rockhounds interested in going into Book Store, with details listed at the end residents also add 4% sales tax. Write for free
business for themselves, the Victors put all of this column. book catalog.

the strenuous passage are referred to today

A LONG WEEKEND IN as "Hole-in-the-Rockers." It is an appella-

tion they bear with pride.
Bluff has lived more lives than you would
suspect at first glance. At the turn of the

SOUTHEASTERN UTAH century came a gold rush. For nearly four

years all the business transacted in Bluff
was done so in gold dust or retorted gold.
From 1908 to 1912 the town was the
scene of the first oil exploration in Utah.
Wildcat drillers and cattlemen rubbed shoul-
By FRANK JENSEN ders to produce a bit of Texas prosperity in
the San Juan. Bluff was the wealthiest town
Desert Magazine's Utah Travel Correspondent per capita in the state—and then came the
long decline.
As late as 1953 only a pair of wheel
" \VVy7 HRoss
E N Y O U g e t t o Bluff l o o k u p
' For some authentic yarns on modern- tracks in the sand linked Bluff with the
Mussleman." I remembered day pioneering, listen to Rusty tell how he outside world. Less than three years ago
this advice and found myself shak- counted noses in his neck of the woods. He there were only two telephones in town.
ing hands with a slow-talking angular man did much of his census work on horseback, But the recent uranium boom is being fol-
with a mass of red hair. "Mussleman's the a mode of transportation that is almost lowed by a resurrection of the even more
name," he said, "but everyone calls me second nature to Mussleman, for he has promising oil boom—and once again Bluff
Rusty." spent many years guiding dude riders is on its way!
through the San Juan back country.
Mussleman's Cow Canyon Trading Post This town is a gold mine for the traveler
is typical of the "wilderness stores" in the Since Rusty knows everyone in Bluff and
Four Corners country—a rustic rock-faced probably every soul within a 200-mile ra- /-, • VTo MONTICELLO
building framed by a porchlike veranda, a dius, he was the ideal guide for me. To- !?! Bland ing*'"' •j;': ; / _•%••' = = i P l e o s a n t View
few Indians idly gossiping in the shade. gether we toured the tiny town, and from
To step inside such a trading post is to my host I learned that Bluff was founded 'r3*>T M ^~V _: Dolores '•
turn back the clock 50 years. Old fashioned in the early 1880s when more than 200
horse-collars, coal oil lamps, scrub-boards Mormon emigrants drove their wagons into
and heavy sadirons from grandma's day the valley of the San Juan River. The story
hang from the walls and rafters, and line of the San Juan mission stands alone as an
shelves in a disorderly array. epic of Southwestern settlement. The rela- • foON. ;\if\ /:] \ (MESA VERDE
'''$M\H I I ;"] iNAT'L'PARK
tively short trek took nearly two years to
In addition to his duties as trader, Mus- complete because of the rough terrain that
sleman is also official census taker for the had to be crossed. Climax of the difficult
southern-end of San Juan County, Utah's journey came at famed Hole-in-the-Rock UTAH ^
largest county and probably the most spar- where the Colorado River was forded. Di- ARIZ. y£& \ N. MEX.
sely populated area in the West. rect descendants of those pioneers who made S ^ \ TO GALLUP

August, 1960 / Desert Magazine / 35

veteran riverman who has been running the
San Juan and Colorado rivers since 1932.
Lean and tanned, Ross looks every inch
the accomplished boatman he is. He holds

