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Costa's Hummingbirds Robert Leatherman's camera provides a

scene seldom witnessed by the naked eye:

the frozen action of a hummingbird. The photograph, first-prize winner in this month's contest, is
two-and-a-half times life size. It was taken on a May afternoon in a desert wash east of the photogra-
pher's San Bernardino, California, home. This mother Costa's is greenish above; the under-body is
white. It is nearly impossible to distinguish between this bird and the female black-chinned hum-
mingbird in the field.

PHOTO CONTEST: you are invited to enter desert-subject photographs (black and white, 5x7 or larger) in Desert's contest. One
entry will be selected each month, and a $10 cash prire awarded to the photographer. All other entries will be returned—
provided postage is enclosed. Time and place of photograph are immaterial—except that the photo must be of a Desert South-
west subject. For non-winning pictures accepted for publication, $3 each will be paid. Address all entries to: Photo Contest,
Desert Magazine, Palm Desert, California.
Publisher's Notes • • •
It is not easy to get lost when you have a map to follow.
But last month two of our maps got lost—somewhere in
Mexico—trying to find our cartographer, Norton Allen.
Our editorial office prepared all the necessary data for
Norton Allen to use in drawing a map for Harold Weight's
field trip story and for Ken Wortley's lost mine piece. We
mailed the information to Norton, who was vacationing
...magazine of the Outdoor Southwest in Mexico. Then we waited.
Finally, deadline time, and no maps from the Mapman.
At the next to last moment we traced Norton to Tepic, in
western Mexico. He told us by long distance phone that
Volume 22 MAY. 1959 Number 5 our lost treasure was still lost, as far as he was concerned.
So artist Margo Gerke, former Desert staff member, did
a hurry-up job for us, pinch-hitting for Norton Allen.
COVER: Navctjo Trail, Bryce Canyon National Park, Allen, incidentally, will be back in the United States (and
back in Desert) next month.
Utah, b y PARKER HAMILTON And his substitute, Miss Gerke, will be leaving Desert's
sphere to enter the State of Matrimony.
ENGINEERING: Ford's Desert Proving Grounds
By EUGENE L. CONROTTO 4 It may be officially noted, now that the month of May
is here, that this was a "mighty pore" spring for wildflowers
CONSERVATION: Smokey Bear's Early Days on the desert. About the only blooms most of you will see
are the lovely Mariposa lilies on our back cover, courtesy
By STEVE LOWELL 7 of Josef Muench's camera.
* * *
GHOST TOWN: Cortez, Nevada—Population 1 Fire hazard season in cur brushlands and mountains is
By NELL MURBARGER 9 here, so we think it especially timely to report on the famous
fire-prevention bear, Smokey, and to recall his beginnings,
NATURE: The Desert Bean Tree in the article, "Smokey Bear's Early Days," on page 7.
* * *
By EDMUND C. JAEGER 14 One of the top Nature photographers of the Southwest,
Bob Leatherman, is this month's photo contest winner.
PERSONALITY: First Lady of Santa Clara Leatherman has won top Desert honors several times during
By MARY BRANHAM 17 the past decade. And if he can continue to turn in pictures
as delightful as his family scene at the edge of a humming-
EXPERIENCE: Memories of Broad Horizons bird's home (opposite page), then we can promise him
further laurels in future years.
SCIENCE: Green Conquest—How Plants Eat Rocks
The Desert Magazine, founded in 1937 by Randall Henderson, is
HISTORY: Two Stage Stops on the Butterfield published monthly by Desert Magazine, Inc., Palm Desert, California,
Re-entered as second class matter July 17, 1948, at the postoffice at
Overland Mail, by J. WILSON McKENNEY . 22 Palm Desert, California, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Title regis-
tered No. 358865 in U. S. Patent Office, and contents copyrighted 1959
by Desert Magazine, Inc. Permission to reproduce contents must be
LOST MINE: Alec Ramy's Lost Bonanza secured from the editor in writing.
BONANZA: Old Shultz' Gold Mine RANDALL HENDERSON, Advisory Editor
EVONNE RIDDELL, Circulation Manager
Address all editorial and circulation correspondence to Desert Mag-
azine, Palm Desert, California.
FIELD TRIP: Carnelian and Roses at Ash Hill Address all advertising correspondence to Clyde A. Osburn, Director
of Advertising, Suite 315, 7046 Hollywood Blvd., Los Angeles 28, Calif.
By HAROLD O. WEIGHT 36 Unsolicited manuscripts and photographs submitted cannot be re-
turned or acknowledged unless full return postage is enclosed. Desert
BACK COVER: Mariposa Lily Magazine assumes no responsibility for damage or loss of manuscripts
or photographs although due care will be exercised. Subscribers should
By JOSEF MUENCH :end notice of change of address by the first of the month preceding

Photo-of-the-M:onth: 2 Desert Quiz: 6
Desert Primer: 8 Calendar: 12 Southwest Recipes: 18
Reader Response: 27 Southwest News Briefs: 28
. . . or let us send it to a friend
Hard Rock Shorty: 32 Writers Close-Ups: 33 (a magazine subscription is a thoughtful gift)
• One Year-$4 • Two Years-$7 • Three Years-$ 10.50
Mining News: 34 Book Reviews: 35 (Canadian subscriptions 25c extra, foreign 50c extra per year)
Gem-Mineral Field Reports: 40 SEND DESERT MAGAZINE TO:
Amateur Gem Cutter: 41 Editorial: 42
Poem-of-the-Month: 43 (pfease print)

(mailing address)
. . . Parker Hamilton of Flagstaff proves again that the warm
beautiful colors of Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah make (city, state)
that area one of the most rewarding on earth for the color pho- If this is a gift, sign gift card:
tographer. A portion of the Navajo Trail at Bryce is shown in
the cover photo. The park is open all year. Evenings there are
cool—often chilly—the days are warm. Hamilton is a beginning Mail this information and your remittance to: Desert Magazine,
free-lance photographer and it may be that more of his fine work Palm Desert, California.
soon will be seen in this publication.

MAY, 1959
Severe dust conditions are created for this test by the
pickup at far right which is towing a heavy drag.

7 HE DESERT ROAD we were driving over was

Ford's Desert mobiles.

rougher than most dirt trails, for its washboards and
chuckholes were purposely created to torture auto-

Benn Keller drove the Lincoln over one stretch where

the bumps affected only the right wheels. Next came a dip
with punishing left-wheel bumps, and then we hit a jarring
Proving Grounds stretch of trenches in which all four wheels hit bottom at
the same time.
Benn is manager of the Ford Motor Company's 4000-
acre Arizona Proving Grounds near the tiny settlement of
Ford Motor Co. is testing new and future auto- Yucca, 25 miles west of Kingman on Highway 66. Almost
motive components at a secret proving grounds on 100 men are busy here around the clock doing road test
the Arizona desert near Kingman. Cars are driven work on today and tomorrow's cars, tracks and automotive
over punishing dirt tracks, enveloped in man-made components. At the invitation of the Ford Motor Company
dust storms and subjected to other tests while en- I recently visited this modern installation on the broad
gineers study the results. barren plain framed between the somber Hualpai and
Black mountains.
In addition to the 25 miles of secondary roads for
durability testing on the Ford property which Benn was
introducing me to, there is a five-mile three-lane high speed
endurance track where cars and tires are evaluated over
long grueling runs.
After we completed the desert road course, we entered
the paved track. In a matter of seconds the car's speedom-
eter eased over to the 120 mph mark—maximum registered
speed—and rested there. I glanced out the window. Joshua
trees, ocotillo and creosote bushes lining the five-mile
oval track slipped backward in a green blur.
As we entered the sloped curve, Benn took both hands
off of the steering wheel.
"Notice how perfectly this track is engineered?" he
asked in a casual tone. "It's banked steeply enough to
handle speeds up to 140 mph without any side thrust. The
car seeks its own level on the curves according to its speed
—steering is unnecessary. Just like the side-show motor-
cycles spinning around the inside walls of a barrel."
To test and evaluate its products—and the products of
competitors — Ford has five testing stations: the main
engineering labs at Dearborn and Romeo, Michigan, em-
ploying about 300 men each; seasonal stations at Colorado
Springs, Colorado, and Jennerstown, Pennsylvania; and the
Southwest station at Kingman. General Motors has a prov-
ing grounds in the Phoenix area, and Chrysler reportedly
is considering establishing a desertland test ground.
Ford came to the desert in 1946. For nine years it
operated in a small way out of a Phoenix garage, using the
public highways for most of its tests. In 1953 the company
acquired the Mohave County property, and in May, 1955,
the Arizona Proving Grounds was in business.
Heart of the operation is the gleaming white air-condi-

Benn Keller, Proving Grounds manager, at the

wheel of a heavily-instrumented test vehicle.

tioned office-shop-garage building which faces across a
green lawn and swimming pool the employee's services
building where cafeteria, lounge and visiting officials' apart-
ments are located.
There are very special reasons why this isolated plain
was chosen.
First there is climate. Summer temperatures here are
close to the maximum encountered anywhere in the U.S.; in
winter road testing is not interrupted by snow which
hampered Eastern operations.
Second consideration was seclusion. The Proving
Grounds is completely enclosed by a high chain link fence.
Unauthorized visitors cannot enter.
Despite the fact Ford people had invited me to visit
the installation weeks in advance, I had to go through about
as much red tape to get into this plant as I did a year before
getting out of a Navy base in Southern Nevada into which
I had inadvertently wandered.
The reason for all of this is simple: the need for secrecy.
In January of this year the first of Ford Motor Company's
1960 prototype models began arriving at the Arizona Prov-
ing Grounds, and many of the current models have '61 and
even '62 components which are undergoing tests.
All new model prototypes are driven out from the East
—camouflaged with plywood, stripped of all chrome and
insignias, and their drivers instructed not to answer any
questions. These cars are hand-made at tremendous cost, Main building contains offices, shops and garage.
but when their mission at Kingman is completed, they are
saturated with gasoline, set aflame and then buried under carburetors, and ventilators which are being tested, follow
the desert sand in an unmarked grave. There is no market close behind the drag. In the more severe tests, the drivers
for experimental cars. must wear inhalators. There are no irate neighbors to
Benn explained that it was more important to keep the complain over such testing.
new model secrets away from Ford Motor dealers than
Fourth factor for the plant's location is the 6500-foot
from engineers of rival companies. The latter probably
have a good idea of what Ford is doing from their own variation in elevation within a 40-mile radius of the Prov-
work and research, the interchange of industry personnel, ing Grounds—invaluable conditions for performance test-
gossip from common vendors, and highly educated guesses. ing cars and trucks. About 75 percent of all road testing
But dealers who see and like next year's cars (the purpose takes place on the public highways between the Colorado
of style changes is to bring about this very reaction) may River, at elevation 500 feet, and Hualapai Mountain Park
hold back on their current year orders, and thus affect sales. near Kingman, where the road winds up to the 7000-foot
Dust—its availability and not its lack—is another rea- level.
son Ford settled near Kingman. There is a special dusty And the last reason is that the Desert Southwest is
stretch on the secondary roads where a truck towing a drag becoming an increasingly important factor in the nation's
can simulate sand storms far greater than the average desert economy. More and more people are driving more and
traveler will ever encounter. Cars fitted with air filters, more miles in this vast area.
Benn showed me a test car. The passenger's side of
A Thunderbird simulates a long uphill drive by pull- the front seat was a maze of instruments and rubber hoses
ing a special "towed truck" around high-speed track. leading to various components being tested under the hood
The truck has special gears which make it possible to and in the rear-end. On the floorboards were iron weights
transfer any given weight-drag to vehicle being tested.
:.:• :;. , : • ;.:; ••:-. •.;

MAY, 1959
and sand bags to bring this particular vehicle up to the
exact test weight. Tenderfoot or desert rat, you'll
When a driver starts his workday, he is given a printed
instruction sheet setting forth the test assignment. It may
DESERT QUIZ want to tackle these 20 questions
for two good reasons: to find
out how much you know about the great desertland; and to
be that the engineers want to check a 1962 transmission find out what you don't know. Fourteen correct answers is
under temperature and pressure conditions, so the car a passing grade; 16 is good; 18 or more is excellent. Answers
equipped with one is accelerated up to a certain speed, are on page 34.
abruptly stopped, backed up to the starting point, again 1. 1680 is a famous Southwestern historical date for it
marks—The Pueblo uprising against the Spaniards
accelerated, stopped, backed up, etc. This may go on for Founding of Calexico Gadsden Purchase
three eight-hour shifts, six days a week. First overland mail to California
Not all tests are conducted on moving vehicles. Parked 2. "Float" that prospectors follow to mineral ledges is—
A river trail A sand trail Weathered-out
behind the shop was a new station wagon. It had been in ore Earthquake faults
the open for six months testing how the simulated wood 3. California's Morongo Pass divides the San Bernardino
side panels can take sun, wind and cold. Mountains from the—Chocolate Mountains Santa
If a test presents a potential violation to existing state Rosas Little San Bernardinos Whipples
traffic laws, or might be a highway hazard, it is performed 4. Salome, Arizona, is remembered as the home of—Dick
Wick Hall Geronimo Pauline Weaver
on the proving grounds. Walkara
Special equipment is employed for most of the testing. 5. One of the following dams is not on the Colorado River
I watched a simulated 10,000-foot uphill drive by a —Imperial Elephant Butte Parker
Thunderbird. The Ford people tortured the T-Bird by Boulder
making it pull a "towed truck," with special gears that can 6. Bill Williams, who gave his name to an Arizona city,
mountain and river, was a—Mining engineer Moun-
transfer any given weight-drag to the test car. All tests tain man Indian Chief Missionary
are calculated to abuse vehicles and equipment two and a 7. Today, the giant sloth is found only in — Northern
half times more severely than they actually are subjected Nevada Southern Nevada Eastern New Mex-
to under the most severe driving conditions by the average ico It is extinct
car owner. 8. The "tree that jumps" is another name for the—Joshua
tree Saguaro Paloverde Cholla cactus
Competition and free enterprise are more than catch- 9. Arizona's famed Meteor Crater is on the plain between
words at the Arizona Proving Grounds. —Phoenix and Wickenburg . Tucson and Yuma
Personable and competent, Benn Keller has been with Winslow and Flagstaff Kingman and Flagstaff
Ford two and a half years. Prior to that he was with the 10. In the famous fight at the O.K. Corral, Doc Holiday
Packard Proving Grounds in Michigan for 17 years and was on the side of the — Clantons Earps
Billy the Kid John Ringo
was manager when the facility was abandoned. He took 11. Desert five-spot is a—Famed Death Valley mine
over at Kingman last November. Wildflower Card game Monument Valley
Benn received his mechanical engineering training at landmark
the University of Michigan, and went right to work for 12. Function of the rattle on rattlesnakes is to—Warn mates
of danger Warn adversaries Lure prey
Packard after graduation in 1937. He and his wife, Ruth, Locomotion
have two children, a four-year-old son and a seven-year-old 13. Early Spaniards knew the Gulf of California as the—
daughter. The family, like 90 percent of the APG em- Devil's Waters Vermilion Sea Sea of Fish
ployees, lives in Kingman. As far as Benn is concerned, Dark Ocean
you couldn't put him any other place on earth more to his 14. Distinguishing characteristic of Pegleg Smith's lost gold
liking. nuggets were their — Black color Unique free
form High silver content Light weight
"Kingman has everything to offer—every day dawns 15. Bingham Canyon in Utah is famous for its—Weaving
bright and clear," he explained. "We're near Lake Mohave, industry Silver mines Copper pit Win-
Boulder Dam and Las Vegas . . . Phoenix is only three and ter tourist resorts
a half hours away . . ." 16. State flower of Arizona is the—Verbena Rose
Saguaro Lily
Three and a half hours—a ride made more comfortable, 17. Mono Rock in New Mexico is famous for its—Indian
more carefree, more economical—partly because of the con- legends Odd shape Historical inscriptions
scientious labor of Benn Keller and his crack crew.—END Orange-red coloration
18. Halite is more commonly known as — Sulphur
Soda Potash Salt
19. Brigham Young led the Mormons to Utah in—1820
STARTING NEXT MONTH 1833 1847 1869
20. The phainopepla is a desert—Jackrabbit . Bird-. .
Te^ Cactus
Desett Driving Tips
Manager of Ford's Desert Proving Grounds
The Desert Southwest—with its excesses in heat
and dust, its rutted byways and long stretches of
straight highways—makes special demands on
automobiles and their drivers. In the coming
months, Benn Keller will discuss in these pages
various aspects of desert driving and auto mainte-
nance. Subjects that he will cover are "Sand and
Dust," "Cooling System," "Vapor Lock," "Tire
Wear," "Refrigerated Air Conditioners," and others.

i •

Smokey Bear's
Early Days
Smokey already was on his way to
By STEVE LOWELL becoming national fire prevention
symbol when this photo was made
—only weeks after Ray Bell, now
YEARS AGO this May, a New Mexico State Forester, nursed
little black cinder, partly cov- Forester Ray Bell is a man fire-scarred bear back to health.
ered with singed fur, clung to who gets ideas and then fol-
the limb of a burned tree, and cried. lows them through. Nine years
The pitiful whimpers caught the at- it, because she was sure it was going
ago he was fighting a forest to die, and she didn't want a dead
tention of a crew returning from the fire in New Mexico when a
fire line in the Sacramento Mountains bear on her hands. So, I took the
singed bear cub was found. cub back to the fire camp. We found
of south-central New Mexico. Ray figured it would make a a little pasteboard box no larger than
The man in charge, Orville Luttrell fine fire prevention symbol — a shoe box, punched some holes in
of the State Game Department, cau- and Smokey Bear was on his
tioned the men against bothering the its top, and put in a little cloth and
way to good works and fame. our sick cub. We wrapped twine
bear cub, a miserable little ball of
charred fuzz. He explained that its around the box to keep Smokey from
mother might return, if the fire hadn't climbing out, and I flew him home to
killed her. The next day a crew of soldiers Santa Fe and turned him over to a
returning from the fire line brought in veterinarian. Smokey weighed four
In camp, Luttrell told the story to pounds.
Ray Bell, chief law enforcement offi- the cub. They fed it candy and canned
cer of the Game Department at that milk, and then gave it to a rancher to "The vet kept the cub two days,
time. That's when the idea was born take home. Bell was told of these then I took it home. Although Smokey
for a live stand-in for the Smokey developments when he got into camp seemed to be recovering, he wouldn't
Bear that had been used for two or that evening. eat.
three years on fire prevention posters. "Early the following morning I bor- "I took him back to the vet a few
"I told Orville if he ran onto the rowed a car and drove to the ranch," days later to have the bandages on
bear again to bring it in," Bell recalls. Bell relates. "I asked the rancher's his feet changed, and more salve put
"I told him it would probably die wife if I could take the cub and put on his rump.
otherwise, and that I had something it in the care of a veterinarian. "The vet kept him another couple
else in mind for the little fellow." "She said she wished I would take of days, but the only food the tiny

MAY, 1959
rascal would take was a little milk and I was willing to let them heal." he stands for. Smokey has appeared
poured down his throat. Smokey still has a place in the Bells' on millions of posters urging fire pre-
"When I took him home the second hearts. Last year Judy accepted a gold vention. The message on these posters
time, my wife decided to try mixing statuette of Smokey from President takes on added significance when we
baby cereal with milk and honey. We Eisenhower in behalf of the people of visualize a helpless orphaned bear cub
rubbed some of that on Smokey's the village of Capitan who built a facing the terror of a rampaging fire.
snout, and he started to eat. From memorial in honor of the cub and what END
that day on, we had no trouble.
"In time the burns healed, and
Smokey took up with our little cocker
spaniel pup, which was almost the
same size as the bear. They had the
run of the house. Judy, our little
daughter, who was four years old then,
was in on their romps. HIEROGLYPHICS art work of the ancients
Bell Gets Blamed
"Smokey seemed to believe I had In a thousand places on the Des- of rain or blowing sand. However,
something to do with his hurts, and ert Southwest, prehistoric Indians in some instances, as in Horseshoe
never failed to bite me when he got have left their markings on the Canyon, Utah (Desert, Oct. '57),
a chance. He never bit Judy, and rocks. This art work often is re- these painted figures are still well
only once bit my wife—but that was ferred to as hieroglyphics, and in a preserved on exposed rock walls.
my fault. I took hold of Smokey broad sense of the term that is what Evidently the prehistoric tribesmen
when he was in her lap." it is. However, it is much more had found a tough resistant fluid to
accurate to describe them as either mix with the pigment they had
By this time many Forest Service petroglyphs or pictographs—and it ground from colored stone—a secret
men throughout the country had which would interest the paint-
learned about the cub, and they were makers of today.
urging Washington headquarters to
carry Bell's idea through as part of Petroglyphs are much more com-
the fire prevention campaign. Cliff mon, and in some sites, as in Petri-
Davis of the Forest Service liked the fied Forest National Monument,
Arizona, and along Indian Creek
plan, and he asked the New Mexico in Utah, there are great stone walls
Game Department to send the cub literally covered with them.
to the Washington Zoo to become the
living Smokey Bear of the fire posters. The figures often can be identified
— the sheep, the deer, and the
"The airlines wouldn't take the
snake are common. Also recog-
bear," Bell recalls, "so Smokey was nized are symbols of the sun, rain,
flown to Washington in a light plane." or a spring of water. But there re-
He took off from Santa Fe on June main many unanswered questions.
27, 1950, and made several stops As Arthur Woodward, archeologist
along the way—met at each one by and historian who perhaps has stud-
considerable crowds, liberally seasoned ied these ancient writings more in-
with children. It was raining when tensively than anyone in the field,
Smokey arrived in Washington, but once remarked, "We do not know
many people were on hand to greet is important that the distinction be whether they represent the wisdom
him. made between these two types of of the medicine man or the dood-
Bell, now chief forester for New figures. lings of the tribal idiot."
Mexico, figures that since black bears Petroglyphs are incised in the Living Indians can throw but little
usually are born in January, Smokey rock with a tool harder than the light on this subject. One of the
was about three-and-a-half months old rock in which they have been chis- exceptions to this is at Willow
when he was found. He weighed but eled. Hence, the ancient tribesmen Springs near Tuba City, Arizona.
eight pounds when he made his trip used a stone tool—a sharp-pointed In ancient times the Hopis followed
to the Washington Zoo. rock of obsidian or quartz or what- their "Salt Trail" to the Little Colo-
Old Friends ever may have been available. rado River to obtain salt, and Wil-
low Springs was one of their over-
"I was sorry to see Smokey leave," Pictographs are painted on the night camping places. Members of
Bell says, "and so were my wife and rocks, probably with a brush of each Hopi clan, as they came this
Judy. We had become attached to yucca or agave fiber, although there way, incised their clan symbol on
the little cub. My wife was the closest is evidence in many places that the rocks. For instance, the Corn
to him because she gave him his food, fingers were used for this task. Clan chiseled a corn stalk—and the
and she saw to it that his blanket was There are places in southern Utah many pilgrims who had come this
in its proper place every night—in that show the print of the complete way is evidenced by a long row of
the washing machine where he slept. hand, as if the artist had dipped his cornstalks. The weathering of the
or her hand in a vessel of paint and glyphs indicates the lapse of time
"Judy begged me not to let Smokey then pressed it against the stone.
go, but I could see that the day was during the long period of these treks
not far off when we'd have to move Generally pictographs are found to the salt mine. There are Hopis
out of the house and let Smokey have in caves or on sheltered rock faces living today who participated in
it all to himself. Besides, I had sev- not subjected to the erosive effect these long walks to obtain salt.
eral scratches and bites on my hands,

Ruins of the big quartz mill at Cortez.

