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ʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʬʲʤʰʥʲʤʩʮʣʷʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʡʥʶʩʲ 
ʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʥʣʥʷʴʺʺʥʹʩʸʣ        

ʱʷʩʰʸʮʺ     

ʺʥʹʩʸʣʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʬʲʤʰʥʲʤʩʮʣʷʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʡʥʶʩʲ 
ʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʥʣʥʷʴʺ      

ʨʷʩʩʥʸʴʬʲʸʥʡʩʧ 

ʺʬʡʷʬʺʥʹʩʸʣʤʬʹʩʷʬʧʩʥʬʩʮʭʹʬ 

ʩʺʩʩʹʲʺʡʥʶʩʲʡʭʩʲʣʮʬʸʨʱʩʢʮʸʠʥʺʤ    

ʱʷʩʰʸʮʺ             

ʬʠʸʹʩʬʩʢʥʬʥʰʫʨʯʥʫʮ±ʯʥʩʰʫʨʤʨʰʱʬʹʢʥʤ 

ʸʠʥʸʡʴ 

ʤʴʩʧ 

ʦʱʹʺʨʡʹ      

ʩʺʩʩʹʲʺʡʥʶʩʲʬʬʥʬʱʮʡʤʸʥʨʷʨʩʫʸʠʬʤʨʬʥʷʴʡʤʹʲʰʸʷʧʮʤ 

ʬʥʤʩʰʥʤʩʹʲʺʺʱʣʰʤʬʤʨʬʥʷʴʤʮʣʲʬʢʸʫʹʹʩ
ʴʥʸʴʺʩʩʧʰʤʡ 
ʤʸʥʨʷʨʩʫʸʠʬʤʨʬʥʷʴʤʮʥʸʡʰʯʥʸ
ʴʥʸʴʳʺʥʹʤʧʰʮ      

ʸʷʧʮʩʺʥʠʣʮʩʬʤʡʺʥʰʬʡʱʤʥʺʥʹʩʢʸʤʤʸʥʱʮʤʥʺʩʩʧʰʤʬʲʣʲʬʢʸʫʹʹʩ
ʴʥʸʴʬʤʣʥʺ 
ʪʸʣʤʺʠʺʥʥʺʤʬʸʦʲʥʥʺʬʩʧʺʮʸʷʧʮʤʺʠʤʥʥʬʹʥʸʡʰʯʥʸ
ʴʥʸʴʬʤʣʥʺʥʤʮʩʮʣʷʠ 

ʩʩʣʥʮʩʬʺʥʰʹʬʫʪʸʥʠʬʤʡʸʤʭʺʸʦʲʬʲʩʺʧʴʹʮʩʰʡʸʠʹʬʥʯʥʰʩʩʸʥʠʥʬʧʸʩʩʸʥʤʬʤʣʥʺ 
ʸʷʧʰʤʭʥʧʺʡʺʥʱʰʺʤʥʤʠʸʹʤʸʥʷʮʤʩʤʹʸʮʥʲʩʰʡʬʤʣʥʺ   

ʣʥʣʩʲʤʥʤʴʩʧʣʤʺʩʬʨʰʮʤʥʺʩʹʲʮʤʤʸʦʲʤʬʲʱʷʩʰʩʸʥʠʩʹʩʠʬʤʣʥʺ 
ʪʸʲʰʤʩʤʠʬʤʦʸʷʧʮʥʩʣʲʬʡ       

ʩʺʥʮʬʺʹʤʡʤʡʩʣʰʤʺʩʴʱʫʤʤʫʩʮʺʤʬʲʯʥʩʰʫʨʬʤʣʥʮʩʰʠ  

ʭʩʰʩʩʰʲʤʯʫʥʺ 

ʸʩʶʷʺ 

ʺʥʸʴʱʸʷʱ   

ʠʥʡʮ

ʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʣʥʺʮ

ʯʨʡʺʸʥʢʧʡʹʥʮʩʹ 

ʠʹʩʰʤʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹʭʩʩʣʴʥʨʸʥʠʭʩʨʡʩʤ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʬʭʸʥʺʭʸʥʢʫʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʤ 

ʭʩʫʸʭʩʠʹʰʮʭʥʧʺʡʭʩʨʰʨʴ 

ʸʷʧʮʤʺʥʸʨʮ     

ʭʩʠʹʰʮʺʥʧʩʨʡ

ʷʥʹʡʭʩʬʩʡʥʮʭʩʠʹʰʮʺʢʶʤ
ʺʥʸʴʱʤʸʷʱʭʥʫʩʱ

ʤʩʢʥʬʥʣʥʺʮ

ʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʱʸʷʧʮʬʤʩʢʥʬʥʣʥʺʮ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʺʷʩʣʡʬʭʩʩʡʩʨʷʩʡʥʠʭʩʬʥʷʩʹʪʸʲʮ 

