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'Drdkua&pDESifhzGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;pk
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NDD-DRD
P.O Box 179
Mae Sot, Tak
63110, Thailand
ndddrd07@csloxinfo.com

2

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6

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7

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zG@H +zKd ;a&;toif;. Zmwdo&kyrf eS u
f kd ud,
k w
f ikd u
f ,
kd u
f s avhvmod&cdS iG hf &&Sv
d rd rhf nfjzpfayonf?
jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;tm; axmufct
H m;ay;aejcif;onf jynfov
l x
l t
k m; zdEydS af eaom etz
ppftpd;k &udk axmufcaH ejcif;omjzpfa=umif; od&v
dS mayvdrrhf nf? wqufwnf;Yyif jynfov
l l
xktm;vk;H Ekid if aH &;tod Ed;k =um;vm+y;D +ird ;f csr;f a&;ESihf 'Dru
kd a&pDyef;wdik o
f pfqo
D @kd wnDw!$wf
wnf; av#mufvrS ;f Edik =f urnf jzpfayonf?

8

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk

tcef ; (1)
jynf a xmif p k } uH @ cd k i f a &;ES i f h z G H @ +zd K ;a&;toif ; zG J @ pnf ; yk H ?
jynfcikd +f zdK; (ac: ) jynfaxmifp}k uhcH ikd af &;ESizhf +HG zdK;a&;toif;udk 1993 ckEpS /f pufwif
bmv 15 &ufae@wiG f toif;tzG@J zG@J pnf;a&;qdik &f mOya' Association Law (SLORC Law
6/88) atmufwi
G f ppftpk;d &u uruxjyKI zG@J pnf;wnfaxmifcjhJ cif; jzpfonf? jynfxaJ &;
0ef}uD;XmewGif rSww
f rf;wif&mY jynfot
l usK;d udk o,fy;kd aqmif&u
G rf nf@ vlra_ &;tzG@J wpfck
taejzifo
h m rSwyf w
kH ifcahJ omfvnf; wu,fv
h ufawG@wiG rf l ppftm%m&Sif oufq;kd &Snaf pa&;
twGuf w&m;0ifygww
D pfct
k oGif zefw;D +yD; Edik if aH &;avmuxJo@kd 0ifa&muf&ef ajcvSr;f jyif
ae+yD jzpfonf? 2005 ckEpS /f 'DZifbmv (6)&ufae@ eHeufyidk ;f &efuek +f rKd @/ wuUov
kd &f yd o
f mvrf;&Sd
jynfcikd +f zKd ; A[dXk mecsKyw
f iG f jyKvyk cf o
hJ nfh owif;pm&Si;f vif;yGw
J iG f jynfcikd +f zKd ; taxGaxGtwGi;f
a&;rSL; OD;aX;OD; (ac: ) Adv
k cf sKyfaX;OD;u Ekid if aH &;tajctaeESihf vlxq
k ENtay:rlwnf+y;D tzG@J 0if
(22)oef;ausm&f adS om jynfcikd +f zdK;tzG@J ukd Ekid if aH &;ygww
D pf&yftjzpf ajymif;vJz@JG pnf;aumif;
zG@J pnf;rnf[k t&dyt
f jrGuf ajym=um;cJo
h nf?
wqufwnf;Yyif toif;.pkz@JG y/Hk avhusio
hf if=um;ay;ykEH iS hf v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;t& etz
ppftpd;k &onf ‚if;wd@k .tm%mwnf+rJa&;twGuf jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;udk Ekid if aH &;awmifyH
(Political Wing) wpfct
k aejzifh tok;H cs&ef&nf&,
G +f yD; zG@J pnf;cJo
h nfrmS xif&mS ;ayonf?
jynfcidk +f zdK;toif;tm; A[dek m,uESifh em,utzG@J rsm;/ taxGtaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;/
wGzJ uftwGi;f a&;rSL;/ A[kt
d vkyrf a_ qmifaumfrwDEiS hf t+rJwrf;tzG@J 0ifrsm;jzifh zG@J pnf;xm;
onf? txl;ojzifh A[dek m,utzG@J 0ifrsm;wGif wyfrawmfumuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf/ 'kw,
d wyfr
awmfumuG,af &;OD;pD;csKy/f umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf (=unf;)/ umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKy(f av)/ umuG,f
a&;OD;pD;csKyf(a&)/ ppfr[mAsL[m avhvma&;Xme}uD;rSL;/ ppfa&;csKyf/ ppfaxmufcsKyf/ ppfO;D pD;
t&m&Scd sKy(f =unf;)ESihf ppfwikd ;f rSL;rsm;tm;vk;H yg0ifonfukd awG@&&Sd onf? A[dek m,utzG@J 0ifrsm;
jzpf=uonfh ppfwikd ;f rSL;rsm;onf oufqikd &f m jynfe,fEiS w
hf ikd ;f toif;rsm;wGif em,ursm;
2
jzpfae=uonfukd awG@&&Sd onf? xd@k tjyif toif;. taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;/ twGi;f a&;rSL;
tzG@J 0ifrsm;ESihf A[dt
k vkyt
f r_aqmifaumfrwDtzG@J 0ifrsm;udv
k nf; ppftpd;k & 0ef}uD;rsm;/ 'k
0ef}uD;rsm;ESihf zG@J pnf;xm;onfukd awG@&onf?
jynfcikd +f zKd ;toif;udk wdik ;f tqif/h c¶dik t
f qif/h +rKd @e,ftqif/h &yfuu
G t
f qif/h aus;&Gm
tqif[
h I
l us,u
f s,jf yef@jyef@ zG@J pnf;xm;+yD; toif;udk txufraS tmufo@kd qifu
h q
J ifu
h J
vkyyf ikd cf iG t
hf m%mtyfEiS ;f xm;aom zG@J pnf;ykrH sKd ;jzifh vnfywfaqmif&u
G o
f nf? od@k aomfvnf;
jynfcidk +f zdK;toif;. A[kXd mecsKyfrS aus;&Gmrsm;&St
d oif;cGrJ sm;txd &mxl;}uD;rsm;udk ppfwyf

9

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

xdyyf ikd ;f t&m&S}d uD;rsm;uom qkyu
f ikd x
f m;onf? xd@k jyif jynfcidk +f zdK;toif;onf jrefrmEdik if H
w0Sr;f vH;k &Sd aus;&Gm&yfuu
G f &,u OuUXrsm;ESihf +rdK@e,f r,u OuUXrsm;udv
k nf; vkyk yf ikd cf iG hf
tm%mrsm; ay;tyfxm;onfukd awG@&onf? xdo
k @kd vkyyf ikd cf iG t
hf m%mrsm; ay;tyfxm;jcif;
onf oufqdkif&mwm0ef&Sdolrsm;udk t=urf;zufr_rsm;/ vl@tcGifhta&;csdK;azmufr_rsm;ESifh
vmbfay;vmbf,rl r_ sm; ydrk u
kd sL;vGev
f map&ef wGe;f tm;ay;ouJo
h @kd jzpfaeonf?
toif;.vkyif ef;rsm;udk ykrH eS v
f y_ &f mS ;aqmif&u
G Ef ikd &f eftwGuf etztm%mydik rf sm;
u &kyyf ikd ;f qdik &f m taxmuftulypPn;f rsm;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;tcGit
hf vrf;rsm;udk pDpOfaqmif&u
G af y;
3
k nf; toif;.e,ursm;jzpfaom a'oqdik &f m ppfwikd ;f rSL;
onf? jynfcikd +f zKd ;toif;¶H;k rsm;udv
rsm;tjyif oufqikd &f m jynfe,f/ wdik ;f wm0efcH A[dt
k vkyt
f r_aqmifaumfrwDtzG@J 0if 0ef}u;D
rsm;. yH@y;kd aqmif&u
G rf j_ zihf zG@J pnf;avh&o
Sd nf? xd@k a=umifh jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;rsm;ESihf &H;k rsm;onf
ppftpd;k &. pD;yGm;a&;taxmuftyH@rsm;&&d+S yD; ykrH eS v
f nfywf aqmif&u
G af eEdik jf cif; jzpfonf?
txufazmfjyyg zG@J pnf;ykrH sm;udk =unfjh cif;tm;jzifh jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;onf etzppf
tm%m&Sirf sm;u zG@J pnf;ay;xm;aom vufuikd w
f w
k t
f zG@J wpfck taejzifo
h mru etz tm
%m&Sirf sm;ud,
k w
f idk f yg0ifaeaom tm%m&tzG@J tpnf;}u;D wpfck jzpfaeonfukd awG@Eikd o
f nf?
jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;. taxGaxGtwGi;f a&rSL;jzpfol v,f,mpdu
k yf sK;d a&;ESihf qnf
ajrmif;0ef}uD;Xme 0ef}uD; (Adv
k cf sKyf)OD;aX;OD;u jynfcidk +f zdK;toif;. OD;wnfcsurf sm;onf Edik if H
awmf+ird 0f yfyjd ym;r_ wnfaqmufa&;tzG@J (e0w) (1997 ckEpS t
f xd ac:a0:ok;H pGcJ ahJ om ppftpd;k &
trnf). OD;wnfcsurf sm;ESihf tvm;wljzpfa=umif;/ toif; pwifz@JG pnf;wnfaxmif+yD; &uf
owWywftenf;i,ftwGi;f Y xkwaf zmfajymqdck o
hJ nf?4
jynfcidk +f zKd ;toif;0ifrsm;tm;vH;k onf jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if EH iS hf jrefrmEdik if o
H m;wd@k
tm; opPm&S&d ef/ 'd@k wm0efta&;oH;k yg;twdik ;f vdu
k ef musi}hf uH&ef/ at;csr;f om,m+yD; acwfrD
zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufaom Edik if aH wmfopf}uD;ay:xGe;f vm&ef/ r&yfrem; }udK;yrf;tm;xkw=f u&efEiS hf
toif;}uD;.usi0hf wf(Code of Conducts)rsm;udk vdu
k ef m&ef usr;f opPm used q
f =kd u&onf?5
'd@k wm0efta&;oH;k yg;rSm jynfaxmifprk +ydKuGaJ &;/ wdik ;f &if;om;pnf;vH;k nD!w
$ rf _ r+ydKuGaJ &;ESihf
tcsKyftcsmtm%mwnfwchH idk +f rJa&; wd@k jzpfonf? jynfcidk +f zdK;toif;onf Edik if aH &;/ pD;yGm;a&;/
vlra_ &; OD;wnfcsu(f 12)&yf zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufa&;udv
k nf; OD;wnfaqmif&u
G &f onf? jynfcikd +f zdK;
toif;u csrw
S x
f m;aom tqdyk g OD;wnfcsu(f 12)&yfEiS hf 'd@k wm0efta&; (3)yg;wd@k rmS wu,f
vufawG@wiG f tESpo
f m&tm;jzifh uif;rJ+h yD; 0g'jzef@csad &;r#om jzpfayonf?
od@k aomfvnf; jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;onf Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;udk wdu
k f¶u
kd +f cdr;f ajcmufae
aom t=urf;zufrr_ sm; jzpfay:vmatmif toH;k jyKEdik o
f nfh tcsu(f 4)&yfyg jynfo@l oabm
xm;rsm;udk csrw
S cf o
hJ nf? tqdyk g jynfo@l oabmxm;(4)&yfrmS jynfytm;ud;k ykqed ¶f ;kd / tqd;k jrif
0g'rD sm;tm; qef@usi=f u/ Edik if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;ESihf zG@H +zKd ;wd;k wufa&;udk aESmif,
h u
S zf suf

10

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk

qD;olrsm;tm; qef@usi=f u/ Edik if aH wmf.jynfwiG ;f a&;udk 0ifa&mufpu
G zf uf aESmuf,u
S af om
jynfyEkid if rH sm;tm; qef@usi=f u/ jynfwiG ;f jynfy tzsuo
f rm;rsm;tm; bH&k efot
l jzpf owfrw
S f
acsre_ ;f =u [lIjzpfonf? jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;.vkyif ef;onf tqdyk g tcsu(f 4)csuu
f kd udik q
f I
JG
ppftpd;k &tm; xdyg;vmolreS o
f r#ukd tjrpfjywfacsre_ ;f &efyif jzpfonf?
jynfcikd +f zKd ;toif;udk ppftm%m&Sio
f ufq;kd &Snaf p&efEiS hf ppftpd;k &tm; qef@usiv
f m
olrsm;udk wdu
k cf u
kd af csre_ ;f &ef &nf&,
G zf @JG pnf;xm;onf@tavsmuf jynfcikd +f zKd ;toif;rS usL;vGef
aom vky&f yftm;vk;H twGuf etzppftpd;k &xHwiG o
f m vH;k 0 wm0ef&adS yonf? jynfcidk +f zdK;
toif;tm; tm%mv$aJ jymif;ay;jcif;onf etzppftpd;k &taejzifh omreft&yfom; tpd;k &
wpf&yfukd trnfcw
H pfct
k aejzifo
h m zG@J pnf;ay;+y;D ‚if;wd@k .tm%mudk qufvufcsKyfuikd x
f m;
Edik af &;twGuf }udK;yrf;r_wpfcyk ifjzpfayonf?