CORTEZ, NEVADA... population 1

By NELL MURBARGER drowsing and dreaming; a place where mining has been
the Be-All and End-Ail for 96 years.
The history of Cortez began in the winter of 1862-63
B EING THE LAST inhabitant of a ghost town has
always seemed to me a lonely sort of life, but Lloyd
High doesn't find it so. In his mid-60s, a veteran
of the first World War and formerly a rancher in Montana,
when 10 residents of Virginia City pooled their resources
—$4000—and created an exploration fund. They placed
this money in the hands of Andrew A. Veatch, a young
he moved to Nevada in 1922, eventually turned to mining, man characterized by newspapers of that day as "the most
and located at Cortez. He lives in a neat little cabin set expert prospector in the world." Taking with him "not
down in the midst of nut pines and junipers, and bordered more than eight companions," Veatch was commissioned
by old-fashioned yellow roses and crimson poppies. For to search for a rich and hitherto undiscovered mining dis-
recreation he reads good books and magazines, and writes trict, it being agreed that each member of his field party
poems which he sets to music. would own equal interest with each of the Virginia City
backers in any ground located.
Sometimes, in the long still evenings, he sits alone in
his cabin and strums his guitar, and sings these songs he
has written; or he may wind the motor of his old cabinet-
style Victrola and spend an entire evening playing nostalgic The summer days are just as sunny—the winters
recordings. Occasionally he has visitors — mostly pros-
pectors seeking some overlooked bonanza; or history fans just as harsh. But, old Cortez at the
such as myself. foot of Mt. Tenabo does more sleeping than it
Not even the current interest in ghost towns has caused does shouting, for the mines are closed,
a wide path to be beaten to Lloyd's door. The fact that
Cortez is 40 miles from the nearest through highway
the mills are crumbling into ruin, and only one
rebuffs casual sightseers. Cortez isn't a highly-touted ghost man still calls Cortez his home.
town. Jt's a quiet pleasant place, thoroughly adapted to

MAY, 1959
Together with the prescribed aides, the young pros- and 1000 feet higher in elevation—relatively little could
pector left for the Reese River country in March, 1863. be accomplished at the new camp before the brief summer
Failing to find anything to his liking, he led his group north had sped and winter fastened its fierce grip on the land.
past the new camp of Austin, and pushed on into the Beginning in November and continuing well into the
virtually unknown lands beyond. Exploring every ridge next spring, all supplies and equipment destined for Cortez
and ravine, observing every formation, sampling every or its mines were brought in on pack mule trains loaded
ledge and outcrop, the party moved carefully through the in Virginia City and routed by way of Austin—a hazardous
country. In May, at a point 68 miles northeast of Austin, 250-mile journey.
Veatch discovered veins rich in silver and apparently of With the coming of spring, affairs at Cortez began to
great extent. move briskly and outside capital entered the picture. "A
Laying out Cortez Mining District, the group elected few days since," reported the Reveille on June 6, 1864,
a recorder and hastened to locate 200,000 feet of ground. "Mr. George Hearst and Dr. Hathaway, gentlemen who
have a few hundred thousand at their command, left
First Women Residents Austin for a visit to Cortez. . . . They are those who have
By the end of July, 1863, the Cortez Company had made great fortunes in mining and know where to in-
graded a road from the camp to their mountainside mine, vest. . . ."
erected a blacksmith shop and laid foundations for the That Hearst liked the prospects at Cortez well enough
necessary buildings. Numerous outsiders arrived to take to back them with hard cash is not surprising, since only
up ground, and the isolated settlement welcomed its first good reports were flowing from this new camp. Eulogizing
women residents: Mrs. D. C. Clinton, and Mrs. H. H. the district, the Reveille described ore from the St. Louis,
Herrick and daughter, of Illinois. Garrison and Idaho ledges as "a marvel of richness, pieces
"The women are a great curiosity to the Indians who of several pounds weight being almost pure black sulphurets.
flock around in large numbers to see the white man's Specimens from the St. Louis lode . . . have assayed as
mahala with her balloon rig of crinoline," observed the high as $11,000 per ton. . . ."
Cortez correspondent in Austin's Reese River Reveille.
The Mill Fails
As soon as initial exploration proved the worth of the
new district, the Virginia City backers subscribed another This same month the Cortez Company commenced
$6000 to erect a mill, machinery for which was to be long-awaited operations at its new mill in Mill Canyon, a
freighted over the Sierra Nevada from Sacramento by few miles to the north. Unfortunately the first run showed
ox-team. But, due to the geographical and topographical that values locked in Cortez ore could not be recovered
location of Cortez—at a latitude farther north than Denver without the aid of roasting furnaces. With the new mill
proven inadequate, Cortez mine owners freighted their ore
by mule to the mills at Austin.
Primitive dugout cabin in Cortez' Chinese section.

and 6000-ounce lots being shipped by Russell's Stage to
Austin. With completion of the Pacific Railroad through
Beowawe, 35 miles to the north, the wealth of the Cortez
mines was routed in that direction. The Reveille still kept
a fatherly eye on the camp, and on September 14, 1869,
reported that Wenban & Co., on the next day following,
would ship from their mill in Cortez "one ton of silver
Other shipments, not of such magnitude, followed with
comfortable regularity; and when it appeared that good
fortune had taken a permanent perch on his shoulder,
Simeon Wenban built a great house in Cortez Canyon. It
was a mansion by mining camp standards. Not only did
it have 22-foot ceilings and spring water piped to kitchen
and bath; it boasted that ne plus ultra of Nevada mining
camps—a green lawn!
Chinese Labor
About this time most of Cortez mine and mill employes
were replaced by Chinese coolie labor. This development
left Wenban's camp as popular as a leper colony with Oc-
cidental workmen and the Nevada press which was solidly
against employment of Oriental labor in the state's mines
and mills.
Although coolies could be hired for $40 a month and
"board themselves," and Chinese foremen received $1.60


Lashed by the fierce blizzards of winter, floundering

through spring's bottomless mud, and smothered by sum-
mer's choking heat and dust, the long pack trains of J. A.
Alvarez began moving Cortez' silver treasure across 60
miles of wilderness trail. Shipped at the rate of 17 to 25
tons per trip, depending on trail conditions, most of the
ore was delivered to the Keystone Mill in Emigrant Canyon,
one-and-one-half miles north of Austin.
A Way of Life
The mule train was a way of life. The entire Cortez
economy was geared to pack-saddles, both for freighting
ore to outside mills and for bringing in supplies and equip-
ment needed by the mines and the growing town. There-
fore, it was a great event when George Russell, in June,
1867, instituted the first stageline service to Cortez. Stages
serving the new line left Austin on Monday of each week,
and Cortez on Saturday.
Despite the Reveille's declaration that prospects at
Cortez "were never so bright as at present," George Hearst
ended his local connections. By selling his Cortez mining
interest to Simeon Wenban, his partner, for $14,000, Hearst
gave Wenban controlling interest in all the main properties
on Mt. Tenabo. Thus, Wenban, a native of Kent, England,
became the kingpin of Cortez.
In July, 1867, the Wenban Mill went into operation,
and the Reveille carried frequent notices of bullion in 5000 Lloyd High, last surviving resident of Cortez.

MAY, 1959 11
a day (about half the wages then being paid to Mexicans I found it more dilapidated; but it never looked too much
in comparable jobs), this saving was not sufficient induce- different until last summer when I was grieved to see that
ment to invite the entire state of Nevada's wrath. Wenban's the fine mill chimney had been torn down for the bricks
action must have been dictated by more peremptory cir- it contained, and the huge company boarding house had
cumstances, and there is a persistent story that it came as been razed for its lumber. Where the building had stood
a result of temporary—but acute—financial embarrassment. were a few floor joists, an old poker table, a big office desk
To raise desperately needed money, he is said to have ap- lacking most of its drawers — and rubble without end.
pealed to a wealthy San Francisco Chinese who agreed Scattered over the ground were great numbers of square-
to provide the sum required on condition that Wenban cut iron nails.
employ Chinese labor. From the old boarding house site I followed a pair of
Wenban's Fortune dusty wheel tracks that wound off through the nut pines
Be that story true or false—and despite disparaging and junipers to the cabin of my friend, Lloyd High, the
remarks of the press—Wenban continued to employ Chi- last surviving resident of the old camp.
nese and to ship silver bullion in prodigious quantities, often Together, we visited the old kiln where lime rock was
as much as $25,000 worth in a single lot. When Wenban burned for use in fluxing the silver ore. It was an interest-
died on March 4, 1901, at the age of 76, he left an estate ing structure, built in beehive form out of rubble stone,
valued at $567,000. Cortez went on, but never again as about 25 feet across in its greatest diameter and 15 feet in
profitably. height. Down in the gully, about 40 feet below the kiln,
Various lessees worked the ground until 1919 when Lloyd called my attention to three wooden barrels half-
the Consolidated Cortez Silver Mines Company bought the filled with lime produced in the crude old oven—lime as
property for a reported $100,000, sold 2,000,000 shares fine and white as talcum powder.
of stock at a dollar a share, and erected a 100-ton concen-
tration and cyanide mill. This mill functioned with moder- Grass Valley Salt
ate success until the early 1930s; but the once-great mines Then he pointed to a pile of hard grayish material.
could not weather the blow when Depression years sent "This is salt from the marsh near the Grass Valley Ranch.
the price of silver plunging to 33c an ounce. Evaporation would leave it on the surface, and Indian
The Simeon Wenban mansion had been torn down women swept it together in piles. Then it was packed up
before I first saw Cortez. The big company office and here on muleback for use in fluxing the ore."
boarding house, and one of the former saloons were still As we started back, groping through head-high sage-
standing, as were the tall chimney of the big brick-and-stone brush, and side-stepping old cellar holes, we were never
mill and the silent hulks of two wooden frame mills farther out of sight of the evidence of man's presence. Grown
up the canyon. Several dwellings were in usable condition, over by the sage were the remains of hand riveted sheet-
and about a dozen persons were living in the town. iron stoves, heavy plank chairs, rusted coal scuttles, bits
Every time I visited Cortez in the years that followed, of purple glass, battered dinner buckets and powder cans

Enter the warm season. Community events on the lower desert regions taper

off, the center of activity shifts to the high plateau and mountain regions . . . the
turtles race at Joshua Tree, Calif., in May . . . Las Vegas, Nev., has its Helldorado
. . . and as a fitting warm-weather touch, the folks at Provo, Utah, stage a boat
regatta. And for you who plan summer vacations to the "cool" regions, remember:
no portion of New Mexico is below 2800 feet altitude (lowest point in the state is the
Bed Bluff Reservoir).
ARIZONA May 9-15—Barstow to Las Vegas May 15—San Ysidro Processions
April 25-May 17 — 24th Annual (Nev.) horseback ride. For in- and blessing of fields in north-
Junior Indian Art Exhibit, Mu- formation contact Ed Andrews, ern New Mexico rural villages.
seum of Northern Arizona, Flag- c/o Barstow Chamber of Com- May 26—Fiesta of San Felipe de
staff. merce. Neri, Albuquerque.
April 28-May 1—Las Damas Trek, May 9-24 — Annual Wildflower May 30 — 23rd Annual White
Wickenburg. Show, Julian. Sands National Monument Play-
May 1—Annual Reunion and Pic- May 16-17 — Annual Fiesta, San day, Alamogordo.
nic, Gila Valley Old Settlers' Jacinto. UTAH
Union, Buckeye. May 17—Pageant, Spanish Fiesta
May 2-5—Cinco de Mayo (Mexican and Wild West Show, Placerita May 6-9—State Junior Livestock
Independence Day) Festivities Canyon Park near Newhall. Show, Spanish Fork.
at Nogales, Gilbert and most May 23-24 — 18th Annual Stam- May 8-10—Uranium Symposium,
other border communities. pede, Lone Pine. Moab.
May 3 — Inboard Colorado River May 29-30—Spanish Fiesta, Mor- May 9—Re-enactment of Golden
Regatta, Parker. ongo Valley. Spike Ceremony, Promontory;
May 4-24—Independent Sculpture dedication of Railroad Museum,
NEVADA Corinne.
Show, Art Center, Tucson. May 11-16 — American Legion
May 9-17 — Valley Home Show, May 7—Community Music Festi-
State Fairgrounds, Phoenix. val, Sparks. Carnival, Vernal.
May 26 — Arizona State College May 15-17—Helldorado Days and May 15-16 — 44th Annual Black
Rodeo, Flagstaff. Rodeo, Las Vegas. and White Days, Richmond.
May 29-31—Second Annual Five May 16 —4th Annual Horseshoe
CALIFORNIA State Sports Car Jamboree and Tourney, Utah State Prison,
May 2-3 — 14th Annual National Rally, Humboldt. Draper.
Turtle Races, Joshua Tree. May 29-31—Nevada State Rodeo, May 16-17 — 196-mile Trial Run,
May 8-10—• Grubstake Days and Winnemucca. Canyon Country River Mara-
Parade, Yucca Valley. May 31—Homecoming Day, Cali- thon, Green River to Moab.
May 9-10 — Sierra Club Desert ente. May 22-23—Sanpete Rambouillet
Peaks Section climb of Mt. Days, stock judging and show,
Keynot near Lone Pine. NEW MEXICO Ephraim.
May 9-10, 30-31—Sierra Club rock May 1—Fiesta and Spring Corn May 30—Homecoming, Beaver.
climb of Tahquitz Rock, near Dance, San Felipe Pueblo. May 30 •— Annual Boat Regatta
Idyllwild. May 3—Corn Dance, Taos Pueblo. on Utah Lake, Provo.

Mining company office and boarding house in Cortez
—even the broken head of a tiny Dresden doll, its cheeks recently was torn down to salvage building materials.
still glowing apple-blossom pink, its painted hair shining
jet. With man almost as transitory as the desert wind, it
seems strange that some of his lesser works should be so and charcoal burners. They worked 200 head of horses
enduring. and pack mules. It's hard to imagine the amount of work
that has been done here. This whole mountain is honey-
From the millsite we climbed a steep rock grade to combed with tunnels, stopes and inclines—35 miles of
No. 1 Tunnel. Near its portal stood a few wooden buildings them, altogether. The Polar tunnel alone cost $350,000."
including the old machine shop, blacksmith shop and We took a side road to the cemetery. When I remarked
boarding house. We continued afoot along the canyonside that it was unusually clean and well-kept for a ghost town
to a small cluster of crude tumbled-down rock-faced dug- graveyard, my companion admitted that he and Louis
outs. Here was where Wenban's Chinese miners had lived. Rossi had "sorta fixed it up" the previous spring.
Searching the sorry hovels we found pieces of broken
dishes and scraps of other materials of Asian origin. Tribute to Pioneers
"This was only a small suburb," said Lloyd. "The main "We grubbed out the sagebrush and bunch grass,
part of Chinatown is buried under 75,000 tons of mill straightened some of the markers and did some cementing.
tailings . . ." Then, on Memorial Day, quite a few families came to
The great mass of mill residue sprawls over the desert decorate the graves of their people, and the place looked
like a lazy yellow cat asleep on a rug. Beyond the tailings real nice . . . but it ought to be fenced. If I could get the
I could see the upper end of Grass Valley—long, wide and county or someone to buy the wire, I'd donate the juniper
empty. Beyond the valley looms the canyon-laced breast posts—and I'd help put the fence in, too . . ."
of the high Toiyabes. In all this vast portion of the world Lloyd and I had supper together that evening. After-
open to our view I could not glimpse one plume of curling ward, he got out his old guitar and sang and played a few
smoke, one moving vehicle. songs, and we talked a while longer; then I said I'd have
to be leaving.
Much Activity
As I started down the dusty trail, I looked back to see
"Wish I could have seen this camp in Wenban's day," my ghost town friend standing in the open doorway, the
Lloyd was saying. "From what old-timers tell me it was yellow lamplight spilling over him and across the yard.
a busy place. Besides big crews employed in mining and Except for the groping headlights of my car and the wink-
milling, the folks here made all their own brick from a ing stars in the dark sky, that friendly glow from Lloyd's
clay deposit about seven miles southwest of here. You cabin door was the only gleam of light I could see in
saw where they made their lime. The marsh supplied salt, Cortez, and from the top of Mt. Tenabo to the highest
and all the hills for miles around were full of woodcutters summits of the sleeping Toiyabes.—END

MAY, 1959 13
sale), thai handsome yellow-gray
sickle - beaked yellow - eyed bird so
much wed to the mesquite tangles.
Here, too, we heard and saw the large
cinnamon-brown Abert towhee (Pip-
ilo aberti), equally given to frequent-
ing and nesting in the mesquite coun-
I explained to my young compan-
ions that while the birds we saw were
confined to southwestern United States
and northwestern Mexico, the mes-
quite trees in which they oftentimes
live are widely spread in semi-tropical
and tropical areas from extreme south-
ern Utah and Kansas to the West
Indies, Chile and Argentina, the Phil-
ippines and Hawaii.
Our honey mesquite (Prosopes juli-
jlora) is a very tough drouth-resistant
tree. Water it always needs, and it
does not hesitate to go far to get it—
even 50 to 60 feet down when neces-
sary. Under severe desert conditions
such as those found at Death Valley,
mesquite may be a low shrub, only
three to eight, or at most 10 feet tall;
but where water is more plentiful, it
may be a very sizable tree attaining a
height of 50 to 60 feet. Such giant
mesquites, generally of quite upright
form, are prominent in fields and

THE along streams of the west coast of

When mesquite inhabits areas of
light powdery clays or sands, it often
collects great quantities of wind-blown
soil in its crabbed branches. As the

DESERT sand or clay builds higher and higher,

the branches sprout upward ahead of
it to enjoy the friendly sun, and in
time isolated rounded hillocks are
formed. Sometimes these knolls are

of large size, 10 to 15 feet high and
15 to 25 feet across. They are pic-
turesque and characteristic features of
desert plains.
One of the most remarkable things
about the mesquite tree is the enor-

TREE mous development of its root system.