Haul Rock Shorty a Ph.D. in archeology, is a former Park

Service naturalist, and has spent a major
part of his life digging in Indian ruins.
We shoved-off from a sandy beach above
of Death Valley Bluff. Sand waves, a phenomenon of the
silt-laden San Juan (the waves actually
travel upstream), added to the excitement
of the launching. Our waves were less than
Hard Rock Shorty shook a autumn supplies awaitin' us right four feet high, although they sometimes
lazy fly off his shoe, and turned here at this store. Lots o' things rise to 10 feet or more to test the skill of
even the best boatmen, my guide explained.
to the tourist who had stopped that coulda spoiled, so we hada
at the Inferno Store for gasoline. work fast. The 33-mile trip from Bluff to Mexican
Hat provides everything the river has to
"Alasky license plates," ob- "First we takes the wheels offer, and is as safe as riding in the family
car. It takes about seven hours to make
served Shorty. "Snow up your off'n the wagon. Then we forge the jaunt. The cost of the trip, $12.50 per
way yet?" some runners and bolt 'em to th' person, is within easy reach of the average
axles. Last we hitch th' mule to pocketbook.
"It's always snowing t'home,"
what is now a genuine sleigh, We stopped along the way to explore
answered the stranger. "That's
and away we go—jest like in th' cliff dwellings abandoned more than 800
why we came down here t' Death years ago. Steps chipped out of the rock
Christmas cards.
Valley this year." provided footholds for the ancient dwellers
"We slid into Inferno O.K.— of the San Juan.
"Ha!" snorted Shorty. "Don't
buy no sun-tan oil yet. It snows fact is it waz easy. But half- If you happen to be a rock collector or
way home a hot blast o' air com- amateur geologist, you'll especially enjoy
here too." this river for it is an open book of the
mences blowin' out o' th' south. earth's history. The San Juan has gouged
"No!" Thet snow melted quicker'n it a canyon nearly 2000 feet deep. Some of
"Yep—we got th' most pe- takes to tell. the rocky layers date back 200,000,000
culiar irregular weather in th' years to a time when the spiny trilobite
"Th' road up th' canyon is cut dominated the oceans of the earth.
world—right here."
through solid flint, an' drivin' up The day's run was climaxed by an ex-
And Shorty was off on another it them metal runners 'neath th' hilarating ride through the rapids. The go-
yarn: "I 'member back in '14 wagon start tossin' out sparks. ing was a little wet, and most refreshing.
—th' last day of August. Pisgah By th' time we got to th' cabin, A Utah attraction in August are the
Bill and me waz snowed-in up our rig had set 18 brush fires, World Land Speed Record attempts and
at our camp in Eightball Crick, two forest fires and burned off speed trial runs at the Bonneville Salt Flats
and we had a big order o' th' poor mule's tail." west of Salt Lake City. These runs will be
held from the 7th to 27th of the month.
The 29th annual Uintah Basin Industrial
Convention and All-Indian Pageant will be
held August 3-5 at Roosevelt. On the 12th
who prefers roughing it a bit. In fact, you On my visit to Hovenweep I met John and 13th, Bountiful holds its annual Side-
could spend two life-times in the San Juan Ripley, genial superintendent of the national walk Days celebration. The Cache County
and still lack the time to see it all. monument. As we sipped coffee at Park
Headquarters, which also serves as the super- Fair takes place at Logan, August 18 to 20.
A Visit to intendent's residence, Ripley was enthusi- August 21-23 are the dates for the Wash-
Hovenweep Monument astic about development plans for Hoven- ington County Fair at Hurricane. Juab
weep, which include a visitor center and County Fair at Nephi is scheduled for Au-
Bluff is the "gateway" to Hovenweep Na- paved roads into the monument. gust 30-31 and September 1. ///
tional Monument straddling the Utah-Colo-
rado line. Travel distance from Bluff is
about 45 miles. These ancient Hovenweep A Pleasant One-Day
towers, which are D-shaped, round, oval River Cruise
and square, are outstanding examples of the Keep your
defensive architecture of late pueblo times. Originally, I had planned to spend two
hours in the Bluff area—and now I was in DESERT MAGAZINES
Hovenweep was inhabited from about my third day. I decided to top off my
1100 to 1376 A.D. by a group of farming in attractive loose-leaf
"vacation" with a one-day river cruise.
puebloans. For five centuries prior to 1100
these people lived in peace and security. The evening before—in order to get into
It wasn't until the nomadic tribes began
drifting into the Southwest that the pueblo-
ans deserted their farming villages for the
the mood for my voyage—I sat down to
a plate of fried shrimp at Bluff's only eating
house. The town has twice as many motels
fortified pueblos. —two. One of them, the Recapture Court, Gold embossed on Spanish
was named by its owner Keith Jones for
Hovenweep was set aside as a National the Morrison Formation which is, geologi- Grain Imitation Leather
Monument in 1932. The name comes from cally speaking, recaptured in the Bluff sand-
the Ute Indian word meaning "deserted stone. Jones, it seems, is an amateur Space for 12 magazines
valley," first applied to this site in 1874 by geologist.
the pioneer photographer, William H. Jack- Easily inserted
Next morning I met Kenneth Ross, a A BEAUTIFUL AND PRACTICAL ADDITION
• EASY TO ASSEMBLE Mailed Postpaid
Send orders to:
36 / Desert Magazine / August, 1960
FREE CATALOG—World's finest lightweight camp- DESERT ROCKS, woods, jewelry. Residence rear
• How to Place an Ad:
ing and mountaineering equipment. Used on of shop. Rockhounds welcome. Mile west on
• Mail your copy and first-insertion remit- U.S. 66. McShan's Gem Shop and Desert
Mt. Everest, Himalayas, Andes, etc. It's ex-
tance to: Trading Post, Desert Magazine, Museum. P.O. Box 22, Needles, California.
pensive but absolutely unsurpassed! Gerry,
Palm Desert, Calif.
Dept. 107, Ward, Colorado.
• Effective with the next issue (September), RED ROCK Shop has minerals, slabs, petrified
classified rates will be 20c per word, $4 wood, gifts, curios. Will trade. 2'/2 miles
minimum per insertion. FOR WOMEN southwest on U.S. 89A, Sedona, Arizona.
• SPECIAL OFFER: By ordering your ad to
LADY GODIVA "The World's Finest Beautifier." FROM OKLAHOMA: Everything for the collector.
run four times—starting with the Septem-
Your whole beauty treatment in one jar. Pro- Domestic and foreign minerals, gem rough
ber issue (COPY DEADLINE: July 26) and
tect skin against sun, wind. For free brochure and supplies. Free lists. Museum & Collectors
continuing through December — you can
write: Lola Barnes, 963 North Oakland, Pasa- Supply, Box 1188-D, Ardmore, Oklahoma.
take advantage of the old rates (15c per
dena 6, California.
word, $3 minimum per insertion).