-----------------------------

11

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

tcef ; (2)
jynfcdkif+zdK;toif;. toif;om;opf wdk;csJ@pkaqmif;jcif;enf;AsL[mrsm;ESifh ynm
a&;/ pD ; yG m ;a&;/ usef ; rma&;ES i f h tjcm;
u ¾rsm;wG i f 0if a &muf p G u f z uf a er_ r sm;?
tjcm;u
jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;0if ta&twGuo
f nf ae@csi;f ncsi;f w[kex
f ;kd
wd;k wufrsm;jym;vmcJo
h nf? 1996 ckEpS f aESmif;ydik ;f umvrsm;wGif toif;0ifaygi;f (5) oef;ausmf
6
r#om &Scd o
hJ nf? od@k aomfvnf; 2007 ckEpS w
f iG f jynfe,f/ wkid ;f tqifh toif;aygi;f 17 oif;/
c&kid t
f qifh toif;aygi;f 66 oif;/ +rdK@e,ftqifh toif;aygi;f 320/ &yfuu
G af us;&Gm tqifh
toif;aygi;f 15334 oif; zG@J pnf;cJ+h yD;/ toif;0iftjzpf todtrSwjf yK+yD;ol 24 '\r 5
oef;txd tqrwef wd;k wufrsm;jym;vmcJo
h nf?7 jrefrmjynfvOl ;D a& pkpak ygi;f (55) oef;ausmf
&So
d nft
h euf (24) oef;ausmo
f nf jynfcidk +f zdK;toif;0ifrsm; jzpfvmcJo
h nf? tb,fa=umifh
Tod@k wd;k wufrsm;jym;vm&oenf;?
jynfaxmifp}k uH@cikd af &;ESizhf @HG +zdK;a&;toif;. zG@J pnf;ykYH toif;om;pkaqmif;&mwGif
qEN&o
Sd rl sm;udo
k m pkaqmif;a=umif; azmfjyxm;onf? toif;om;rsm;udk t&G,af &muf+y;D onfh
ouf}u;D toif;om;ESihf t&G,rf a&mufao;onfh oufi,ftoif;om;[lI (2)rsK;d cGx
J m;onf?
touf (10) rS touf (18)ESpt
f =um; &So
d rl sm;udk oufi,ftoif;om;rsm;/ touf (18)ESpf
txuf&o
dS rl sm;udk ouf}u;D toif;om;rsm;tjzpf owfrw
S x
f m;onf?8
jynfcikd +f zKd ;tm%mydik rf sm;onf toif;om;opfpak qmif;&mwGif qENtavsmuf[k
ok;H E_e;f xm;aomfvnf; wu,fv
h ufawG@wiG rf l toif;0ifjzpf&efqENr&Sad om tpd;k &0efxrf;rsm;/
ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;&Sirf sm;yg0ifonfh jrefrmjynfov
l x
l u
k kd toif;
0ifrsm;jzpfvmatmif pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;/ ynma&;/ use;f rma&;ESihf tjcm;u¾rsm;wGif enf;rsK;d
pkjH zifh rufv;kH ay; qGaJ qmifpnf;&k;H jcif;rsm; jyKvkycf o
hJ nf? xd@k jyif enf;trsK;d rsK;d jzifh +cdr;f ajcmuf
t=uyfuikd I
f twif;t"rRpak qmif;jcif;rsm;vnf; jyKvyk cf o
hJ nf? TonfrmS jynfcikd +f zKd ;toif;
. t"du toif;om;pkaqmif;a&;enf;AsL[m tppftrSerf sm;jzpf+yD; jrefrmhv@l tzG@J tpnf;.
t"dutcef;u¾rsm;wGif wjznf;jznf; ae&m,lvmcJo
h nf? vlxt
k wGi;f Yvnf; ta=umufw
&m;rsm;ESihf pd;k &drpf w
d rf sm; ydrk w
kd ;kd yGm;vmapcJo
h nf?
jynfcikd +f zKd ;tm%mydik rf sm;onf jynfov
l x
l u
k kd enf;trsK;d rsK;d jzihf vdrv
f nfvn
S jhf zm;I
ppftpd;k &vufuikd w
f w
k f jynfcikd +f zKd ;toif;od@k 0ifa&mufapcJo
h nf? toif;om;opfrsm; pkaqmif;
&mwGif jynfov
l x
l .
k tdraf xmifpk pm&if;Z,m;rsm;udk =unfI
h touf(15) ESprf S (30)ESpf
twGi;f &So
d rl sm;udk jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;0if tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ touf (30)ESihf (40)t=um;
&So
d rl sm;udk pGr;f tm;&Sit
f zG@J 0ifrsm; tjzpfvnf;aumif; twif;t"rR pm&if;xnfo
h iG ;f cJo
h nf?

12

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk

touf(18)ESpt
f xuf trsK;d orD;rsm;udv
k nf; ppfAv
kd cf sKyu
f awmfrsm; OD;aqmifonfh trsK;d orD;
9
a&;&mtzG@J wiG f twif;t"rR 0ifa&mufapcJo
h nf? xd@k jyif rdom;pktzG@J 0ifrsm; jyefvnfppd pfay;
onf[q
k I
kd &Gmol&mG om; trsm;tjym;udv
k nf; jynfcidk +f zKd ;toif;0if av#mufvm$ rsm;udjk znfh
&ef twif;tusyf zdtm;ay;cJ=h uonf? tjcm;enf;vrf;wckrmS a&G;aumufyrJG sm;twGuf
oef;acgipf m&if; aumufco
H nf[q
k I
kd jynfov
l x
l u
k kd jynfcidk +f zKd ;toif;od@k vdrv
f nfow
G o
f iG ;f
10
cJjh cif;jzpfonf?
txl;ojzifh toif;od@k 0ifa&muf&ef wpfenf;wzHt
k m;jzifh ysuu
f u
G f (od@k )jiif;qef
olrsm;udk ynma&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ use;f rma&;ESihf vlra_ &;udprP sm;wGif trsK;d rsK;d taESmuft,Suf
ay;+y;D tcGit
hf vrf;rsm; enf;yg;atmif jyKvyk cf o
hJ nf? om"uwpfct
k aejzifh yJc;l wkid ;f / ausmuf
}u;D +rKd @e,f&dS vufeufuikd u
f &ifwidk ;f &if;om;rsm; xde;f csKyf&me,fajrrsm;wGif v,f,mvkyif ef;
jzifh toufarG;ae=uaom &Gmom;rsm;udk tm%mydik rf sm;u 1993 ckEpS w
f iG f vufeufuikd o
f yl ek f
rsm;ESihf tquftoG,v
f yk o
f nf[pk yG pf u
JG m twif;t"rR a&G@ajymif;cJ+h yD; ‚if;wd@k v,f,majr
rsm;wGif v,f,mvkyu
f ikd cf iG u
hf ykd g wm;jrpfyw
d yf ifco
hJ nf? od@k aomfvnf; tm%mydik rf sm;u tqdk
ygv,form;tcsK@d ukd ‚if;wd@k taejzifh jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;od@k 0ifa&mufygu qk;H &_;H oGm;cJah om
v,f,majrrsm;udk jyefvnfvyk u
f ikd cf iG ahf y;rnf[k pnf;&k;H qGaJ qmifco
hJ nf?11 tm%mydik rf sm;
taejzifh &d;k om;r_r&So
d nfrmS odomxif&mS ;vSayonf?
jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;od@k 0ifa&muf&ef zdtm;ay;r_ trsm;qH;k cH&olrsm;rSm ausmif;ol
ausmif;om;/ vli,frsm;/ tpd;k &0efxrf;rsm;eSihf pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;&Sirf sm; jzpfonf? ausmif;ol
ausmif;om;rsm;onf jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;od@k r0ifrae& twif;tusyf 0ifa&mufae&jcif;
a=umifh tzG@J 0ifrsm; jzpfae=uonf? tpd;k &0efxrf;rsm;tygt0if tpd;k &twGuf tvkyv
f yk u
f ikd f
aeonfh rnforl qdk jynfcidk +f zKd ;toif;od@k wm0efwpfct
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14

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
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15

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

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ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

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16

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
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17

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

tpD&ifcpH mt& jynfcikd +f zKd ;taejzihf Edik if aH wmfyikd yf pPn;f rsm;udk tok;H jyKI pD;yGm;a&;vkyu
f ikd cf &hJ m
30
tjrwfaiGppk ak ygi;f 362 oef; &&Scd o
hJ nf?
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31
pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;pGmudv
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onf &efuek w
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32
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cGaJ 0,l+yD; useo
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hJ nf?33
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hJ nf? om"utm;jzifh

18

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk

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wGiv
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f w
k af 0&mwGiv
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hJ nf?36
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37
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h nf?

19

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

tpd k ; &Xmersm;
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20

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21

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

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45
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22

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
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23

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

taetxm;od@k qdu
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h nf? OD;aZmfaZmfonf a':atmifqef;

24

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
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oGi;f pOf;pm;+yD; ygwrD ES w
k x
f u
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f jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;od@k 0ifa&mufc&hJ onf?59

-------------------------

25

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

tcef ; (3)
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jrefrmEdik if o
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enf;trsK;d rsK;d jzifh oGwo
f iG ;f vd=k uonf? vlrq
_ ikd &f mtzG@J tpnf;rsm;onf Ekifd if .
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f ikd rf sm;jzpf=uonf? xdt
k zG@J tpnf;rsm;udk ppftm%m&Sirf sm;

26

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk

u ‚if;wd@k . =oZmcHtjzpf }udK;yrf;aejcif;/ zsuo
f rd ;f z,f&mS ;jcif; od@k r[kwf xde;f csKyfaejcif;
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k jf rpfrsm;udk +zdKvSaJ ejcif;jzpf+yD;/
‚if;wd@k .tm%m qufvufwnf+rJa&;twGuf OD;wnf}udK;yrf;aejcif;om jzpfayonf?60
ppftm%m&Sirf sm;onf ‚if;wd@k .vufuikd w
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aoma=umifh jzpfayonf?

27

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

jynf o l @ tusd K ;awmf a qmif
ppftpd;k &vufuikd w
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Sd nf? tvSL

28

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk

aiG aumufc&H mwGiv
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f wGu[
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dk af umufcjH cif;
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vkyt
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62
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63
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h nf? xdt
k csed Yf jynfcikd +f zKd ;toif;u

29

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

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31

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32

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33

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

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k yfaomypPn;f rsm;udk axmuf
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k f tdik pf t
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f yfpmG vkyu
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f mG ;a&mufum Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;rsm;
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h nf?
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use;f rma&;vkyif ef;rsm;/ oifwef;rsm;ESihf ajcwkvyk if ef;rsm;tjyif Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;rsm;.
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tae qd;k 0g;vmcJo
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f &
ICRC tzG@J onf jrefrmjynf tusO;f axmifrsm;wGif Eki
d if aH &;tusO;f om;rsm;. tajctaersm;
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k ;kH I tusO;f

34

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk

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h wGuf tusO;f om;rsm;onf iSuzf sm;
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ESihf &ifqidk cf &hJ +yD; use;f rma&;tajctae qd;k 0g;vmcJo
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jywfvyfrr_ sm;ESihf tm%mydik rf sm;. tcsed rf u
D o
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jrefrmEdik if w
H 0Sr;f wGif usi;f ycJo
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csed rf pS wifI qef@usi&f w
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k qENrygyJ t
wif;t"rRac:,l pkaqmif;I Ekid if w
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axmufcyH rJG sm;udk wdik ;f ESijhf ynfe,ftES@H (77)ae&mwGif usi;f ycJo
h nf?84 xd@k jyif2005 ckEpS f aemuf
ydik ;f umvrsm;rSpI 2007 ckEpS u
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k al 0;yGrJ sm;udk Edik if w
H pf
0Sr;f usi;f yjyKvkycf o
hJ nf?

35

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

jynfcikd +f zKd ;tm%mydik rf sm;taejzihf ,if;twkta,mifaxmufcyH rJG sm;ESihf vlpv
k al 0;
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l x
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=urnfjzpfonf?
2003 ckEpS /f pufwifbmvwGif ppftpd;k &. vrf;jyajrykt
H m; axmufcq
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36

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk

aumufyt
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37

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

OD;wifO;D wd@k ukd qef@usi=f u”[k vufo;D vufarmif;wef;I atmf&onf? jynfov
l x
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kd =f uouJo
h @kd pdw0f ifpm;r_vnf;
92
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l x
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k ae@
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l x
l u
k kd tm%mydik rf sm;u
w&m;vGef +cdr;f ajcmufco
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r_rsm;a=umifrh [kwyf J '%faiGray;aqmifEikd I
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k &f efjzpfymG ;r_rsm;yif &Scd o
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kd mvtwGi;f yckuLU +rdK@wiG f jyKvkyaf om ppftpd;k
&. trsK;d om;nDvmcHaxmufcyH rJG sm;wGiv
f nf; jynfov
l x
l u
k kd wufa&muf&ef t"rR qifah c:cJh
onfukd awG@&onf? tm%mydik rf sm;u wufa&mufvmolrsm;udk usyaf iG (1500) usyaf y;+yD;
rwufa&mufv#if usyaf iG (3000)usyf jyefay;&rnf[k +crd ;f ajcmufco
hJ nf?96 xd@k jyif rauG;wdik ;f /
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38

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk

twif;tusyf pkaqmif;cJo
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k w
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J m;aom um;rsm;jzifh yd@k aqmifay;cJo
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,mOfyikd &f iS rf sm;ESihf jynfcikd +f zdK;tm%mydik rf sm; t=um;wGiv
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ta,mif axmufcyH rJG sm;wGif jynfov
l x
l u
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udv
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ta,mif vlpv
k al 0;yGrJ sm;udk tpDtpOftwdik ;f qufvufusi;f ycJo
h nf?
1994 ckepfwiG f yJc;l wkid ;f / jynf+rKd @Y usi;f yaom etzppftpd;k &tm; axmufcaH =umif;
jyoonfh vlpv
k al 0;yGw
J pfcw
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apcdik ;f cJo
h nf? jynforl sm;udk vlpv
k al 0;yGJ rusi;f ycifwpf&uftvdw
k iG f jc0H if;wpfcx
k YJ pk&;Hk apcJh
onf? jynforl sm;tm; tdro
f mtoH;k jyKcGiu
hf ykd if ydwyf ifxm;cJo
h nf? xdt
k ajctaersm;a=umifh
tcsKd @rmS xGuaf jy;vGwaf jrmuf&ef }uKd ;yrf;cJ=h uonf? xdu
k o
hJ @kd xGuaf jy;&ef }uKd ;yrf;olrsm;onf
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k Ef u
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aom trsK;d orD;(2)OD;tygt0if vlta,muf (20) '%f&m&&Scd o
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k al 0;
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xd@k jyif 2007 ckEpS /f atmufwb
kd mvtwGi;f Yvnf; rdo
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jynforl sm;udk o,faqmifvmonfu
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l csK@d
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D tqdyk gowif;tm; oufqikd f
100
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d m;ay; wufa&mufapcJo
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kd rf r_ sm;a=umifh vl(3)OD; aoqk;H cJh
102
onf?