The roots not only have an unusually
great spread and length, they get very
large, often in inverse proportion to
the tree parts above ground. This is
especially true of mesquites develop-
ing in dunes. It was once an old say-
ing among desert folks that if you
wanted a lot of good sizable wood
from a mesquite, you had to mine for
it underground.
By EDMUND C. JAEGER, D.Sc. Behind the tree's often thorny ex-
Curator of Plants terior is a kindly heart which has
Riverside Municipal Museum proven a godsend in many an arid
land by giving shade, shelter and food
EARLY April and three for the two high school lads I had for birds and mammals. Its green
of us hied ourselves away from with me, and they were all ears and leaves often are the chief source of
town cares to the mesquite and eyes to hear, see and learn all about fodder for hungry cattle and horses,
ironwood thickets of the big entering the new things around them. and its pendent clusters of long cylin-
washes and bordering lowlands of the We heard the charming, sweet and drical beans have furnished additional
lower Colorado River. spirited morning and evening songs of food. From ancient times mesquite
It was the first visit to the desert the crissal thrasher (Toxostoma dor- has ranked with the prickly pear as

the most dependable source of food bird aristocrat, the phainopepla, is another crop of blossoms are pro-
for Indians and, more recently, the much dependent on the mesquite, for duced in early winter, giving a good
poorer classes of Mexico. Even in on this plant grows the great clusters harvest of ripe beans in June or July.
the drier years there are abundant of leafless mistletoe whose pink pearly The seed vessels, hanging like so
blossoms and fruit, and thus the tree berries supply the bird with one of many four-to-eight-inch-long string
is an unusual hedge against starvation its chief foods The phainopepla is beans in bunches of two to eight,
when other foods are inadequate or largely responsible for the spread of often are so plentiful they are more
fail altogether. the semi-parasitic mistletoe. The mis- conspicuous than the tree that bears
The mesquite is important to num- tletoe seeds pass through the bird's them. At first they are green in color,
erous insects. A great host of solitary digestive tract and are deposited on but turn at maturity to a lovely tan.
wild bees as well as the social honey other trees in places favorable for The ripe beans are high in grape-
bees take nectar from the flowers. germination and growth. sugar content (up to 25 percent); the
Mesquite honey is of unusually fine Honey mesquite loses its leaves with protein likewise is considerable. The
quality and flavor, and the amount the onset of frost. But when spring sugar is found mostly in the spongy
produced is very large. During the pulp in which the hard seeds are em-
night uncountable moths hover over bedded; the protein mostly in the seeds
the sweet catkins of flowers, and, in themselves. I often have seen Cahuilla
turn, come numerous bats to greedily The mesquite, with its widely
Indian women grind the dry beans in
feed upon the moths. spreading roots and branches, a deep half-buried mortar of mesquite
During the two nights the lads and its nutritious foliage, its nectar- wood. After the husks and hard seeds
I camped in our Colorado River mes- bearing flowers and nourishing were removed, there remained a flour
quite thicket, we were kept awake by fruit, provides a whole series of which, boiled in water, made a thick
the wood rats (Neotoma) which ran interesting and beneficial rela- paste. From this a cake was made
hither and yon over the crooked and either dried in the sun or baked.
branches, and with chittering of teeth tionships with others of the Sometimes the Indians soaked the
gnawed off twigs to take to their natural world—including man. flour in water to make atole, a gruel-
nests on the ground below. A Che- like sweet drink. If the infusion was
mehuevi Indian boy we met said that allowed to ferment it resulted in an
in summer he is always afraid to days come, the barren thorny twigs intoxicating drink of considerable al-
wander among the mesquite bushes put forth new lacy leaves of liveliest coholic content.
because big rattlesnakes are so often green, hardly less beautiful than the The Mohave Indians also crushed
found there, doubtlessly attracted by pendent catkins of sweet - smelling the beans with a long stone pestle in
the rodent food supply. flowers which soon follow. This is the a wooden mortar. The hard seeds,
We found plenty of evidence that time when grazing animals most eager- when sorted out, were swallowed whole
coyotes are fond of mesquite beans. ly feed upon mesquite. along with the moistened flour, leav-
Frequently their droppings were large- The catkins of creamy yellow flow- ing the tough Indian stomach to digest
ly made up of undigested dried husks ers appear from April to June, and them as best it could. Large jar-
and hard seeds. the beans mature in September and shaped cakes were made from the
Indirectly, that trim-feathered black October. Occasionally in warm areas flour. After baking, they were so hard

MAY, 1959 15

they had to be cracked with a stone. the older trees forming heavy stands much grass and trees that grow the
First mention of the mesquite was must be killed by chemical spray or screw" — the screw bean mesquite
made by Cabeza de Vaca, the first by having drug over them big anchor (Prosopis pubescens). He doubtlessly
white man to cross the American con- chains (300 to 500 feet long, with had seen this small tree a number of
tinent (1527-1536). He came in con- links which weigh up to 30 pounds times before on his travels because,
tact with friendly Indians in the south apiece) strung between two tractors while not as plentiful as its big brother,
of Texas, at a place somewhat distant working parallel to one another. The the honey mesquite, the screw bean
from the Gulf of Mexico. In his jour- chain is pulled once forward, once mesquite does grow in many places
nal he wrote: backward over the area — literally from the Rio Grande to California
"We went (with them) to their pulling the trees out by the roots. and southward into northern Mexico.
homes and were very well received. The wood, when dry, is gathered in Its bean, peculiarly coiled into a
They brought us their children to piles and burned. tight and handsome little cylinder
touch and gave us much mezquite- In rough rocky country dense one to one and one-half inches long,
meal. This mesquiquez is a fruit stands of mesquite often are eradi- suggested to the Spaniards the name,
which, while on the tree, is tomillo ("little screw").
very bitter and like the carob In places of continually
bean. It is eaten with earth moist soils, such as the bot-
and then becomes sweet and tom lands along streams, the
very palatable. The way they screw bean mesquite may
prepare it is to dig a hole in grow an upright trunk three
the ground of the depth it to 10 inches through and up
suits them, and after the fruit to 25 feet high. There is a
is put in that hole, with a strong tendency for the trunk
piece of wood the thickness to be quite straight, and this
of a leg and one and one-half has made it possible to use
fathoms long, they pound it the wood for roof beams and
to a meal, and to the earth uprights in the building of
that mixes with it in the hole, shelters.
they add several handfuls, and On the bottom lands of the
pound again for a while. After Moiave River near old Camp
that they empty it into a ves- Cady there were several old
sel, like a small round basket, cabins the pioneers had con-
and pour in enough water to structed from screw bean logs.
cover it fully, so that there is These shelters were surprising-
water on top. Then the man ly well preserved.
who has done the pounding The brownish-barked nar-
tastes it, and if it appears to row-crowned screw bean usu-
him not sweet enough he calls ally grows in dense thickets.
for more earth to add, and Due to a covering of felty
this he does until it suits his hairs on the young branches
taste. Then all squat around and the stout almost-white
and each takes as much as he stipular spines, the upper
can. Those who take part in parts of the trees have an ash-
the banquet, which is for them gray appearance.
a great occasion, get very big
bellies from the earth and Like the beans of the honey
water they swallow." mesquite, the peculiar screw
beans hang in bunches. They
About 70,000,000 acres in have a high sugar content,
the Southwest are now occu- and the flour made from them
pied by mesquite thickets— is boiled down to make a mo-
almost double the area cov- lasses of sorts. When using
ered only half a century ago. the beans for food, the Indi-
This phenomenal spread, in ans ground the whole pod,
spite of many years of drouth, Components of mesquite (left) and screw bean. weevil-infested seeds and all.
is mostly due to wandering Cakes were made from the
cattle which eagerly eat the mesquite cated by spraying poisons from the flour, and a beverage from the meal
beans even when other food is avail- air. In Texas the controlling of mes- soaked in water.
able. Up to 80 percent of the hard- quite is a big, expensive and continu- The leaves, consisting of from five
coated seeds pass unharmed through ous project. to eight pairs of leaflets, are too small
the animals' bodies, ready to germin- When Friar Francisco Garces came to be of much forage value, but cat-
ate where they fall. The seeds remain to the flow of water in the lower Mo- tle, horses and donkeys readily pick
viable a long time. Germination has jave River (Cave Canyon) in 1766, off the clusters of brown beans or eat
been reported after 44 years! As mes- he found a place "where it has cotton- those that have fallen to the ground.
quite spreads along the cattle trails it wood, much grass and lagunas." The wood is very satisfactory camp-
crowds out the perennial grasses so
Next day Garces journeyed to an fire fuel, and stripped of its bark to
much valued as forage by the stock-
Indian village of about 25 souls. Find- discourage boring beetle larvae, makes
men. Once established, mesquite is
ing the naked wretches had nothing good fence posts.
hard to eradicate.
to eat but roots of rushes, he gave The screw bean was first described
Mesquite control in cattle country, of his meager stores and they, in turn, in botanical literature by Thomas
especially in Texas, is a real problem. offered their roots of tules. Here, he Coulter, the Irish botanist for whom
Young plants can be grubbed out, but wrote, "grows wild grape, there is the Coulter pine is named.—END

, •>. i

First Lady
of Santa Clara

7 HE FIRST time I saw Gregorita

Chavarria she was grinding corn
on a stone metate, as the
women in her family have done for
a thousand years. The second time I
saw her she was a guest at a D.A.R.
convention where her husband, Gov-
ernor Juan Chavarria of Santa Clara
Pueblo, was a speaker. After having
been five times first lady of her pueblo,
Mrs. Chavarria is accustomed to a
great variety of experiences, both
modern and traditional. While she
has worked enthusiastically with her
husband to bring electricity, telephones
and television to Santa Clara she also
is working to help preserve the culture
of her people, for like all pueblo vil-
lagers, she is justly proud of her
The Indians who live in Santa Clara,
just west of busy Highway 285 in
northern New Mexico, trace their an-
cestral home to the cliff dwelling at
Puye, 12 miles west of the present
settlement. When Coronado rode into ilii S f e 7 - ...
the Southwest in 1540, Puye was in
its heyday. Recent excavations of the m.-. £
cliff houses and surface ruins give evi- Gregorita Chavarria of Santa Clara Pueblo is an expert potter.
dence of a highly developed civiliza-
tion. Twelfth Night, or as they call it, "The —the telephone summons her husband
Day of the Three Kings," as their day to cope with community problems
By the time the Spaniard, Don of inauguration, and since then their
Juan de Onate, moved northward in more often at two in the morning than
dances and inaugural ceremonies have at two in the afternoon.
1598, the Puye people had moved to taken place on January 6. A silver-
their present site on the banks of the headed cane was given to each pueblo A first lady's schedule is almost as
Rio Grande. Their village, K'hapoo governor as a symbol of his commis- crowded as a governor's. After Mrs.
"where the water grows under," is sion and authority. Chavarria has given a kitchen shower
one of the first pueblos to be men- in the morning for a Santa Clara girl
tioned after the Spanish occupation. New Canes who is marrying a boy from a nearby
A Franciscan missionary was assigned When Mexico won her independ- pueblo, she may find herself teaching
to K'hapoo in September, 1598, and ence from Spain, new canes with silver her weekly catechism class at the Day
in a quarter of a century a church had heads were presented to the villages. School in the afternoon, and appear-
been built and the village name President Lincoln honored the peace- ing on television in the evening to
changed to Santa Clara. loving Pueblo Indians with 19 ebony help promote the Puye Ceremonials.
Inauguration Day canes with silver heads inscribed with Festivities
The same year that the Mayflower each pueblo name and "1863 —• A.
Lincoln, Pres. U.S.A." The first Ceremonial was held in
touched an eastern shore, the King 1957—after 400 years the Santa Clara
of Spain issued a Royal Decree re- Five times Juan Chavarria has ac- people returned to their ancestral
quiring each pueblo to choose a gov- cepted the responsibility that goes with home to have dances and traditional
ernor, lieutenant governor and other the canes, and five times Gregorita ceremonies. I was one of the hun-
officials at the end of the calendar has been first lady. It is an honor that dreds of visitors who drove up the
year, and to have an inauguration and she accepts graciously, though she oc- winding road to the beautiful mesa
other ceremonies during the first week casionally complains that the govern- in the heart of the Jemez Mountains
of the new year. The Indians accepted or's constituents have no sense of time to see the dances and look at displays
MAY, 1959
To Gregorita Chavarria, wife of a Santa Clara Pueblo
leader, life is an interesting combination of the modern
world of today, and yesterday's ancient, traditional ways.

of the famous black Santa Clara pot- varria decided to "make a little feast."
tery. Mrs. Chavarria, herself a prize- For this party she baked traditional
winning pottery-maker, was busy all pueblo bread in an outdoor oven, and
morning at a pottery booth. In the made the green chili for which she is
afternoon she helped her daughters locally famous. Fifty pounds of flour
Philomena and Melinda get into their and four pounds of lard were used
dance costumes. This year the colorful for the bread. It is not at all unusual
Puye event takes place on August 15- for the first lady to bake dozens of
We welcome your contributions to this
16. loaves of bread in her outdoor oven column. For recipes accepted for publi-
For his outstanding work in organ- every week. She showed me how the cation, we will pay $2. Please limit to
izing the Ceremonials, the Espanola oven is preheated with hot coals and Mexican, barbecue or camp-out dishes.
Send recipes and return postage to Recipes,
Valley Chamber of Commerce voted then tested with corn husks. If the Desert Magazine, Palm Desert, California.
Governor Chavarria the Man of the corn husks scorch, the oven is too
Year in 1957. To entertain the Cham- hot and must be cooled with wet cloths. STUFFED MEXICAN STEAK
ber officers and their wives, Mrs. Cha- Last year when Philomena was a 1 V-i. pounds flank steak
senior at Haskell College in Kansas, Salt and pepper to taste
A pueblo woman places bread her mother sent a loaf of bread each 3 tablespoons margarine,
in an earthen outdoor oven. week by air express. Now Richard, butter or shortening
who is studying in Chicago, Melinda, Chili stuffing (see below)
in college in Indiana, and Pedro, Score meat on both sides.
working in Albuquerque, must all Spread chili stuffing on steak
have home-baked bread. Tony, in (to avoid messy appearance,
Formosa with the Navy, is too far do not spread to sides). Roll
away for economical bread delivery. up steak as you would a jelly
The younger boys, enrolled at St. roll. Tie, then sprinkle with
Catherine's in Santa Fe, must come salt and pepper. Melt shorten-
home for mother's bread. ing in roasting pan. Brown
The Chavarrias traditionally make steak. Add enough water to
a feast at Thanksgiving, and last year keep it from sticking, and sim-
I was invited. The turkey was superb, mer for 2 hours, replenishing
and I ate far too much cranberry water when necessary (first 1V2
sauce, as I always do, but it was the hours with cover; last V2 hour
green chili that I just couldn't resist. or until well browned, uncov-
Later, while helping the first lady wash ered).
the dishes, she gave me this recipe.
When Mrs. Chavarria makes green CHILI STUFFING
chili for the family, she uses one-and-a- 2 cups bread crumbs
half pounds of ground beef. As the 2 tablespoons melted
beef is browning,, she adds one chop- margarine or butter
ped onion and enough water to cover 1 tablespoon chili powder
the meat. To this she adds two small 2 chopped green peppers
containers of frozen green chili. The 1 chopped onion
secret of good chili, she assures me, V2. teaspoon salt
is to let it simmer very slowly for at pepper to taste
least an hour-and-a-half. This family- 1 cup tomatoes or tomato
size recipe will serve six or eight per- sauce
sons. Stir melted margarine or but-
Santa Clara's first lady is especially •ter into bread crumbs; mix in
well known for the handsome pottery other ingredients.—John Martin,
lamps she designs and makes. Recent- Santa Fe.
ly she and her husband were invited
to become one of the attractions at
Disneyland. Mrs. Chavarria was told
that she would become world famous
as a potter if she made the California
move. But, the Chavarrias decided
against it.
"We'd rather stay at the pueblo
with our people," Gregorita said with
a twinkle in her bright eyes. "Be-
sides," she added, "I don't care about
being world-famous—I just want to
make good pottery."—END

An Army wife leaves the comforts of the East
to join her husband in a dusty border town
during the Villa Punitive Campaign—and gains
new perspective of the world—and of herself.

Memories of Broad Horizons By SUSAN WILSHIRE JORDAN

• •

THAT fateful night in March, 1916, when Jimmy had the use of army showers, and I adapted
Pancho Villa made his infamous raid on Colum- myself to a large galvanized tub. A "Please Do Not
bus, New Mexico, I had never heard of that mere Disturb" card went on the door when the tub was in
dot on the map. use; otherwise, it was hidden under the bed.
At that time my husband, Jimmy, was a Captain of To the east were the hastily built army headquarters
Infantry. I was too new in the army to accept with shacks, but to the west the desert stretched to the distant
fortitude the order that was to take him into Mexico mountains where the peaks of the Tres Hermanas (Three
on the futile punitive expedition to capture. Villa. It Sisters) rose in high splendor. Those Sisters became
was our first separation. real companions, sharing their moods and their colorful
After five months, which I spent with my parents, change of costumes with me—rosy pink in the morning,
Jimmy was returned to Columbus. He wrote that Co- drab gray by day, velvety blue, purple and crimson at
lumbus was an ugly dusty whistle-stop on the desert; twilight.
that wives were not encouraged to come—there being We army wives never lacked for entertainment. We
no adequate quarters—but that he had found a room got together to watch the morning train steam into the
over a feed and grain store—just in case . . . mustard colored station with the ever-welcome mail; we
I took the first train. I knew nothing of the desert, watched the trucks weave away in long caravans carry-
and less about roughing it; I was city bred. We had ing the provisions, mail, news, clothing and ammunition
recently left the beautiful colonial quarters of Washing- for the troops of the punitive expedition.
ton Barracks, where lawns reached to the Potomac, and There were a few little shops, one or two hash
where the social life was gay, but formal—dances at the houses, a movie theatre that occasionally tempted us
White House, full dress uniforms, clanking swords and with its flickering films. Later a hotel was built.
impressive parades. But, the great and ever-changing attraction was the
Jimmy met me in El Paso, and soon we were bump- desert itself-—it gave me the odd elation of being a new
ing over dirt roads that twisted in and out among person, as if some inhibited streak in my nature had been
shrubbery that drooped in the heat. The few shacks we released. At first I thought it was the joy of being with
passed seemed forlorn and lonely; the air was grimy Jimmy that colored my contentment, but it was some-
with dust. thing more than that. Sophistication, I realized, was a
"It's a far cry from Washington," said Jimmy sym- veneer covering emotions that added flavor to every
pathetically. unexpected happening.
"Yes," I nodded, but as I looked across the vast Picnics in the Las Floritas Mountains were a delight.
sweep of land that stretched to the distant hills I was In the sheltered canyons dwarf lupines and wild blue
pleasurably aware of space. All my life I had been penstemons nestled among the rocks. The long walks
boxed in by buildings, Jimmy and I took in the cool of the afternoons were
"I feel as if I had escaped into a boundless world," exciting. In the desert, heady with the scent of sage,
I said. cottontails scampered before us, lizards scurried for the
Jimmy smiled. "Wait until you reach the room over protection of the brush, horned toads watched us through
the feed and grain store," he said. half-opened eyes, and meadowlarks saluted with their
. "Is it awful?" secret calls.
"Pretty drab." The hardships of the soldiers in Mexico made us all
It was a dreary room. Even under my new spell of the more appreciative of our every blessing—the tranquil
enchantment, I found it musty and bare. lazy days, with time to read, time to write, time to under-
The commanding officer and his wife brought warmth stand better the contrasts of Nature—a more willing
to our first evening by asking us to dinner. They were acceptance of the bitter with the sweet.
living in a house that had been a grocery store before When orders came for Jimmy to return to Mexico,
the raid. Its flat front was pocked with bullet holes left I needed all the strength I had absorbed. But mingled
by Villa's soldiers. But, the major's wife had brought now with my heartache was a new philosophy, a new
to it a charm, a hospitality and the easy adjustment to understanding of the vast desert he was going into. I
army life that made me return to our humble room glad, knew his dull moments would be colored by the sunsets,
at least, for its shelter. the torpid days freshened by unexpected rains, the weary
Luckily we did not have to stay there long. After evenings soothed by the cadence of crickets singing in the
two weeks, Jimmy secured a large 16x16 army tent; a night, his hardships accepted willingly because of duties
real luxury! Our new home stood well away from the fulfilled.
camp on a sandy stretch of desert filled with low mes- It was I who was leaving the desert to return to
quite. It had a wooden floor and wainscotting, with side narrowed horizons. But I knew, too, that I had found
flaps that could be lowered against the rain. Crates were a sanctuary into which I could escape—not only into
fashioned into dressers, rugs made in Mexico covered the desert, but into realms within myself. I knew also
the floor, chintz and odds and ends were gathered from that my own lonely days would be gladdened by the
here and there to give the tent a gala air. memories of a never-to-be-forgotten idyl.—END

MAY, 1959 19
pieces: heat, cold, oxidation, hydration and solution by
both water and acid. Also, there are the strictly mechanical
agents—the whetting away of boulders by wind-blown
sand or the slow grinding of sliding fault walls which smear
the hardest rock into powder.
But, the most important force by far is the work of
plants. Living or dead, plants are the chief soil makers.
Old Landmarks
That plants actually digest rocks is one of those stag-
gering facts most folks take in their mental stride without
investigating the fine points. Once in a long time your
morning paper may devote a nostalgic column or two about
some old landmark which is being sabotaged by the swell-
ing roots of an old tree or the clinging fingers of a rampant
vine. Such cases are like smoke pouring from a factory
smokestack—nuisance phases of necessary work going on
Any plant may be active in this work of weathering,
"I don't know of a single natural thing but lichens—those extraordinary duplex partnerships of
which, if you just become conscious of it, is fungus and alga living together like a single individual—
not fascinating." actually "eat" rocks.
The tremendously effective agent the plants bring into
action for this work is the same stuff that puts snap into
This was Jerry Laudermilk's creed. Author of effervescent drinks—carbonic acid—a solution of carbon
over 30 feature stories for Desert Magazine be- dioxide in water. Just how this solvent is secreted by plants,
tween 1940 and his death in 1956, Laudermilk's and how it works in this world-wide chemical reaction, are
ability to humanize, dramatize and make popular subjects tied up with the natures of both plants and rocks
and understandable scientific aspects of the nat- themselves.
ural—and particularly the desert—world was the Consider the plant side of the problem first: The flora
rare quality that set him apart from most other that get in the most telling strokes are the so-called higher
scientists who attempt to write for the lay reader. plants (grass, shrubs and trees) that make their own food
The previously unpublished Laudermilk feature materials directly from the raw stuff: water and carbon
on these pages is a case in point. dioxide (from the exhaled breath of animals and other
Root Hairs
To live, plants also must have certain mineral salts,
and before these can be absorbed they must be dissolved
out of the rocks. This is the work of specialized plant cells,
the root hairs. These cells constantly secrete carbon di-
Lichens busy helping to weather a granite boulder. oxide which dissolves in the soil-water and attacks the
rock particles to free compounds of potash, lime, magne-
sium and other mineral substances plants demand.
The second way plants build up the acid content of the

GREEN CONQUEST soil-water is by decay of their dead tissues. Decomposi-

tion bacteria require previously elaborated compounds of
once-living tissue as food-stuff. These are broken down
into simpler substances by the action of the extremely

how plants eat tocks potent enzymes secreted by the living bacteria. As a by-
product of the decay reactions—which must take place in
a liberal supply of oxygen—carbon dioxide is produced in
abundance. So, however you look at the proposition,
By JERRY LAUDERMILK plants, live ones or dead ones, are tremendously important
sources of acid for rock erosion.
j^JN ALL SIDES and underfoot, night and day, summer Now for the rock side of the reaction: Rocks are more
\S and winter, Nature carries on one of the most im- or less massive associations of mineral crystals or particles.
portant transformations that takes place on the face Sometimes they are extremely hard (granite, basalt) or
of the earth. This is the never-finished job of rock disinte- very soft (shale, chalk). Minerals themselves are chemi-
gration wherein the hardest stone is gradually broken down cal compounds.
to gravel, sand and, finally, soil. Raw Materials
For the most part, although tremendous forces are In the earth's crust, the two most abundant raw ma-
active, these changes are subtle and the work goes on in terials are oxygen and silicon. Wedded chemically in
silence. Dramatic changes in Nature's scene-shifting, such proportions of one atom of silicon to two of oxygen the
as the roar of a landslide or the sullen rumble of boulders product is some form of the exceedingly common mineral,
in a flash-flood, are rare. Any sound that does accompany quartz.
the orderly work is apt to be on a small scale: the rattle
of pebbles in a pint-sized avalanche trickling down a Vast amounts of pure quartz occur, but more is locked
sandbank; the furtive tinkle as a chip, weathered from an up chemically as silica in the many silicate minerals. Of
these the most common is feldspar, a compound of silicon,
outcrop, drops to the ground. oxygen and an alkali such as soda or potash, or sometimes
There are many forces that help break the rocks to an alkaline earth such as lime.