CHOICE MINERAL specimens, rough and cut gem
DRY SKIN conditions solved with daily applica- material, lapidary and jewelry equipment and
• BOOKS - MAGAZINES tion of G'Bye Dry. Large jar prepaid for only supplies, mountings, fluorescent lamps, books.
$1. Try it now and be desert happy. Nevada Valley Art Shoppe, 21108 Devonshire Street,
RX Drug, Boulder City, Nevada. Chatsworth, California.
READ THE Prospector's Guide. Tells how and
where to prospect for minerals, etc. Send NEW LOCATION, new store: everything for the
for application to United Prospectors, 701 Vs SOUR DOUGH biscuit recipe and full directions
$1. Dutchoven or modern baking. Revive the rock hounds, interesting gifts, minerals, slabs,
East Edgeware, Los Angeles 26, California. rough material, lapidary supplies, mountings
lost art. Franks Murdock, Dalhart, Texas.
for your cabs. Stop and see us. Shamrock
OUT-OF-print books at lowest pricesl You name Rock Shop, 593 West La Cadena Drive, River-
it—we find it! Western Americana, desert and • GEMS, CUT-POLISHED side, California. OVerland 6-3956.
Indian books a specialty. Send us your wants.
No obligation. International Bookfinders, Box FOR YOUR collection—Florida's beautiful coril
3003-D, Beverly Hills, California. agate. Send one dollar (no tax) for polished • GEMS, MINERALS - FOSSILS
specimen to The Agatery, 851 Bay Point Drive,
BOOKS: "PANNING Gold for Beginners," 50c. Madeira Beach 8, Florida. Money back if not 12 POUNDS of beautiful Colorado mineral speci-
"Gold in Placer," $3. Frank J. Harnagy, 701V2 satisfied. mens, $8 prepaid. Ask for list of others.
E. Edgeware, Los Angeles 26, California. Jack the Rockhound, P.O. Box 245, Carbon-
AUSTRALIAN TUMBLED gemstones, 8 different dale, Colorado.
"GEMS & Minerals Magazine," largest rock hobby
polished baroques, identified, suitable for FOSSILS. 12 different for $2. Other prices on
monthly. Field trips, " h o w " articles, pictures,
necklace or chain bracelet. $1.10 postpaid. request. Will buy, sell or trade. Museum of
ads. $3 year. Sample 25c. Box 687J, Mentone,
Or 10 different polished baroques, identified, Fossils. Clifford H. Earl, P. O. Box 188,
from around the world. $1.25 postpaid. Sedona, Arizona.
Bensusan, 8615 Columbus Avenue, Sepulveda,
GEM HUNTERS Atlas. Three great books for the California. FINE DOMESTIC and foreign crystals and mas-
rock collector, covering the eleven western sive minerals. Please ask for free list. Con-
states. Each atlas has 32 full page maps with GENUINE TURQUOISE: Natural color, blue and tinental Minerals, P.O. Box 1206, Anaconda,
gem hunting areas spotted in color. Type of
bluish green, cut and polished cabochons—25 Montana.
material, mileages and all highways are shown.
carats (5 to 10 stones according to size) $3.50
Northwest $1, California—Nevada $1, South-
including tax, postpaid. 50 carats (10 to 20 BEGINNERS ILLUSTRATED catalog. Specialized
west $1, postpaid. Write for our selected list
cabochons) $6.15 including tax, postpaid in mineral, gem, crystal, fossil study collections;
of books on mineralogy, wildlife, Americana,
and travel. Scenic Guides, Box 288, Susan- U.S.A. Write for folder. Elliott Gem & Mineral chemical, blowpipe, ultraviolet test kits, man-
ville, California. Shop, 235 E. Seaside Blvd., Long Beach 2, Cal. uals, field guides, other beginner accessories.
25c. Mineral Lore, 3004 Park Avenue, San
PERSIAN TURQUOISE: small round cabochons, Bernardino 2, California.
DEATH VALLEY valuable guide. The secrets of oriental cut, clear robin's egg blue, 1 mm. to
Death Valley bared. Beautiful illustrations.
4 mm. diameter, natural high grade Persian FLUORESCENT MINERALS, Death Valley opalite,
$3.50 postpaid. Travel Writer's Passport,
turquoise—$1 dozen postpaid. These snake- fluoresces bright apple green. Inyo County
unique handbook for travel writers and pho-
eyes ideal for cementing in clusters. Lost hydrozincite fluoresces vivid blue. Choice
tographers, tells you how to sell your stories
Mountain Gems, 3005 North 39th St., Phoenix, specimens, chunks 1 " to 10" in diameter, $2
and pictures, $1 postpaid. Special Offer: both
books for only $4 postpaid. Order today Arizona. pound postpaid. Opalized root casts fluores-
from: Martin Gross, P.O. Box 3021, Grand cent, 25c each. Other fluorescents and ore
Central Station, New York 17, N.Y. OPAL, AMETHYST, etc. 10 ringsize stones, ground specimens. Richard Summers, 2309 22nd St.,
and polished ready to set, $5. Opals, deep Sacramento 18, Calif.
red, blue, green, golden flashing in all colors
of the rainbow, direct from the mine, 15 for GOLD SPECIMENS prepaid to any address in
• EQUIPMENT-SUPPLIES $5. Kendall, San Miguel d'Allende, Guanaju- U.S. $1 each. Write address plainly. Prospec-
ato, Mexico. tor, 347-A West 23rd Street, San Bernardino,
CAMPING EQUIPMENT, tents; world's largest California.
selection. Send 25c for new 160 page cata-
log. Morsan Tents, 10-21U 50th Ave., Long • GEMS, DEALERS FOUR NATURAL staurolites, cross on both sides,
Island City 1, New York.
for $1 postpaid. "Animals" assembled from
VISIT GOLD Pan Rock Shop. Beautiful sphere uncut quartz crystals — "Rockhound," $1.25
CAMPING EQUIPMENT: Personally selected scout, material, mineral specimens, choice crystals, each. Five assorted animals, $5.50 postpaid.
trail, family tents. Best quality United States cutting materials, jewelry, bolo ties, baroques, Reasoner Rock Originals, Crown King Highway,
manufacturers. European pack equipment. Sat-
spheres, bookends, paperweights, cabochons, Bumble Bee, Arizona.
isfaction guaranteed. Send 25c for catalog.
faceted stones, fluorescents, jewelry findings,
Don Gleason's Campers' Supply, Northampton,
lapidary equipment and supplies, Navajo rugs,
Massachusetts. Good practical equipment at • GEMS, ROUGH MATERIAL
custom sawing—by the inch or shares. Saws,
sensible prices.
up to 30-inch diameters. John and Etta James,
proprietors, 2020 North Carson Street on High- TURQUOISE FOR sale. Turquoise in the rough
DISPLAY CASES, Walnut. The perfect mount for way 395 north end of town. Carson City, Nev. priced at from $5 to $50 a pound. Royal Blue
showing those "Hands Off" items! 8" x U V 2 " Mines Co., Tonopah, Nevada.
inside dimensions; 1/2" depth—$3, 1 " depth— NATIONALLY KNOWN and noted for choice va-
$3.75. Collection cabinets: four drawer, wal- rieties of gem stone, minerals, fossils, Indian MEXICAN FIRE opals in matrix, brilliant color,
nut and maple with brass hardware, lOVi x artifacts, etc., including unusual gifts at rea- 2 for $1. Obsidian arrowheads, 2 for $1.
13 x 20V 2 "-$49.50, 12 x 17 x 26V 2 "-$64.50. sonable prices. Visitors or correspondence Aztec relics, fragments small idols, $2 each.
Free brochures. Museum & Collectors Supply, welcome. The Cole's, 551 S. W. Coast Hiway, Satisfaction or money back. M. V. Christian,
Box 1188-D, Ardmore, Oklahoma. Newport, Oregon. 312 W. Logan, Moberly, Missouri.