39

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

2003 ckepf/ atmufwb
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!$ecf su(f 7)&yfyg 'Dru
kd a&pDvrf;jyajryHt
k m; axmufcaH =umif;jyoonfh vlpv
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J pfcu
k kd
usi;f ycJo
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jyKvyk af om trsK;d om;nDvmcHaxmufcyH rJG sm;udv
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h nf?104 awmif
wGi;f }uD;+rdK@wiG f Xmeqdik &f mwpfcv
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&ef tm%mydik rf sm;u zdtm;ay;cJo
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yk*+H rKd @Y usi;f ycJah om Road Map axmufcyH w
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wufa&mufc&hJ onf? wufa&muf&ef ysuu
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h nf? Oyrmtm;jzifh v,form;rsm;

40

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
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41

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42

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43

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kd m vufc&H &dcS o
hJ nf?
useaf iG (6000)udk avab;ulnaD &;tzG@J wiG yf g0ifaom jynfcidk +f zdK;/ trsK;d orD;a&;&mtoif;/

45

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

=uufajceD tzG@J EiS hf +rKd @e,ftyk cf sKyfa&;t&m&Srd sm;u tzG@J .tok;H p&dw[
f q
k u
kd m jzwfawmufchJ
onf? od@k aomfvnf; aiGvufiif;jzwfyikd ;f wGirf l usyaf iG (20000) &&Sad =umif;/ avab;tul
tnD &&So
d rl sm;u vufrw
S af &;xd;k ay;cJ&h onf? avab;tultnDrsm;udk jynfov
l x
l x
k o
H @kd
jynfjh ynf0h 0 xkwaf y;jcif;r&Sb
d J avab;ulnaD &;tzG@J u &ku
d pf m;/ jzwfpm; vkyjf cif;tay: raus
eyfI wm0ef &So
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h rl sm;udk wdik ;f rSL;Adv
k cf sKyaf rmifO;D trde@f jzihf zrf;qD;cJo
h nf?131
xd@k tjyif ppftpd;k &vufuikd w
f w
k jf zpfonfh jynfcidk +f zKd ;tzG@J 0ifrsm;onf jynfov
l x
l k
tay: enf;trsK;d rsK;d jzifh aiGa=u;aumufcjH cif;/ aiGrsm;tvGo
J ;Hk pm;jyKjcif; ponfh t*wdvu
dk pf m;
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f #u&f o
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H pfawm0ef}u;D XmerS bdu
k
av;+rKd @/ trSw(f &)&yfuu
G &f dS rlvwef;ausmif;twGuf y&dabm*rsm;0,f,&l ef csay;xm;onfh
aiG (4)ode;f udk ausmif;twGuf wpkw
H &m vkyrf ay;bJ jynfcikd +f zKd ;pnf;&k;H a&;rSL;rsm;u tvG;J ok;H
pm;jyKvyk cf o
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ausmif; jyKjyifaqmufvyk &f eftwGuf csay;xm;onfh aiGusyo
f ed ;f (30)udv
k nf; &yfuu
G af t;
csr;f om,ma&;ESihf zG@H +zdK;a&;aumifpD (&,u)OuUXESihf tzG@J 0ifrsm;u tvGo
J ;Hk pm; jyKvkycf hJ
132
onf?
ppftpd;k &vufuikd w
f w
k f jynfcikd +f zdK;tzG@J 0ifrsm;. rw&m;pD;yGm;&Smr_/ vmbfpm;r_
ponfh ud,
k u
f siw
hf &m; ysujf ym;r_rsm;a=umifh jynfov
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tm;jzifh rauG;wdik ;f / acsmuf+rKd @e,fwiG f &k;H aqmuf&ef txufrcS say;onfh usyaf iG ode;f (50)udk
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kd u
f sK;d twGuf ok;H pGcJ o
hJ nf? xd@k tjyif
a&eHajrtvkyo
f rm;rsm;. tyef;ajz&dyo
f mudo
k rd ;f ,lI jynfcikd +f zdK;&k;H rsm; zGiv
hf pS jf cif;/ &k;H
aqmufrnfh ajrae&may:wGif pm;aomufqikd rf sm;zGiv
hf pS +f y;D ud,
k u
f sK;d &Smjcif;rsm;udv
k nf; jyKvyk f
133
cJo
h nf?
tez tm%mydik rf sm;onf ‚if;wd@k .Edik if aH &;vrf;jyajrykt
H & topfjyefvnf usi;f y
rnfh taxGaxGa&G;aumufyw
JG iG f ‚if;wd@k ausmaxmufaemufcjH yK zG@J pnf;avhusiahf y;xm;aom
Ekid if aH &;toif;tzG@J rsm; aocsmaygut
f Ekid &f &Sad &;twGuf jynfov
l x
l .
k axmufcrH u
_ kd tyl
wjyif; vdt
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l w
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. vufuikd w
f w
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J tjcm;rnfonft
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r&&Sad tmif enf;vrf;trsK;d rsK;d tok;H jyKI }udK;yrf;tm;xkwcf o
hJ nf?

---------------------------

46

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk

tcef ; (4)
jynf c d k i f + zd K ;toif ; . Ed k i f i H a &;t=urf ; zuf r _ r sm;
jrefrmppftm%m&Sirf sm;u OD;aqmifz@JG pnf;xm;aom jynfcidk +f zdK;(ac: )jynfaxmif
pk}u@H cikd af &;ESizhf @HG +zKd ;a&;toif;onf ,Ofaus;odraf rG@aom jrefrmhvt
l zG@J tpnf;twGi;f Edik if aH &;
t=urf;zufrt
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k w
f ikd u
f ,
kd u
f s yg0ifywfoufco
hJ nfukd xifxif&mS ;&Sm; awG@jrif&
onf? ppftm%m&Sipf epf wnf+raJ &;ESihf ‚if;wd@k pw
d w
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H m;onfh zG@J pnf;ykt
H ajccHOya'
wck ay:ayguv
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qef@usio
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cJo
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2002 ckEpS /f ZGev
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f
v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;udk apmif=h unf&h efEiS hf tqdyk gvy_ &f mS ;r_rsm;udk wm;jrpfaESmuf,u
S &f ef wdu
k w
f eG ;f
134
ajym=um;cJo
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f yG +f zdKcGi;f cJo
h nf?
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f mrnfh jynf
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omrefjynforl sm;udk qEN&o
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wef;rsm;/ Edik if w
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f kd avhusio
hf if=um;ay;cJo
h nf? 2006-2007 ckEpS rf sm;
twGi;f Yyif jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;0if vli,faygi;f (3.1)oef;ausmu
f kd avhusiahf y;cJo
h nf?136
ppftpd;k &vufuikd w
f w
k f jynfcikd +f zdK; ac: jynfaxmifp}k uH@cikd af &;ESihf zG@+H zdK;a&;toif;
onf twdkuftcHtiftm;pkrsm;udk ypfrSwfxm;I EdkifiHa&;t=urf;zufr_rsm; usL;vGef&ef
pepfwus }uKd wifjyifqifco
hJ nfukd awG@&onf? 2003 ckEpS /f 'DZifbmv 31 &uf ae@pyJG g jynfcikd f
+zdK;toif;. awmifOuUvmypDrcH suw
f iG f twdu
k t
f cHtiftm;pkrsm;. rdom;pkrsm;twGi;f

47

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

pdw0f rf;uGjJ ym;vmap&ef tm;enf;csurf sm;udk azmfxw
k af qmif&u
G jf cif;/ twdu
k t
f cHtzG@J 0ifrsm;
udk wkev
f y_ af csmufjcm;apI trsm;.,k=H unfav;pm;r_ r&&Sad tmifaqmif&u
G jf cif;ESihf tzG@J 0if
tjzpfrS E_wx
f u
G af patmifaqmif&u
G jf cif; pojzifh jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;. aumufusp,
f w
k rf m
onfh acsre_ ;f a&;enf;AsL[mrsm;udk azmfjyxm;onf? tqd;k &Gm;qk;H rSm twdu
k t
f cHygwrD sm;
txl;ojzifh NLD ygw.
D rnfonfv
h y_ &f mS ;r_rsm;udrk qdk tiftm;ok;H I xdyw
f u
kd &f ifqikd f ajz&Si;f
137
cdik ;f onf@ enf;vrf;rsm;yif jzpfonf?
xd@k jyif 2005 ckEpS /f {+yDvwGiv
f nf; jynfcikd +f zdK;A[du
k NLD tzG@J csKyfukd +zdKcG&J ef enf;
AsL[mopfrsm; a&;qGcJ srw
S cf o
hJ nf? xdek nf;AsL[mopfrsm;wGif NLD tzG@J csKyf acgi;f aqmifrsm;
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k cf u
kd x
f m;onfh pmrsm;udk wpfEikd if v
H ;Hk twdik ;f twmESihf jzef@a0&ef/
NLD rS xkwy
f ,fcx
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ykrH sm;udk pepfwus rSww
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D &kd u
dk u
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f nfo
h iG ;f azmfjy&ef
138
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hf m%mrsm;
tjynft
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vkyif ef;rsm;wGiv
f nf; jynfcikd +f zKd ;tzG@J 0ifrsm; wpxufwp yg0ifywfoufvmcJ+h y;D twdu
k t
f cH
tzG@J tpnf;rsm;ESihf 'Dru
dk a&pDa&;axmufcv
H y_ &f mS ;olrsm;udk axmufvrS ;f apmif=h unfI
h t
xufo@kd owif;ay;yd@k onfh Informer tvkyrf sm;udyk g vkyaf qmifvmcJo
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rJh owfjzwfr/_ zrf;qD;r_rsm;wGiv
f nf; yg0ifywfoufvmcJo
h nfukd awG@&onf? tusK;d quf t
aejzihf toif;0ifvil ,frsm;t=um; vlru
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k usL;vGev
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_ y_ &f mS ;r_rsm;a=umifh jynfov
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rsm;ESihf t=urf;zufwu
kd cf u
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f ma&;qDo@kd OD;wnfvmapcJo
h nf? txl;ojzifh
jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;onf wenf;tm;jzifh ppftm%mydik rf sm;omjzpfonft
h wGuf Edik if t
H wGi;f
ay:ayguo
f nfh rnfonfjh y\emtwGurf qdk ppftpd;k &tm%mydik rf sm;Yom wm0ef&o
Sd nf?
2003 ckepf/ arv 30 &ufae@wiG f jzpfymG ;cJah om 'Dy,
J if;t=urf;zufro
_ nf jrefrm
Edik if w
H iG f ppfwyftyk cf sKyo
f nfu
h mvtwGi;f 1988 vlxt
k a&;awmfy+Hk y;D v#if 'kw,
d tqd;k &Gm;qk;H
aom Edik if aH &;t=urf;zufr}_ u;D jzpfonf? pnf;&k;H a&;c&D;xGuv
f maom a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf
NLD tzG@J 0ifrsm; pD;eif;vdu
k yf gvmonf,
h mOfwef;tm; 'Dy,
J if;+rdK@teD;w0du
k w
f iG f jynfcikd +f zdK;
tzG@J 0ifrsm;ESi@f tpd;k &opPmcHrsm;u pepfwus }udKwifppD OfI t=urf;zufwu
dk cf u
kd cf jhJ cif;jzpf

48

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk

onf? wwd,ajrmuf Edik if aH &;t=urf;zufro
_ nf2007 ckEpS /f =o*kwv
f ESihf pufwifbmvrsm;
wGif jzpfymG ;cJo
h nfh +ird ;f csr;f pGm qENjyaeom &[ef;&Siv
f jl ynforl sm;udk ppfwyf/ vkx
H ed ;f / jynfcikd +f zKd ;
ESihf pGr;f tm;&Siq
f o
kd rl sm;u &ufpufpmG t=urf;zuf+zKd cGi;f cJjh cif; jzpfonf? ,if;t=urf;zufrw
_ iG f
+ird ;f csr;f pGmqENjyaeaom &[ef;awmfrsm;tygt0if jynfov
l x
l k &mESichf sI
D aoqk;H cJ+h y;D axmif
aygi;f rsm;pGm zrf;qD;jcif;cHc&hJ onf? od@k aomfvnf; ppftpd;k &u aoqk;H olta&twGuEf iS hf zrf;qD;
cH&onfh ta&twGuw
f @kd ukd wdwu
d sus razmfjycJah y?
qufvufI jynfo@l ppfrsm;udk jynfcidk +f zKd ;toif;rSwqifh zG@J pnf;yH/k vH+k cKH a&;wyfz@JG rsm;
twGi;f &Sd jynfcidk +f zKd ;.tcef;u¾/ jynfcidk +f zKd ;tzG@J 0ifrsm;rS bmoma&;t=urf;zufrr_ sm; jzpfymG ;
vmap&efv@H_ aqmfr/_ Edik if aH &;t=urf;zufwu
dk cf u
kd rf r_ sm;ESihf pGr;f tm;&Sirf sm;ta=umif;udk quf
vufazmfjyygrnf?