Granite, an aggregate of intergrown quartz and feld- there is much food-waste of the animal population. This
spar crystals, is the most abundant rock in the earth's material accumulates during the dry season, and by the
crust. Dig deeply enough anywhere and you eventually time rain sets in it has been reduced to powder and blown
will come to granite. Pure quartz from granite or any about until well mixed with the top soil.
other source resists weathering completely, although asso- It is difficult to imagine the earth without the soil
ciated minerals may be vigorously attacked. This some- mantle that supports the multitude of plant species that
times produces remarkable effects. On some of the moun- cover it today. But for millions of years, long after life
tain rockslides in Southern California, lichens have dis- in the seas had evolved to extremely complex types, the
solved the feldspar crystals from rock surfaces, but the highest plants were the marine algae. The land was a
quartz is untouched. Cobbles and boulders have acquired bleak waste of badlands where the only form of rock
"suede" finish which glitters in the sunlight like frost. breakage was from volcanic action, the chemical weather-
So, alone quartz is durable, but when it has combined ing of sulphides by hot water, and mechanical forces:
with other elements to make a silicate mineral, it's a differ- floods, the shifting of fault blocks and the pounding of the
ent story. Once its chemical partner deserts it, as when surf.
the alkali of a feldspar departs to become an alkaline Toward the beginning of the Devonian period, possibly
carbonate, the silica that remains behind can be dissolved 300,000,000 years ago, certain simply constructed plants,
by more concentrated alkaline carbonate solutions, some- small things as plain in outward appearance as an onion
times from the very feldspar that has turned traitor against shoot and less than eight inches high, crept warily out of
the parent rock mass. the sea and began their adventures at the high tide mark,
Action of Yucca as if they hardly dared lose sight of their ancestral home.
These were the plants known as hornea and rhynia. They
What takes place when a plant sets its root system showed characteristics that proved their alliance with the
firmly in an outcrop? I am reminded of a particular yucca marine algae, but they also had true wood fiber.
on the Mojave Desert which is flourishing on a pegmatite
rock mass. Pegmatite is a form of granite typified by With the life and death of such simple plants, soil
having a very coarse texture—always a disadvantage from formation began and within a short time, as geologic time
a rock's standpoint since the interfaces where crystals meet goes, earth began to put on her familiar green complexion,
act as seepways for water. announcing that whenever you see this color in leaf or
stem, Mother Nature and her staff are making soil.—END
A tremendous amount of weathering has taken place
in this outcrop since I first made its acquaintance 25 years
ago. The yucca was five years old on my last visit, and Lower slope of granitic exposure in last stages of
during its short lifetime, rock disintegration has been accel- decomposition. Author places tip of pick in re-
erated by chemical action and by the mechanical effect of sidual sand—remains of rock digested by plants.
roots forcing their way into cracks and joints. Adjoining
faces of cracked slabs show mats of fine rootlets embedded
in waxlike clay from decomposition of the feldspar by root
acid (carbonic acid). Nearby, old roots have probed 22
feet deep, and can be dug out of joints filled with the same
waxy clay.
When granite weathers, not all the feldspar decomposes
at once or in the same place. The finest soil in arid or
semi-arid regions shows feldspar grains which are kaolin-
ized on their surfaces but sound inside. This is an im-
portant factor in agriculture. Some crops consume potash
and other salts faster than their acids can dissolve it out
of the soil particles, and the land becomes exhausted. If
it is let to "run to weeds" for a few years, it will renew
itself because while cultivated crops may not be able to
make a go of it on poor soil, this doesn't apply to tough
plants like pigweed, spurge, tumbleweed, purslane and
others that even grow on hardpan or among stones. Their
roots get to work at once, and after they go to seed and
die they are still on the job turning out carbon dioxide.
Lichens and bacteria are also tremendously important in
this work of soil renewal, and after a time a new supply
of potash is dissolved out of the unkaolinized part of the
feldspar grains.
The Work of Lichens
A striking effect of plant life in the desert frequently
results when lichens grow on rocks containing iron and
manganese. Lichens are tough plants, and when dry
weather sets in they survive by practically closing up shop
and taking things easy until better times. With the coming
of rain they set to work with enthusiasm and dissolve out
much iron and manganese as carbonates. These are de-
posited as oxides around the lichen colonies and eventu-
ally spread to neighboring rocks of all types which become
coated with a glossy black lacquer called desert varnish.
Most folks would be surprised at the abundant organic
material in the desert soil. Besides remains of dead plants,

MAY, 1959
Map by Margo Gerke

HAVE A greater desire to find ing uproarious ballads he had learned

Ramy's mine than to exploit as a Legionnaire.
it," Alfred Giraud said. "It has The second stake went the way of
been a fascinating challenge, and over the first, and unable to obtain another
the years I have been gathering my promising lease, Ramy worked as a
evidence. I'm ready now" day-wage miner. His restless spirit
Alfred, an old sheepman who lives could not adapt to such routine life,
on his ranch near Bishop, California, and, like others before him who had
pointed to a 200-gallon mobile water tasted of fortunes taken from the earth,
tank—water will have to be hauled he turned prospector and headed into
nearly 40 miles for this lost mine the vast unexplored desert.
search which centers in the Saline After many winters of resolute but
Valley, an arid 25-mile-long trough futile search for "the big one," Ramy
separated from Death Valley to the succumbed to the lure of the arid lands
east by the Panamint Range. and became a typical "desert rat." He
The story begins over a century roamed the Death Valley country for
ago in the Maritime Alps of France years. In the course of these wander-
where one of Alfred's countrymen, ings he became acquainted with and
Alec Ramy, spent his boyhood herd- well-liked by many of the Indians
ing sheep. When Ramy grew to man- living in the region. Often he camped
hood, he joined the French Foreign with them. His boisterous songs were
Legion and served on the Algerian welcome around the lonely campfires.
frontier at Fort Sidi-bel-Abbes. Here In the fall of 1904, while on an
he became tough and seasoned in the extended prospecting foray into the
ways of the desert. broken land around the southern tip
Immigrant of the Last Chance Range, Ramy
When Ramy's enlistment was over, made a dry camp. The country looked
he migrated to America, lured by the good, so he lingered longer than he
newly-discovered bonanzas of Nevada. normally would have. Short of water,
The ex-Legionnaire found a life to his he rationed it to his pack burros, and
liking in booming Virginia City. Here one night the thirsty animals broke
was the kind of excitement his viva- their hobbles. When it was light
cious nature craved; but Ramy was enough to see, Ramy tracked, the ani-
Sheepman Alfred Giraud of Bishop, ambitious, and he did not let pleasure mals to the edge of vast forbidding
California, has gathered what he interfere with work. He labored hard Saline Valley. The burros were head-
believes is conclusive evidence that at mining, and soon became an expert. ing directly across the salt-encrusted
Alec Ramy's lost gold ledge exists. After a year in Nevada, he obtained flatlands to the base of the distant
a lease on an off-shoot of the Corn- Inyo Mountains.
stock Lode. Ramy took $30,000 out Heads for Water ,;
Alec Ramy was not bitter. of his mine in a few weeks. Ramy knew he had little chance of
He had found—and then Being a man of wealth was a new overtaking the animals. He appraised
experience for Ramy. The money— his situation. His original plan had
lost—a ledge of gold on a plus his gregarious and good-natured been to break camp that day and
nightmarish prospecting trek personality — soon attracted a horde move on to a place several miles south
of friends and hangers-on. They went along the foothills where water gath-
into the Death Valley country. through the $30,00.0 faster than it had ered in the sand tanks of & canyon
But, he escaped with his life. taken Ramy to dig it out of the ground. wash. Bothered by inflammatory rheu-
That was worth more than all Ramy returned to the mines with matism in his feet, he reasoned that
a vengeance. By blundering luck he it would be wisest not to try to make
the precious metal in the made another strike, and again it across Saline Valley, but to go to
world! He told his story to amassed a small fortune. This time the tanks.
he was a bit more conservative with He filled two canteens with water
a trusted friend, Alfred his money insofar as friends were con- from a supply reserved for the burros,
Giraud. Now—more than 50 cerned—he squandered most of it on and put a few provisions in a knap-
years later—Giraud plans to himself. Tales were told of Ramy, sack. The rest of the pack supplies
how during many a night of hilarity had to be abandoned.
search for the lost bonanza. he would dominate all entertainment When Ramy arrived at the tanks
at the saloons for hours on end, sing- late that afternoon, his feet were in
bad shape. He dug for water, but Ramy did not remember what hap- Mountains in an attempt to recover
without luck. The tanks were dry, for pened next. Soon after the merciless his pack animals.
no rain had fallen in the area for sun sank behind the Inyo Mountains The long walk across the alkali
months. to the west, a small band of Death plain again proved near-fatal for Ramy.
The old Legionnaire knew full well Valley Indians camped near the edge Alfred Giraud, then a young man
that he faced a desperate situation. of the Saline Valley heard a strange charged with the task of herding a
Every step now was torture, and to sound. At first they were frightened, flock of sheep in the mountains, found
strike out across the glaring void of believing that it was the voice of an the prospector and brought him into
Saline Valley would have been suicide. evil spirit come to haunt them. his camp.
Another Chance The voice grew louder and then Low Esteem
From the depths of his memory he began to fade. Evidently the spirit "In those days," Alfred told me,
recalled having seen a small amount was moving away, and for this the "sheepmen did not hold prospectors
of water seeping from beneath a large Indians were thankful. Two young in much esteem. These desert charac-
boulder in a wash to the south. bucks, Grapevine Duck and Caldmore ters were almost always broke, usually
Jack, were more curious than fright- dirty and ragged, and full of wild tales
That same afternoon he continued ened. The sound they heard had a about gold. Of course sheepherders
his southward trek, stopping to rest familiar ring. They recognized the often were dirty and ragged, too, but
only when it became too dark to pro- voice of Alec Ramy who often had we always had plenty to eat, a good
ceed with safety. With the first pre- sung at their winter camp near the bed to sleep on, and a fair wage wait-
dawn haze, he staggered on. The great bend of the Amargosa. ing when our work was done."
country was exceptionally rough, and Even after his countryman showed
at one point he stumbled over a pro- Rescued
him the rich gold samples from the
truding quartz ledge. Years of pros- Grapevine Duck and Caldmore Jack quartz ledge, Giraud was not inter-
pecting immediately told him that this ran to investigate. They found the ested in retracing Ramy's wandering
formation was of potential significance. deranged Ramy wandering about, bel- steps back to the strike. "Gold from
He quickly examined the ledge. It lowing his favorite ballad of the French the mint meant more to me than a
contained particles of gold plainly Foreign Legion. few specks of yellow in a rock."
visible to the naked eye. It was a The next thing Ramy remembered Besides, there were many other
bonanza! clearly was lying on cool sand while things to talk about: the joy of drink-
But, were the gods mocking him? an Indian girl applied wet bandages to ing water; warm food; home. The
His need was for water—not gold. his burning feet. The old prospector young sheepherder and the elderly
Stopping only long enough to break stayed with the tribesmen for nine prospector became fast friends. A
off a few samples of the ore, he hur- days, and when his feet were suffici- few years later they again met in
ried on as fast as his wounded feet ently healed, he struck out across the Owens Valley, and the bonds of friend-
would carry him. Saline Valley toward the distant Inyo ship grew stronger. Just before he

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MAY, 195 9 25
died, Ramy gave Giraud a piece of
rock taken from the quartz outcrop.
He also tried to fill in as: many blank
spaces in his story of discovery as
Time passed. Fifty years later, after While passing through Quartzsite, the author
Giraud had become a successful sheep
rancher, he became interested in min- recalls the story of how an unlucky
ing. Only then did he realize the prospector became a happy
value of the piece of ore Ramy had mine owner
given him. He dug it out of his musty
belongings and had it assayed. The By CLARE BOWMAN
sample was almost half gold—one of
the richest pieces of ore ever discov-
ered in Inyo County!
Search for Clues
O N A RECENT trip through
the Southwest, I found myself
looking eagerly forward to
seeing Quartzsite, Arizona, all be-
some gold off of it, but it petered
out. Then they started to sink an-
other hole. They went down about
five feet but they never hit nothing
Wherever Giraud went in the Inyo cause of a story an old desert rat so they give it up. Well, one day
country he tried to find additional had told me years before. Gus and Bill come out of a saloon
clues to Ramy's treasure. In the little " Y e p , " the old man had —there were 14 saloons there in
town of Isabella, in neighboring Kern mourned, "Quartzsite was a big them days—and they see old Shultz
County, he ran across an old Chilean town in them days. Now, man, standing on the boardwalk, looking
named Crisante Santavinas who had woman and dog, they ain't 50 folks down and out. They give him some
known Ramy. Santavinas was familiar there. Old Shultz is probably liv- money for grub and they figgered
with Ramy's discovery—he too had ing there yet, if he ain't dead. He as how they'd have some fun with
a piece of the ore. There was no was an old stiff. Be over 90 now." him and they said why didn't he
doubt about it—the sample came from The storyteller seemed to be go work that old hole they'd started.
the same ledge. looking far into the past as he gent- "Shultz went up there and started
Santavinas told his story: after ly twisted his Airedale's pointed digging right off. Folks thought it
Ramy's death, the Chilean spent sev- ears with gnarled fingers. "In the was a big joke. They figgered he'd
eral weeks attempting to locate the early days when they first started become kind of loony from having
strike from which the specimen had mining around Quartzsite, fellas so much tough luck, and they were
been broken. He was not successful, used to take a shovel, a pan and a all laughing up their sleeves at the
but did find placer gold in what he piece of canvas and go out after crazy old coot.
believed to be the immediate vicinity gold. They'd spread out the can-
of the ledge. vas and then, holding the pan up "Well sir, Shultz went down 18
The placer gold was rough in char- like this" — he demonstrated with feet and he hit it. It was sure pretty,
acter, indicating that it had originated an imaginary gold pan — "they'd just like a speckled hen — gold
close-by. He also found particles of shake out the gravel. Then, they'd specks all through that quartz."
quartz identical to the sample given pick up the nuggets that was big I felt a tingle of excitement and
him by Ramy. Santavinas said he enough to see easy. Gold was sell- exclaimed with delight, but the old
had been telling of finding rich placer ing for $18 an ounce then, and a man ignored me, intent on his story.
gold in the vicinity of the Ubehebe fella'd get about $10 worth 'fore "A couple of fellas from Los Ange-
Peak for years, but that no one seemed he called it a day." les heard about Shultz' strike, and
to believe him. He was convinced that I envisioned the nuggets, like they came out to see it.
if he were not too old and crippled, golden wads of chewed gum, scat- " 'Want to sell?' one of them
he could find Ramy's gold. tered throughout the gravel on the asks.
Questions Indians canvas. " 'Might,' Shultz answers.
"But, after the biggest nuggets " 'How much you want?'
Encouraged by Santavinas' firm
was gone, folks started dry wash- "'Hold on there,' Shultz says.
conviction that the mine existed, Gi-
ing," the old man went on. "There 'You can see down there as far as
raud made a trip into Death Valley.
wasn't much bigger'n a pinhead I can. What's it worth to you?'
He questioned every Indian he met.
when Shultz got there. He come " 'I'll give you $20,000.'
Had they known of a prospector
out from Germany when he was a " 'Is that cash money?'
named Ramy? Were they in that
young fella. He was a chemist and '"Yep. Cash!'
party that rescued the old Legionnaire?
tied in with some friends in New " 'Mister,' Shultz says, 'you just
At the old Indian Ranch in Death bought yourself a mine.' "
Valley he made an almost miraculous York for awhile, but he never did
discovery. An old woman there not like New York, and headed west." I thought that was the end of the
only remembered Ramy, she was the The old storyteller drew a long story, but the old man went on.
one who had cut the shoes from the breath and sat in abstracted silence, "Shultz played it foxy with that
old prospector's feet, and had taken and the Airedale, released from $20,000. He took off for Phoenix
care of him during his nine-day stay the caressing fingers, moved to the and put the money in government
at the camp near Saline Valley. Her shade of a bush and settled down bonds. When he came back, he had
name was Stina Duck, wife of Grape- for a nap. "Shultz, he dug here beans—and a ham bone, too."
vine Duck. and he dug there but never had no Quartzsite, today, may not be
Elated at the success of his search luck. He got so low he didn't even the bustling town the old man knew,
for information, Giraud returned to have enough for beans and, I guess, but neither has it become the ghost
his Bishop ranch and began making there were plenty times he was town he feared. And, with the
plans for a systematic search for hungry. lifeline of U.S. Highway 60-70
Ramy's lost bonanza. He is certain "Gus Peterson and Bill Freeman passing through it, there is little
this is one Death Valley lost mine had a claim near there. They took danger that it will be.—END
that is not a myth.—END
The Wrong Road Crew . . .
"Discovering Fable Valley" in the March
Desert stated that the "Forest Service cut
a primitive four-wheel-drive road into the