ʣʥʷʴʺʺʥʹʩʸʣ  

ʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʺʥʹʩʸʣ
ʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʥʹʩʸʣ 

AHPʺʷʩʰʫʨʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʭʩʸʨʮʸʴʬʹʩʱʧʩʢʸʣʮʺʩʩʰʡ 

ʸʷʱʤʩʠʶʮʮ  

ʭʩʠʶʮʮ

ʭʩʩʨʱʩʨʨʱʭʩʸʹʷ 

AHPʺʷʩʰʫʨʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʯʥʫʰʸʶʥʮʮʺʥʹʩʸʣʩʥʴʩʮ 

ʺʥʰʷʱʮ 

ʭʩʠʶʮʮʡʯʥʩʣ 

ʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʬʺʥʰʥʸʺʴʺʲʶʤ 

ʭʩʸʮʥʧʬʺʥʲʶʤ  

ʣʥʷʴʺʺʥʹʩʸʣʬʭʩʲʶʥʮʺʥʰʥʸʺʴ

ʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʡʤʣʩʮʲ 

ʭʩʩʸʨʮʥʴʥʸʺʰʠʭʩʰʥʺʰʬʭʠʺʤʡʸʶʥʮʤʯʥʰʫʺ 

ʭʩʧʴʱʰ   

ʭʩʩʣʩʺʲʭʩʸʷʧʮʬʺʥʲʶʤ
ʯʥʬʠʹʬʠʮʢʥʣ

ʺʥʸʥʷʮʺʮʩʹʸ  

ʭʩʮʩʹʸʺʺʮʩʹʸ  

Baby Bjorn - Active Baby Carrierʭʩʹʸʺ 

Snugli - City Sport Front & Back Pack Soft Carrierʭʩʹʸʺ 

ʱʩʫʥʰʩʺʩʸʠʹʰʮʭʩʹʸʺ 

Wilkinet - baby carrierʭʩʹʸʺ 

Over the shoulder baby holderʭʩʹʸʺ 

ʬʦʥʢʬʱʭʩʹʸʺ   

Premaxx - Baby Bagʭʩʹʸʺ 

ʱʮʨʰʨʴʭʩʹʸʺ

D294,429
ʱʮʨʰʨʴ9ʭʩʹʸʺ  

ʱʮʨʰʨʴʭʩʹʸʺ  

ʱʮʨʰʨʴʭʩʹʸʺ  

ʱʮʨʰʨʴʭʩʹʸʺ 

A1/
ʱʮʨʰʨʴʭʩʹʸʺ    

ʱʮʨʰʨʴʭʩʹʸʺ 

ʱʮʨʰʨʴʭʩʹʸʺ 

ʱʮʨʰʨʴʭʩʹʸʺ  

ʠʹʰʮʺʷʩʣʡʬʭʩʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʠʤʭʩʬʥʷʩʹʤʪʸʲʮʺʠʸʠʺʮʤʩʹʠʸʭʩʹʸʺ17ʭʩʹʸʺ 

ʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʺʷʩʣʡʬʭʩʬʥʷʩʹʤʪʸʲʮʸʥʠʺ18ʭʩʹʸʺ 

 

ʬʩʢʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

 
 
 


ʷʥʰʩʺ 

ʣʥʷʴʺʺʥʹʩʸʣʺʷʩʣʡʬʭʩʬʥʷʩʹʤʪʸʲʮʸʥʠʺ19ʭʩʹʸʺ 
ʭʩʣʬʩʸʴʱʮʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

ʺʴʣʲʥʮʤʠʩʹʰʺʧʥʰʺʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

ʠʹʰʮʡʭʩʩʸʷʩʲʭʩʹʥʮʩʹʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

 

ʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʮʤʠʶʥʺʫʡʠʫʩʸʥʦʠʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

 

ʱʮʥʲʤʡʸʩʮʭʥʷʩʮʺʴʣʲʤʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

 
 
 
 
 

ʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʮʤʠʶʥʺʫʡʢʩʡʠʫʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 
ʤʫʩʮʺʩʸʥʦʠʺʴʣʲʤʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

ʤʲʥʰʺʤʺʬʥʫʩʺʬʡʢʤʬʤʮʫʱʤʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

ʠʹʰʮʤʬʹʤʸʩʢʱʩʲʶʮʠʺʴʣʲʤʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

ʤʬʢʲʬʤʡʩʨʰʸʨʬʠʫʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʩʡʢʬʭʺʣʮʲʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

 

ʠʹʰʮʡʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʩʹʰʬʺʱʧʥʩʮʤʺʥʡʩʹʧʤʺʣʩʮʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

 

ʭʩʩʲʡʨʭʩʸʮʥʧʮʠʹʰʮʺʴʣʲʤʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

 
 
 
 

ʠʹʩʰʤʷʥʰʩʺʤʭʲʩʱʩʴʲʢʮʺʴʣʲʤʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 
ʩʺʰʴʥʠʥʩʨʺʱʠʠʹʰʮʺʴʣʲʤʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

ʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʩʹʰʬʥʺʴʣʲʤʬʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮʯʩʡʸʹʷʭʩʹʸʺ 
ʤʮʩʰʴʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʩʹʰʬʥʺʴʣʲʤʬʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮʯʩʡʸʹʷʭʩʹʸʺ  

 
 
 
 

ʬʥʱʸʩʲʺʧʥʰʺʡʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʩʹʰʬʥʺʴʣʲʤʬʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮʯʩʡʸʹʷʭʩʹʸʺ 

ʤʸʥʤʤʬʹʯʥʩʬʲʤʡʢʡʭʩʡʠʫʯʩʡʬʺʩʡʺʥʣʥʡʲʬʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʯʩʡʸʹʷʭʩʹʸʺ 

ʭʩʩʲʡʨʭʩʸʮʥʧʮʠʹʰʮʺʴʣʲʤʯʩʡʬʤʲʩʦʤʳʥʣʩʰʺʬʥʫʩʺʥʡʩʹʧʯʩʡʸʹʷʭʩʹʸʺ 
ʠʹʰʮʡʩʸʷʩʲʹʥʮʩʹʯʩʡʬʳʱʥʰʣʥʩʶʺʠʩʹʰʬʺʥʸʹʴʠʺʴʣʲʤʯʩʡʸʹʷʭʩʹʸʺ 

ʤʫʩʬʤʬʥʩʨʬ 

 

ʸʷʩʲʡʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʬʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʬʲʱʮʥʲʤʡʸʩʮʺʴʣʲʤʯʩʡʸʹʷʭʩʹʸʺ 

 

ʯʦʥʠʮʥʰʩʠʹʭʩʩʷʡʶʮʺʮʥʲʬʤʡʩʶʩʤʯʥʦʩʠʬʩʰʥʸʷʲʯʥʸʺʴʭʩʹʸʺ 

 

ʲʶʥʮʤʠʹʰʮʡʭʩʸʡʧʮʤʥʣʡʤʺʱʩʸʴʭʩʹʸʺ 

 

ʤʲʥʶʸʭʲʣʶʨʡʮ± ʩʣʩʶʸʥʸʧʹʭʦʡʠ46ʭʩʹʸʺ 

 
 

ʺʥʩʰʷʥʭʩʸʥʣʩʱʬ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʹʠʸʡʥʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺʪʸʲʮʭʩʹʸʺ 
ʩʣʩʶʸʥʸʧʹʭʦʡʠʭʩʹʸʺ  

ʺʥʠʬʡʨʺʮʩʹʸ 
 
 

ʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺʠʹʥʰʡʺʥʩʥʴʩʣʲʤʢʸʣʮʡʥʹʩʧʤʬʡʨ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʡʺʥʫʩʮʺʠʹʥʰʡʺʥʩʥʴʩʣʲʤʢʸʣʮʡʥʹʩʧ2ʤʬʡʨ 

 

ʤʸʥʤʤʬʲʱʮʥʲʺʷʥʬʧʠʹʥʰʡʺʥʩʥʴʩʣʲʤʢʸʣʮʡʥʹʩʧʤʬʡʨ 

 

ʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʠʹʥʰʡʺʥʩʥʴʩʣʲʤʢʸʣʮʡʥʹʩʧ5ʤʬʡʨ 

 

ʣʥʷʴʺʺʥʹʩʸʣʠʹʥʰʡʺʥʩʥʴʩʣʲʤʢʸʣʮʡʥʹʩʧʤʬʡʨ   

ʸʩʶʷʺ 

ʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʬʭʠʺʤʡʭʩʰʥʹʠʸʤʭʩʩʧʤʩʹʣʥʧʡʠʹʰʮʡʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʩʹʰʡʺʷʱʥʲʥʦʤʣʥʡʲ 
ʭʩʸʡʥʢʤ ʭʩʫʸʶʬ ʤʰʲʮ ʺʺʬ ʺʥʸʹʴʠ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʩʸʶʥʮ ʷʥʹ ʹʴʧʮ ʺʥʹʣʧ ʺʥʸʥʤ ʺʥʹʩʢ 

ʸʷʧʬʲʱʱʥʡʮʤʺʥʩʮʥʰʥʢʸʠʺʥʰʥʫʺʬʲʡʪʸʠʹʰʮʡʪʸʥʶʬʤʰʲʮʺʸʣʢʤʡʷʱʥʲʤʦʸʷʧʮ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʳʥʢʬʲʤʰʡʮʤʺʥʰʥʫʰʺʷʩʣʡʥʤʸʥʤʤʸʥʡʲʤʠʩʹʰʤʺʲʴʥʺ  

ʺʥʠʡʤʺʥʰʷʱʮʤʺʠʤʬʲʤʥʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʩʹʰʬʭʩʸʥʹʷʤʭʩʰʥʹʭʩʨʷʴʱʠʷʣʡʺʥʸʴʱʸʷʱ 