pG r f ; tm;&S i f r sm;
pGr;f tm;&Sirf sm;ESiyhf wfoufI tenf;i,f wifjyvdo
k nf? pGr;f tm;&Sit
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jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;uJo
h @kd ppftm%m&Sipf epfoufq;kd &Snaf p&eftwGuf Edik if aH &;vuf&;Hk tjzpf
&nfreS cf sux
f m;+y;D pepfwus w&m;0ifz@JG pnf;xm;onfh tzG@J wpfcrk [kwaf y? jrefrmjynfwiG ;f &Sd
qif;&Jom;jynforl sm;twGuf vlra_ &;vkyif ef;rsm;udk aqmif&u
G af y;aeaom vlra_ &;toif;
(od@k r[kw)f tpd;k &r[kwaf omtzG@J tpnf; (tife*f st
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k yf
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qdo
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J mcJh
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tm;vk;H udk ajz&Si;f wJt
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G &f wm jzpfygw,f? tcku|eaf wmfw@kd vuf&aSd qmif&u
G af ewJh

49

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

w&m;Oya'pd;k rd;k a&;/ &yf&mG at;csr;f om,ma&; pwJh vkyif ef;t&yf&yfukd aqmif&u
G w
f t
hJ cgrmS
rD;owfw@kd / =uufajceDw@kd / &,uwd@k / ponfjzifh tJ'yD *k Kd~ vaf wG[m vpm &dumQ wjym;wcsyrf rS &
bJe@J oD;jcm;apwemtav#muf ulnaD y;aewJh pGr;f tm;rsm;jzpfwt
hJ wGuaf =umifh 'Dy*k Kd~ vrf sm;udk
pGr;f tm;&Siv
f @kd Edik if aH wmfu pmvH;k a&G;cs,o
f wfrw
S +f y;D awmh *k%jf yKac:a0: jcif; jzpfygw,f”[k
140
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axmufvrS ;f a&;ESihf &JaxmufvrS ;f a&;rsm;u v#K@d 0u
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ESihf pufwbFmv qENjyyGrJ sm;wGif pGr;f tm;&Sirf sm;onf tm%mydik rf sm;. wm0efay;cdik ;f apcsuf
t& Edik if aH &;v_y&f mS ;olrsm;/ jynfov
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k Ef u
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f spm&dwrf sm;udk oufqikd &f mwdik ;f ESijhf ynfe,f jynfcikd +f zKd ;
tzG@J 0ifrsm;. txl;&HyakH iGrS usco
H ;kH pGo
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twGi;f &efuek w
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qENjyyGrJ sm;udk t=urf;zuf +zdKcG&J eftwGuf toH;k jyKcJo
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toH;k pm&dwt
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csut
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h jyif tao;pm;pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;udv
k nf; vkyf

50

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk

aqmifciG hf &&So
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k u
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k kd apmif=h unfh
142
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h nf? aemufyikd ;f
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a&mif;t0,frsm; enf;ygvmonfuwa=umif;/ +rKd @v,f{&d,mrsm;wGif tm%mydik rf sm;u pDpOf
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f rl sm;tay:
143
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rsm;udk avhvm=unfjh cif;tm;jzifh ppftpd;k &u pnf;&k;H odr;f oGi;f xm;aom pGr;f tm;&Sirf sm;onf
Edik if aH &;ya,m*rsm;rygyJ ‚if;wd@k . pm;0wfaea&; t=uyftwnf;rsm;a=umifh tm%mydik rf sm;
. apcdik ;f csurf sm;udk vkyaf qmifae&onfrmS odomxif&mS ;ayonf? od@k aomfvnf; Edik if t
H wGi;f
vk+H cKH a&;ESihf axmufvrS ;f a&;udprP sm;wGif ppftpd;k &u w&m;0ifz@JG pnf;xm;onfh jynfcikd +f zKd ; rsm;
. tcef;u¾u qufvuf ta&;ygaecJo
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jynf o l @ ppf r sm;/ vH k + cH K a&;wyf z G J @ rsm;
ppftm%m&Siaf cgi;f aqmif jynfaxmifp}k uH@cikd af &;ESihf zG@H +zdK;a&;toif; em,u}uD;
Adv
k cf sKyfrLS ;}u;D oef;a&$u jynfcikd +f zKd ;toif;udk wyfrawmfEiS t
hf wl tjrv
J ufw+JG y;D wdik ;f jynfEiS hf
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k nf;aom trsKd ;om;a&;tiftm;
pkjzpfonf[k cs;D usL;ajymqdck +hJ y;D oifwef;om;rsm;udk ppfa&;jy/ ppfenf;AsL[mrsm;ESifh vufeuf
udik o
f ifwef;rsm; yd@k csay;rnf[k xkwaf zmfajymqdck o
hJ nf?144 2002 ckepfwiG v
f nf; Adv
k cf sKyrf LS ;}u;D
oef;a&$. !$e=f um;csujf zifh “jynfo@l ppfr[mAsL[m vufawG@toH;k csvufp”JG [k acgi;f pOfay;
xm;aom pmapmifrsm;udk xkwaf 0cJo
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jzpfymG ;ygu vlxx
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f ifwef;ay;I jynfo@l ppfrsm;tjzpf
zG@J pnf;&rnf[k azmfjyxm;onf?145
1997 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v
f tapmydik ;f umvwGif jynfcikd +f zKd ;em,utzG@J 0if 'kA,
kd cf sKyrf LS ;}u;D
armifat;onf jynfcidk +f zdK;toif;tm; ‘trsK;d om;umuG,af &;t&Hwyfz@JG ’[k &nf!e$ ;f ajym
qdck +hJ yD; jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;. jynfwiG ;f vH+k cHKa&;tcef;u¾tm; todtrSwjf yKcJo
h nf?146

51

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

jynfyusL;ausmrf r_ sm;udk ckcu
H muG,&f ef[k ta=umif;jyum jynfcikd +f zdK;tzG@J 0ifrsm;
tm; avwyfEiS ahf &wyfqikd &f moifwef;rsm;tygt0if tajccHppfoifwef;rsm;udk yd@k csay;cJo
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xd@k jyif jynfo@l ppfrsm;udv
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H 0Sr;f zG@J pnf;cJo
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ESihf &Gmol&mG om;rsm;udk tajccHppfynmrsm; oif=um;ay;+y;D jynfo@l ppfrsm;zG@J pnf;&ef cGijhf yKxm;
jcif;jzifh Edik if t
H wGi;f Y ay:ayguv
f mrnfh rnfonfq
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&du
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zufapjcif;jzifh vG,u
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um; jynfcikd +f zKd ;tzG@J 0ifrsm;ESihf &Gmol&mG om;rsm;udk tajccHppfoifwef;rsm; wpxufwp wk;d jriS hf
ay;aejcif;onf jrefrmEdik if t
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ydI
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k t
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t=urf;zuf +zKd ciG ;f &eftwGuo
f mruyJ wkid ;f &if;om;vufeufuikd t
f yk pf rk sm;udk wdu
k cf u
kd af csre_ ;f
&mwGiv
f nf; tok;H jyKco
hJ nf? Oyrmtm;jzifh wdik ;f &if;om;vufeufuikd t
f zG@J rsm;jzpfonfh tufpf
tufpaf t/ autife,
f w
l @kd EiS hf wdu
k yf rJG sm;jzpfymG ;ygu tqdyk gjynfo@l ppfrsm;udk t&Hwyfz@JG rsm;
147
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h nf?
jrefrmppftm%mydik rf sm;onf Zlvidk v
f 21 &ufae@ukd jynfy&efumuG,af &; jynfo@l
ppfrsm; pwifavhusiahf &;ae@tjzpf owfrw
S cf +hJ y;D wpfEikd if v
H ;Hk twdik ;f twmtaejzifh jynfo@l ppf
oifwef;rsm;udk yd@k csco
hJ nf? tqdyk g ppfoifwef;rsm;od@k jynfcikd +f zKd ;/ jynfov
l x
l /k 0efxrf;rsm;ESihf
ppfwyf/ &Jwyf rdom;pktodik ;f t0kid ;f rsm;ygrusef rwufrae& wufa&muf=u&onf? txl;
ojzifh Toifwef;rsm;udk ppftpd;k &vufuikd w
f w
k f jynfcikd +f zdK;/ pGr;f tm;&Sit
f zG@J EiS hf +rKd@e,f
148
tm%mydik rf sm;u }uD;=uyfco
hJ nf?
2007 ckEpS /f rwfvydik ;f wGif umuG,af &;0ef}u;D Xmevufatmuf &efuek w
f ikd ;f ppfXme
csKyfe,fajrtwGi;f &dS ajcvsiw
f yf&if;wyfz@JG rsm;rS &Jabmfrsm;. ZeD;rsm;ESirhf cDS o
kd l touf (18)ESpf
jynf+h yD;oltm;vk;H ppfwyftwGi;f ppfoifwef; rwufrae& wuf=u&onf? oifwef;rsm;wGif
vufeufi,f jzKwjf cif;/ wyfjcif;/ wdu
k cf |wjf cif; ocFe;f pmrsm;tygt0if wdu
k cf u
kd af &;ESihf ppfa&;jy
149
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wkid ;f ppfXmecsKyfvufatmufcH wyf&if;wyfz@JG rsm;tvdu
k f rdom;pktrd af xmifonfrsm;ESifh om;
orD;rsm;udk umuG,af &;t&H tiftm;pktjzpf pepfwusz@JG pnf;+y;D vufeufu,
kd pf jD zifh ppfoif
150
wef;rsm; avhusiahf y;cJo
h nf?
2003 ckEpS /f atmufwb
kd mvwGiv
f nf; &efuek w
f ikd ;f / tvk+H rKd @e,fwiG f puf&0Hk efxrf;
rsm;udk jynfo@l ppfoifwef;rsm; wufa&mufcikd ;f cJo
h nf? &yfuu
G af ygi;f pkH yg0ifonfh oifwef;om;
200 twGuf oifwef;ae&m 5 ae&mudk trSwf (4) opfpuf0ef;ESihf txu (4)tygt0if
tjcm;pmoifausmif; 3 ckY jyKvkycf o
hJ nf? xko
d ifwef;zGiyhf t
JG crf;tem;wGif tcrf;tem;rSL;u

52

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk

rdrEd ikd if u
H kd usL;ausmw
f u
kd cf u
kd v
f mv#if jyefvnfwu
kd cf u
kd Ef ikd af tmif oifwef;ay;&jcif;jzpf
a=umif;/ jynforl sm;udk vufeufxw
k af y;oifv
h #if xkwaf y;&rnfjzpfa=umif; ajymqdck o
hJ nf?151
tvm;wlpmG 2007 ckEpS /f =o*kwv
f ESihf atmufwb
kd mvrsm;wGiv
f nf; &efuek w
f ikd ;f
+rKd @e,ftcsK@d wiG f jynforl sm;udk tajccHppfoifwef;rsm;ESihf t"du&k%;f ESrd ef if;a&; oifwef;rsm;udk
tokwv
f u
kd cf I
JG yd@k csay;cJo
h nf? atmufwb
kd mvtwGi;f Y r*Fvmawmif!e$ @f +rKd @e,fwiG f a'o
cHjynfo(l 120)cef@ukd tajccHppfoifwef;rsm; yd@k csco
hJ nf? oifwef;wufa&muforl sm;udk w&uf
v#if (3000)usyaf y;rnf[k tm%mydik rf sm;u uwday;cJ+h yD; trsm;pkonf qif;&Jom;rsm;ESihf
tvkyv
f ufrrhJ sm; jzpf=uonf? jynforl sm;onf qENrygyJ pm;0wfaea&; tcuftcJrsm;a=umifh
wufa&mufcjhJ cif;jzpfa=umif; ay:vGicf +hJ y;D ,if;ppfoifwef;rsm; jyKvkyaf ejcif;tay: +rKd @cjH ynfol
rsm;uvnf; apm'uwufc=hJ uonf?152
rGejf ynfe,f&dS armfv+rKd i/f rk'EHk iS hf oHjzLZ&yf+rKd @e,frsm;wGif jynfov
l x
l t
k m; tvm;wl
ppfoifwef;rsm; yd@k csco
hJ nf? 2004 ckEpS w
f iG f rGejf ynfe,f&dS jynfcikd +f zdK;toif;tm; jynfcikd +f zdK;
wyfrLS ;wpfO;D / aus;&Gmat;csr;f om,ma&;ESihf zG+H zdK;a&;aumifpOD uUXrsm;rS acgi;f aqmifEpS Of ;D /
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f pfcpk u
D kd
}u;D =uyf&aom wyfpyd rf LS ; 10OD; yg0ifonfh jynfo@l ppfwyf&if;wpfck zG@J pnf;&ef trde@f ay;cJo
h nf?
oifwef;om;tm;vH;k onf ud,
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H pfcu
k kd
153
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f ikd ;f / ta&S@yikd ;f c&dik f cr& (656)
v#ypf pftif*sief ,
D mwyf wyfe,frLS ;u 2007 ckEpS o
f nf ta&;ygaomumvjzpfI ppftpd;k &udk
qef@usiu
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h u
G o
f nfh v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;jzpfay:vmv#if ESrd ef if;&ef ta&S@yikd ;f c&dik t
f wGi;f &Sd +rdK@e,f
rsm;rS wpf&yfuu
G v
f #if jynfcikd +f zdK;tzG@J rS (15)OD;/ &yfuu
G af t;csr;f om,ma&;ESihf zG@H +zdK;a&;
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rnf@ v#K@d 0u
S t
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k kd zG@J pnf;xm;&ef !$e=f um;cJo
h nf?154
2003 ckepfwiG f rGejf ynfe,ftwGi;f &Sd jynfcikd +f zKd ;toif;0ifrsm;tm; ppfwyfrS tajccH
ppfoifwef; ay;aea=umif;udk tpD&ifcpH mwpfcYk azmfjycJo
h nf? touf(18)ESprf S (40)ESpf
twGi;f trsKd ;om;rsm;tm; +rdK@e,fat;csr;f om,ma&;ESihf zG@H +zdK;a&;aumifpt
D zG@J 0ifrsm;u T
tajccHppfoifwef;rsm; wufa&muf&ef pnf;¶H;k pkaqmif;cJo
h nf? &Gmom;rsm;udk rwufrae&
qifah c:cJ+h y;D oifwef;.&nf&,
G cf suu
f v
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tm;(1000)eD;yg;cef@ukd tajccHppfoifwef; wufa&muf&ef apckid ;f cJo
h nf? &Gmom;trsm;pkonf
Tppfoifwef;rsm;udk wufa&muf&ef qENr&So
d nft
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&ef enf;vrf;rsm; &Sm}ucH =hJ uonf? od@k aomf wufa&muf&efysuu
f u
G yf gu tm%mydik rf sm;tm;
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tvm;wlpGm csif;jynfe,fwGifvnf; a'ocHcsif;wdkif;&if;om;rsm;udk jynfckdif+zdK;

53

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

tm%mykid rf sm;. rwufrae&trde@f jzihf tajccHppfoifwef;rsm;udk ESppf Ofusi;f ycJo
h nf? 2006
ckEpS /f =o*kwv
f wGif csi;f jynfe,fawmifyikd ;f / rwly+D rKd @wiG f aus;&Gm(10)&GmrS a'ocH&mG om; (200)
ausmcf ef@ukd tm%mydik rf sm;u rwufrae&trde@f jzihf tajccHppfoifwef;rsm; yd@k csco
hJ nf? wuf
a&muf&ef ysuu
f u
G yf gu jyif;xefpmG tjypfay;ta&;,lrnf[k tm%mydik rf sm;u trde@f xw
k cf hJ
onf? qd;k &Gm;onft
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54

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
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55

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

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56

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h nf?