GEM QUALITY golden tigereye $1 pound, Mo- FINEST RESERVATION-made Zuni, Navajo, Hopi ROCK HOUND headquarters: Moqui Motel, Es-
jave Desert agate, howlite, jaspers 75c pound. jewelry. Old Pawn, Navajo rugs, Chimayo calante, Utah — on Highway U. 54, phone
Australian rhodonite, aventurine, rainbow ob- blankets, baskets, pottery, squaw boots. We MArket 4-4210, Dyna and Mohr Christensen.
sidian $1 pound. Summer special: 10 pounds appraise, buy and sell Indian jewelry, Navajo Pack and Jeep Trips by appointment.
California mixed rough $5. Highly polished rugs and basket collections. Send for bro-
mixed baroques $2.50 pound. Postage and chure. The Indian Room, 1440 South Coast WELCOME TO the Alma Grill, Alma, Colorado.
tax extra. Tubby's Rock Shop, 3329 Mayfield Highway, Laguna Beach, California. For information to virgin area of crystals and
Ave., La Crescenta, California. gold galore. Trout biting too!
AUTHENTIC INDIAN jewelry, Navajo rugs, Chi-
OPALITE: ALL beautiful colors and shades, gem mayo blankets, squaw boots. Collector's items.
or decorative. State which. $1 per pound, Closed Tuesdays. Pow-Wow Indian Trading • MINING
five pounds minimum order. Sales tax 2 per- Post, 19967 Ventura Blvd., East Woodland
cent, F.O.B. McDonald Opalite, Box 521, Mil- Hills, Calif. Open Sundays. MY SIMPLE easy to follow instructions on ob-
ford, Utah. taining shale-oil from oil-bearing shale. Inter-
THREE FINE prehistoric Indian war arrowheads esting hobby. My instructions with V2 pound
CENTRAL OREGON rocks. Good variety for cut- $1. Flint scalping knife $1. Rare flint thunder- ground Chattanooga shale, $10. Build your
ting. Good, 10 pounds $3.50. Better, 10 bird $3. All $4. Catalog free. Arrowhead, own equipment. My equipment including
pounds $6. Best, 10 pounds $11. Postpaid. Glenwood, Arkansas. burner cost less than $3. Medlen, P.O. Box
100 pounds of above mixed, $40 freight 102, Plainview, Nebraska.
PINE VALLEY Trading Post deals in authentic
paid. Ashby's, Route 2, Box 92, Redmond,
Indian goods, rugs and jewelry, also gift
Oregon. $1 FOR gold areas, 25 California counties.
items, imports. On Highway 80, 43 miles
east of San Diego. Mailing address, Box 208, Geology, elevations. Pans $3, $2.50. Poke $1.
TRINIDAD JASPER 10 pounds $8.50, postpaid. Fred Mark, Box 801, Ojai, California.
Dealers write for prices on baroques. Roy's Pine Valley, California.
Rock Shop, P. O. Box 133, Trinidad, Calif.
INDIAN PHONOGRAPH records, authentic songs WESTERN MINING News, monthly, for miners,
WOOD, VERY colorful and good gem quality. and dances, all speeds. Write for latest list: prospectors, claim owners, $2 per year. Sam-
State color and size wanted, 75c per pound, Canyon Records, 834 No. 7th Avenue, Phoenix, ple copy 25c. Box 787, Sonora, Calif.
postage paid. Simonds Mines, Box 511, Hanks- 1, Arizona.
ville, Utah. FOR SALE: Eight claims, large deposit low-grade
INDIAN ARTIFACTS, mounted horns, buffalo tungsten adjacent to north end of Death Val-
MINNESOTA SUPERIOR agates VJ to 1 inch skulls, pottery, Navajo rugs, curios, list free. ley. Beautiful wooded country. Potentially
$1.35 pound postpaid; 1 to 2 inch $2.50 Thunderbird Trading Post, highway 80 at fine resort or summer home. Price $5000.
pound postpaid. 3 polished Thompsonites $1 Brazos River, Millsap, Texas. Write: Russell Roper, c/o Sierra Talc, Dyer,
postpaid. Frank Engstrom, Grey Eagle, Minn. Nevada.
HANDWOVEN TO order on Navajo loom, Indian
blankets, $1 square foot plus materials, (wool FIND BORON, lithium, tungsten, strontium and
GEM MATERIAL from the Mojave Desert. Your
or washables). State color preference. 50% other valuable minerals with the new always
choice: Mojave agate, lavic jasper, verde an-
down. Production limited — first come, first ready fluorescent mineral detector. Detector
tique, palmwood, travertine (green), chapenite,
onyx, opalite, jasp-agate, buds eye, and mixed woven. Tu-Shus Garske, P.O. Box 121, Yucca operates in daylight, uses no batteries, fits in
jasper. 100 pounds — $22.50; 100 pounds Valley, California. shirt pocket and eliminates dark box. Price
mixed $12.50. Sample $3.50. All material only $12.50. Free brochure. Essington Prod-
F.O.B. Barstow. Morton Minerals and Mining, GUARANTEED FINEST birdpoints, 30—$8.50, 100 ucts & Engineering, Box 4174, Coronado Sta-