ʠʹʩʰʬʷʹʮʤʺʩʡʸʮʹʪʫʩʸʨʮʩʱʯʴʥʠʡʳʥʢʤʬʹʣʡʥʫʤʦʫʸʮʡʩʡʱʬʷʹʮʤʺʱʩʸʴ  
ʺʶʬʮʥʮʤʤʠʩʹʰʤʺʣʥʺʮʫʺʰʮʺʱʮʯʢʠʤʩʣʩʬʲ 

ʹʠʸʡ ʭʩʸʥʦʠ ʤʹʥʬʹʡ ʤʫʩʮʺ ʷʴʱʬ ʹʩ ʥʺʠʩʹʰ ʺʲʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʣʬʹʬ ʷʦʰ ʲʥʰʮʬ ʩʣʫʡ  
ʷʥʰʩʺʤʩʬʢʸʯʩʡʥʤʹʬʫʷʥʱʩʴʸʮʹʩʩʩʫʢʥʠʣʬʹʩʥʷʥʰʩʺʤʡʢʡʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʩʠʴʥʸʩʠʤʭʩʰʷʺʤʯʥʫʮʬʹʷʥʰʩʺʩʠʹʰʮʺʥʧʩʨʡʯʷʺʡʣʥʮʲʬʡʩʩʧʩʺʥʫʩʠʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮ  
ʬʲʥ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʬʹ ʺʩʹʴʰ ʺʥʧʺʴʺʤ ʬʲ ʺʩʡʥʩʧ ʤʲʴʹʤ ʬʲʡ ʠʥʤ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹ  
ʥʩʸʥʤʬʷʥʰʩʺʤʯʩʡʸʹʷʤ 

ʺʩʮʣʷʠʤʮʸʡʸʷʧʰʠʬʥʨʲʮʫʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʤʩʠʹʰʮʭʥʧʺʩʫʤʬʲʤʺʥʸʴʱʤʸʷʱ  

ʺʥʹʩʸʣʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʬʲʤʰʲʩʹʠʹʰʮʬʭʩʰʥʩʴʠʺʫʸʲʮʺʸʣʢʤʠʩʤʸʷʧʮʤʺʸʨʮ 

ʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʥʠʹʥʰʤʣʥʷʴʺ 

ʺʸʣʢʤ ʠʹʥʰʤ ʳʥʢ ʬʲ ʺʥʲʴʹʤʤ ʺʰʩʧʡ ʤʠʩʹʰ ʱʮʥʲ ʭʥʮʩʰʩʮ ± ʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡ ʺʥʹʩʸʣ  
ʠʹʩʰʤʷʥʰʩʺʬʭʩʰʥʫʰʤʫʩʮʺʥʤʰʡʮ 

ʩʮʥʰʥʢʸʠ ʤʰʡʮ ʺʸʣʢʥʮ ʺʥʩʮʥʩ ʺʥʬʨʮ ʺʸʣʱʡ ʤʬʥʲʴ ʹʴʥʧ ± ʠʹʥʰʤ ʣʥʷʴʺ ʺʥʹʩʸʣ  
ʠʹʥʰʬ ʤʮʠʺʤ ʩʷʹʮʮ ʠʹʰʮ ʩʸʢʱ ʬʹ ʺʩʡʩʨʩʦʥʴ ʤʬʲʴʤ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʡʥ ʤʠʩʹʰʡ 
ʺʥʩʧʥʰʡ ʲʥʢʴʬ ʩʬʡʮ ʭʩʬʷʠ ʺʥʹʩʸʣʡ ʤʣʩʮʲ ʺʸʣʢʥʮ ʣʥʷʴʺ ʺʡʩʡʱʬ ʤʮʠʺʤʥ 

ʭʩʹʮʺʹʮʤ 

ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʩʠʹʰʮʺʥʧʩʨʡʬʩʠʴʥʸʩʠʤʯʷʺʡʤʣʩʮʲ±ʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʥʹʩʸʣ   

ʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʱʥʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʠʭʩʩʦʫʸʮʭʩʫʩʬʤʩʰʹʬʤʷʬʧʰʸʷʧʮʤʺʩʢʥʬʥʣʥʺʮ 

ʲʩʩʱʬ ʤʬʥʫʩ ʭʩʫʸʶ ʭʺʥʠ ʺʰʡʤ ʣʲʩʤ ʬʤʷ ʩʫʸʶ ʺʰʡʤ ʠʩʤ ʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʱʤ ʪʩʬʤʤ ʺʸʨʮ 
ʠʹʰʮ ʩʹʮʺʹʮ ʡʸʷʡ ʺʥʣʮʲ ʸʷʱ  ʬʬʥʫ ʸʷʧʮʤ ʬʹ ʤʦ ʷʬʧ ʯʥʫʰ ʸʶʥʮ ʩʰʥʩʴʠ ʺʸʣʢʤʡ 