Response area."
This statement is erroneous. The lands
in this area are administered by the Bureau
of Land Management with a District Office
in Monticello. This road was built in con-
nection with range rehabilitation work on
the Dark Canyon Plateau and Fable Valley.
The road was begun in the summer of 1957
and completed in the fall of 1958 by our
own improvement crews. This entire area
was opened up by the joint effort of the
Bureau of Land Management and the S&S Does your concept of God and Univer-
Cattle Co. The S&S Cattle Co. is per- sal Principles really satisfy you? Do you
mitted to run cattle in this area, and con- know the true purpose of YOUR life? Is
tributed a considerable amount of money your environment all you want it to be?
Do you have good health? Are you men-
to the government to help in this rehabili- tally and emotionally secure? Are your
Amboy Crater. It "erupted" tation work. affairs economically sound? Do you have
for the Chicago sightseers. personal problems which seem insur-
Perhaps you people are aware that this mountable?
Bureau is also charged with the protection The Lemurian Philosophy teaches a
balanced way of life, materially, mentally
The Bagdad Eruption . . . of artifacts and ruins found on the Public and spiritually. Send for our 24 page
Desert: Lands. The Antiquities Act of 1916 pro- brochure, Into the Sun, 25c postpaid.
Many years ago, when the West was vides for the protection and guardianship
young and the railroads accepted low fares
from sightseers anxious to visit California,
excursion trains were popular. These trains
of these archeological treasures.
Because of vandalism to these many ruins
in San Juan County, we have hesitated to
made the Chicago to California run in four publicize our efforts in this area as far as
days. The guides assigned to them were access is concerned.
kept busy pointing out interesting sights KEITH E. NORRIS
along the way. District Manager
One landmark never overlooked was the Bureau of Land Management
black crater of the extinct Amboy Crater Monticello, Utah
between Amboy and Bagdad, California, in
the heart of the Mojave Desert. (Keith Norris: We are just as concerned
At this time, the Santa Fe regularly as you are regarding vandalism to ruins
hauled water into Bagdad for the few resi- found in the remote backcountry. But,
dents there and the locomotives. The tank our job is publicity •— and we take the
car crew had a long wait every day, and positive stand that man, despite his rec-
time hung heavy on their hands. One day ord, can and must be trusted. In Nell
they decided to create their own excitement. Murbarger's "Fable Valley" story you
For the next week they spent these spare will note references to the anti-vandalism
hours gathering dry brush—all they could laws, and the plea that visitors look—
find—and dragging it to the old crater. but not touch. The alternative to this
Then they waited for the special train policy—the complete silence on the won-
from the East with all the wide-eyed new- ders of the outdoors—would be, I'm sure
comers. When they heard it rumbling down you will agree, quite untenable.—Ed)
the track, they set fire to the huge bowl of The finest in touring comfort. Twin front
brush. Flames and smoke billowed out of seats recline to any angle or convert to level
the volcano. It looked for all the world like On Art, Cooking and Norton . . . single or double beds. Come in for Demon-
the real thing! rtration by Q R REUTER
There was much excitement among the Desert: 2801 W. Slauson, I,.A. 43 AX 4-0888
passengers from Chicago. The telegraph Our January issue was a bit late reaching
wires were jammed with urgent messages us South of the Border via New Hampshire.
to Los Angeles about the eruption. From Never the less the wait was well rewarded
there the news filtered out to the world. by Marjorie Reed's back cover painting.
Newspapers put out extras. A special ob-
servation train was rushed to Bagdad.
The tank car crew had had its fun. I
smile myself every time I see a picture of
When you run out of desert painters,
may I suggest a few on the coast who fre-
quent the desert from time to time: Howard
Little, Stella Stremski, Amy Brown O'T'oole,
an extinct volcano, knowing that at one
time such a crater provided excitement for
five bored young men, one of whom was
J. Roland McNary, Alfred Mitchell and
my husband. The Desert Kitchen Section sounds like ACCOMMODATIONS AVAILABLE
CAROLYN SUGARS good workable reading to those of us who MOTELS & CAFES
camp with all types of equipment and all
Whittier, Calif. over the country. "Hints for Campers" TOURS, ARTS & CRAFTS MUSEUM
would never go amiss. I would especially
The Plight of Beasts . . . like to see stressed leaving one's camping
spot clean. We could take from one of Dr.
Desert: Box 166 — Kayenta, Arizona
While traveling through the Papago In- Jaeger's articles the motto, "Leave nothing
dian Reservation in southern Arizona I saw but your footprints." 160 miles N.E. of Flagstaff
two burros tied together with a heavy rope. Also, when are you going to do an article
The poor animals were alongside the road on your "Map Maker," Norton Allen? We
far from water. think he's a pretty nice guy. We're expect-
I recalled what author Edmund C. Jaeger ing him back from Guadalajara any day to Out of the past—(Acetate)
had to say (Desert, Feb. '59) about the spend a little more time with us. ARROWHEAD JEWELRY!
Earrings: Large, med $2 pr.
sad treatment some of these animals receive. VIOLET A. SWENOR Xecklace: 18" chain 1.S1.50
Isn't there any hope for relieving these tor- Lariat Tie: Lge. arrowh'd,
El Rancho de Los Dos leatherette cord ....$1.50
tured creatures of their miserable plight? Tepic, Mexico Flint Arrowhead Making
There seems to be nothing man will not Secret: Ancient meth'ds.
stoop to do in order to satisfy his cruel (Western Writer Neil Murbarger has a Illustrated. Guaranteed..SI.00
nature. standing assignment to do a feature story Free catalog. Use postcard
for C.O.D. orders
BEN MUDGE on Norton Allen. See Publisher's Note's CHIEF BLACKHAWK
Quartzsite, Arizona for more on Norton.—Ed.) Box 564-DM, Eennewick, Wash.

MAY, 1959 27
This y


State Buys Joshua Land . . . Land Swindlers at Work . . .
Lancaster, Calif. — Los Angeles Phoenix—Arizona supervisor of the
County sold 40.4 acres of desert land U.S. Bureau of Land Management
in the Saddleback Butte area to the warned land-hungry visitors to steer
State for the proposed Joshua Trees clear of the latest real estate swindle
State Park project. The land will be scheme. E. I. Rowland said complaints
used to round out the State's holdings are coming into the BLM office in
in the area. Phoenix from people who have paid
handsome fees for unpatented mining
Navajos Cheer Jazz . . . claims on a land locator's representa-
Window Rock, Ariz.—Pianist Er- tion that the land can be used for a
roll Garner and his troop gave the week end cabin or home site. Row-
first jazz concert ever presented on land reminded the public that it is
the Navajo Reservation—and the 1000 illegal to stake or hold a mining claim
tribesmen who attended loved it. Both for purposes other than mining.
young and old greeted each selection
with whoops, yells and foot-stomping. Volunteers to Improve Pass . . .
BEAR LAKE IN NORTHERN UTAH A tribal representative said the Indi-
ans attending came from all sections Yucca Valley, Calif. — Manpower
of the vast reservation. and heavy equipment were pledged by
residents of the Pioneer Pass region
(Desert, Sept. '58) to improve that
Solar House Buyer Sues . . . route connecting Yucca Valley on the
Phoenix—James A. Decker charged Mojave Desert to the Big Bear Moun-
in a suit filed in Mariposa County tain resort area. Money was raised
Superior Court that the $49,500 ex- locally for the purchase of culverts for
perimental house he purchased from road drainage, and fuel oil for the
the Association for Applied Solar En- heavy equipment.
ergy won't heat up. Decker is seeking
to recover the $24,800 already paid
for the house, the Phoenix Gazette Park for Glen Canyon . . .
reported. The AASE was forced to Page, Ariz.—National Park Service
dispose of the house last year when it officials plan to spend $3,500,000 on
was discovered that its operation was roads and trails and $3,000,000 for
in violation of county zoning regula- buildings and utilities for recreational
tions. Decker said the intricate mech- facilities at the Glen Canyon Reser-
anism which operates the sun louvers voir—but the work is not scheduled
was minus a motor. to start for 10 years. Glen Canyon
Dam, now under construction on the
Bicycles Replacing Burros . . . Colorado River, will form a reservoir
extending nearly 200 miles north from
Mexico City — There's a bicycle the damsite at Page.
boom South of the Border, and the
burro is being replaced as the peon's
favorite means of transportation. Bet- Three Dams Proposed . . .
ter highways, improved incomes and Phoenix — A Chicago engineering
installment purchase plans have con- firm has completed studies for the Ari-
Mail the coupon today for a thrilling vaca- tributed to the bike boom. Prior to zona Power Authority that indicate
tion hit with a full-color story of Utah from the government's 1953 tax exemption three proposed dams on the Colorado
the weird and wonderful land of natural lure to domestic manufacturers, all of River are "technically and economic-
bridges and arches... through its rugged Mexico's bicycles were imported. To- ally feasible." The APA will seek Fed-
river country... to the high mountain wil-
dernesses of lakes and forests... along the
day there are many Mexican factories eral Power Commission authority this
fascinating Mormon trails... in its colorful turning out bikes by the thousands. summer to begin construction of the
cities and towns. Utah is a vacation land of first two of these dams—Bridge Can-
constant contrast and thrilling action for Zion Improvement Slated . . . yon Dam northwest of Peach Springs
you and your family. Visit Utah this year.
Kanab, Utah—More than $800,000 (1963 completion date goal) and Pros-
Utah Tourist & Publicity Council
will be spent to improve roads and pect Canyon Dam northeast of Peach
Dept. 143, State Capitol facilities at Zion National Park in the Springs. The third dam would be built
Salt Lake City, Utah coming months. Major expenditures in Marble Canyon near the northeast
include $300,000 to reconstruct Route corner of Grand Canyon National
Name 1 to the Oak Creek Headquarters, and Park. The three dams would have an
Address.. $500,000 for utilities and a visitor electrical output of 1,147,000 kilo-
City State
center for the Oak Creek Headquarters watts—about equal to Hoover Dam's
area. capacity.


Visitor Center Contract . . . Top Funds for Dinosaur . . .

Death Valley, Calif.—The National Vernal, Utah — Dinosaur National
Park Service awarded a $441,800 Monument has received more funds
contract to an Oildale, Calif., contrac- during the first three years of the
tor for construction of the visitor cen- National Park Service's Mission 66
ter in Death Valley National Monu- project than any other national park
ment. The contract calls for erection or monument. The expenditures at
of two buildings connected by a paved Dinosaur totaled $1,581,700 — about
patio. One building will consist of a half of it for roads and trails and the
museum, lobby and lecture hall; the other half for buildings and utilities.
other will contain administrative offices More money is earmarked for the de-
and shops. Portions of the patio will velopment of minor roads and trails,
contain outdoor exhibits; The mu- and for the creation of fossil displays.
seum portion of the visitor center will
be devoted to the history, natural his-
tory, geology and archeology of Death Resort Told to Provide Water . . .
Valley. Salton Sea, Calif.—The State Board
of Health has ordered the Salton Sea
Narrow Gauge RR Doomed . . . Beach Estate developers to install a
Keeler, Calif. — Southern Pacific two-pipe water system. Deadline for
Railroad is seeking Interstate Com- submitting adequate plans for the
merce Commission permission to dis- water system is June 2, the Riverside
continue its narrow gauge Keeler Daily Enterprise reported. The dual
Branch railroad in Owens Valley — system is designed to replace 100-gal-
the last narrow gauge common carrier lon tanks atop each of the resort's
west of the Rockies. The 70.4-mile homes. This water is hauled in by
freight line from Keeler to Laws is truck. The dual pipe system consists
known as the "Slim Princess." Pas- of one pipe for fresh water and an-
senger service was discontinued on the other for utility water.
line in 1932, and total traffic—mostly For hikers, fishermen, campers!
minerals—averages only three standard
It's quick to cook... it's light to pack
boxcar loads per operating day. The New Arizona City . . .
. . . if tastes terrific! For example...
S.P. proposes to substitute truck serv- Glendale, Ariz. -—• The Arizona-
ice for the rail line. The Inyo County Rochester Land and Development KAMP-PACK
Board of Supervisors opposes the pro- Company has proposed creation of a
posed abandonment. new and completely "scientifically de-
signed" city in northwestern Mariposa ... one of 7 delicious daily diets avail-
School Contract Awarded . . . County, 23 miles northwest of Glen- able in 4-man and 8-man envelopes.
Leupp, Ariz.—Awarding of a $3,- dale. The new city is to be named BREAKFAST
175,000 contract for construction of "Churchill," and 16,000 acres have Ginger Buttermilk Griddle Cakes
new boarding school facilities for more been set aside for its development. It Maple Syrup
than 600 additional Indian children adjoins a 3400-acre tract purchased Hot Chocolate
in the elementary grades at Leupp on two years ago by the Sperry-Rand LUNCH
the Navaio Reservation was announced Corporation, and 900 acres now under Spanish Rice with Creole Flavor
by the Department of Interior. option by Airesearch Corp.
Hot Biscuits Fruit Punch
^^ Cream of Chicken Soup
Camper's Stew ,..
Chocolate Milk Shake
Miracle sponge and detergent, vege-
table shortening, salt, hard candies
— Printers of the Desert Magazine — and toilet tissues.
Moisture-proof, light-weight packag-
Books ing. No refrigeration required. Meats
packed in our own U. S. Govt. in-
Pamphlets spected plant! Select from 120 items!
ochures Bernard Food Industries, Inc., Dept. DM
Resort Folders 217 N. Jefferson St., Chicago 6, Illinois
1208 E. San Antonio St., San Jose, Calif.

Color Production 152 West 3rd St., N. Vancouver, B. C.

Please send me complete information and
price, list for KAMP-PACK foods.
Write for free estimates
City State

MAY, 1959 29
IMPORTED GEM materials: Buy from your resi-
dent, dependable and well established dealer

T H E D E S E R T T R A D I N G POST selected tumbling, cabochon, and choice facet-

ing gemstones in the rough, our specialty
being Australian fire opals. Also widest selec-
Classified Ad rates are 15c per word, $3 tion of cut stones such as jade, rubies, emer-
minimum per issue. Copy deadline for alds, sapphires, opals, also synthetics, etc.
the June issue is May 1. Mail copy to: Price lists available. Wholesale and retail.
Trading Post, Desert Magazine, Palm GENUINE TURQUOISE: Natural color, blue and Francis Hoover, 11526 Burbank Blvd., North
Desert, California. bluish green, cut and polished cabochons—25
Hollywood, California.
carats (5 to 10 stones according to size) $3.50
including tax, postpaid in U.S.A. Package 50
carats (10 to 20 cabochons) $6.15 including CHOICE WESTERN gem rocks: rough, 75c pound,
tax, postpaid in U.S.A. Elliott Gem & Mineral verd antique, pink-black dolomific marble,
Shop, 235 E. Seaside Blvd., Long Beach 2, Cal. howlite, mariposite, red palm root. Minimum
• BOOKS-MAGAZINES order 5 pounds. Slabs, same rocks, 35c square
"GEMS & Minerals Magazine," largest rock hobby OPAL, AMETHYST, etc. 10 ringsize stones, ground inch, except palm root, 50c. Minimum order 8
monthly. Field trips, " h o w " articles, pictures, and polished ready to set, $5. Opals, deep square inches. Prices cover postage, tax, Ben-
ads. $3 year. Sample 25c. Box 687J, Mentone, red, blue, green, golden flashing in all colors susan, 8615 Columbus Ave., Sepulveda, Calif.
California. of the rainbow, direct from the mine, 15 for
$5. Kendall, Sanmiguel d'Allende, Guanaju- UTAH ROCKS. Petrified wood, dinosaur bone,
ato, Mexico. beaver agate, snowflake obsidian, 50c pound.
whole book of maps showing hundreds of
Slabs, 25c square inch. Selenite, white onyx,
rock collecting areas in these two highly
CALIFORNIA DESERT rocks. Gem quality. Pol- 15c pound. Postage extra. Hubert's Rock
mineralized states. An excellent all purpose
ished. Large assortment. One dollar postpaid. Shop, Hurricane, Utah.
atlas showing highways, mileages, towns,
Pollard, 12719 Laurel Street, Lakeside, Calif.
campsites, points of interest. Price $1, post-
paid. Also, Gem Hunters Atlas—Southwest. OPALS AND sapphires direct from Australia.
AUSTRALIAN TUMBLED gemstones. 8 different This month's best buy: black opals from
Covers Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado. polished baroques, identified, suitable for
$1, postpaid. Scenic Guides, Box 288, Susan-: Lightning Ridge. 1 solid black opal cabochon,
necklace or chain bracelet. Send $1 plus 10c 1 piece rough black opal cutting material, 1
ville. California. postage. Bensusan, 8615 Columbus Ave., piece rough black opal matrix. All fine gem
Sepulveda, California. material for $15, free airmail. Send personal
BOOKS: "PANNING Gold for Beginners," 50c.
"Gold in Placer," $3. Frank J. Harnagy, 701V2 check, international money order, bank draft.
E. Edgeware, Los Angeles 26, Calif. • GEMS, MINERALS-FOSSILS Free 16 page list of all Australian gemstones.
Australian Gem Trading Co., 49 Elizabeth
OUT-OF-print books at lowest prices! You name LAVA SPECIMEN from America's youngest vol- Street, Melbourne, Australia.
it—we find it! Western Americana, desert and cano plus excellent uranium mineral sample.
Indian books a specialty. Send us your wants. Send 50c stamps, coin or money-order. Post-
WANTED: ROUGH rose-quartz for garden. Quote
No obligation. International Bookfinders, Box age paid. Digger Ben, Box 2291, Milan Sta-
by ton, or tell me where I can dig. Gordon
3003-D, Beverly Hills, California. tion, Grants, New Mexico.
Scruggs, Knobnoster, Missouri.
WANTED: BACK issues of Desert Magazine. We NEVADA ORES—high grade lead galena, cinnabar,
will buy the following issues if they are sent dumortierite, many more. Color slides, old PRECIOUS VIRGIN'S Veil white jade, black gar-
to us postpaid and in good condition: Nov. relics, ox shoes. Write for big new list today net, gem obsidian, desert rosettes, agatized
'37, $7.50; April '38, $1; August '38, $1; to: E. W. Darrah, Box 606, Winnemucca, Nev. cedar, chrysoprase, mountain leather, five ad-
Sept. '38, $2; Feb. '39 $1; April, '39, 50c; ditional rare specimens, $2. Old Prospector,
March '52, 50c; March '54, 50c; Oct. '54, 50c 12 POUNDS of beautiful Colorado mineral speci- Canyon, California.
and Jan. '55, 50c. Wrap securely and mail mens, $8 prepaid. Ask for list of others.
to: Circulation Dept., Desert Magazine, Palm Jack the Rockhound, P.O. Box 245, Carbon-
Desert, California. dale, Colorado.
FOSSILS. 12 Different for $2. Other prices on "SELL ROCKS?" Yes! Sands, clays, soils, rocks,
• CLUBS - ORGANIZATIONS request. Will buy, sell or trade. Museum of ores, fossils, many outdoor items sell for cash,
Fossils, Clifford H. Earl, P. O. Box 188, trade for things wanted. Let Mother Nature
ARE YOU interested in prospecting for minerals, finance outings, hobby, business. Details 4c
or rockhunting? Write for literature to United Sedona, Arizona.
stamp. "Suppliers' Bulletin" 25c. D. McCamp-
Prospectors, 7011/2 E. Edgeware, Los Angelef, bell, Box 503, Calexico, California.
GEMMY FLUORITE octahedrons. 3 pairs $1. Each
26, California.
pair a different color. Gene Curtiss, 911 Pine
St., Benton, Kentucky. CHOICE MINERAL specimens, rough and cut gem
• COLOR SLIDES material, lapidary and jewelry equipment and
COMPLETE STOCK of crystallized and massive supplies, mountings, fluorescent lamps, books.
RHYOLITE, FOUR colorslides $1. Overall view, minerals. Please send for free list to: Con- Valley Art Shoppe, 21108 Devonshire Street,
Bottle House, bank ruins, RR station. Long- tinental Minerals, P.O. Box 1206, Anaconda, Chatsworth, California.
street, 5453 Virginia, Hollywood 29, Calif. Montana.
DESERT ROCKS, woods, jewelry. Residence rear
COLORSLIDES. Re-live your vacation trips. 3000 of shop. Rockhounds welcome. Mile west on
travel Kodachromes, parks, U.S., foreign, na- GENUINE PLATINUM crystals. Exceedingly rare.
U.S. 66. McShan's Gem Shop and Desert
ture, etc. Free list (sample 30c). Send today. Choice micromounts. $5, $7 each. Also
Museum. P.O. Box 22, Needles, California.
Kelly D. Choda, Box 15, Palmer Lake, Colo. Chatham emeralds, single $2, $3. Groups $5,
$7. Postpaid. Insured. 10 day refund. Frey, SHAMROCK ROCK Shop, 1115 La Cadena Drive,
CALICO, CALIFORNIA, before restoration. Set 328 Glencourt, Pacifica, Calif. Riverside, California. Phone OVerland 6-3956.
of four color slides $1. Also available Rhyo- Specimens, minerals, slabs, findings, etc.
lite, Nevada. Longstreet, 5453 Virginia, Hoi-, • GEMS, ROUGH MATERIAL
lywood 29, California. VISIT GOLD Pan Rock Shop. Beautiful sphere
WE NOW have turquoise and rocks in Battle material, mineral specimens, choice crystals,
• GEMS, CUT-POLISHED ;; 1 Mountain, Nevada, on U.S. Highway 40. Todd's cutting materials, jewelry, bolo ties, baroques,
Rock Shop. spheres, bookends, paperweights, cabochons,
VEIN RUN "thunder eggs" of picture agate, faceted stones, fluorescents, jewelry findings,
some contain amethyst, 50c per pound, in 10 DINOSAUR BONE. Gem quality colorful agatized, lapidary equipment and supplies, Navajo rugs,
pound lots. C. Earl Napier "For Rock," 1205 jasperized, opalized bone 50c pound. Also custom sawing—by the inch or shares. Saws,
Wyoming St., Boulder City, Nev. Phone 410. beautiful red lace agate $1 pound. Postage up to 30-inch diameters. John and Etta James,
extra. Gene Stephen, Route 2, Grand Junction, proprietors, 2020 North Carson Street on High-
BOLA AND jewelry finding price list. Compare Colorado. way 395 north end of town. Carson City, Nev.
our prices before you buy. Please include 10c
to cover cost of mailing. Dealers send resale WE ARE mining every day. Mojave Desert agate,
number for wholesale list. The Hobby Shop, jasper and palm wood shipped mixed 100 NOW OPEN—Jacumba Rock and Shell Shop,
Dept. DM, P.O. Box 753, 619 North 10th pounds $10.50 F.O.B. Barstow. Morion Min- P.O. Box 34, Jacumba, California. "Where old
Avenue (Hiway 30), Caldwell, Idaho. erals & Mining, 21423 Highway 66, R.F.D. 1, friends meet new ones."
Barstow, California.
TUMBLE POLISHED gemstones—best varieties- ROCKS—OPPOSITE West End Air Base, agate,
satisfaction guaranteed. $2.35 Ib. plus post- TURQUOISE FOR sale. Turquoise in the rough woods, minerals, books, local information. No
age. Capped: 25c each. Spring Creek Agate priced at from $5 to $50 a pound. Royal Blue mail orders, please. Ironwood Rock Shop,
Shop, Lewistown, Montana. Mines Co., Tonopah, Nevada. Highway 60-70 west of Blythe, California.