21423 (Old) Highway 66, R.F.D. 1, Barstow, —$26.50. Priced for resale or serious collect- tion, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
California. Phone 8551. ors. -Prompt delivery. William Hardy, Box 547,
Englewood City 18, New Jersey.
CALIFORNIA GEMS rough. 14 full pounds ag- of all types for field, home and laboratory.
ates, jaspers, palmwood, howlite, others. Just • JEWELRY Locate tungsten and sirconium. Make colorful
$6 delivers. Location and type identified. displays. Catalog D free. (Closed August 1
Small saw size. Prince C. Parkhurst, 14823 through 14.) Mineral Equipment Co., Hampden
Huston Street, Sherman Oaks, California. UNIQUE LOVELY bracelets of ten different
identified gems set flat on untarnishable gilt Road, Somers, Conn.
COLORFUL AUSTRALIAN Fire Opal; rough or H.P. mounting. Choice of "Gems of the
World" or "Western Gems," $3 each. Also W(LL SELL my Goldak metal and mineral locator,
cut. No deposit, approvals sent on request.
choker-style necklaces to match, $3.75 each. "model 599," used very little for $75 cash.
See before you buy. We deal in "Opal Ex-
Tax, postage included. Bensusan, 8615 Co- $200 value. Sayers, Box 382, Atascadero, Cal.
clusively." Free list. Western Rock & Gem,
20385 Stanton Avenue, Castro Valley, Calif. lumbia Ave., Sepulveda, California.
FOR SALE: Limestone deposit good for white
OPALS AND sapphires direct from Australia. ALUMINUM CHAINS! Dealers, write for whole- cement or ornamental run. If interested write:
This month's best buy: 1 ounce white red sale price list on our fabulous line of non- 112 East Bishop, Santa Ana, California.
opal, 1 ounce transparent green blue opal, 1 tarnishing aluminum chains. Include $1 for
ounce brown pinfire opal matrix. All 3 ounces samples postpaid. Please use letterhead or
for $18, free airmail. Send personal check, state tax number. R. B. Berry & Company, • REAL ESTATE
international money order, bank draft. Free 5040 Corby Street, Omaha 4, Nebraska.
16 page list of all Australian gemstones. CHOICE 626 acres on Dillon Road, few miles
Australian Gem Trading Co., 294 Little Collins JEWELRY PARTS-why pay retail? Catalog lists from Desert Hot Springs, California; $275 per
Street, Melbourne, C.I., Australia. bracelets, sweater clips, tools, bails, cuff links, acre. Write Ronald L. Johnson, Thermal, Cal.
bell caps, Epoxy-Adhesive, earrings, belt
GEM ROUGH; mineral specimens, quality guaran- buckles, chains, neck clasps, key chains, lari-
80 ACRES near Lockhart, level, $125 acre, 25%
teed. Special this month—blue topaz specimen, at slides, tips or cords, as well as ring
down. 20 acres Highway 395, level, north of
25c postpaid. Free list. The Vellor Co., P.O. mountings, pendants, brooches, silver. Send
Adelanto, $150 acre, 10% down. 2Vi acres
Box 44(D), Overland, St. Louis 14, Missouri. 4c stamp to cover postage. Rock Craft, Box
west of Adelanto, level, $1495, 10% down.
424D-4, Temple City, California.
2'/2 acres Lancaster on paved highway, shal-
low water, level, $2495, 10% down. Dr.
• INDIAN GOODS AMETHYST JEWELRY, bracelet $3, necklace $3,
Dodge, 1804 Lincoln Blvd., Venice, Calif.
drop earings $1.50, gift boxed, postpaid.
FINE RESERVATION-MADE Navajo, Zuni, Hopi Hobbies Unlimited, P.O. Box 145D, Sunland,
SALE OR trade: Six unit apartment house, Hood
jewelry. Old pawn. Hundreds of fine old bas- Calif.
kets, moderately priced, in excellent condition. River valley for building in desert town, pre-
Navajo rugs, Yei blankets, Chimayo homespuns, fer Arizona. T. Reinoehl, 1114 12th St., Hood
pottery. A collector's paradise! Open daily • LODGES, MOTELS River, Oregon.
10 to 5:30, closed Mondays. Buffalo Trading
Post, Highway 18, Apple Valley, California. MELODY LANE Apartment Motel, 6259 Adobe FOR INFORMATION on desert acreage and par-
Road, P.O. Box 66, Twentynine Palms, Cali- cels for sale in or near Twentynine Palms,
SELLING 20,000 Indian relics. 100 nice ancient fornia. All electric, air-cooled, trees and patio, please write Silas S. Stanley, Realtor, 73644
arrowheads $25. Indian skull $25. List free. opposite post office, near super-market. Day, Twentynine Palms Highway, Twentynine Palms,
Lear's, Glenwood, Arkansas. week or monthly rates. California.