ʷʥʰʩʺ 

ʬʹʭʤʩʺʥʩʥʫʩʠʺʠʪʩʸʲʤʬʯʺʩʰʥʩʴʬʣʩʧʠʤʣʩʣʮʩʬʫʺʩʩʰʡʯʤʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʠʤʪʩʬʤʤʺʥʸʨʮ 

ʪʩʬʤʤ ʸʶʥʮʤ ʯʥʫʩʺ ʬʲ ʭʩʲʩʴʹʮʤ ʭʩʸʨʮʸʴ ʬʹ ʩʱʧʩ ʢʸʣʮ ʺʩʩʰʡʥ ʭʩʰʥʹ ʭʩʠʹʰʮ  

ʺʩʩʰʡʥ ʱʩʱʡ ʺʥʹʩʸʣʬ ʭʩʮʩʩʷ ʭʩʸʶʥʮ ʬʹ ʤʮʠʺʤ ʺʷʩʣʡ ʬʬʥʫ ʸʷʧʮʤ ʬʹ ʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʠʤ 
ʺʥʹʩʸʣʯʺʥʠʬʺʥʩʥʴʩʣʲʢʸʣʮ  

ʭʩʠʶʮʮ 

ʭʩʰʩʰʥʲʮ ʳʠʥ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʺʠ ʺʠʹʬ ʭʤʩʰʩʲʡ ʡʥʹʧ ʩʫ ʭʩʰʩʩʶʮ ʭʩʸʥʤʤ ʺʩʡʸʮ  
ʥʺʠʩʹʰʺʲʡʷʥʰʩʺʤʭʲʩʱʩʴʲʢʮʡ 

ʤʡʩʶʩ ʩʥʰʩʹʥ ʱʮʥʲ ʺʥʧʴʹ ʤʮʫʬ ʭʸʥʢʤ ʩʮʥʰʥʢʸʠ ʤʰʡʮ ʬʲʡ ʺʥʩʤʬ ʪʩʸʶ ʩʣʩʺʲ ʠʹʰʮ  
ʥʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʬʹ ʺʫʹʥʮʮ ʺʥʤʹ ʸʹʴʠʬ ʪʩʸʶ ʠʹʰʮʤ ʤʰʡʮ ʠʹʥʰʤ ʤʸʥʤʤ ʣʬʹ ʬʹ 

ʠʹʰʮʤ ʬʹ ʤʬʷ ʤʸʱʤʥ ʤʹʩʡʬʬ ʺʥʸʹʴʠ ʤʩʤʺʹ ʩʥʶʸ ʯʫʥ ʤʲʥʰʺʡ ʤʸʥʤʤ ʣʥʲʡ 
ʯʥʱʧʠʩʬʬʧʭʩʱʩʫʬʥʬʫʬʹʩʩʣʩʺʲʸʶʥʮʯʥʰʫʺʡʥʰʮʮʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹʤʬʷʤʸʱʤʥʤʮʩʺʸʥ 
ʳʱʥʰʣʥʩʶʺʠʩʹʰʥʸʹʴʠʩʹʺʥʮʺʸʥ 

ʬʹ ʯʢʠʤ ʬʲ ʤʩʤʩ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʬʷʹʮʮ ʸʺʥʩʹ ʤʮʫʹ ʪʫ ʱʮʥʲʤ ʬʹ ʯʥʫʰ ʸʥʦʩʴʬ ʢʥʠʣʬ ʹʩ  
ʤʸʥʤʤ 

ʩʸʨʮʩʱʧʰʮʬʲʺʥʸʮʥʹʤʥʬʠʤʯʤʭʩʸʥʤʤʬʲʺʥʴʣʲʥʮʤʤʠʩʹʰʤʺʥʧʥʰʺ  

ʸʹʠʫʯʥʩʬʲʡʢʥʭʩʩʴʺʫʯʥʺʧʺʡʢʭʤʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʮʤʠʶʥʺʫʭʩʩʸʷʩʲʤʡʠʫʤʩʸʥʦʠ  
ʭʩʩʴʺʫʡʥʯʥʺʧʺʤʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺʤʸʷʩʲʺʠʭʩʴʩʣʲʮʭʩʸʥʤʤ 