FIND FLUORESCENT minerals the easy way. New
detector operates in daylight without batteries.
Fits in pocket and eliminates dark box. Price
COLLECTION OF 105 relics: 10 spearheads, 10 FREE CATALOG—World's finest lightweight camp- $12.50. Free brochure. Essington Products
drills, 10 birdpoints, 10 flint knives, 5 scrapers, ing and mountaineering equipment. Used on and Engineering, Box 4174, Coronado Station,
60 arrowheads; $50. (1 / 5 of this collection: Mt. Everest, Himalayas, Andes, etc. It's ex- Santa Fe, New Mexico.
$11). 6 different strands trade beads, $10. 3 pensive but absolutely unsurpassed! Gerry,
different old Indian baskets, $10. Iroquoise Dept. 107, Ward, Colorado.
MAILING SERVICE: Prompt forwarding. $3 per
mask $25. Also other relics, beadwork, pipes, month. Remails: $.25. Desert Mails, P.O. Box
tomahawks, warbonnets; foreign relics: weap- FREE CATALOG—4 comfortable ways to carry
kiddies along fishing, camping, hiking, shop- 545, Winterhaven, California.
ons, carvings. Paul Summers, Canyon, Texas.
ping. Keep little ones close out of danger.
Drop a card now. Gerry Designs, Dept. I l l , OWN A squaw dress! Authentic originals, as
FINE RESERVATION-MADE Navajo and Zuni jew-
Ward, Colorado. colorful as the Indian lore that inspired them.
elry. Old pawn. Hundreds of fine old bas-
By the leading designers of the Southwest.
kets, moderately priced, in excellent condition.
Buffalo Trading Post, P. O. Box 697, Highway
Navajo rugs, Chimayo homespuns, artifacts. A • PLANTS, SEEDS 18, Apple Valley, Calif.
collector's paradise! Open daily 10 to 5:30,
WILDFLOWER SEEDS: New catalog offers over
closed Mondays. Buffalo Trading Post, High-
600 different kinds of wildflower and wild HIGHEST CASH paid for old gold, jewelry, gold
way 18, Apple Valley, California.
tree seeds. Catalog 50c. Clyde Robin, Carmel teeth, diamonds, watches, silver, rings, an-
FROM OLD Comanche hunting grounds: Indian Valley, California. tiques. Mail articles today. Information free.
artifacts, buffalo skulls. Mounted horns, West- Chicago Gold Refining Co., 6 E. Monroe, Dept.
GROWING CACTUS is fun! Generous portion of 475, Chicago 3.
ern lamps. Prices on request. Thunderbird
at least six varieties of native cactus seeds,
Trading Post, Highway 80 at Brazos River,
25c. Desert Seed, Box 76, Morristown, Ariz.
Millsap, Texas.
OLD FASHIONED large mixed certified gourd
AUTHENTIC INDIAN jewelry, Navajo rugs, Chi-
seeds, 50c. Excellent for birdhouses, orna- BIG SAVINGS NOW
mayo blankets, squaw boots, old Indian col-
ments, Christmas decorations, conversation
lection. Closed Tuesdays. Pow-Wow Indian
Trading Post, 19967 Ventura Blvd., East Wood-
land Hills, Calif. Open Sundays.

pieces, etc. Certi-Seeds, Box 7, Jacumba, Cal.

«-. UP TO 3 3 % OFF
THREE FINE prehistoric Indian war arrowheads
SECTIONIZED COUNTY maps - San Bernardino
$1. Flint scalping knife $1. Rare flint thunder-
$1.50; Riverside $ 1 ; Imperial, small $ 1 , large RUBY-SAPPHIRE
bird $3. All for only $4. Catalog free. Arrow-
$2; San Diego 50c; Inyo, western half $1.25, TOPAZ AND GARNET
head, Glenwood, Arkansas.
eastern half, $1.25; Kern $1.25; other Califor- POLISHED GEMS
FLINT ARROWHEAD making secret! Ancient nia counties $1.25 each. Nevada counties $1
each. Topographic maps of all mapped west-
50 carats for $1.00"
methods. Illustrated. $1. Guaranteed. Catalog
ern areas. Westwide Maps Co., 114 W. Third
free. Chief Blackhawk, Kennewick 7, Wash- $5 value. At least 5 different
ington. St., Los Angeles, California. BAROQUE POLISHED GEMS of
syn. Ruby, Pink Sapphire, Blue
FASCINATING INDIAN flint chipping! Easy, • MINING^ R Sapphire, Topaz and Garnet. Total
profitable. Complete kit of tools, materials Y weight 50 carats.
and instructions: $2. Instruction booklet only: WESTERN MINING News, monthly, for miners,
(Add 10% Fed. Ex. Tax)
75c. Guaranteed satisfaction. Lobo, Box 144- prospectors, claim owners, $2 per year. Sam- Order as: S-11- C $1.00
MD, Carlsbad, New Mexico. ple copy 25c. Box 787, Sonora, Calif.

ASSAYS. COMPLETE, accurate, guaranteed. High-

SELLING 100,000 Indian relics. 100 nice ancient
arrowheads $25. Grooved stone tomahawk $3. est quality spectrographic. Only $5 per sam- AND CATCHES
Perfect spearhead over 8 inches long $20. ple. Reed Engineering, 620-R So. Inglewood A real Bargain.'
Indian skull $25. Ancient water bottle from Ave., Inglewood, California. 36 pieces in offer.
grave $7. List free. Lear's, Glenwood, Ark. Nickel Silver parts
ULTRAVIOLET LAMPS, equipment, accessories for •' for putting pins on
mineralights, prospectors, hobbyists. Free brooches. Excellent low, low price.
• REAL ESTATE literature. Radiant, Manufacturers, DM, Cam- Order as: S-10C $1.00
HIGH BEAUTIFUL 80 acres looking down on bria Heights 11, New York.
Salton Sea. $300 per acre. Write Ronald L.
DRY WASHERS custom made. Small size weighs
Johnson, Thermal, California.
only five pounds. Compact, sturdy, runs 25 STERLING SILVER
80 ACRES near Lockhart, level, $125 acre, 25% pounds in 5 minutes. For gold, cinnabar, etc. WIRE BARGAIN
down. 20 acres Highway 395, level, north of Very reliable and positive results assured.
Adelanto, $150 acre, 10% down. 2V2 acres Anyone can operate. With this you can out-
west of Adelanto, level, $1495, 10% down. do the professionals, make your outing trips $ 2 . 3 0 worth of silver wire for $ 1 . O f f e r
2V2 acres Lancaster on paved highway, shal- pay and have fun doing it. For full informa- contains nine 6" lengths of Rd.
low water, level, $2495, 10% down. Dr. tion write: E. J. Hyde, Manhattan, Nevada. Bead, Twist, y2 Rd., Bezel, i/2 Rd.
Dodge, 1804 Lincoln Blvd., Venice, Calif. Bead, Square, and Round Sterling
• MISCELLANEOUS Silver wire.
CINDER BLOCK retreat in beautiful, growing Order as: S-9-C $1.00
Lucerne Valley. Modern plumbing, Formica ARMY SURPLUS—4067 unused electron tubes.
kitchen, electricity—plus—three adjoining 1V4 Cost gov. $26,882.87. Sell or trade on Salton SMOKY QUARTZ
acre lots for investment. $8,500 total price. Sea, Hesperia, Apple Valley lots, raw desert OR
Terms. Some models less. Information, Wil- anywhere, tape recorder, Jeep, Piano or ?
liam Russell, Box 451, Lucerne Valley or Vic- Jerry Wall, 1090 Vina, Long Beach 13, Calif.
torville 7-7493. In Pasadena call SYcamore Also known as Scotch Cairngorm.
2-7101. FISHERMEN, HUNTERS, rock collectors! Pack into Brilliant, sparkling, faceted 13 x 18
the most majestic part of the High Sierras, mm. Oval Gem. You also get large
TEN ACRES unimproved in the Mineral District the Minaret country, with Ralph Walton, ex- catalog of jewelry mountings for
fifteen miles south of Barstow. Will furnish pert on rock formations of the Sierras. Wal- mounting these lovely gems.
ton's Pack Station, Beasore Meadows, O'Neals, Order as: V94-15C each $ 1 . 0 0
Title Insurance all free and clear $750. Lloyd
L. Roberson, 522 No. 70th, Seattle 3, Wash. California.


• WESTERN MERCHANDISE cents, rubber cushioned and indexed, best Our biggest seller! Rope style
ANTIQUE FIREARMS. $12 and up. Indian relics. materials used. Mail Order to: Supler Stamp chain on card and in protective
Bargain list 25c. Visit us. Open daily, includ- Service, 1108 So. Gunlock, Compton, Calif. cellophane cover. Price includes
ing Sunday. Tontz Country Store, Elsinore, Cal. tax. . . .
LADY GODIVA "The World's Finest Beaufifier." Order as: 27C-4C $1.00
GHOST TOWN items: Sun-colored glass, amethyst For women who wish to become beautiful, All items sold on Money Back Guarantee
to royal purple; ghost railroads materials, for women who wish to remain beautiful. An PRICES INCIUDE TAXES A N D POSTAGE
tickets; limited odd items from camps of the outstanding desert cream. For information, ORDER BY MAIL Send Ch
'60s. Write your interest—Box 64-D, Smith, write or call Lola Barnes, 963 N. Oakland, AND SAVE! 1633 E. WALNUT
Nevada. Pasadena 6, Calif., or phone SYcamore 4-2378. FRtl ' M i u : < . i : i r s PASADENA, CALIF.

MAY, 1959 31

OFF-RESERVATION HEALTH an's needs as its first duty. Mext pri-
M4 AID CUT BY GOVERNMENT ority goes to relocated and vocational
training Indians, those living off the
Phoenix — Public Health Service
Working & Guest Rmh officials in Arizona announced a cut- reservation less than two years, sea-
sonally employed transients from res-
Enjoy a family vacation on a working back in medical services for off-reser-
cattle ranch with fine accommodations and vation Indians that amounts to a bar ervations, and emergency cases, in that
excellent food. Ride good horses over order.
beautiful mountain trails. Swim in our against treating Indians who moved
pool. Take Jeep trips to ancient Pueblo from their reservations more than two The men's wing of the tuberculosis
ruins and active uranium mines. Take Col- years ago, the Phoenix Gazette re- sanitarium in Phoenix will be con-
orado River boat trips. You will find the
red rock canyon country of Southeastern
ported. Dr. William S. Baum, chief verted into an enlarged hospital for
Utah fascinating and awe-inspiring. of the Public Health Service in Phoe- medical and pediatric patients pres-
nix, said the cut-back was occasioned ently cared for at the hospital on the
Euerett £ Betty Schumaher by a greater acceptance of white men's Indian School campus. The conver-
Box 963, Moab, Utah Alpine 3-6801
medicine among Indians which has sion is the first step in a plan to estab-
entirely utilized the present PHS re- lish a medical and surgical center in
sources. In 1955, he pointed out, the Phoenix.
CANYONEERING PHS treated 7600 patients — 1958's Many Indians were critical of the
A true vacation, colorful and relaxing. total was 10,700. service being rendered by the govern-
First class, all expense expeditions on San
Juan River, Glen Canyon, Grand Canyon, Dr. Baum said the Public Health ment since PHS took over from the
Hell's Canyon, and Salmon River. Dams
now under construction will soon form deep Service regards the reservation Indi- Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1955.
lakes over many colorful canyons and unique
places of interest.
Travel in comfortable specially designed
wooden boats, with trained boatmen-guides.
Rockh.oun.ding, photography, fishing, shoot-
ing rapids, exploring. San Juan and Glen
Canyon trips include Rainbow Natural
Bridge. For literature on Glen Canyon Trips:
Other Trips:
Rock Shorty
MEXICAN HAT, UTAH of Death Valley
Into the Famous Utah Needles Area It was in the spring of the runnin' a good trickle clear up
Junction of the Green and Colorado rivers; year and Hard Rock Shorty was to May—unheard of, but chal-
Indian and Salt creeks; Davis, Lavender,
Monument, Red, Dark and White canyons; sitting on the porch of the In- lengin'. I picks up a package of
Dead Horse and Grand View points; Hoven-
weep and Bridges national monuments. ferno store, picking dust out of watermillion seeds 'n plants 'em
3-day or longer trips for 2-6 person parties the cracks in the pine boards on in the sand 'longside the crick.
—$25 daily per person. Includes sleeping
bags, transportation, guide service, meals. the floor. A dude from Bakers- "With the warm weather—up
Write KENT FROST, Monticello, Utah.
field walked out the door with a in the 90s thet time o' year—'n
bottle of lemon squash in his water all around, th' seeds
hand. He stood at the top of the sprouted in two days.
NEW SIXTH EDITION steps and gazed into the desert
distance. "Two more days 'n the vines
put out flowers, an', dawgone if
ART O F "Even in the springtime this they wasn't a bunch o' nubbin
country doesn't grow a darn watermillions, size o' yer thumb-
GEM CUTTING thing, unless you call that creo- nail, on th' ends of 'em vines th'
sote bush a plant," he said. next day."
Hard Rock squinted at the
stranger a moment, then drawled: Hard Rock Shorty scratched
A standard textbook for the amateur the itchy part of the back of his
and commercial gem cutter since 1938 "Get some rain here and things
—now revised and brought up-to-date grow." head, and filtered another match
to include the most modern techniques "But when does it ever rain?" through the Edgeworth in his
used in the lapidary arts.
asked the newcomer, "and what pipe. "Well, mister, you asked
New edition contains: 120 illustrations can you grow?" if anythin' ever growed in this
including many of latest gem cutting equip- country. Shoulda seen them
Shorty scratched the stubble watermillions! Ten days after I
ment; section on tumbling; detailed de-
scription of sawing, grinding, polishing, of his beard, then opened up, planted 'em seeds, th' vines had
cabochons, facet cutting, specimen finish- "Mister, once — back in '23 I melons big as corsets. The des-
ing, gem identification, sphere cutting, etc. believe—we had lots o' winter ert sun 'n all that moisture in th'
Paper cover; 128 pages rain, maybe three, four inches, ground made an amazin' influ-
then we had a nice April storm ence.
$2.00 thet brought another coupla
inches. Just plain soggy 'round "Only trouble," said Hard
Please add 10c for postage and handling Rock, "wuz thet I never could
California residents add catch up with them 'millions. Th'
4 percent sales tax "With all thet moisture 'n th'
warm weather movin' in, I fig- vines wuz growin' so fast they
Order by mail from: gerd to try some farmin'. Didn't drug the 'millions all over th'
want to do too much, but I've sand, wore out the rinds, and
always hankered for home-grown every time I'd bend over to cut
BOOK SHOP watermillions. a plug, I'd miss my target by a
PALM DESERT CALIFORNIA "Well, Eight Ball Crick was foot or so."

"First Lady of Santa Clara" was written Hamp Williams discovered the Kelley Silver
by Mary Branham of Santa Fe, who has Mine, and at Mojave when Bruce Minard
authored "both fact and fiction on South- found the Golden Queen.
western subjects—including the script for
the recently released New Mexico State
Tourist Bureau movie, 'Land of Enchant-
ment'." Also, she is author of Good Morn-
ing American Ladies, a book on European
:;: * :]:

Clare Bowman of Palo Alto, California, Susan Wilshire Jordan (now a widow),
heard the story of Shultz ("Old Shultz'
Gold Mine") from a veteran prospector who author of "Memories of Broad Horizons,"
was camped at Pinyon Flats on the Palms- lives in Los Angeles on a hillside covered
to-Pines Highway in Southern California. with succulents, which she finds a reward-
ing hobby.
"The frugality of his equipment amazed
me. He was a chunky man, clear-eyed and Because of their love of the desert,
with only the stubble of a beard, and he Colonel Jordan (after his retirement in
was hungry for someone to talk to. My 1922) and Mrs. Jordan moved to the Ore-
husband and I were good listeners," she gon desert in Hermiston where, for 17
writes. years, they watched 700 acres of barren
wasteland grow into a productive farm,
"I can still feel the warmth of the sun green with alfalfa and tinkling with cow-
on my head and shoulders as the three of bells.
us sat on a picnic table in the campground. ;[; : j : :Js

Something glittery caught my eye and I got

down to pick it up. Charles Kelly, for many years Desert
Magazine's major contributor of feature
" 'What you got there?' the old man articles with Utah settings, recently retired
asked. as superintendent of Capitol Reef National
" 'Only a pebble,' I answered. 'I was Monument, the Utah State Historical Soci-
hoping it was a gold nugget.' ety reported. Kelly plans to continue his
" 'That puts me in mind of old Shultz out study of prehistoric rock writings. He and
in Quartzsite,' our new friend said—and off Mrs. Kelly reside at 124 "S" Street, Salt
he was on his story." Lake City.
* * *
Steve Lowell ("Smokey Bear's Early After serving with the Marines in World Wilton Hoy Photo
Days") has been a wire service newsman War I, Kenneth Wortley took up a home-
in Albuquerque since the end of World
War II. He came to know and love the
Southwest while stationed in Phoenix as a
stead in the Indian Wells Valley of Cali-
fornia's Mojave Desert—an area close to
the setting of his lost mine story in this
Come see and photograph beauti-
flying instructor during the war. The month's Desert: "Alec Ramy's Lost Bo- ful, gentle and colorful GIVKN
Lowells have two adopted boys "who also nanza." CANYON of the Hiver Colorado.
like the sunny almost-year-long outdoor He knew and prospected with many of
playtime of the Southwest." the oldtimers. He was at Randsburg when MAY AND JUNE. 1959
BIGHT week-end river trips on
the following scheduling:
MAY 6, 7, 8; 15, 16;
21, 22, 23; 29, 30.
27 D.t.ctsr. Lightweight, dim-se
None finer. Also GEIGBR COUNTERS for
Compt .TUNE 4, 5, 6;
18, 19, 20;
12, 13;
26, 27.
Launchings at HITE, Utah
Landings at Crossing of the Fath-
ers, on the very trail where on
Nov. 7, 1776, Padres Dominguez
Oltcn C.,,.,r,l - N-r.r / • / ? , , /
and Escalante and party walked.
On the 3-day boat runs you may
Batter/ test switch • Head phones with clear signal • Great sensitivity 2-day fare, $60. Deposit, $15
One nob control • Easiest of all to operate • Low cost operation 3-day fare, $85. Deposit, $20
MORE ACCURATE, it's the first METAL DETECTOR designed SPE- You may drive your car to HITE;
You may fly your private plane;
CIFICALLY for detecting placer gold, nuggets, and other small metal You may share on charter plane;
objects. Depth range 7 feet—comes complete, ready to use. You may travel ALL overland.
Fares are very reasonable.
MODEL 27—instructions included $119.95 As of 25 March, 55% of our guests
MODEL 711—with 21 ft. depth range $138.50 will fly to rendezvous at HITE.
Identify the camera location of
MINERALIGHT—Complete line for $14.95 u p to $114.00 above photo and receive $5 credit.
Send for Complete Information For the person who becomes
our 1000th boating guest, the full
VISIT OUR NEW MINERAL DEPARTMENT, stocked with m a n y out- fare will be refunded at landing.
standing specimens, including native wire silver from Honduras, S. A. Write for information on our
1025 mile Arctic River Expedition
where we first boated in 1954.
(buy from an experienced wood worker) WESTERN RIVER TOURS
Richfield, Utah
Correspondents: please allow up to two
domfiton d\ock <^>noh. weeks delay in mail, wire or phone con-
tact during April—and up to one week de-
1405 S. Long Beach Blvd. 3 blocks south of Olive lay during May & June, because operators
NEwmark 2-9096 Open Friday Evenings Compton, California will be on the river guiding boat trips.