57

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

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69

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

vli,fwOD;udv
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h ,Suaf y;

70

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
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71

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

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hJ nf?229 vrf;wav#muf&dS

72

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
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vnf; vli,ftawmfrsm;rsm;onf tm%mydik rf sm;. yd@k csapcdik ;f csurf sm;udk vkyaf qmif&ef qEN
r&Sad oma=umifh xGuaf jy;cJ=h uonf? tcsK@d vil ,frsm;rSm a':atmifqef;pk=unfukd qef@usif
aESmuf,u
S &f rnft
h pm; vuftyk cf sI
D yif uefawmhc=hJ uonf?232

73

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

2003 ckEpS /f arv(12)&ufae@n (8)em&DccJG ef@wiG f ucsijf ynfe,f/ rd;k aumif;+rdK@e,f/
ref&u
G af us;&Gm t0ifvrf;xdyw
f iG f tiftm;(100)cef@&dS jynfcikd +f zKd ;tzG@J 0ifrsm;. aESmuf,u
S rf E_ iS hf
}uKH awG@c&hJ onf? arv(13) &ufae@ zm;uef@+rKd @o@kd ra&mufrD erfrh ppf aus;&Gmt0ifwiG f jynfcikd f
+zdK; tzG@J 0ifrsm;u “jynfytm;ud;k ykqed &f ;dk / tqdt
k jrif0g'rD sm;tm; qef@usi=f u” pmom;rsm;
yg&o
dS nfh qdik ;f bkwrf sm;udu
k ikd af qmifI toHww
d f qENjyaESmuf,u
S cf o
hJ nf? arv(15)&uf
ae@ eHeuf (4)em&DccJG ef@wiG f erRw;D vrf;twdik ;f xGucf mG vm&m aumif;&m&Gm ta&mufwiG f
jynfcikd +f zKd ;tzG@J 0ifrsm;u“ jynfytm;ud;k ykqed &f ;dk -tvdrk &S”d “tqd;k jrif0g'rD sm;tm;-tvdrk &d”S
“wdk;wufr_zsufqD;ol-tvdkr&Sd” “wnf+idrfat;csrf;a&;udkzsufqD;ol-tvdkr&Sd” ponfh
qdik ;f bkwrf sm;udk udik af qmifI qENjyaESmuf,u
S cf =hJ uonf?f
a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS t
hf zG@J onf 2003 ckEpS /f arv(16)&ufae@wiG f ucsijf ynfe,f/
jrpf}u;D em;+rKd @o@kd qufvufxu
G cf mG cJo
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S zf suq
f ;D olrsm;tm;-qef@usi=f u/” “trsK;d omoem cd;k ,lzsuq
f ;D olrsm;
tm;-qef@usi=f u/ acsre_ ;f =u” pojzifh a&;om;xm;aom ydpk wmrsm;ESihf t0wfezl;pnf;rsm;udk
udik af qmifv#uf a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf tzG@J csKyo
f mG ;rnfv
h rf;Y ydwq
f @kd [ef@wm; qlyl aESmuf
,Sucf o
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G cf mG cJ&h m 0dik ;f armf+rdK@t0if
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S cf o
hJ nf?
2003 ckEpS f arv (20)&ufae@ Aef;armf+rdK@t0if ok;H rdik f &Gmod@k a&muf&v
Sd mcsed w
f iG v
f nf; wkw/f
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um;rsm;ESihf qdik u
f ,frsm;udk tok;H jyK+yD;/ Oya'udk ajAmifususcsK;d azmufI uef@uu
G q
f ENjy
233
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f nf; jynfcikd +f zdK;tiftm; 300 cef@u
ydpk wmrsm;/ a=uG;a=umforH sm;jzihf [ef@wm;aESmuf,u
S cf o
hJ nf? xdu
k o
hJ @kd qef@usiaf ESmuf,u
S f
ol trsm;pkonf &yfuu
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f &J dS qif;&JErG ;f yg;olrsm;jzpf+y;D jynfcikd +f zKd ;tm%mydik rf sm;u xrif;au|;
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onf? xl;jcm;csut
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tm;jzihf rd;k aumif;wGif aESmuf,u
S cf o
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S yf JG
rsm;wGif jyefvnfyg0if cJo
h nfukd awG@&&Sd onf?234
2003 ckEpS /f arv(25)&ufae@wiG f rE aW v;wkid ;f / rd;k ukw+f rKd @rS =uyfjyif+rKd @rod@k 0ifa&muf
+yD; qufvufxu
G cf mG cJ&h m uoJtyk pf /k bdu
k ek ;f &yf ta&mufwiG f tiftm; (400) ausmcf ef@&dS
jynfcikd +f zdK;tzG@J rsm;. uef@uu
G q
f ENjN yjcif;udk cHc&hJ onf? nae (&)em&Dcef@wiG f pOfu
h ;l +rdK@teD;

74

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk

usnaf wmufayguaf us;&GmESihf EG,&f aHk us;&Gmta&mufwiG f qD'ifum;(11)pD;/ 'dik ef m(4)pD;/ [dik ;f
vyf (15)pD;Y pD;eif;vdu
k yf gorl sm;ESihf pkpak ygi;f tiftm;(500)ausmcf ef@&Sd jynfcikd +f zdK;tzG@J 0ifrsm;
. wm;qD;aESmuf,u
S jf cif;udk xyfr}H uKH awG@c&hJ onf? ‚if;wd@k ukd tr&yl&/ rwW&m/ ausmufqnfEiS hf
rE aW v;+rdK@rsm;rS ac:aqmifvmjcif;jzpf+yD; EG,&f aHk us;&Gm (a&$wiG ;f )rS tvkyo
f rm; (usi;f om;)
rsm;udk w&ufvu
kd yf gqENjyv#if xrif;au|;+y;D t&ufvnf; t0wdu
k o
f nft
h jyif ae@wu
G v
f yk f
235
tm;ctjzpf (500)rS (1000)usyt
f xday;I ac:aqmifco
hJ nf? 2007 ckEpS /f {+yv
D wGiv
f nf;
rE aW v;wdik ;f / rwW&m+rdK@e,ftzG@J csKyf vGwaf wmfu,
kd pf m;vS,f OD;oef;vGiEf iS t
hf zG@J pnfwikd ;f cH
aus;&GmESihf ausmufww
H m;aus;&Gmrsm;od@k pnf;&k;H a&;c&D;xGuo
f nft
h csed w
f iG v
f nf; e,fajrcH
jynfcikd +f zdK;tzG@J acgi;f aqmif udak tmifjrifah X;ESihf udjk rifOh ;D wd@k u 0kid ;f 0ef;&ku
d Ef u
S &f ef }uHpnftm;
xkwcf o
hJ nf?236
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&cdik jf ynfe,fc&D;pOfEiS hf {&m0wDwikd ;f c&D;pOfrsm;wGiv
f nf; ppftpd;k &. tpDtrHjzifh a'ocHtm
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hf av;apmifah &Smufa&;
tp&So
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f w
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237
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hf zG@J ukd vdu
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ydu
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hJ nf? rD;owfyu
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awG@z@kd vmwm/ 'Dru
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vlxu
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k mvnf; vlxu
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ay;&r,f? tckvkd vlxu
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f ufp;D eif;vkyaf ewmudk usr r=unfEh ikd b
f ;l /
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238
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f trde@f jzifh vdik ;f um;vdik pf ifrsm; ydwyf ifco
hJ nf?
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rsm;twGi;f t=urf;zufwu
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kd u
f sL;vGecf &hJ m ‚if;wd@k txJwiG f pufqyk &f &HG mS
zG,&f mtaumif;qH;k t=urf;zufrr_ mS 2003 ckEpS /f arv 30 &ufae@wiG f jzpfymG ;cJah om 'Dy,
J if;
t=urf;zufry_ if jzpfonf? xd'k yD ,
J if; vlowfrr_ wdik rf u
D a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf rde@f ceG ;f
ajym=um;&ef/ NLD ¶H;k cGrJ sm; zGiv
hf pS &f efEiS hf pnf;&k;H a&;vkyif ef;rsm;twGuf jynfwiG ;f ae&ma'o

75

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

tawmfrsm;rsm;od@k c&D;xGucf chJ sed w
f iG f jynfcikd +f zKd ;wd@k . [ef@wm;aESmuf,u
S rf t
_ rsK;d rsKd ;ESihf &ifqikd f
cJ&h onfukd azmfjycJ+h y;D jzpfonf? jynfe,fa'otoD;oD;od@k olr.c&D;pOf rpwifru
D yif jynfcidk +f zKd ;
acgi;f aqmifrsm;ESihf A[kad umfrwD0ifrsm;onf jynfcikd +f zdK; em,ursm;/ a'ocHwyfrLS ;rsm;.
cGijhf yKcsujf zifh tqdyk ga'orsm;od@k }udKwifomG ;a&mufI NLD tm; [ef@wm;aESmuf,u
S &f ef
twGuf pDru
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S &f ef v#K@d 0u
S t
f pnf;ta0;yGrJ sm; usi;f ycJ=h uonf? txl;ojzifh 'Dy,
J if;
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D nf
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S f wdu
k cf u
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}uHKawG@c&hJ onf? Tvltyk }f uD;rsm;onf a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf NLD ygwu
D kd &_wcf sxm;
aom ydpk wmrsm;/ aqmify'k rf sm;udk udik af qmifxm;+y;D / aºu;G a=umforH sm;[pfaºu;G I a':atmif
qef;pk=unfEiS hf NLD ygw0D ifrsm; vku
d yf gvmaom armfawmf,mOfwef;tm; tESmuft,Suaf y;
wdu
k cf u
kd cf jhJ cif; jzpfonf?
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f csKd @EiS hf jynfcikd +f zKd ; tzG@J 0ifrsm;
onf a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf olrtm; axmufct
H m;ay;olrsm;vdu
k yf gvmaom ,mOfwef;
tm; 'Dy,
J if;+rKd @teD;wGif +cKH cw
kd u
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k Ef u
S cf cH &hJ +y;D
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ay;jcif;jzihf xdt
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J if; wdu
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J if;t=urf;zufwu
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f
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k f a&G;cs,cf jhJ cif;/ wdu
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k f
239
cdu
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k af wG@&cdS o
hJ nf?

76

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk

aumfr&Sit
f pD&ifcpH mt& t=urf;zufwu
kd cf u
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ESihf }udKwifavhusichf o
hJ nf? vdt
k yfonfv
h t
l iftm;udk ppfuikd ;f wdik ;f / a&$bckd &kid &f Sd +rdK@e,f (8)
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d @kd +rdK@e,frsm;twGi;f &Sd
jynfcikd +f zKd ;tzG@J 0ifrsm;ESihf jynfov
l x
l rk sm;udk pkaqmif;cJo
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f vnf;aumif; pkaqmif;
cJo
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vnf; tjypfrS vGw+f idr;f csr;f omcGihf &&daS e=uonf?

--------------------------

77

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

tcef ; (5)
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k pfyu
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78

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
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2005 ckEpS /f 'DZifbmvwGif usi;f ycJah om owif;pm&Si;f vif;yGw
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79

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

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246
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f iG f oGm;a&muf

80

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk

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JG iG f *du
k mygwt
D aejzihf 0ifa&muf
249
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}uKd ;pm;cJo
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od@k wufa&mufco
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81

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

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260
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D m; tjrpfjzwfacsre_ ;f &ef }udK;yrf;rnfjzpfayonf?
----------------------------

82

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk

rS w f p k r sm;
1

jynfaxmifpk+uHhcdkifa&;ESifh zGH@+zdK;a&;toif;. pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;aqmif&Gufr_rsm;ESifh &HykHaiG
&Smjcif;/ vl@abmifopf'Drdku&ufwpfygwD (XmecsKyf)/ 1996 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (19)&uf?
2
jynfaxmifpk}uH@cdkifa&;ESifh zGH@+zdK;a&;toif;/ tajccHpnf;rsOf;/ 1993 ckESpf pufwifbmv
(15)&uf?
3

Mobilization of the Mass: How Much of a Threat is the USDA? L. Hancock. Burma
Issues. 2003.
4
Politics of Stability: Co-opting Burma’s Civil Society Through the USDA. V Coakley.
Burma Issues Newsletter Vol. 8, No.10. October 1998.
5
USDA Serving National Interests as it Represents the People. Eint Dail. The Golden
Land. 4 November 2005.
6

The Union Solidarity and Development Association. David Steinberg. Burma Debate.
Vol. 4. Jan-Feb 1997.