isert Magazine / August, 1960

FOR SALE: Rock shop and Indian trading post, MATURAL HISTORY color slides 35 mm.: snakes, ROSSO'S CACTUS Nursery, 25399 Highway 99,
Los Angeles area, established five years, splen- lizards, spiders, insects, birds, and ocean life. Loma Linda, California, between Colton and
did location, fully equipped, 31 machines. For free list write to Bucky and Avis Reeves, Redlands. See the largest variety in the
Must sell due to ill health. Sell all or part. Box 3164 Hillcrest Station, San Diego 3, Calif. world.
$6000 full price. $3000 will handle. Box
MT, c/o Desert Magazine, Palm Desert, Calif. 8mm. FANS ATTENTION: Rent 8 mm. cartoons, CHIA AS featured in article, "Hot Cakes and
comedies, travel and other films. Free list. Chia" for sale—limited quantity, $7.50 Ib.
HOTEL AND cafe in Johannesburg, California. Southwestern Film Rentals, Box 34, High Rolls, Inquiries to Bruce Gregory, Box 147, French
Both fully equipped and in good condition. New Mexico. Camp, California.
Money maker for right party. $35,000 full
price. $15,000 down, balance on easy terms COLOR SLIDES. Re-live your vacation trips. 3000 GROW GIANT Saguaro Cactus in your home in
to suit. St. Charles Hotel and Grill, Box 127, travel Kodachromes, parks, U.S., foreign, na- 7 days, planter soil, seeds, $1.25, guaranteed,
Johannesburg, California. ture, etc. Free list (sample 30c). Send today. prepaid. 1914 East 18th Street, Tucson, Ariz.
Kelly D. Choda, Box 15, Palmer Lake, Colo.
RARE OPPORTUNITY for a wilderness retreat,
Nevada's famed mining districts. Your own • MISCELLANEOUS
POINT OUT interesting spots at your colored
patented mining claims $150 up. Excellent slide shows with a Sardiscope Projection
terms. Full surface and mineral rights. Great Pointer. Easy to operate. Price $4.95 post- BOOKKEEPING SIMPLIFIED: Conforms to all fed-
Basin Prospects, 2740 11th, Sparks, Nevada. paid. F. P. Moore, Box 582, Benjamin Frank- eral and state tax law requirements. Complete
lin Station, Washington 4, D.C. book only $4.95. Mott Distributors, P.O. Box
HIDEAWAY, BUT close in. Five acres in colorful 602, Lovelock, Nevada.
ghost town of Garlock. Flat and fertile. Just
$1490, $50 down, $20 per month. Better BEAUTIFUL COLOR photos of minerals, crystals
SIMULATED ENGRAVED business cards $3.95
hurry! Pon & Co., P.O. Box 546D, Azusa, Cal. and fossils, 3V2x5'/2 postcards, 25 different
and $4.95 per thousand. Write for samples.
kinds. Set of 25 different cards $1.25 plus 16c
Tumble polished baroques $2.50 per pound
IN BRIDGER National Forest, modern log sum- postage. R. Pickens, 610 North Martin Avenue,
postpaid. Doney's Printing & Rock Shop, Box
mer home, furnished, guest cabin, spring water Waukegan, Illinois.
246, Lucerne, Lake County, California.
in house, power plant, good fishing, hunting.
J. L. Ollivier, Big Piney, Wyoming.
CHOICE CATTLE ranches: Arizona, New Mexico. sion quality 8x30 center focus prism binocu-
Well improved. Some stocked at market price. SECTIONIZED COUNTY maps - San Bernardino lars with hard coated lenses, fine leather case
From 150- to 3000-head operations, year-round $3; Riverside $1; Imperial, small $1, large $2; and shoulder straps. Special offer, below usual
country. As low as $275 per cow unit. San Diego $1.25; Inyo $2.50; Kern $1.25; dealer's cost. Regularly $43.50. Limited time,
Myrlan G. Brown, Strout Realty, P.O. Box 96, other California counties $1.25 each. Nevada only $24.95—30 day money back guarantee.
St. Johns, Arizona. Phone FEderal 7-4966. counties $1 each. Include 4 percent sales tax. We pay the 10% F.E.T. and shipping. Rush
Topographic maps of all mapped western check or money order today. Lorbro Products
NEAR LAKE Isabella, 2V2 acre lots in scenic, areas. Westwide Maps Co., 114 West Third Company, 406D Walnut Street, Alexandria, Ind.
green, fertile, tranquil Kelso Valley, $2950 at Street, Los Angeles 13, California.
$50 down, $35 per month, or $2500 for cash. SENIOR CITZENS discount drug service—due to
Call or write for free brochure. Salesman on GHOST TOWN map: big 3x2 feet. California, popular demand—is extending its service to
premises on weekends. Weldon Valley Arizona and Nevada, with roads marked. Plus include medications and vitamins plus pre-
Ranchos, 2441 E. Locust Ave., Orange, Calif. Treasure catalogue 100 items. $1. Fou! Anchor scriptions. Our bulk purchases save you
Kellogg 2-1361. Archives, DM, Rye, New York. money. Orders sent prepaid daily. SC Dept.,
Nevada RX Drug, Boulder City, Nevada.
FOR SALE: 77 acres adjoining curative mineral TREASURE MAPS: Texas treasures in color, show-
hot springs in Mineral County, Nevada. De- ing locations of mines, sunken ships buried MAKE YOUR own shampoo: costs $1 gallon,
sirable for spacious trailer park and health treasures and old trails. 17"x22", suitable for leaves hair soft and silky. Buy chemicals from
resort. $39 per acre. Write Mrs. Anna Wedell, framing. $2 postpaid. Rem Productions, P.O. drugstore. Send $2.50 for formula to: E. L.
Cliff Street, Sun Prairie, Wisconsin. Box 1893, Fort Worth, Texas. Sliger, 8505 San Fernando Road, Sun Valley,
MODERN THREE-bedroom home, 3 lots in Rands-
burg, Wonderful Location, priced for quick • WESTERN MERCHANDISE
sale. $3500. Write: D. W. Weir, Box A, BIRD COLLECTION mounted in 49 dioramas,
Randsburg, California. comprising 86 birds, covering 54 species from
GHOST TOWN items: Sun-colored glass, amethyst hummers to whistling swan. Fine for museum
CHOICE 207 acres, six miles north of Inyokern to royal purple; ghost railroads materials, display, public or private. Full information on
on old Highway 395. 160 acres fenced, 110 tickets; limited odd items from camps of the request. Hugh Worcester, 1229B University
acres in alfalfa, yield 1 Vi to 2 ton per acre, '60s. Write your interest—Box 64-D, Smith, Ave., Berkeley 2, California.
seven cuttings year. 1200 gpm well. Com- Nevada.
pletely equipped. Also nice home. Make offer. EARTHWORMS, LUSH gardens, fine lawns, good
L. P. Soulsburg, Dueleburg Farms, Route 1, FOR SALE: My collection of sun colored glass, bait. Send $1 for instructions and 200 PA.X
Box 20, Inyokern, California. antiques and unusual pieces. Mrs. A. E. Wy- garden and bait worms. Patton Worm Farms,
ckoff, 11501 Davenport Road, Auga Dulce, Cal. Highland, California.
• PHOTO SUPPLIES GOLD SCALES and other antique items from PLASTIC EMBEDDING for fun and profit, no
early California gold period. Excellent con- oven. Make beautiful jewelry, decorative
WILDLIFE OF Alaska, color, 16 or 18 mm. movies, dition. Extra fancy quartz crystals with color- panels, science specimens castings. Catalog
35 mm. slides, walrus, sheep, caribou, moose, ful phantoms and inclusions, for advanced 25c, Natcol Plastics, Box 444, Yucaipa, Calif.
goat, bear, glaciers, Lake George Breakup, collectors. Call or write for appointment.
wildflowers, small animals, birds, sport fishing Paradise Gems, 6676 Paragalia Way, Paradise,
& Eskimo dances. Elmer & Lupe King, Alaska FALL AND WINTER trail trips: Havasu Canyon
California. and Chiricahua Mountains of Arizona; Barranca
Film, Box 5621, Mt. View, Alaska.
del Cobre and holiday back country and peak
climbing trip in Old Mexico. All are unusual
BLACK AND white photo finishing: 8 exposure • PLANTS, SEEDS and rewarding, each has a charm of its own.
roll—60c, 12 exposure roll—85c, 16 exposure Details: Wampler Trail Trips, Box 45, Berkeley
roll—$1.10. Color processing: 20 exposure WILDFLOWERS SEEDS: New catalog offers over 1, California.
kodachrome $1.25, 36 exposure kodachrome 600 different kinds of wildflower and wild
$2.15, 8 mm. kodachrome roll $1.25. 8 hour tree seeds. Catalog 50c. Clyde Robin, Carmel GOLD COINS for profitable safe investment.
service. Rancho Photo-D, Ontario, California Valley, California. They make good gifts, too. Buy any amount,
$5.75 to $10,000. 1 import U.S. $5, $10, $20
MOVIE TITLES 8-16 mm., glowing sunset, "The CACTUS AND Succulents: Eight of these exotic and English and Swiss coins, and deliver to
Ends" 96c. World-wide stock shots. Walt plants from the deserts of the world. $2 post- your bank before you pay. For details write:
Foster, Box 2977, San Diego, Calif. paid. G. Robert Meyers, Box 521, Vista, Cal. Loyd Parker, 4606 Austin, Houston 4, Texas.