MAY, 1959 33
Reno . . .
SEARCH FOR Shuichi Okada, Tokyo attorney rep-
LOST TREASURES resenting the Port of Stockton in Japan,
OF THE WEST . . . announced that interests in his coun-
try are studying a long range plan to
buy Nevada iron ore at the rate of a
million tons a year for the next five
., WAY years. Okada's estimate would repre-
sent a 40 percent increase in the pur-
chases made in Nevada by Japanese
. . . WITH A industry at present. Five Nevada
GOLDAK Gallup, New Mexico . . . counties (Churchill, Douglas, Hum-
METAL boldt, Nye and Pershing) send iron
The El Paso Natural Gas Com- ore to Japan via the Port of Stockton
pany announced plans for the explora- in central California. In 1957 a total
tion of coal resources on 34,500 acres of 904,455 tons of Nevada ore was
of Navajo Indian Reservation land in shipped on specially constructed Jap-
New Mexico. The project may lead anese vessels.
to an expenditure of more than $1,-
— You have heard the many stories of buried 000,000 and employment of as many Washington, D. C. . . .
•^treasures, lost mines, and ghost towns through- as 200 Indians. The land area in-
J>.'out the west: the lost Sublett mine near Carls-
volved lies immediately south of a The Bureau of Mines has invited
„£,'!', bad Caverns, the lost Dutchman mine. Super-
v vUistition Mountain, and many more. Using the
25,000-acre area which has been un- the nation's petroleum and chemical
\ -t» right kind of modern equipment, treasure hunt- industries to express their interest in
li"* ing can be fun and exciting. der a coal mining lease held by the
.Your next trip to the desert can be excitingly Utah Construction Company since the participating with the government in
different i f you take along a GOLDAK metal
fall of 1957. an underground nuclear explosive test
, locator. Using the latest electronic principles, a
'GOLDAK locator can detect metals up to 27 in oil-shale formations. The test blast,
feet below the surface of the ground.
expected to cost $2,500,000, would
j 5 models include,, transistorized instruments,
underwater metal detectors, geiger and scintil- Bingham, Utah . . . be a part of the Plowshare Program
'' lation counters. for the peaceful uses of nuclear de-
% You may find . . .
Recently completed was the longest vices. Scientists are hopeful that such
• Indian relics • Western lore • Valu-
single-track mine tunnel in the nation a blast would free much of the petro-
able coins • Gold ore • Buried treasure
— an 18,000-foot-long bore in the leum from the shale.
Utah Copper Division's (Kennecott)
Write for free literature and information on new
book of known treasures. Bingham Mine. The tunnel, 18 feet
wide and 24 feet high, cost $11,000,- DESERT QUIZ ANSWERS
The GOLDAK Company 000. It will provide rail access from
1544 W. Glenoaks. Bl»d. . Glendale, Calif. Questions are on page 6
the assembly yards at the mouth of
1. Pueblo uprising.
Bingham Canyon to the floor of the
2. Weathered-out ore.
giant Bingham Open Pit. The cost of 3. Little San Bernardinos.
removing ore and waste from the floor 4. Dick Wick Hall.
of the pit will be reduced when the 5. Elephant Butte Dam is on the
"OVERLOOKED FORTUNES" new tunnel is placed in operation. Rio Grande in New Mexico.
IN THE RARER MINERALS 6. Mountain man.
Here are a few of the 300 or more rarer
The tunnel project was started in Oc- 7. The giant sloth is extinct.
minerals and gemstones you may be over- tober, 1956. 8. Cholla—because its spiny sec-
looking while mining, prospecting or gem tions cling to clothing of those
hunting. Uranium, vanadium, columbium, who brush against it.
tantalum, tungsten, nickel, cobalt, selenium, Goldfield, Nevada . . . 9. Winslow and Flagstaff.
germanium, bismuth, platinum, iridium, 10. Earps.
beryllium, golden beryl, emeralds, etc. Insurgent shareholders of the Gold- 11. Wildflower.
Some minerals worth $1 to $2 a pound, field Consolidated Mines Company 12. Warn adversaries.
others $25 to $100 an ounce) some beryl- 13. Vermilion Sea.
announced plans to wage a proxy 14. Black color.
lium gems worth a fortune! If looking for
gems, get out of the agate class into the fight against the present management. 15. Copper pit.
big money; an emerald the size of your The group charged that the company 16. Saguaro.
thumb may be worth $500 to $5000 or bosses are not aggressive enough, and 17. Historical inscriptions.
more! Now you can learn how to find, 18. Salt.
are missing opportunities for "exploi- 19. 1847.
identify, and cash in on them. New simple
system. Send for free copy "Overlooked
tation of various natural resources" 20. Bird.
Fortunes"—it may lead to knowledge which and diversification.
may make you rich! A postcard will do.
TRUTH OR CONSEQUENCES, NEW MEXICO Utah's first oil pool is back in pro- GOLD, s i l v e r , c o i n s ,
duction. Intermittently worked since j e w e l r v , strongboxes,
battle relics! M-SCOPE
1907, the Virgin field in Washington transistorized electronic
Treasure-Metal Locators
County has yielded less than 200,000 detect them all. Used
barrels of oil down through the years. world-wide by successful
SSS T R E A S U R E S S S explorers. Exciting! Re-
New transistor metal detector More than 100 shallow wells have warding! Super-sensitive,
finds lost or hidden treasure, lightweight M-SCOPE
coins, gold, silver, jewelry, relics. been drilled in this ground—only half offers greater depth pen-
Profitable hobby. New underwat- etration, no ground in
er metal detector detects sunken
of them productive. While the latest t e r f e r e n c e , over 200
ships, outboard motors, etc., in operation at Virgin is small, it has treasure-hunting days of
up to 300 feet of salt or fresh battery life. Indestruc-
water. Operates from a boat. revived interest in prospecting for tible fiberglass cases. Guaranteed. From
Scintillation c o u n t e r s . Many $59.50, Easy Terms. Write today for FREE
other models. Free catalog. petroleum in the southwestern part of catalog.
2545 E. INDIAN SCHOOL, PHOENIX, ARIZ. Dept. D-2. Palo Alto. Calif.

Books reviewed on this page are selected as being worthy of your consid-
Keep your
in attractive loose-leaf
eration. They can he purohaseil by mail from Desert Magazine Book Shop,
Palm Desert, California. Please add four percent sales tax on orders to
be sent to California. Write for complete catalog of Southwestern books.
In October, 1879, a wagon train of For the great fraternity of Ameri-
Mormon settlers left Paragonah, Utah, cans who read books, and especially Space for 12 magazines
to establish a new settlement on the for those who find the California des- Easily inserted
San Juan River at the present site of ert a subject for fascinating study, there
Bluff. They carried provisions for a has recently been published a descrip- A BEAUTIFUL AND PRACTICAL ADDITION
six-weeks' trek across one of the most tive bibliography that will long be TO YOUR HOME BOOK-SHELF
precipitous sectors of the great sand- recognized as the finest guidepost to
stone and slick-rock area in the South- desert literature ever compiled. $2.50
west. The book, Desert Voices, is the Mailed Postpaid
It was nearly six months later that work of E. I. Edwards, a business
they reached their destination and the consultant who for many years has Send orders to:
story of their achievement is one of dedicated much of his time to the DESERT MAGAZINE
the most heroic episodes in American search for books, magazines, papers PALM DESERT, CALIFORNIA
history. This is the expedition known and archives pertaining to every aspect
as the Hole-in-the-Rock. of the California desert—its geogra-
Mormon archives contain a vast phy, history, lore, plant and wildlife,
collection of notes and diaries, written and its people. "DESERT GARDENING"
by participants in the migration and By BETTY M. LINDSAY. 12 chapters
by relatives and friends, but it has re- All the well known names of past
Includes how to grow flowers, trees,
mained for David E. Miller of the his- and present appear in this book — native plants, etc. Also, advice on land-
tory department at the University of George Wharton James, J. Smeaton scaping a desert cabin.
Utah to bring together this miscellany Chase, Mary Austin, Elliott Coues, Only $1.00 postage and tax paid
Dix Van Dyke, William Lewis Manly, P.O. Box 268 Joshua Tree, California
of information, reconcile the discrep-
ancies, and give continuity to the story. Dr. Edmund Jaeger—and many hun-
The author has devoted the hours out- dreds of writers whose works are not
side of his classroom duties to the task so well known. Many of the magazine
for several years, and has done a mas- articles which have appeared in Desert
terful job of presenting this material and Westways magazines and other
in the book Hole-in-the-Rock, which periodicals also are credited to their
is just off the press. authors.
The book takes its title from the This is no ordinary bibliography,
most difficult single experience on the for the author has given with each of
trek — the taking of the wagons and the 1500 titles a brief synopsis of the
livestock from the high cliffs of the content of the book or manuscript.
plateau near Escalante down to the Obviously such research as has gone
Colorado River through a precipitous into the preparation of this book is
cleft in the side wall of the canyon— a labor of love, for bibliographies never
a place where weeks of chiseling hard become best sellers.
rock without the aid of explosives The foreword was written and the
was necessary. photographs reproduced in the volume
There were many women and chil- taken by Harold O. Weight, former
dren in the party and they carried on editorial associate on the staff of Des-
through the hardships of the journey ert Magazine. The author gives much
with no less courage than the men. credit to both Harold and Lucile This big, handsome volume tells you
everything you want to know about the
In the light of history, it was an ill- Weight for the help they gave him in exciting gem resources of our continent:
accurate geological and mineralogical in-
advised expedition — that is, it was the preparation of the copy for this formation plus detailed descriptions of
book, and also to Burr Belden of San gem localities for field collectors.
over the worst possible route. It was 700 pages about $15.00
a short-cut that had not been thor- Bernardino Sun.
oughly explored in advance. E. I. Edwards is the author of four FREE EXAMINATION COUPON
In addition to the story of the jour- previous desert books: The Valley 120 Alexander St. Dept. I)S
Princeton, N.J.
ney, the author has added many inter- Whose Name Is Death, a bibliography Send me for ten days' free examination
esting sidelights in the footnotes and of Death Valley literature published GEMSTONES OF NORTH AMERICA
(Sinkankas). Within 10 days I will remit
in an extensive appendix that includes in 1940, Desert Yarns in 1949, Desert purchase price of $15.00 plus small de-
livery cost or return book and owe
pertinent material from diaries and Treasure and Into an Alkali Valley. nothing.
other records. A complete roster of Desert Voices is published by West- Name
the personnel is given. ern Lore Press of Los Angeles. Index Address ,,....
Published by University of Utah and Appendices, halftone illustrations. City ...Zone State
Press. Maps. Bibliography. Index 215 pages. Edition limited to 500 Save! Remit with order and we pay de-
livery cost. Same return guarantee.
and biographical notes. $5.50. copies. $12.50.

MAY, 1959 35

Cornelian and Roses at Ash Hill By HAROLD WEIGHT

Map by Margo Gerke

STAND IN awe of people who of Ludlow. It has been a landmark rather than sedimentaries, it was cut
write authoritative books about since early times on the desert. It by violent storms in an arid land of
the Southwest after spending only certainly looks like a lava-coated pile sparse vegetation, and in other ways
a season or two here. Every time I of ash, and I had supposed that is seems to fit accepted geological defini-
begin to fancy that I "know" even where it received its name. But it has tions. And where the washes shear
some small corner of our desert, this been declared by a place name au- through ash formations, typical bad-
fantastic land raps my knuckles with thority that the hill commemorates a land topography has developed.
a new enigma or contradiction. It pioneer railroad surveyor, Ben Ash,
happened again during the great Promising Locale
who is said to have perished nearby.
flowering season of 1958—on an ex- Whatever the origin, the butte does The Ash Hill country is bounded
pedition into the paint-pot chaos of have a name, and that is more than on the north and partially on the east
volcanics that lie south and east of I have been able to discover for the by Highway 66, on the south by a
Ash Hill on the Mojave Desert of bright wilderness of hills, ridges, can- pipeline trail, and on the west by the
California. yons and washes which it dominates. Ludlow - Stedman road. These bad-
Ash Hill itself is a black-topped We call it the Ash Hill badlands for, lands can best be seen from Highway
gray-splotched bulk seven miles east although it is eroded into volcanics 66 near Klondike, by motorists travel-
ing west. And from the first time we
saw it from the highway, it looked to
us as if it should produce good mineral
But appearances arc no guarantee
of contents so far as rocks are con-
cerned, especially in this portion of
the Mojave. Volcanic formations of
widely separated ages are found along
the great trough which contains Am-
boy and Pisgah craters and several
lesser known cones. Much of the
eruption—and the creation of those
prominent black lava flows — took
place only yesterday in geologic time,
in the Quaternary. These "recent"
rocks often prove disappointing to the
amateur collectors.
But here and there are exposures
of much more ancient Tertiary vol-
canic violence. In the rhyolites and
andesites of these formations the rock-
hound often finds choice examples of
Nature's gemstone production.
No Road In
When we tried to drive from High-
way 66 to the reddish volcanics in the
Ash Hill badlands, we could find no
direct approach. In fact, the front
presented to the highway was distinctly
unfriendly even to four-wheel drive.
On our first attempt, just to the east
of Ash Hill, we soon were crawling
and spinning in a soft soil bajada.
Other sorties from likely points proved
no more successful. It was evident

Buren Briggs, who accompanied au-

thor on one of his trips to the Ash
Hill area, examines pieces of the
chalcedony and chalcedony rose so
abundant in this Mojave gem field.

n « n «
Here's a -field trip to the on that first trip, we still didn't know When we reached the low fore-hills,
the full extent of the badlands as rock- less than half a mile from the car, we
Ash Hill Badlands on the collecting territory. We had found began to find clear chalcedony with
Mojave where author Harold enormous quantities of silicates—but colorful carnelian spots. In places on
no high grade. We had found tons the slopes of the main hills the mater-
Weight discovered gem of chalcedony, but it was colorless or ial became more abundant, and in
rocks—and re-discovered quartzy. We had found agate, but larger pieces, with bands of carnelian
the fact that the desert most of it was coarse-grained or plain or sard. But it was on the far side of
bands. The only prizes of the trip the adjoining hill to the southwest that
offers other treasures . . . were some tiny but beautiful chalced- we hit the best field. Here little washes
ony roses—float, coming down one had cut through what appears to be
of the big washes from an unknown discontinuous ledges, and large chunks
source. were scattered down them. It was a
there would be a long hike from the sort of mixture of chalcedony and
closest penetration we could achieve. But, with that much promise we
felt that it was only a matter of more carnelian or sard in waves, thin streaks,
In a final effort, we checked a convolutions and plumes. Although it
stretch of weathered paving—9.2 miles hunting before we would find some-
thing worthwhile. The second trip was raining in earnest by then so that
east of Ludlow—that angles sharply it was difficult to evaluate the material,
southward from the highway toward was a dud, but it ended with us being
even more fascinated with the Ash it was obvious we had discovered
the eastern tip of the badland hills. much good grade cutting rock.
Where it cut 66, a white post had Hill badlands. Then on the third trip,
been planted in the road center to just at dusk and miles from the car, I On later trips we found good ma-
indicate abandonment. found good carnelian float. terial scattered on the slopes below,
Success to the southwest, and smaller pieces
The old road is difficult to get on.

It leaves 66 where there is a long At home I located on a topographic
curve and no shoulder on either side. quad the area where I had found the Rock C r a f t Q u a l i t y
It is necessary, if coming from the carnelian. The next weekend — trip means Best Q u a l i t y .
east, to make a sharp U-turn across number four-—despite a cold wind,
66. This maneuver can be extremely dark skies and splatters of rain, we
dangerous in the high speed traffic were in the field early. The carnelian
location is within a mile of the old
on this highway, and great caution, If you're interested in bell caps, neck
both entering and leaving, is de- stretch of paving, so we parked the chains, bolas, tips, cuff links, gemstones
manded. car in a flat area 0.6 miles from U.S. and others, send 10c for your copy of
66 and hiked across a broad wash to "Guide to Better Rock Craft Projects."
Old Highway the hills which lay almost due west. You'll save 10 times 10c on your first
order. ACT NOW!
Once safely on the old paving, it This is a procedure I would recom- Typical
surprised us. Apparently a forgotten mend for those with standard trans- VALUE ROCK CRAFT
stretch of National Old Trails, which portation. The washes through which KEY CHAINS in Post Box 424A
preceded U.S. 66, the road continued we worked out a roundabout route yellow gold Temple City, Calif.
for almost two miles along the edge p l a t e , 1 y2 "
to the foot of the gem hills can become round chain &
of the badlands we wanted to prospect. sand-traps without four-wheel drive. 1 " ring for 7
At 1.3 miles from the main highway, keys. ONLY 28c or 5 for $1.15
we turned on the faint trace of a min-
ing road branching to the west. Our
side-trail soon became deep ruts, and
plunged into one of the big washes.
Only "Unbreakable" Picks
Your choice of Everlasting Vinyl-Nylon Cushion Grip or Durable Sole Leather
Immediately, because of the softness
of the wash bed, it became necessary Grip. All are forged head-handle of one-piece fine tool steel of unsurpassed temper.
to use four-wheel drive.
The washes here are more typical
of the Colorado Desert than of the
Moiave—open with flat gravel beds
and firm enough so that we could fol-
low them far back into the ridges. $585
Colorful Land
We spent the rest of the day ex- 14 oz.
ploring the badlands, eating lunch in 22 oz.
the shade of a sheer dark-red wall at $5.25
the foot of a dry waterfall. It was an
exciting day. The Ash Hill country Vinyl-Nylon Cushion Grip Pick and Sportsman's Axe—Leather Grip
is a paint pot of colors which would Two styles of picks in a heavier weight for men . . . The ever-popular pick with leather grip. Head can't
not be suspected looking in from the lighter weight for ladies and children. Everlasting fly off . . . handle is comfortable in all climates and
cushion grip is kind to hands . . . conditions. Sportsman's Axe is a life saver off the
highway-—ash white topping brilliant smooth and comfortable . . . molded beaten trail. Most effective for light carrying weight.
orange, robin's egg splotched with ^.^K^W^ inseparably to handle. Can't loosen, Head and keen edge of special temper for long life.
orange-red, ochre, purple, rose, lav- stretch or wear out during life of head.
ender, cream, brown, black. Most of SEND FOR
the colors become intensified on hazy In Comfort" BOOK
or semi-cloudy days and late in the
day. As a friend said, on a later trip: Contains 40 photos of actual camp
"Goodness, the fires are hardly out making and practical tips on use of MFG. CO.
picks and axe. Read i t . . . make camp-
here!" ing more fun. Pocket size — 64 pages. DEPT. D-5
As darkness forced us homeward Only 25c. Send coin, no stamps. ROCKFORD, ILLINOIS

MAY, 1959 37
between the little washes. The ledges claw in the wash. But, essentially it
DIAMOND BLADES from which this rock is weathering appeared a truly barren land, with-
run north of west by south of east. out the comparative lushness of more
Hiking along this trend for a consid- favored desert areas.
erable distance, I found a number of Certainly it could never know the
additional ledge exposures. I also beauty of abundant desert wildflowers
found that it varied in character from to gentle its harshness. Hadn't I been
plain chalcedony or agate through there in the possible blooming months
sard-camelian to, in a few specimens, of two successive years? And hadn't
a colorful flower agate. it remained a naked wasteland, with
On other trips we tackled the prob- scarcely a blossoming flower, and
lem of the little chalcedony roses we hardly a touch of green?
State J Tax in Calif.
had discovered as float. Hiking for
more than a mile up the big wash, Rains, Wildflowers
N e w Auto-
matic drill
we found them scattered throughout Then — in the winter of 1957-58
with electron- the country, mainly on the dissected — the rains came as if spaced by a
ic feed. Free terraces north of the wash. Some,
catalog de- master irrigationist. And alternating
scribes. fragile in appearance as delicate flow- with them the unobscured sun flooded
0 ers, were in place not far south of the desert earth with warmth. While
Ash Hill. We could reach out and the calendar still said winter, count-
pick them from vertical seams in the less plants burst through the surface
SIMPLEST AM) BEST ^N wash wall where they were interlaced in the beginning of the greatest desert
Tumblers—•i to choose from—free catalog. with thin veins of chalcedony. Once we flowering that I remember. And
entered the area from the pipe line "burst" is exactly the word. Some
road, on the south, and found quanti- plants — notably the dune evening
ties of colorless banded agate, chal- primrose—cracked the earth in radi-
cedony and roses of good grade. At ating patterns and pushed it upward
j present there is a great deal of all in their swift growth.
i these rocks available on the surface.
O Later, it may be necessary to prospect And that spring when we made our
Wheels, buffs, grits, and dig for good grade. first trip into those barren badlands
belts and all lapi- of the Ash Hill country, we discovered
dary supplies listed
in free catalog. Becoming Familiar a different world. Everywhere we
During the two years we had made turned flowers glowed and nodded,
occasional trips into the Ash Hill bad- softening the angular lines of the vol-
.4i lands, it became one of our favorite canic buttes and hills. Geraeas and
desert retreats. And I felt that I knew rock daisies and — especially lovely
ff the area pretty well. Geologically and against the black rocks—the lilac and
Free Catalos shows 17 Covintiton .£> geographically it was a wonderland— carmine of the five-spot mallow.
vertical t.v|)e grinders and polishers. those beautiful washes, with their Driving through the washes we
;••••.•.-•••:••;,•:,.: (> Covington Trim Saws gentle gradient, ideal for hiking; fas- found that blossoms had taken over.
to choose from in latest cinating juxtapositions of rock forma-
j: , ;• Vvfe Catalog. Raw natural roadways of rock and
tions; spectacularly eroded and colored gravel were transformed into curving
ashes, tuffs and volcanics. streams of flowers. In the places where
Botanically, it wasn't worth much. shadows of rocks or canyon walls had
Oh, there was creosote, galleta, burro- held the moisture longer, there were
bush, bladder-pod and a little desert wall-to-wall carpets of blue-purple
holly, with some smoke trees and cats- phacelia, golden-yellow geraea, apri-
Select any one of 7
C o v i n g t o n Sliib Saws
from latest Free Cata-

Multi - Feature Lapi-

dary Unix. Free Cat-
alog shows 8 Cov- fyott've
ington Horizontal A s
models. 1/ Petrified Wood, Moss Agate, Chrysocolla
Turquoise, Jade and Jasper Jewelry

Bracelets, Rings, Necklaces, Earrings

and Brooches
C a t a l o g shows 13 CHOICE COLORS AND PICTURES
Build Your Own
Items. Write for Folder With Prices
Send for latest Catalog showing Covington,
(he largest lapidary equipment line in
America. IT'S FREE.
235 East Seaside Blvd. Long Beach 2 , California
Across from West End of Municipal
Covington Lapidary Eng., Corp. Auditorium Grounds
REDLANDS D, CALIFORNIA Hours 10 a.m. to 9 p.m. Qaily Except Monday

in 1939, 1949 and 1958. But, 1952
.as < also was an unusually good year.
More is needed than rainfall. There
OI'J" ''',' II
~'/,Si -
M ft- must be the proper amounts at the

proper times, coupled with the right
warmth at the right time. Who can
' ' ' . . 1 . , l l
say when such conditions again will
:* M \, _
/'"A ASH i l l But, until then I will be content
y^1* . K" ;,,"'-HILL with the more durable beauty of stone
flowers and the flower-like gems that
can be cut from the rocks of the Ash
\ >« to Ludlow -
\ 9.2mi. j / Hill badlands. For that country can
nelion\ /«O.Omi. j
never look sterile to me again. I know
that even in that empty land the harsh
washes and naked hillslopes are only
5 '''
a mask, and a protection to keep
beauty safe until time and moisture
and temperature bring it forth.
1/ Klondike)°\

1y \
And in the meantime, when I ex-
pound about the desert, I will remem-
a 11 ber to keep my fingers crossed and
\ IV sometimes say: All I know is that I
1 l\ do not know.—END
Ludlow D "^* ^W
ASH HILL \ ./c»
L. :^ .•- 1.3 DEALERS A T T E N T I O N
,L--| : ~< ;•* mi. BAROQUE JEWELRY
'"'?'<$C • ^ w |* It':--.
« . -

T, '• '"'"' P.O. BOX 133 TRINIDAD, CALIF.