7

jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm/ 2007 ckESpf Edk0ifbmv (10)&uf?
jrefrmhpG,fpkHusrf;ESpfcsKyf/ 1994 ckESpf/ pm 75?
9
tm%mydkifawG a'ocHawGudk }uH@zGH@eJ@ pGrf;tm;&SifxJ t"rRxnfhoGif;/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmh
toH/ 2004 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv (6)&uf?
10
tifef'D'D tifwmAsL;/ 2006 ckESpf arv?
8

11

SLORC Activities in Nyaunglebin Districe. An Independent Report by the Karen
Human Rights Group. 22 February 1994.
12
Demoratic Voice of Burma. 180302.
13

tifef'D'D tifwmAsL;/ 2006 ckESpf arv?

14

USDA Membership on the Increase. KAO WAO News No. 76. 9-24 September 2004.

15

Exposing the Real USDA. NCGUB Information Unit. NCGUB.

16

tifef'D'D tifwmAsL;/ 2006 ckESpf arv?
11/01/2005 &ufae@ a&$[oFmcef;rwGif usif;yjyKvkyfaom jynfcdkif+zdK;toif; vpOfykHrSef
tpnf;ta0;rSwfwrf;rS aumufEkwfcsuf?
18
EdkifiHawmf+idrf0yfydjym;r_ wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@. aqmif&Gufcsuf ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;/ wdkif;usKd;
jynfjyK/ wwd,wGJ/ 1995 {+yDv (1) rS 1997 Ekd0ifbm v (14)?
17

19

New Light of Myanmar. 12 February 2005.

20

tifef'D'D tifwmAsL;/ 2006 ckESpf arv?

21

Burma’s Myinggyan college students forced to join USDA. Democratic Voice of Burma.
15 August 2006)

22

tifef'D'D tifwmAsL;/ 2006 ckESpf arv?

83

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

23

Mandalay Students Tricked into Joining USDA Member. Democratic Voice of Burma.
2004.
24

'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckeSpf azazmf0g&D 1 &uf?

25

USDA Rises Again. SHAN. 11 October 2003.

26

tifef'D'D tifwmAsL;/ 2006 ckESpf arv?
ESpfywfvnfoif;vkH;u|wf tpnf;ta0;odk@ wifoGif;onfh tpD&ifcHpm (1995)/ jynfaxmif
pk}uH@cdkifa&;ESifh zGH@+zdK;a&;toif;?

27

28

The Union Solidarity and Development Association. David Steinberg. Burma Debate.
Vol. 4, No.1. Jan-Feb. 1997.
29

AB-NA 960429. NDD Chronology 1996.

30

Human Rights Year Book 1996: Burma. NCGUB.Page-651.

31

Mobilization of the Masses: How Much of a Threat is the USDA? L.Hancock. Burma
Issues.2003.
32

ESpfywfvnfoif;vkH;u|wf tpnf;ta0;odk@ wifoGif;onfh tpD&ifcHpm/ 1995 ckESpf/
jynfaxmifpk}uH@cdkifa&;ESifh zGH@+zdK;a&;toif;?
33

AB-NA 960317. NDD Chronology 1996.

34

USDA HQ’s Business and Fundraising. Inside Source. NDD. 2005.

35

}uH@zGH@tzGJ@ ADG'D,dkxkwfvkyfa&;vkyfief; vkyfudkifvm/ acwf+ydKif*sme,f/ 2006 ckESpf
atmufwdkbm 16 &uf?
36
tifef'D'D tifwmAsL;/ 2006 ckeSpf arv?
37

USDA as powerful as the Local Intelligence Services in Arakan. BNI Weekly News.
24 November 2003.
38

Oppression on NLD Members Continue in Rangoon Thone Gwa. Democratic Voice of
Burma. 10 December 2005.
39

'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2006 ckESpf pufwifbmv 8 &uf?

40

Burma Pokokku USDA Secretary Uses Thugs to Cow People. Democratic Voice of
Burma. 5 November 2005.
41
42
43

tifef'D'D tifwmAsL;/ 2006 ckESpf arv?
tifef'D'D jynfwGif;owif;/ 2007 ckESpf?

USDA as powerful as the Local Intelligence Services in Arakan. BNI Weekly News.
24 November 2004.
44

Burmese Civil Servants Sacked for Signing NLD Petition. Democratic Voice of
Burma. 17 August 2004.

45

jynfaxmifpk}uH@cdkifa&;ESifh zGH@+zdK;a&;toif;. pnf;&kH;a&;pDrHcsuf/ awmifOuUvmy+rdK@e,f/
2003 ckESpf 'DZifbmv 31 &uf?

84

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk
46

tzGJ@csKyftzGJ@0ifrsm; E_wfxGuf&ef }uH@zGH@tzGJ@ rufvkH;ay;pnf;&kH;/ 2007 ckESpf/ rwfv 28
&uf?
47

Burma’s Forced Registration-the Final Onslaught? The Irrawaddy. 01 December
1998.
48

Opposition Resignations Cited in Myanmar. The Associated Press. 6 May 2006.

49

Inside Source. NDD. 17 May 2006.

50

PDC News commentary. the Political Defiance Committee (PDC) of the National
Council of the Union of Burma (NCUB). July 2007.
51

USDA Members Enticing NLD Members to Quit Party at Shwebo. Democratic Voice of
Burma. 22 August 2006.

52

Burma Junta’s USDA Members Pressure NLD Members to Quit Party. Democratic
Voice of Burma. 4 November 2005
53

Another NLD leader forced to resign by pressures from Burma junta. Democratic
Voice of Burma. 27 April 2006.

54

Human Rights Yearbook 1999-2000: Burma. Human Rights Documentation Unit.
NCGUB. p. 247.
55

Burma junta’s USDA members pressure NLD members to quit party. Democratic
Voice of Burma. 04 November 2005.
56
NLD Members Forced to Join USDA in Eastern Burma. 19 August 2004.
57

NLD Member Refused Teaching Job in Southern Burma. Democractic Voice of Burma.
20 August 2004.

58

NLD Member Pressured to Quit NLD in Mandalay Division, Burma. 24 August 2004.

59

tifef'D'D tifwmAsL;/ 2006 ckESpf rwfv?

60

Voice of Burma. Issue No. 568. AUGUST 27, 2006

61

tifef'D'D tifwmAsL;/ 2006 ckESpf rwfv?

62

USDA: The Organization Strengthening the Military Rule in Burma (Myanmar). The
Mon Forum. April 2005.

63

USDA Distrubs Formation of NLD Social Support Group. Burma News International.
26 April 2004.
64

NLD Probihited from Donating Rice to Flood-Hit Areas in Burma. Democratic Voice
of Burma. 21 August 2004.

65

tifef'D'D tifwmAsL;/ 2006 ckESpf arv?
atmifvH+rdK@rSm vlxkudk }uHhzG@HxJ twif;qGJoGif;/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2004 ckESpf/
=o*kwfv (11)&uf?
tm%m&_;ppftkyfpku ema&;tzGJ@udk }uH@zGwfvufatmuf oGwfoGif;&ef }udK;yrf;/ Voice of
Burma /2006 ckESpf =o*kwfv (22)&uf?
66

85

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

67

atmifvH+rdK@rSm vlxkudk }uHhzG@HxJ twif;qGJoGif;/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2004 ckESpf/
=o*kwfv (11)&uf?
68
atmifjrifaeonfh acsmuf+rdK@rS ema&;ulnDr_vkyfief;udk }uH@cdkifzGH@+zdK;a&; 0ifcs,fvS,f/
'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv 25 &uf?
69
apwemtcrJhqdkaom jynfcdkif+zdK;aq;cef;wdkuifzdk;aumufae/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/
2007 ckESpf 'DZifbm 17 &uf?
70
jynfaxmifpk}uHhcdkifa&;ESifh zGH@+zdK;a&;toif; ESpfywfvnfoif;vkH;u|wftpnf;ta0; (2005)
rS aumufE_wfazmfjycsuf?
71
apwemtcrJhqdkaom jynfcdkif+zdK;aq;cef; wdkuifzdk;aumufae/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/
2007 ckESpf 'DZifbmv 17 &uf?
72

Burma USDA members told to take control of local activities. 9 September 2005.

73

}uH@zGH@u tusOf;om;rsm;udk "gwfykH&kduf+yD; rdom;pkudk aiGaxmufyHh/ 'Drdku&ufwpf
jrefrmhtoH/ 2006 ckESpf Edk0ifbmv (6)&uf?
74
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rdom;pkrsm;udk tm%mykdifrsm;u +cdrf;ajcmuf/ 'Drdku&ufwpf
jrefrmtoH/ 2006 ckESpf Edk0ifbmv (23)&uf?
75

USDA Members Told to Take Control of Local Activities. Democratic Voice of Burma.
9 September 2005.

76

Red Cross Hopes to be Left Alone. The Irrawaddy. 31 January 2006.

77

e,fjcm;rJhq&m0efrsm;tzGJ@ jrefrmEdkifiHrSxGuf/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2006 ckESpf/ rwfv
(30)&uf?
78

Red Cross Hopes to Be Left Alone. Irrawaddy. 31 January 2006.

jrefrmtusOf;axmifrsm;wGif aq;0g; jywfvwfae+yD/ Voice of Burma / 2006 ckESpf arv
(4)&uf?
EdkfifiHwum=uufajceD&kH;awGydwfzdk@ etzppftkyfpk trdef@xkwf/
(27)&uf?

RFA/

2006 ckESpf Edk0ifbmv

79

ICRC Might Be Allowed to Inspect Burmese Prisons Freely Again. Democratic Voice of
Burma. 12 January 2006.
80

EdkfifiHwum=uufajceD&kH;awGydwfzdk@ etzppf tkyfpk trdef@xkwf/ RFA/ 2006 ckESpf Edk0ifbmv
(27)&uf?
81
tjynfjynfqdkif&m =uufajceD&kH;rsm; jyefzGifhcGifh&/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2006 ckESpf
'DZifbmv (15)&uf?
82
jrefrmtusOf;axmifrsm;wGif aq;0g;jywfvwfae+yD/ Voice of Burma / 2006 ckESpf arv
(4)&uf?

86

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk
83

/2006 ckESpf arv 24 &uf?
jynfaxmifpk}uH@cdkifa&;ESifh zGH@+zdK;a&;toif; ESpfywfvnfoif;vkH;u|wftpnf;ta0;/ 2005
ckESpf?
Voice of Burma

84

85

Monthly Human Rights Situation Report. Mergui-Tavoy Information Department.
KNU. October 2003.
86

nDvmcHaxmufcHyGJ rwufrae&/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf pufwifbmv 13
&uf?
87
jrpf}uD;em;wGif wefjyefoydwfarSmuf&ef e,frS 0efxrf;/ }uH@zGH@awG ac:,lvlpk/ 'Drdku&uf
wpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf pufwifbmv 29 &uf?
88
etznDvmcHaxmufcHyGJudk ucsifvli,frsm;uef@uGuf/ rZdÆlrowif;Xme/ 2007 ckESpf
atmufwdkbm 8 &uf?
89
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf. 2004ckESpf/ ar (27)&ufae@&ufpGJyg a=ujimcsuftrSwf-6
(5§03)?
90
jrefrmh'Drdkua&pDacgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unff/ 2003 ckESpf/ arv (29)&ufae@n/
rkH&Gm+rdK@qdkif;bkwfwifyGJwGif ajym=um;cJhaomrdef@cGef;rS?
91

Human Rights Yearbook 1999-2000: Burma. Human Rights Documentation Unit.
NCGUB. p. 247. 248.
92

tifef'D'D tifwmAsL;/ 2006 ckESpf rwfv?
bDbDpDxHodk@ ay;pmrsm; (2)/ 1994 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv (21)&uf?
94
awmifwGif;}uD;nDvmcHaxmufcHyGJta=umif;/ MIZZIMA news /2007 ckESpf atmufwdk bm
2 &uf?
95
rE Wav;wdkif;u +rKd@e,fESpfckwGifvnf; nDvmcHaxmufcHyGJ jyKvky/f MIZZIMA news /2007
ckESpf atmufwdkbm 3 &uf?
96
yckuULoHCmawmfrsm;u arwWmydk@ vrf;av#mufqENjyyGJudk jyefvnfpwif+yD/ 'Drdku&uf
wpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv 31 &uf?
97
nDvmcHaxmufcHyGJudkoGm; um;wpD;arSmuf/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf
atmufwdkbmv 9 &uf?
98
rauG;+rdK@nDvmcHaxmufcHyGJ wufa&muf&ef +rdK@e,ftcsKd@ t"rRtac:cH&/ MIZZIMA
News /2007 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv 5 &uf?
99
bDbDpDxHodk@ ay;pmrsm; (1)/ 1994 ckESpf az azmf0g&Dv (21) &uf?
100
nDvmcHaxmufcHyGJudkoGm; um;wpfpD;arSmuf/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf
atmufwdkbmv 9 &uf?
93

87

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

101

ppftpdk;&nDvmcHaxmufcHyGJrSm ausmif;om;vli,frsm; rdk;rd+yD;zsm;em/ 'Drdku&ufwpf
jrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv 10 &uf?
102

Human Rights Year Book 1994: Burma. NCGUB. Page-124.