August, 1960 / Desert Magazine / 39


Louise Price Bell

40 / Desert Magazine / August, 1960

ESERT home-owners know
D that there's no reason why
you can't have a "tailored"
garden just because your home
sets smack-dab in lovely virgin
land. Many a desert-dweller, By W. THETFORD LeVINESS
transplanted from other and
Desert Magazine's New Mexico Travel Correspondent
more lush parts of the country,
has had new and fascinating ex-
periences developing a little pa-
ISTORICAL PAGEANTS vie with is on U.S. 66-666 near the Arizona line.
tio or garden just over the wall
from cacti-studded desert. (In
our own case, we moved to Tuc-
H Indian dances and Spanish fiestas as
top tourist attractions in New Mexico
in August. One of these, "The Last Escape
Navajos from their reservation near-by camp
corral-style in covered wagons on hills over-
looking the city and its great ceremonial
son from New York State and of Billy the Kid," is scheduled for three arena; their dance teams compete with those
have had much satisfaction from nights, August 5, 6 and 7, at Lincoln, in of many other tribes for the coveted prizes.
the heart of the New Mexico cow country. Visitors always include hundreds of Pueblo
creating a little spot in our pock- and Apache Indians from New Mexico and
et-handkerchief patio while all Lincoln, 32 miles east of Carrizozo on Arizona; Alaska tribes and Aztecs from
U.S. 380, was the scene of a bitter cattle- Mexico have been represented as well. A
about our home the beautiful men's fight in frontier days, the "Lincoln special building near the arena houses
desert prevails.) County War." Billy the Kid was prominent Southwestern Indian arts and crafts—all for
in the shooting and was sentenced to be sale and much of it entered in competition
Landscaping, as such, is much hanged there in 1881. The legal necktie
party didn't quite come off. Two weeks
more harmonious and in keeping before the execution date, Billy, whose real
with the locale if it is done with name was William Bonney, killed two guards
desert plants. And there are so and escaped on a horse. It was one of the
many dramatic ones that can be most spectacular daylight jail-breaks in the
history of the old West. Lumber intended
used, that getting the right ones to build the Kid's gallows was used instead
is no problem. Cacti of all kinds to make coffins for the guards. The daring
are practically foolproof — and outlaw was killed by Sheriff Pat Garrett
at Fort Sumner later the same year—but
interesting; ocotillo is effective— that isn't a part of the pageant.
and gorgeous when in bloom;
The 10 scenes combine the "mellerdram- LINCOLN COURTHOUSE, RESTORED TO ITS OR-
nothing can compete with the mer" of the silent-movie era with the
stately palm tree that grows so IGINAL APPEARANCE, IS A STATE MONUMENT
bloodiest of TV "westerns." They open
well throughout the desert belt. with a procession to the village church and
a lively fiesta, interrupted by outlaw horse- for prizes. Overflow crowds are expected
That is why many home-own- men and—murder. The gory battles that for the full four days of the ceremonials;
follow leave Billy with wounded pride— those desiring overnight accommodations in
ers use desert growths to sur- armed and dangerous. "The War Is Over Gallup at that time should make their res-
round their homes, adding native —but Not the Kid's Desire for Vengeance" ervations well in advance.
stones occasionally, bringing in is the title of Scene VII; then comes the
capture, the imprisonment, and the climac- At Bernalillo, on U.S. 85 north of Albu-
desert - flavored artifacts that tic escape. Billy the Kid—a ruthless killer querque, it's fiesta on August 10, and time
weren't on the land when they with a notch on his gun barrel for each once more for the dramatic and highly
built or bought their homes. of the 21 years of his life—emerges as a stylized dance of the Matachines. A direct
bandit hero. As indeed in legend he is. descendant, choreography-wise, from medi-
Lawns can be created by bring- eval morality plays in Spain, it came into
ing in extra top-soil and being Historical markers line both sides of the Southwest from Mexico, where the
Lincoln's lengthy main street. The build- "good over evil" theme meant Christianity
generous with water, and the ing that served as courthouse and jail at
same is true if one wishes to the time of the fighting has long been a over paganism—Cortez' triumph over Mon-
state monument. It is administered by the tezuma, specifically.
augment desert plants with lush
Old Lincoln County Memorial Commission, Numerous horse shows and rodeos round
greener ones. which now owns many of the other struc-
tures that figured in the fracas. Two years out a full month of tourist attractions in
It is no wonder that desert ago the Tunstall store, stronghold of one the Sunshine State. Carlsbad Caverns Na-
living is so pleasurable when one of the warring factions, was made into a tional Park lists several conducted tours
museum; and early this year the Wortley daily, and in Taos there are two plaza-to-
can sit on terrace or porch and pueblo stagecoach trips a day. ///
Hotel was reconstructed as the old town's
look out over a small area of only sleeping quarters. It offers rooms and
garden, planned and executed by meals to travelers today—the first accom-
one's own hands, to miles and modations of its kind in Lincoln in modern
times. NEW . . . NEW . . . NEW
miles of virgin desert. Such views
are ever-changing and become so
much a part of one's being that
North in the vicinity of Santa Fe and
Albuquerque the Pueblo Indians hold sev-
"once a desert-dweller always a eral of their most colorful fiestas in August.
These are set for Jemez, August 2; Santo
desert - dweller" is a statement Domingo, on the 4th; Picuris, 10th; Santa BIGGER AND BETTER
that belies contradiction. It Clara, 12th; Zia, 15th; and Isleta, 28th. Unusual mountings and findings. Good selec-
doesn't matter whether one's The biggest is at Santo Domingo, where as tion of jewelers' tools, equipment, supplies,
silver, books, cut stones, etc. Covington lapi-
home is a simple little 'dobe hut, many as 600 native villagers participate in dary equipment. Top quality merchandise at
the day-long Green Corn Dance, perhaps reasonable prices.
or a more elaborate home—the the most elaborate ritual in America to SEND 50c TODAY FOR YOUR COPY
same facts hold true! /// survive from ancient days. Money refunded on first $5.00 order

Also, the world-famous Gallup Inter- TERRY'S LAPIDARY

tribal Indian Ceremonials are held in Au- 3616 E. GAGE AVE. BELL, CALIF.
gust—the 11th thru 14th this year. Gallup