; USMC Training Center-.. ~\
i \
to H
'"-V-: < ^"- CAPTIVE
_ y • >
60-? %99 29
*,:;'.>. " '"V
Genuine Sleeping Beauty
, 1 mile I Turquoise Nuggets
• * ' .

caged in gleaming silver-

colored metal to form un-
fa«f usually fascinating earrings.
$ I (post. & fed. tax paid.
I No C.O.D., please.)
cot mallow, lemon-yellow malocothrix, traces of the old trails we had followed
forget-me-nots, and tall bouquets of in the main washes, or the one we had LOST MOUNTAIN GEMS
yellow suncup primroses. made up the side wash. Summer P.O. BOX 5012 - PHOENIX, ARIZONA
We traced the tracks we had made storms had washed them away.
the year before by the bands of richer The flowers were gone, too, of
growth where the wheels had tilled course. In most cases, not even an
the surface, helping the rainfall col- indication remained. And while young
lect and seep through to waiting gen- green plants were showing, there were
erations of deep-buried seeds. The only a few where the year before there
flowers were so abundant that no mat- had been thousands. The natural
ter what care was taken we could not roadways were open and barren. The
drive up the narrower washes without badlands had been given back to roses
crushing plants and blossoms. of chalcedony and flowers of moss and
So we never reached the rock field agate.
that day. But, besides the enjoyment When will they flower again? I
of that wonderful flower display, I would not even try to guess. It is ap-
learned again that anyone who formu- parent from such displays as that of ROCKHOUND PICK
lates dogmatic generalizations about last spring that year after year a por- of one-piece hand-forged polished
the desert—or any of its parts or any tion-—and the greater portion—of all steel—$4 each, postpaid.
of its life—is likely to find himself the seeds that mature—is buried so
confronted with irrefutable evidence deeply that only an unusual combina- Miners' Candleholder
of his folly. tion of moisture and warmth can bring replica of old-time miners' candle-
Early this year we returned to the germination. holders, single or in matched pairs
Ash Hill badlands. The rocks were Rainfall comes in cycles. One long- —$1.50 each, postpaid
still there, untouched since our last range record shows an 11 year cycle
visit nearly a year before. And there of maximum precipitation coinciding RAY FLARTY
were no fresh wheel tracks in the with high sunspot activity. There have Box 160, Nedeiland, Colorado
washes. In fact, there no longer were been notable desert wildflower displays

MAY, 1959 39
Three Utah Gem Fields . . .

GEMS'">»MINERALS Here are directions to three Utah collect-

ing fields as reported by Will T. Scott of
La Mesa, California: Field No. 1: Im-
mediately after leaving the south gate of
Cedar Breaks National Monument, begin
looking on the west side of the road. Agate,
REPORTS FROM THE FIELD some of it clear with red and black moss
patterns, was found along the road for a
These notes are intended as suggestions for your collecting trips. Always make local distance of three miles. Scott does not
inquiry before following trails into uninhabited areas. Mail your recent information
on. collecting areas (new fields, status changes, roads, etc.) that you want to share know how far to the west the field extends.
with other hobbyists, to "Field Reports," Desert Magazine, Palm Desert, California. Field No. 2: Take the paved road from
Panguitch to Panguitch Lake. The pave-
ment ends just north of the lake, and about
half a mile beyond there is a good forest
D i g f o rH o w l i t e . . . Garnet-Epidote Quality Poor . . . camp with water and sanitary facilities. Di-
rectly across the dirt road south of camp,
San Fernando, Calif. —• Many tons of Victorville, Calif.—Garnet and epidote Scott reports excellent agate and jasper
beautiful howlite have been taken from the from the Verde Antique-Sidewinder Hill locales. The jasper is of red, green and
dumps of the old mine in Tick Canyon, but collecting fields east of Victorville were yellow flower design. The field was not
much material remains. Joe Nichols, field found by a caravan of rockhounds from prospected to any great degree, but Scott
trip chairman of the San Fernando Valley the Ontario, California, Bear Gulch Rock said he found good rock over a wide area.
Mineral and Gem Society recommends that Club. Members report the material was Field No. 3: Leave Jericho, Utah, and head
of inferior quality. Green and yellow verde
hobbyists take pick and shovel to this col- antique marble specimens were collected at west. Keep right at fork about one mile
lecting area. Here are directions to Tick the old quarries on the hillsides, but the west of town, a good bladed road which
Canyon: drive north on U. S. Highway 6 more highly prized vivid lemon-colored leads to Simpson Spring and Goshute Moun-
to approximately three miles beyond the marble was scarce. tain. About 10 miles from Jericho road
Solemint Junction. Turn right at the new climbs to a low pass. There are rock out-
plastics factory onto the Davenport Road, crops on both sides of the road—agate and
and follow this paved route over the hill Road to Cady "Excellent" . . . jasper. Best deposits are found on right.
about one mile to Tick Canyon and the old This material is in huge veins outcropping
Crucero, Calif.—Mrs. Robert L. Pitzer of on top and sides of the hills. The jasper is
borax mine. Park on either side of the Arcadia, Calif., writes that the road to the
highway or drive the additional quarter-mile excellent. Agate is not as plentiful. Scott
Cady Mountains in the heart of the Mojave says there is a thousand tons of cutting ma-
up the canyon. The water in the canyon is Desert is in excellent condition: "We went
not fit for drinking, and firewood is scarce. terial exposed on the surface. It appeared
by jeep, but four-wheel-drive was not neces- that the area had been filed on, but Scott
The hills back of the old mine have yielded sary for conventional cars and even large
many fine moss, plume and banded agates saw no evidence of assessment work.
and jaspers. Beautiful and very high grade travel trailers were parked in many of the
bloodstone is found farther up the canyon more remote canyons. The main route north
back of the mine, Nichols said. Bloodstone to Crucero recently was graded. The side
is scarce in this area. canyon routes were rough, but well used. Enough Agate for All . . .
North of Crucero there is heavy sand, and
though some cars got through, we could St. Johns, Ariz.—William Garrett of Ka-
see where they had trouble." nab, Utah, reports there is enough agate in
the St. Johns vicinity to satisfy all rock-
hounds. Here are the directions sent by
Get UNITRON's FREE Rare Borate Crystal . . . Garrett to the most promising locale: travel
Boron, Calif.—Members of the Pomona north on Highway 666 about five miles from
Valley Mineral Club and the Arrowhead St. Johns. Both sides of the highway in this
Mineralogical Society recently staged a suc- vicinity are productive. Garrett found moss,
cessful field trip to the rich Boron area. iris, banded, amber, black and some blue
An inderite crystal proved to be the most to clear specimens. The hills in this area
highly prized specimen collected that week are grassy, and the best place to hunt for
end. Inderite is a rare colorless to gray minerals is where the hills show weather-
magnesium borate mineral, and Boron is ing. Remember to shut all gates behind you.
This valuable 38-page book the only place on earth where inderite has
is yours for the asking! been found in its crystal form. It has a
With artificial satellites already launched and space glassy appearance and very pronounced
travel almost a reality, astronomy has become today's cleavage. Also uncovered were lesserite
fastest growing hobby. Eixploring the skies with a tele- crystals, and ulexite, colemanite and realgar
scope is a relaxing diversion for father and son alike.
UNITRON's handbook contains full-page illustrated
articles on astronomy, observing, telescopes and acces-
sories. It is of interest to both beginners and advanced
specimens. Gem clubs may secure permis-
sion to collect minerals in the Pacific Coast
Borax Company's huge dump adjacent to
the Boron Open Pit Mine by writing to
Chief Chemist Vince Morgan, c/o the
Complete • Accurate
Contents include— Guaranteed
• Observing the sun,
moon, planets and Highest quality spectrographic.
wonders of the sky
• Constellation map Fossils In Highway Cut . . . Only $5 per sample
• Hints for observers Topeka, Kansas •— Local rockhounds are REED ENGINEERING
• Glossary of telescope terms discovering that the highway excavations
• How to choose a telescope immediately east of the Calhoun Bluff area 620-R SO. INGLEWOOD AVE.
• Amateur clubs and research are productive fossil collecting areas. Well INGLEWOOD 1, CALIFORNIA
preserved marine fossils, as well as coal
forest fossils, were collected here. Some of
the tiny mollusks found on the coal plants
are replacements in marcasite, and while
they are quite beautiful, they are extremely
delicate, the hobbyists reported.
Please rush to me, free sf charge, UNITRON's new Observer's
100 Pound Geode . . .
I Guide and Telescope Catalog 4 4 0

• Topok, Calif. — Long Beach hobbyists
spent a week end on the desert in the Topok
Street- area where, they report, excellent agate and
City- —State I geodes were collected. One club member 46 S. SCOTTSDALE ROAD • SCOTTSDALE, ARIZONA*,,,,
I. found a 100 pound geode.
By Dr. H. C. DAKE, Editor of The Mineralogist
No Synthetic Opal actly like a rule grating widely used in the
field of science. FOR LESS
Precious fire opal stands as the last of We are not certain as to the cause of
Congo Dia Blades — Sizes
the gems that cannot be produced in the color in fire opal, and until this enigma is
Range from 4" to 24" in
laboratory even in passable imitation or solved little progress is likely to be made
Light, Standard, Heavy
duplication. Many workers have tried for in laboratory production of precious fire
and Extra Heavy duty.
centuries, but opal defies all of man's efforts. opal. It is also possible that opal will con-
Ruby, sapphire, emerald and many others tinue to resist all efforts at imitation, as it Highland
have long since fallen to the laboratory has done for centuries. Theoretically, the
worker. Diamond recently has been pro- problem is a simple one, but often "simple
duced in the laboratory, and will likely problems" have proven to be the most Trim Saws
appear in manufactured gem form in the stubborn to solve. C o m p a c t and
not too distant future. rugged for long
Over the years we have seen numerous Let us hope that our flaming and most lasting service.
types of manufactured "opal," usually some magnificent of all gems will continue to HI Trim Saw
type of glass. All are miserable failures resist laboratory duplication. It is com-
which even the untrained layman can read- forting to know that we have at least one
ily distinguish from the real thing. most colorful and valuable gem of which A Leader
we may be certain that it is not man-made.
The cause of the flashing flames of In Its Field
fire on opal are generally thought to be due More Permits
to minute fractures either open, or once Highland Park Power-feed
From club bulletins in various parts of Slab Saws. Sizes range
present and resealed. These minute incipi- the country we learn of various restrictions from 12" to 24". Metal
ent fractures are thought to act like a prism being placed on entry into collecting or Lucite hood.
or grating, breaking up white light into its grounds. In many cases these are due to
component colors. This seems to be the careless and unthinking people who may
most logical cause of the flaming colors. All damage machinery in a quarry, or meet with
of the most careful chemical examinations an accident. In both cases the innocent and
indicate that "common" opal, showing no accommodating property owner must foot Highland Park Combination Unit
flashes of color, is identical to the far more the bill. Available in all sizes. Perfect Combination
valuable fire opal. Some quarries and gravel pits in the Unit for Lapidary work. Handles sawing,
grinding, sanding and polishing. Excep-
Efforts have been directed at simulating Midwest and East are now charging a tionally quiet operation.
these fractures in common opal. At present nominal 50c entrance fee. This is not for
laboratory workers are subjecting common profit for the property owner. The charge
opal to high vibrations by mechanical means is made to enable the property owner to
and by electrical thermal currents. hire a man on Sundays to ride herd on the
Other workers are starting with various public. This is done rather than close the
silica gels. Opal generally is regarded as a place entirely. Fear of accidents has also
low temperature deposition, while the sili- caused quarry owners and others to refuse
cas are higher temperature deposits. We do entrance to parties with youngsters. For
at times find quartz crystals showing natural pleasant pastime, youngsters have been E-10 Combination Unit
minute fractures as in the rare iris quartz. known to pour sand into the innards of
While this material does, to some extent, bearings and machinery. Arbors of all sizes — Tumblers, two
break up white light, the optical effect is models. Wet and dry belt sanders—
The celebrated dump at Franklin, New Lapidary units in two different sizes.
entirely different than that seen in fire opal. Jersey, known to collectors of magnificent
The better known iris agate comes closer fluorescents, is a city-owned property, where 32 MODELS TO CHOOSE FROM
to fire opal than any other silica. The once anyone could enter and dig and gather The most complete line of lapidary machin-
cause of color in iris agate is due simply valuable specimens. Now it is necessary to ery offered by any manufacturer. See these
at your local Highland Park dealer or write
to minute bands or lines in the agate—ex- apply to the local city chief of police for for free literature.
a special permit to enter these collecting
grounds. The reason? A Product of
A young teenager elected to climb high
Send For up on a dump and then roll down a huge
rock. It killed a young boy below.
Similar incidents will continue to close
more and more properties throughout the
of country. We fear printed admonitions as 1009-1011 Mission Street
Jewelry Mountings — Findings — Tools presented here are futile, but we continue South Pasadena, California
Equipment — Supplies — Books, etc. to run them from time to time.
Offering Top-Quality Merchandise at Better Labels
Reasonable Prices
Send 35c for your copy
Those who sell various gem and mineral
items should give attention to the proper
Money refunded on first $5 order
and correct labeling and identification of the
material. A common and well known local
TERRY'S LAPIDARY Immediate Delivery — Prepaid
3616 E. Gage Ave., Bell, California name for some material is likely to mean
LUdlow 5-0217 nothing to the customer at a distance; hence Bell Caps Gold/Rhod. PI.'
Bell Caps Sterling Silver*
25c doz. $1.80 gross
60c doz. $.1.50 H gr.
when a common local name is used, the Sli.nli gross
proper and correct mineral or gem term Bolo Slides N. PI. %" disc 50c doz. $2.80 14 gr.
should be included. Bolo Tips N. PI. IV*"
$4.70 gross
60c doz. $3.15 i,4 gr.
We get complaints on this from time to $5.70 gross
TUMBLED A s s o r t e d m I x t u r e of f i n e time. Obviously the seller in these cases has Bolo Cords Rayon Assorted 70c doz. $3.70 }4 gr.
GEMSTONE Baroques, consisting of $6.65 gross
no intent of fraud or deception; it is merely •Add 10% F.E.T. Calif. Res. add 4% sales tax
JASPER • PETRIFIED WOOD • TIGER- a matter of carelessness. Correct, and ac- FREE CATAIiOG showing easy to use and
EVE • APACHE TEARS. One pound curate labels often mean repeat orders, or inexpensive JEWELRY PARTS.
contains approximately 100 to 140 stones— orders for additional materials. A shabby
$4.00 pins postage. Discounts to dealers. or careless label is likely to convey the JEWELGEMS b y JAY O'DAY
1 1 1 3 9 ' / 2 W. MAGNOLIA BLVD., NORTH HOLLYWOOD, CAL. impression that the material is more or less P.O. Box 1000-D Thousand Palms, California

MAY, 1959 41
Qu5t Hetween If on and Me
V \V


Y SINCERE appreciation to Chuck Shelton for falls, and even in dry seasons there are numerous springs
the generous manner in which he announced my and waterholes where the rare bighorn sheep come to
departure on March 1 from an active role at the drink.
editorial desk of Desert Magazine. Chuck is right, I Thanks to the generosity of one of my neighbors,
really have no thought of retiring to a padded arm chair. Philip Boyd, 1500 acres in the lower sector of Deep
There are still too many mountains to climb. Not the Canyon have been given to the University of California
peaks which require the physical stamina for long hours to be preserved in perpetuity as a wildlife research sanctu-
on steep trails with a pack on my back. At 71 I am too ary. Members of the science faculty will come down
old for that. But there are other more difficult peaks— here to study problems of ecology and evolution in an
peaks of understanding in the broad field of human rela- undisturbed natural desert garden.
tions, which still seem to be beyond the mental prowess And why is that important to you and me? Well, the
of we humans who live on this earth. answer to that question is good for our humility. Those
For instance, I still do not understand why, within plants and animals, or their predecessors, were on this
my lifetime, the German people have twice attempted by earth long before man's ancestors climbed down out of
war to prove they are a master race—under the leader- the trees of the ancient world, began developing some
ship of two of the most brutal butchers in history. Nor brain cells with which to think, and acquired a language
am I able to understand why, if communism is as good for the communication of ideas. Man is a comparatively
medicine as the Russians say it is, they find it necessary late arrival on this planet.
to defend and promote it with a total disregard for truth Those plants and animals—the poets call them flora
and honor. Nor is it clear to me why, in this American and fauna, and the scientists refer to them as biota—
land of plenty where one segment of the population is would be tending to their own affairs and thriving if
drunk with wealth, another segment of 5,000,000 workers there were no humans on this earth—in fact they would
and their families are facing the prospect of a meager do better if there were no two-legged anthropoids—that's
subsistence on charity. you and me—plowing up the land, polluting the atmos-
The answers to such questions as these are the peaks phere and cluttering up the landscape.
yet to be scaled by the men and women who live on this They could get along very well without us—but we
earth. And in the meantime I am grateful that two young would not long survive if it were not for them, or their
men as honorable and as capable as Chuck Shelton and kind. Without that mysterious process known as photo-
Gene Conrotto have relieved me of the tedious work of synthesis which takes place in the leaves and blades of
meeting weekly payrolls and computing taxes and reject- plants, wherein the sun's enegry is converted to sugar
ing unsuitable manuscripts. I never did enjoy that part and other products, there would be neither food for man
of my job—the rejection of the work of honest aspiring nor oxygen for him to breathe.
journalists who had not yet mastered the art of writing The scientists still have much to learn about the
copy acceptable to a cranky editor. dependence of one form of life on another—and it is
I'll miss the smell of printer's ink, after 48 years good to know that Deep Canyon has been selected as an
around a printshop, but Cyria has provided a delightful outdoor laboratory, and also that this lovely watering
substitute. The window of my little home workshop looks place for the bighorns is to be preserved in all its primeval
out on a colorful garden of petunias, snapdragons and beauty.
fragrant stocks which have had her loving care since * * *
last winter. Just now two hummingbirds are out there It appears that some members of the plant world
getting their morning meal, and I have no doubt they have a sort of built-in discipline which enable them to
also are grateful to the gal who planted the flowers. In thrive without becoming a menace to each other. For
the background of my picture window is the 8000-foot instance Encelia or incense bush exudes from its leaves
ridge of the Santa Rosa Mountains where, up near the a chemical substance which poisons the earth beneath
summit early in 1937, Wilson McKenney and I sat be- them so other plants cannot gain a foothold and thus
side our campfire and resolved we would start a Desert threaten their existence. And Larrea or creosote bush
Magazine. disseminates from its roots a substance which prevents
* * * the germination of other seeds of the same species in
close proximity to the plant which already has staked
Between the flower garden and the top of the ridge out that claim for itself. Birth control! Surely it is a
beyond is a great precipitous gash in the mountainside more humane method than is the unrestricted breeding
known as Deep Canyon. In the spring when the snow in some parts of the world of more human beings than
above is melting, water pours down over three high water- the resources of the land will support.

Desert Dawn
Los Angeles, California

Desert dawn is a peacock Desert night is a falcon,

Strutting across the sky, Black wings folded and still,
Tail fanned out in glory, ^Watchful eye half wakeful—
Haughty head held high. Dormant the himter's will.
A/1 *M*«4»4i I i l n ^ brilliant flower of the desert, growing below 5000 feet, the Desert Mariposa Lily is one of the
IVI III I p U 5 U LI lip loveliest in the Southwest. This flower blooms from March to May, more often singly than in colonies.

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