ʭʩʮʦʡʠʠʥʤʭʩʸʥʤʤʺʩʡʸʮʬʲʳʣʲʥʮʤʤʸʩʢʱʤʩʲʶʮʠ  
ʭʩʩʲʡʨʭʩʸʮʥʧʩʥʹʲʠʹʰʮʬʤʬʷʤʴʣʲʤʤʰʹʩ  

ʭʩʮʧʸʩʥʠʢʦʮʩʠʰʺʮʺʩʡʸʮʤʰʢʤʷʴʱʬʠʹʰʮʤʬʲ   

ʺʥʹʩʸʣ ʣʥʷʴʺ ʺʥʹʩʸʣ ʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡ ʺʥʹʩʸʣ ʺʥʰʥʸʺʴʬ ʺʥʲʶʤ ʺʥʬʬʥʫ ʸʷʧʮʤ ʺʥʰʷʱʮ 
ʯʥʫʩʺʬʱʩʱʡʺʥʥʤʬʬʥʫʩʥʩʺʥʰʷʱʮʥʸʷʧʮʤʩʠʶʮʮʡʯʥʩʣʤʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʥʭʩʸʮʥʧʬʲʢʥʰʡ 
ʺʠ ʺʰʩʩʴʠʮʤ ʥʦʮ ʤʰʥʹ ʤʱʩʴʺʥ ʲʣʩ ʱʩʱʡ ʬʲ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʭʥʧʺʡ ʹʣʧ ʸʶʥʮ 

ʭʥʩʤʷʥʹʡʭʩʮʩʩʷʤʭʩʸʶʥʮʤ  

ʠʥʡʮ 

ʥʮʫ ʭʣʠʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʤʩʶʥʬʥʡʠʤʸʧʹʮʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʩʹʰʠʩʤʥʦʤʣʥʡʲʦʫʸʮʡʺʣʮʥʲʤʤʩʲʡʤ 

ʺʡʩʩʧʮʤʥʦʤʠʩʹʰʺʨʩʹʭʥʩʤʪʬʤʮʡʺʥʡʸʺʥʲʹʪʸʥʠʬʯʮʠʩʣʩʬʲʥʠʹʩʰ ʭʩʴʥʷʩʸʥʢʭʢ 

ʤʰʩʠʥ ʯʮʦ ʪʸʥʠʬ ʤʧʥʰ ʤʰʩʠ ʤʡ ʦʥʧʠʬ ʩʣʫ ʷʩʴʱʮ ʷʦʧ ʥʰʩʠʹ ʤʷʥʰʩʺʡ ʪʥʮʺʬ ʭʠʤ ʺʠ 
ʭʩʩʣʩʤʩʺʹʡʹʥʮʩʹʺʥʹʸʥʣʤʺʥʬʥʲʴʺʸʹʴʠʮ  

ʭʩʨʥʹʴʭʩʠʹʰʮʬʹʭʩʰʥʹʭʩʢʥʱʭʬʥʲʡʭʩʡʸʺʥʮʥʷʮʡʬʩʡʷʮʡʥʧʺʴʺʤʭʩʰʹʤʪʬʤʮʡ 
 ʱʩʸʥʮ ʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʬʲʺʥʩʥʣʲʺʥʮʩʩʷʤʷʩʺʲʤʭʩʸʶʮʩʮʩʮʸʡʫ 

ʯʥʢʫ ʥʰʮʮ ʺʥʹʸʣʰʤ ʺʥʬʥʲʴʤ ʬʫ ʺʠ ʲʶʡʬ  ʭʠʤ ʫʣʡ  ʬʴʨʮʤ ʤʸʥʤʬ ʸʹʴʠ ʠʹʰʮʤ 

ʤʮʩʺʸʤʺʥʨʩʹʥʥʧʺʴʺʤʥʥʫʬʤʭʩʠʹʰʮʤʥʩʬʠʣʥʮʶʷʥʰʩʺʤʸʹʠʫ
ʥʫʥʯʥʦʮʺʰʫʤʤʣʥʡʲ 
ʭʺʸʰ ʺʥʸʧʠ ʺʥʩʥʡʸʺʡ ʬʴʨʮʤ ʳʺʫʬ ʠʹʰʮʤ ʭʺʸʰ ʺʥʣʧʠ ʺʥʩʥʡʸʺʡ ʯʤ ʭʢ ʥʬʬʫʺʹʤ 
ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʠʩʹʰʬ ʸʺʥʩʡ ʵʥʴʰʤ ʩʲʶʮʠʤ ʤʩʤ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮ ʹʠʸʬ ʥʬʩʴʠʥ ʤʦʧʬ ʠʹʰʮʤ 
ʤʰʹʫʩʰʴʬʣʲʥʭʥʣʷʤʸʡʲʤʮ  

ʺʰʹʡʷʸʥʩʥʩʰʮʯʥʨʸʡʱʬʸ
ʶʩʲʤʠʶʮʥʤʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʬʢʲʠʩʤʠʹʰʮʬʺʸʫʥʮʤʤʡʩʨʰʸʨʬʠʤ 
ʤʰʩʮʦʤʭʹʯʥʣʰʥʬʬʯʥʨʸʡʸʡʲʡʤʸʠʡʤʡʸʤʧʬʶʤʬʧʰʠʬʥʸʧʠʮ ʱʩʸʥʮ  