August, 1960 / Desert Magazine / 41



AST MONTH I reported that huge power equipment It seems to be a necessary investment, but Southern
L was excavating great holes in the Death Valley Na-
tional Monument in an exploratory effort to tap a
reportedly rich placer gold field. Some of these excava-
California has the biggest pond in the world lapping at
its shoreline and I still think that scientists who are smart
enough to harness the atom could solve the problem of
tions were 20 feet wide, 40 feet deep and 200 feet long. converting sea water not only for this state but for coastal
It proved to be a false lead. The Amargosa River areas all around the world if they were given the green
gravels in the southern part of the Monument yielded no light and the funds for large-scale research.
minerals of any value. And I am glad to report that the * * *
Peerless Oil and Gas Company and the Midwest Oil This will be vacation month for many Desert Maga-
Corporation which had acquired an option on 96 claims zine readers—and I want to remind them that three of
covering about 15,000 acres have abandoned their ven- the most colorful national parks in the nation are located
ture and are backfilling the pits in an attempt to restore in the Desert Southwest. I refer to Zion and Bryce parks
the landscape. in Utah and Grand Canyon in northern Arizona. They
are all at an altitude where you'll sleep under blankets
In most of the National Parks and Monuments wild- even in midsummer.
catting of this kind is prohibited. The Death Valley
episode serves to emphasize the need for similar protec- The landscapes in these parks are majestic—but there
tion in California's largest National Monument. To the is something more than awe-inspiring scenery to make the
superficial observer Death Valley is just an arid and vacation worth while. Don't invest your money in a park
forbidding desert. But to those who come to this region trip and then pass up the lectures of the ranger-naturalists.
with interest and understanding it is a great natural That's like buying a meat pie and eating only the crust.
museum wherein are revealed the miracles of countless The national park system is something more than a
years of geological upheaval and erosion, of plant and series of scenic attractions for rubberneck tourists. It has
wildlife adaptation, and of habitation by hardy aborigines developed into a great outdoor university where Americans
whose story is partly told in the re-discovered artifacts of on vacation may enrich their lives with an intimate and
their culture. The charm of Death Valley is in its fan- fascinating study of the simple but important truths of
tastic form and color—and in the mystery of its past.
Why any living thing, plant or animal, would chose such the natural world.
an inhospitable habitat is one of the enigmas of life on * * *
this planet. One of the most delightful spectacles on the annual
calendar of desert events will take place at Prescott,
It is to be hoped that before too long the federal Arizona, on August 13. I refer to the annual Smoki
government will give this region the status and the pro- Dances—not to be confused with the Hopi Snake dances
tection of a national park. which also will take place in August on the Hopi Indian
The Smoki people are a rare tribe. They are white
Probably we folks who dwell on the desert are more folks who sell groceries and practice law and pump gaso-
sensitive to problems of water conservation than are those line and sell insurance for a living—just a cross-section
whose homes are in zones of more abundant rainfall. I'll of an average American community. Once a year they
confess that one of the reasons I have never developed stage one of the most realistic pageants in America.
any enthusiasm for the idea of planting a colony on the Aside from the impressiveness of the show, the most
moon is that whenever I read about these schemes for amazing thing about these people is their modesty. Im-
outer-space exploration my personal reaction is: Gosh, agine if you can a troupe of actors and actresses who
I wish they would be spending that money on the develop- shun publicity. It is contrary to all American custom.
ment of an economical process for the desalting of sea At Hollywood the third assistant costume girl must have
water. her name flashed on the screen, and the extra players
For water supply truly is a problem which will plague hire press agents to keep "their public" informed as to
future generations of Americans. In fact, the threat of their doing. But at Prescott you can sleuth around the
shortage already is a matter of grave concern to many town for a week without even learning the names of those
American communities. Here in California we are to who play lead roles on the Smoki ceremonial.
vote next November on a project which eventually will It is a refreshing experience to find a troupe of per-
involve the expenditure of billions of dollars for bringing formers so good they do not have to resort to ballyhoo
water from Northern California to Southern California. to hold their jobs.

42 / Desert Magazine / August, 1960

Select From This
List or buy 'em all

25c EACH —
— ANY 6 FOR $1 —
— ALL 19 FOR $3
CHLORIDE, New Mexico—Apr '59
CORTEZ, Nevada—May '59
DALE, California—Apr '57
FAIRVIEW, Nevada—Oct '55
GARLOCK, COALDALE, Calif.—Feb. '58
Nevada—Dec '55

Hie yourself away HARDIN CITY, Nevada—Apr '55

JARBIDGE, Nevada—Nov '55
LA PAZ, Arizona—Sept '58
LEADFIELD, California—Jan '57

to the West's old LIDA, PALMETTO, Nevada—May '56

MARIETTA, Nevada—Mar '57
FARRELL, Nevada—June '58

MINING TOWNS SKIDOO, California—Apr '58

—Jan. '58
TAYLOR, Nevada—May '58
VANDERBILT, California—Oct '57
Let selected Feature Articles in Limited numbers of the following

be your guide to these Old Camps
Back Issues nine issues are available at 35c

each—Any 3 for $1
AURORA, Nevada—July '47
BALLARAT, Calif.—May '41
All magazines are complete and in good condition Nevada—May '48
* GOLD CREEK, Nev.—Feb '57
Feb '52

Nevada—Oct '41
* SCHELLBOURNE, N e v a d a -
Contain detailed Dec '54
* UNIONVILLE, Nev.—May '54
if WHITE HILLS, Ariz.—Jan '47
\ \ ^^"»" :' '., ; ; . , ;: NEVADA

--'•"•''-J .i .-' ,i\,-'
• " . ' • • > • • " • •i.-ftf*1'. •<£..,.
1i V- \ ^=^™ YOUR BACK ISSUES:

J-' '••"V^'i': .<;;•' ^--
v " • ^ ' • : . " • _ ; " v '

• List your selections by month

and year
- :
" • • ' ' " , ^ " " ~ ' r
' ' ' - !

I" %
// • Include r e m i t t a n c e (personal

^ \\\ flip
. -TFIYLOR ?) 1/ check or postal order, please)
• Be sure you give us the mailing
1 /^''
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W. address to which the back is-

•••-,. - y ''d'"'=""'...

V // ii sues are to be sent

Mail orders to:
^—< Dept 7B
% %i\--'

i > -•••••
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. ^ • ^

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