103

The Burmese Generals are Lying to the World. Rhododendron News. Volume VI. No.
V. September-October 2003. Chin Human Rights Organization. 20 October 2003.

104

nDvmcHaxmufcHyGJ rwufrae&/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf pufwifbmv 13
&uf?
105
rauG;+rdK@nDvmcH axmufcHyGJ wufa&muf&ef +rdK@e,ftcsKd@ t"rRtac:cH&/ MIZZIMA
News /2007 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv 5 &uf?
106
erfhcrf;qENazmfxkwfyGJ wtdrfwa,muf rwufrae&/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007
ckESpf Edk0ifbmv 12 &uf?
107
etz&J@ EdkifiHa&;vrf;jyajrykHaxmufcHyGJawG jynfe,feJ@wdkif;toD;oD;rSm qufwdkufjyKvkyf/
'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2003 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv 21 &uf?
108

SLORC Activities in Nyaunglebin District. An Independent Report by the Karen
Human Rights Group. 22 February 1994.
109

rE Wav;wdkif;u +rKd@e,fESpfckwGifvnf; nDvmcHaxmufcHyGJ jyKvkyf/
2007 ckESpf atmufwdkbm 3 &uf?

MIZZIMA news

/

110

Burma Human Rights Yearbook. Human Rights Documentation Unit. NCGUB.
1994.
111

Forced Backing for Road Map. Irrawaddy. 22 September 2003.

112

Sieg Heli, SPDC: Burma Junta Thugs Hold Mass Rallies for Military Rule.
Democratic Voice of Burma. 12 January 2006.

113

Adkvfcif!Gef@udk axmufcH&ef vmbfxdk;jrLqG,f/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2003 ckESpf/
atmufwdkbmv 19 &uf?
114
yJcl;nDvmcHaxmufcHyGJ wtdrfwa,muf t"rRwufa&mufcdkif;/ aps;qdkif;rsm;vnf; ydwf&/
'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv (16)&uf?
115
twkta,mifaxmufcHyGJ bdkuav;ESif jr0wDwGifjyKvkyf/ &kd;r 3/ 2007 ckESpf atmuf
wdkbm 25 &uf?
116
aiGusyf 3000 &I qENjy/ Radio Free Aasia /2007 ckESpf azazmf0g&D 2 &uf?
117
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm/ 2007 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv 1 &uf?
118
erfhcrf;qEN azmfxkwfyGJ wtdrfwa,muf rwufrae&/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmtoH/ 2007
ckESpf Edk0ifbmv 12 &uf?

88

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk
119

tar&dueftm;udk; ykqdef&kd;qdkifbkwfrsm;udk pD;yGm;a&;a=umfjimrsm;tay: Y wifxm;/
'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf 'DZifbmv 5 &uf?
120
anmifESpfyifaxmufcHyGJrsm; usif;y&efpDpOf/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2006 ckESpf
Zefe0g&Dv 2 &uf?
121
oef;a&$ema&;ydk@a&; 'dk@ta&; atmfcJhol 3 OD; tzrf;cH&/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007
ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmv 4 &uf?
122
awmifwGif;}uD;nDvmcHaxmufcHyGJta=umif;/ MIZZIMA news /2007 ckESpf atmufwdk
bmv 2 &uf?
123

Report Card, Burma. 1 December 2001-31 March 2002. Altsean Burma. July 2002.

124

The Burmese Military Intelligence Extorts Money from the Fish Boats for NGOs.
Narinjara News.

125

a&eHacsmif;+rdK@e,f }uH@zGH@tzGJ@0ifawGu a'ocHrsm;tm; rdkufa=u;cGJ/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmh
toH/ 2004 ckeSpf/ ZGefv (22)&uf?
126
jynfaxmifpk}uH@cdkifa&;ESifh zGH@+zdK;a&;toif;ESpfywfvnf oif;vkH;u|wftpnf;ta0;/ 2005
ckESpf?
127
a&eHacsmif;+rdK@e,f }uH@zGH@tzGJ@0ifawGu a'ocHrsm;tm; rdkufa=u;cGJ/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmh
toH/ 2004 ckeSpf/ ZGefv (22) &uf?
128
'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2004 ckESpf 'DZifbmv (30)&uf?
129

People’s Land Confisc-ated for Sale in USDA Fund Drive. BNI Weekly News. 15
December 2003.
130

Burmese Authorities Misappropriates Money for Children’s Education. Demoratic
Voice of Burma. 11 April 2005.
131

tezwdk@ avab;tultnDay;r_udk jzwfpm;/ rauseyfI 0ef}uD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyfcif!$ef@xH
wdkif=um;olrsm;tm; zrf;qD;/ Narinjara News /2004 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (9)&uf?
132
}uH@zGH@tzGJ@u ausmif;&HykHaiGudk tvGJokH;pm;vkyf/ &kd;r-3/ 2007 ckESpf Zlv_difv 6 &uf?
133
&kH;aqmuf&ef aiGodef;(50)udk acsmuf}uH@zGH@pnf;&kH;a&;rSL;ESifhtzGJ@ udk,fusKd;okH;/ 'Drdku&uf
wpfjrefrmhtoH/ 24 atmufwdkbm 2006?
134

Crime Against Humanity: Dirty Politics on the Hands of the Burmese Junta. Banya
Hongsar. 18 June 2004.
135

EdkifiHwumtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;udk vdrfnmvSnfhjzm;&ef rGefjynfe,f/ rk'kH+rdK@e,fwGif oifwef;
ay;/ Voice of Burma /2003 ckESpf rwfv 20 &uf?)

89

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

136

jynfaxmifpk+uH@ckdifa&;ESifhzGH@+zdK;a&;toif; ESpfywfvnfoifvkH; u|wftpnf;ta0; (2007)
wGif ajym=um;cJhaom AdkvfcsKyfrSL;=uD;oef;a&$rdef@cGef;rS aumufE_wfcsuf/ jrefrmhtvif;owif;
pm/ 2007 ckESpf Edk0ifbmv 17 &uf?
137
jynfcdkif+zdK;toif;. 2003 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv 31 &uf ae@pGJyg awmifOuUvmypDrHcsufrS
aumufEkwfcsuf?
138
etzu tzGJ@csKyf+zdKcGJa&; enf;AsL[mopfrsm;csrSwf/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmtoH/ 2005 ckESpf
{+yDv 20 &uf?
139
jrefrmEdkifiHqdkif&m ukvor*~vl@tcGifh ta&;txl;udk,fpm;vS,f rpPwmyDnJ&dk;. tpD&ifcH
pm/2007 ckESpf 'DZifbmv 18 &uf?)
140
etzowif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJ (7 §2006)/ 2006 ckESpf Edk0ifbmv 2 &uf/ jrefrmhtvif;o
wif;pm?
141
tifef'D'D jynfwGif;owif;?
142
pGrf;tm;&Sifrsm; jynfolwdk@udk apmifh=unhfr_&yfqdkif;/ acwf+ydKif*sme,f/ 2007 ckESpf 'DZifbm
v 11 &uf?
143
pGrf;tm;&Sifrsm; jynfolwdk@udk apmifh=unhfr_&yfqdkif;/ acwf+ydKif*sme,f/ 2007 ckESpf 'DZifbm
v 11 &uf?
144

The Union Solidarity and Development Association. David Steinberg. Burma Debate.
Vol.4, No.1. Jan-Feb. 1997. Quote from Gen. Than Shwe, 1996.
145

Exposing the Real USDA. NCGUB Information Unit. NCGUB.
The USDA Factor: The Thuggish Civilian Wing of the Military Junta Must not Be
Overlooked During Burma’s Political Transition. Min Zin. The Irrawaddy Vol.11, No.6.
July 2003.
146

147

jzL;+rdK@e,fvkH;u|wf jynfol@ppfoifwef;ay;/ rZdÆrowif;/ 2005 ckESpf rwfv 13 &uf?
jynfy&efumuG,f&ef wEdkifiHvkH;twkdif;twmeJ@ etzppfAdkvfcsKyfawGu oifwef;ay;/
'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2003 ckESpf Zlv_difv 24 &uf?
149
tifef'D'D jynfwGif;owif;/26-3-2007?
150
jynfy&efumuG,f&ef wEdkifiHvkH; twkdif;twmeJ@ etzppfAdkvfcsKyfawGu oifwef;ay;/
'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2003 ckESpf Zlv_difv 24 &uf?
151
jynfy&efumuG,f&ef 0efxrf;rsm;tm; ppfoifwef;ay;/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2003
ckESpf atmufwdkbm 13 &uf?
148

152

Police deliver military training to civilians. Democractic Voice of Burma. 30 October
2007.
153

Mon State PDC Ordered Chaungzon USDA to Form USDA Battalion in Town.
Burma News International. 15 October 2004.

90

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk
154

tifef'D'D jynfwGif;owif;/ 21-3-2007?

155

Recruiting Civilians in Village Communities to Attend Short-Term Basic Military
Training. Independent Mon News Agency. 18 June 2003.
156

SPDC trains over 200 Chin people. Khonumthung News. 12 September 2006.

157

&Gmomrsm; ppfoifwef;wuf&ef tm%mydkifrsm;u trdef@xkwf/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/
2007 ckESpf arv 7 &uf?
158
jynfy&efumuG,f&ef wEkdifiHvkH;twdkif;twmESifh etzppfAdkvfcsKyfawGu oifwef;ay;/
'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2003 ckESpf Zlv_difv 24 &uf?
159
jzL;+rdK@e,fvkH;u|wf jynfol@ppfoifwef;ay;/ rZdÆrowif;/ 2005 ckESpf rwfv 13 &uf?
160
&cdkifjynfe,fY t&HwyfzGJ@tm; jynfol@ppfESifh rD;owfrsm;jzifh zGJ@pnf;rnf[kqdk/ ed&OP&m
owif;/ 2006 ckESpf =o*kwf v 12 &uf?
161
&ckdifurf;vGefwGif; etzu ppfpcef;rsm;wdk;csJ@/ Mizzima News/ 2005 ckESpf pufwifbm
v 8 &uf?
162

Burmese Army forms people’s militias in border area. Narinjara News. 14 February
2007.
163

Two Militia Trainings Held in Maungdaw inquire. Narinjara News. 30 October 2007.

164

The Game Plan of the Nazi Generals in Burma. Weekly Inside News Commentary
No. 227. NDD. 9 December 2005.

165

}uH@zGH@tzGJ@axmufvSrf;a&;wm0efyg xrf;aqmif/ acwf+ydKif*sme,f/ 2006 ckESpf 'DZifbm 29
&uf?
166

Crime Against Humanity: Dirty Politics on Hands of Burmese Junta. Banya Hongsar.
18 June 2003. Monland.

167

USDA: Act Locally and Lie Globally. Banya Hongsar. KAO WAO News No. 30.
November 1-13, 2002.
168

Moles on Moles: Burma USDA Warns Members against News Leak. Democratic
Voice of Burma. 29 June 2005.

169

jynfyrD'D,mawGudk etzu tD;enf;eJ@ wdkufrnf/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2006 ckESpf
arv 4 &uf?
170
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm/ 2006 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv 24 &uf?
171

Burma USDA members to be given military intelligence courses. Democratic Voice of
Burma. 13 September 2006.
172

tifef'D'D tifwmAsL;/ 2006 ckESpf arv?

173

USDA: Act Locally and Lie Globally. Banya Hongsar. KAO WAO News No. 30.
November 1-13, 2002.

174

Confidential News of the USDA. Inside Source. NDD. 15 January 2005.

91

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

175

ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;udk w&m;pGJ&ef tezu tcsuftvuf&SmazG/ 'Drdku&ufwpf
jrefrmhtoH/ 2006 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv 19 &uf?
176
tifef'D'D tifwmAsL;/ 2006 ckESpf arv?
177

Inside Source. NDD. 1 May 2006.

178

udkoufEdkifOD;tr_tm; +rdK@awmfowif;pmrSm vdrfvnfIazmfjy/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/
2006 ckESpf rwfv 23 &uf?
179
jynfwGif;owif;oHk;oyfcsuf-trSwfpOf (292)/ tifef'D'D/ 2007 ckESpf {+yDv 28 &uf?
tm%mydkifrsm;. 0kdif;0ef;&kdufESufjcif;cH&olwOD;tygt0if &Gmom; 6 OD; w&m;pGJqdkjcif;cH&/
'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/2007 ckESpf {+yDv 27 &uf?
180
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm/ 2007 ckESpf {+yDv 23 &uf?
181
ajrmufOuUvmy &,u&kH;Y zrf;qD;cHxm;&pOf vlwOD; aoqkH;r_jzpf/ {&m0wDtifwmeuf
r*~Zif;/ 2007 ckESpf rwfv 19 &uf?
182
t&yfom;wpfOD; aoqkH;r_Y oufaoxGufqdkrnfholudk }uH@zGH@rsm;u vdkufvHzrf;qD;/
'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmtoH/ 2007 ckESpf rwfv 21 &uf?
183
=unfhjrifwdkifpcef;rSL; vuf&JZuf&J ESdyfpuf!Sif;yef;/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmtoH/ 2006 ckESpf
ZGefv 13 &uf?
184
etz au|;arG;xm;wJh pGrf;tm;&Sifrsm; vlxkudk vuf&JZuf&JtEdkifusifh/ 'Drdku&ufwpf
jrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf {+yDv 6 &uf?
185

Rangoon Sanchaung NLD Youth Attacked by Junta Thugs. Democratic Voice of
Burma. 21 August 2005.
186

Burmese Local Authority on Trial in Rangoon Hlain Thaya. Democratic Voice of
Burma. 30 August 2005.)
187

oHvufoD;jzihf txdk;cH&onfh vGwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;. tr_udkqufvufppfaq;/
'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf =o*kwfv 14 &uf?
188
jynf+rdK@wGif wuUodkvfausmif;om;wpfOD; }uH@zGH@tzGJ@wcsKd@. &dkufESufcH&/ 'Drdku&ufwpf
jrefrmhtoH/ 2004 ckESpf pufwifbm 1 &uf?
189

Prome University Students Beaten Up By Free-Range Thugs. Democratic Voice of
Burma. 15 March 2004.
190

Burma Arakan Muslin Student Killed by ‘Unknown’ Thugs. Democratic Voice of
Burma. 4 September 2005.