ʷʹʧʰʱʥʨʨʱ ʬʮʱʬ ʤʹʣʧʤ ʤʠʶʮʤʤ ʤʫʴʤ ʣʩʮʥʤʩʣʬʩʮ ʣʧʠʬ ʤʬʢʲ ʤʩʸʥʨʷʩʥ ʤʫʬʮʤ 

ʡʸʷʡ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʠʩʹʰʬ ʤʬʢʲʤ ʺʹʮʹʮ ʭʥʩʫʥ ʣʥʠʮ ʤʠʶʮʤʤ ʤʧʺʴʺʤ ʭʥʩʤ ʣʲʥ ʦʠʮ 
ʩʡʸʲʮʤʭʬʥʲʡʺʥʡʸʺʥʧʴʹʮ  

ʪʸʤ ʯʩʡ ʪʹʥʮʮ ʩʱʩʴ ʲʢʮ ʺʥʡʩʹʧʬ ʺʥʲʣʥʮʤ ʺʸʡʥʢʥ ʺʫʬʥʤ ʺʥʰʥʸʧʠʤ ʭʩʰʹʤ ʭʩʲʡʸʠʡ 

ʭʩʡʥʹʧʤʭʩʮʸʥʢʤʣʧʠʫʱʴʺʰʭʩʰʥʹʠʸʤʭʩʩʧʤʩʡʬʹʡʪʹʥʮʮʩʱʩʴʲʢʮʥʬʴʨʮʬʣʬʥʰʤ 
ʩʱʩʴ ʲʢʮ   ʳʥʬʣʩʬ  ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʬʹ ʤʰʩʷʺ ʺʩʹʴʰʥ ʺʩʱʩʴ ʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʥ ʤʥʥʬʹ ʲʢʥʸʬ 

ʺʥʲʶʮʠʡ ʤʠʩʹʰʥ ʺʴʺʥʹʮ ʤʰʩʬ ʤʷʰʤ ʭʩʠʡʤ ʭʩʮʸʥʢʤ ʺʹʥʬʹʡ ʩʥʨʩʡ ʩʣʩʬ ʠʡ ʪʹʥʮʮ 
ʠʹʰʮ  

ʣʧʥʩʮʹʢʣʤʮʹʤʺʥʸʥʤʺʹʩʢʡʺʥʬʢʥʣʤʺʥʲʥʰʺʬʹʡʸʸʴʱʮʭʬʥʲʡʥʧʺʴʺʤʤʰʥʸʧʠʬ 

Continuum Networkʺʲʥʰʺʯʤʡʹʺʥʨʬʥʡʤʮʥʬʴʨʮʬʷʥʰʩʺʤʯʩʡ ʪʹʥʮʮʩʱʩʴʲʢʮʬʲ 
ʭʥʸʢʬʥʯʺʰʹʮʺʠʵʩʴʤʬʤʸʨʮʬʯʤʬʥʮʹʺʥʲʥʰʺʯʺʥʠAttachment Parentingʺʲʥʰʺʥ 

ʺʥʫʬʥʤ ʥʬʠ ʺʥʹʩʢ ʯʥʸʧʠʤ ʸʥʹʲʡ ʥʦ ʤʹʩʢ ʩʴ ʬʲ ʭʤʩʣʬʩ ʺʠ ʬʣʢʬ ʭʩʸʥʤ ʸʺʥʩʹ ʤʮʫʬ 
ʩʺʰʴʥʠʯʥʥʢʺʥʬʡʷʮʳʠʥʸʺʥʩʥʸʺʥʩʺʥʶʴʥʮʥ   

ʬʴʨʮʤ ʩʣʩ ʺʠ ʸʩʠʹʮ ʯʫʥ ʥʬʴʨʮʬ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʯʩʡ ʳʥʶʸ ʲʢʮ ʸʹʴʠʮʤ ʸʺʥʩʡ ʵʥʴʰʤ ʯʥʸʺʴʤ 

ʭʬʥʲʡʹʥʮʩʹʬʠʹʰʮʤʸʦʥʧʺʥʰʥʸʧʠʤʭʩʰʹʡʪʸʤ ʠʹʰʮʤʠʥʤʥʩʺʥʮʩʹʮʲʥʶʩʡʬʺʥʩʥʰʴ 

ʤʩʤʹʩʴʫʯʮʦʤʺʩʡʸʮʡʭʴʥʢʬʲʭʤʩʣʬʩʺʠʭʩʠʹʥʰʤʭʩʸʥʤʤʭʩʨʲʮʯʩʩʣʲʩʫʭʠʩʡʸʲʮʤ 
ʸʡʲʡʢʥʤʰ  

ʺʺʬ ʺʥʸʹʴʠ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʩʸʶʥʮ ʷʥʹ ʹʴʧʮ ʺʥʹʣʧʤ ʺʥʸʥʤʤ ʺʥʹʩʢ ʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʬ ʭʠʺʤʡ 
ʱʮʥʲʤʺʷʥʬʧʡʭʩʷʥʬʭʷʬʧʪʠʷʥʹʡʭʩʮʩʩʷʭʩʡʸʭʩʫʸʭʩʠʹʰʮʭʩʸʡʥʢʤʭʩʫʸʶʬʤʰʲʮ 