191

Car Victim Told to Drop Charge Against Burma Junta Official. Democratic Voice of
Burma. 17 July 2004.

192

}uH@zGH@tzGJ@.0dkif;0ef;&dkufESufr_a=umifh rE Wav;rS vli,fwOD; aq;&kHa&muf/ 'Drdku&ufwpf
jrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf {+yDv 12 &uf?

92

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk
193

“New” Strategies Dreamt Up by the Burma Junta to Destroy the NLD. Democratic
Voice of Burma. 22 June 2005.

194

Human Rights Year Book 2001-2002: Burma. NCGUB.

195

USDA Sets Village on Fire and Kidnap 32 Muslim Students in Burma. Muslim
Information Center of Burma. News Story 097. February 4, 2003.

196

Hindu Temple Burnt Down in Central Burma by Junta Thugs. Democratic Voice of
Burma. 2 July 2005.

197

jrefrmEdkifiHqdkif&m ukvor*~vl@tcGifhta&;txl;udk,fpm;vS,f rpPwmyDnJ&dk;. tpD&ifcH
pm/2007 ckESpf 'DZifbm 18 &uf?
198
jrefrmEdkifiHqdkif&m ukvor*~vl@tcGifhta&;txl;udk,fpm;vS,f rpPwmyDnJ&dk;. tpD&ifcH
pm/2007 ckESpf 'DZifbm 18 &uf?
199
jrefrmEdkifiHvkH;qdkif&m oHCmhwyfaygif;pktzGJ@}uD;. a=ujimcsuf/ 1369 ckESpf 0gacgifvjynfh
ausmf 12 &uf (9-9-2007) we*FaEGae@/ pmtrSwf (1§2007)?
200
jrefrmEdkifiHvkH;qdkif&m oHCmhwyfaygif;pktzGJ@}uD;. a=ujimcsuf/ 1369 ckESpf 0gacgifvjynfh
ausmf 12 &uf (9-9-2007) we*FaEGae@/ pmtrSwf (1§ 2007)?
201
oydwf+zdKcGif;&ef ppfwyfvkH;0rokH;a&;/ pGrf;tm;&Sif }uH@zGwfrsm;omokH;a&;/ 'Drdku&ufwpf
jrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf pufwifbmv 10 &uf?
202
tifef'D'D jynfwGif;owif;?
203

Irrawaddy. 24.8.2007.

204

etzowif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJ (2§2007)/ jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm/ 2007 ckESpf 'DZifbmv 4
&uf?
205
jrefrmEdkifiHqdkif&m ukvor*~ vl@tcGifhta&; txl;udk,fpm;vS,f rpPwmyDnJ&dk;.tpD&if
cHpm/2007 ckESpf 'DZifbm 18 &uf?)
206
etzowif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJ (2§2007)/ jrefrmhtvif;/ 2007 ckESpf 'DZifbmv 4 &uf?
207
aiG=um,Hq&mawmf ausmif;wdkufudk jyefvnfa&muf&Sd owif;okH;ae/ 'Drdku&ufwpf
jrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf 'DZifbm 17 &uf?
208
*sDwDtkdifwGif zrf;qD;xm;onfh oHCmawmfrsm;udk &dkufESufcJhonfh pGrf;tm;&Sifpm&if;/
'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv 7 &uf?
209

The Story About Poe Suu. Burma Update By PDC/NCUB. 29 November 2007.

210

atmif"rRygv bkef;}uD;ausmif;udk }uH@zGwfESifh r,u pD;eif; bkef;awmf}uDwpfyg;udk zrf;qD;/
'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf Edk0ifbm 16 &uf?
211
r*~ifausmif;wdkufydwf&jcif;ta=umif; &JcsKyfajym=um;csufrrSef/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/
2007 ckESpf 'DZifbm 13 &uf?

93

jynf c d k i f ò zd ;
212

od k Πr[k w f

ppf t m%m&S i f p epf . a'guf w d k i f r sm;

}uH@zGH@ESifhpGrf;tm;&SiftzGJ@rsm; jynfolESifhyl;aygif;&ef ausmif;om;rsm;wdkufwGef;/ acwf+ydKif

*sme,f/ 2007 ckESpf =o*kwf 27 &uf?
213
}uH@zGH@ESifhpGrf; tm;&SiftzGJ@rsm; jynfolESifhyl;aygif;&ef ausmif;om;rsm;wdkufwGef;/ acwf+ydKif
*sme,f/ 2007 ckESpf =o*kwf 27 &uf?
214
etzu }uH@zGH@udk olaumif;jyKae+yD/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf atmufwdkbm
v 16 &uf?
215
qENjyjynfolrsm;udk t=urf;zufcJhwJh pGrf;tm;&Sifrsm;udk &efukefpnfyifrSm tvkyfcef@ae/
'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmtoH/ 2007 ckESpf atmufwdkbm 19 &uf?
216
qENjyoHCmawmfrsm;udk &dkufESuf&mwGif yg0ifcJhonf }uH@cdkifa&;rsm;udk ol&Jaumif;qkay;
tyf/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmtoH/ 2007 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv 20 &uf?
217
oHCmawmfrsm;udk apmfum;olrsm;tm; vlr_xl;c|efqkay;/ acwf+ydKif*sme,f/ 2008 ckESpf?
218
'Drdkua&pDa&; qufvuf}udK;yrf;rnf[k EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;a[mif;rsm;ajym/ {&m0wD/
2007 ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv 4 &uf?
219
atmifvHY a':pkarG;ae@usif;yaom tzGJ@csKyf0ifrsm;udk }uH@zHG@u av;cGESifhypf/ 'Drdku&uf
wpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf ZGefv 19 &uf?
220
bk&m;ay:wufolrsm;udk wm;qD;&ef }uH@zGH@u tESdyforrsm;udk qifhac:/ acwf+ydKif*sme,f/
2007 ckESpf Zlvdkifv 12 &uf?
221
t*F gae@0wfjyKqkawmif;olrsm;udk }uH@zGH@tzGJ@0if 300 ausmfu aESmuf,Suf/ {&m0wDo
wif;/ 2007 ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv 16 &uf?
a&$wd*kHbk&m;wuf qkawmif;olrsm; t=urf;zuf&kdufESufcH&/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007
ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv 16 &uf?
222
a':pkvGwfajrmufa&; qkawmif;olrsm;udk wefjyefpkawmif;onfh vlwpku aESmuf,Suf/
acwf+ydKif*sme,f/ 2007 ckESpf arv 25 &uf?
223
0wfjyKqkawmif;olrsm; aESmuf,SufcH&/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2007 ckESpf arv 28
&uf?
224

Burma Human Rights Yearbook. Human Rights Documentation Unit. NCGUB.
1996.
225

The Second Premilinary Report of the Ad hoc Commission on Depayin
Massacre(Burma). The Ad hoc commission on Depayin Massacre (Burma). May 2003.
p.20.
226

'DyJ,if;vkyf}uHr_ ta&;,laqmif &Gufa&;aumfr&Sif/ 'kwd,t}udrf y%mrtpD&ifcHpm/
2003 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv/ pm 13-14?

94

'Drdkua&pDESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tiftm;p
m;pkk
227

rif;vS+rdK@e,f tifeft,fvf'DtzGJ@csKyf ykHrSeftpnf;ta0; vkyfydkifcGifhydwf/ a':atmifqef;
pk=unf }udKqdkol0efxrf; tvkyfjzKwfcH&/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2003 ckESpf arv 7 &uf?
228
OD;at;omatmif. &ckdifc&D;pOfrSm axmufcHolawGudk &mxl;rS xkwfypf/ 'Drdku&ufwpf
jrefrmhtoH/ 2003 ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv 7 &uf?
229
a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifhtzGJ@ uav;+rdK@uae qufvufxGufcGmvmcJh&m *ef@a*g+rdK@odk@
jyefvnfa&muf&Sd/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2003 ckESpf {+yDv 10 &uf?
230
a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifhtzGJ@ csif;jynfe,fygwDpnf;&kH;a&;c&D; pwifxGufcGm/ &efukef
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;rsm;.vufatmufcH a'oqdkif&mtm%mydkifrsm;. aESmuf,Sufjcif;cH&/ vGwv
f yf
aomtm&StoH/ 2003 ckESpf {+yDv 3 &uf?
231
'DyJ,if;vkyf}uHr_ ta&;,laqmif&Gufa&;aumfr&Sif/ 'kwd,}udrfy%mrtpD&ifcHpm/ 2003
ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv/ pm 22-27?
232
rkH&GmwGif aESmuf,Suf&ef apmifhaewJh }uH@zGH@vli,ftm;vkH;u a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk
vuftkyfcsDuefawmh/ RFA /2003 ckESpf arv 29 &uf?
233
'DyJ,if;vkyf}uHr_ ta&;,l aqmif&Gufa&;aumfr&Sif/ 'kwd,t}udrf y%mrtpD&ifcHpm/
2003 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv/ pm 22-27?
234
ucsifjynfe,fc&D;pOfrSm aESmuf,SufwJh tiftm; 300 &Sd }uH@zGH@tzGJ@0ifawG[m wzJG@wnf;
jzpf/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/ 2003 ckESpf arv 21 &uf?
235
'DyJ,if;vkyf}uHr_ ta&;,laqmif&Gufa&;aumfr&Sif/ 'kwd,t}udrf y%mrtpD&ifcHpm/ 2003
ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv/ pm 22-27?
236
rwW&mtzGJ@csKyf0ifrsm;udk 0dkif;0ef;&kdufESuf&ef }uH@zGH@tzGJ@0ifrsm;}uHpnf/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmh
toH/ 2007 ckESpf {+yDv 30 &uf?
237
trsKd;om;'Drdk ua&pDtzGJ@csKyf ajyma&;qdkcGifh&Sdol OD;vGif. ajymqdkcsufrsm;ESifh
a':atmifqef;pk=unf. 2002 'DZifbm(31) &ufae@ owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJrsm;t&?
238
a':pkc&D;pOf armfawmf,OftultnDay;cJhol vdkifpiftydwfcH&/ 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH/
2003 ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv 1 &uf?
239

The Second Preliminary Report of the Ad hoc Commission on Depayin Massacre
(Burma). The Ad hoc Commission on Depayin Massacre (Burma). May 2003. p.144.

240

'DyJ,if;vkyf}uHr_ ta&;,laqmif&Gufa&;aumfr&Sif/ 'kwd,t}udrf y%mrtpD&ifcHpm/ 2003
ckESpf arv?
241

Voice of Burma. Issue No. 607 MAY 27, 2007.

242

The Second Preliminary Report of the Ad hoc Commission on Depayin Massacre
(Burma). The Ad hoc Commission on Depayin Massacre (Burma). May 2003. p.197.

95

243

The Game Plan of the Nazi Generals in Burma. Weekly Inside News Commentary
No. 227. NDD. 9 December 2005.

244

USDA is Ready to Be a Legal Political party. Independent Mon News Agency. 6
October 2003.
245

Crime Aganist Humanity: Dirty Politics on the Hands of Burmese Junta. Banya
Hongsar. 18 June 2003. Monland.

246

The USDA Factor: The Thuggish Civilian WIng of the Military Junta Must Not Be
Overlooked During Burma’s Political Transition. Min Zin. The Irrawaddy Vol.11, No.6.
July 2003.
247

The Game Plan of the Nazi Generals in Burma. Weekly Inside News Commentary
No. 227. NDD. 9 December 2005.
248
The USDA Factor: The Thuggish Civilian WIng of the Military Junta Must Not Be
Overlooked During Burma’s Political Transition. Min Zin. The Irrawaddy Vol.11, No.6.
July 2003.
249

Mobilization of the Masses: How Much of a Threat is the USDA? L. Hancock. Burma
Issues. 2003.

250

Letter to Japan Foreign Minister Koumura. Human Rights Watch. 15 January 2008.

251

USDA Members Attend Cuban Solidarity Meeting. Mizzima News. 25 January 2006.

252

UN Officials Concerned by USDA Briefing. Clive Parker. The Irrawaddy. 10 October
2005.
253

NLD Expresses Dismay over ASEAN Envoy’s Burma Visit. Democratic Voice of
Burma. 25 March 2006.
254

anmifESpfyifnDvmcHudk azazmf0g&D 17 &ufrSm jyefpr,fvdk@ etza=ujim/ 'Drdku&ufwpf
jrefrmhtoH/ 2005 ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv 12 &uf?

255

Interim Report Card: July 2004-February 2005. Altsean Burma. March 2005.

256

SPDC Picked USDA Members to Represent Arakan State at the National Convention.
Narinjara News. 11 February 2003.

257

USDA Members Attend the National Convention. Democratic Voice of Burma. 10
May 2004.
258
Money for National Convention Delegates Families. Democratic Voice of Burma. 17
June 2004.
259

Compulsory Collections for Convention Families. Democratic Voice of Burma. 4 June
2004.

260

The Game Plan of the Nazi Generals in Burma. Weekly Inside News Commentary
No. 227. NDD. 9 December 2005.

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