ʠʹʩʰʤʷʥʰʩʺʬʹʮʮʬʹʤʰʫʱʭʩʥʥʤʮʭʷʬʧʥʬʥʲʴʺʬʭʩʹʷʭʷʬʧʤʸʥʤʤʬʲ  

ʬʲʱʱʥʡʮʤʺʥʩʮʥʰʥʢʸʠʺʥʰʥʫʺʬʲʡ ʪʸʠʹʰʮʡʪʸʥʶʬʤʰʲʮʺʸʣʢʤʬʴʨʮʢʶʥʮʤʸʷʧʮʤ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤʳʥʢʬʲʤʰʡʮʤʺʥʰʥʫʰʺʷʩʣʡʥʤʸʥʤʤʸʥʡʲʤʠʩʹʰʤʺʲʴʥʺʸʷʧ  

ʬʩʮʸʺ ʩʠʹʰʮʬ ʠʬʥ ʭʩʰʥʹʠʸʤ ʭʩʩʧʤ ʩʡʬʹʬ ʭʩʣʲʥʩʮʤ ʭʩʠʹʰʮʬ ʺʱʧʩʩʺʮ ʥʦ ʤʣʥʡʲ 
ʺʥʨʥʲʴʬʥʭʩʬʥʣʢʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʬʭʩʣʲʥʩʮʤ  

ʺʥʸʴʱʸʷʱ 

ʬʩʫʮʺʥʸʴʱʤʸʷʱʪʫʩʴʬʷʥʰʩʺʩʠʹʰʮʺʥʣʥʠʲʣʩʮʣʥʠʮʨʲʮʤʬʩʫʮʺʩʲʥʶʷʮʤʺʥʸʴʱʤ 
ʠʹʥʰʬʺʥʩʨʰʥʥʬʸʩʬʲʡʭʩʷʩʹʮʭʩʮʥʧʺʸʴʱʮʬʹʤʸʩʷʱ 
ʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʣʥʺʮ  

ʯʨʡʺʸʥʢʧʡʹʥʮʩʹ  

ʠʹʩʰʤʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹʭʩʩʣʴʥʨʸʥʠʭʩʨʡʩʤ  
ʭʩʠʹʰʮʺʥʧʩʨʡ  

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʬʭʸʥʺʤʭʸʥʢʫʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹ   

ʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʣʥʺʮ 

ʣʥʮʶʡ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʬʹ ʭʩʩʰʫʮʥʩʡ ʭʩʨʡʩʤ ʷʣʥʡʤ ʸʷʧʮ ʠʶʮʰ ʠʬ ʺʩʲʥʶʷʮʤ ʺʥʸʴʱʡ 

ʩʬʬʫ ʯʴʥʠʡ ʤʠʩʹʰ ʺʥʣʥʺʮʡ ʭʩʰʣʤ ʭʩʸʷʧʮ ʷʴʱʮ ʭʩʮʩʩʷ ʩʫ ʭʠ ʸʢʥʡʮ ʭʣʠ ʬʹ ʥʴʥʢʬ 
ʺʠʩʹʰʡ ʭʩʷʱʥʲ ʭʷʬʧ ʭʩʩʠʡʶ ʭʩʹʥʮʩʹʬ ʺʥʠʹʮ ʺʠʩʹʰʡ ʭʩʷʱʥʲ ʭʩʸʷʧʮʤʮ ʷʬʧ 

ʭʩʣʧʠ ʭʩʸʷʧʮ ʭʩʬʩʩʨʮ ʣʥʩʶʥ ʸʠʥʣ ʩʸʡʣ ʺʥʸʥʧʱ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʯʥʢʫ ʭʩʸʧʠ ʭʩʹʥʮʩʹʬ ʺʥʠʹʮ 

ʤʱʮʬʲʡʠʹʮʺʠʩʹʰʬʭʩʱʧʩʩʺʮʭʩʸʧʠʥʩʨʥʬʥʱʡʠʬʷʹʮʩʬʲʡʺʥʠʹʮʬʹʤʠʩʹʰʥʷʣʡ 

ʺʠʩʹʰʡʭʩʸʡʢʬʭʩʹʰʯʩʡʭʩʬʣʡʤʬʱʧʩʩʺʮʣʡʬʡʣʧʠʸʷʧʮʠʹʥʰʤʳʥʢʬʷʹʮʮʺʸʦʢʰʤ 
ʺʥʠʹʮʺʠʩʹʰʠʹʥʰʡʥʡʺʫʰʹʭʩʨʲʮʤʭʩʸʷʧʮʤʬʹʤʸʩʷʱʬʩʫʮʤʦʷʸʴʺʥʠʹʮ 

Ergonomic comparison of seven ʭʸʷʧʮʡʥʲʶʩʡ  Datta and Ramanathan 

ʺʥʨʩʹ ʲʡʹ ʬʹ ʤʴʩʷʮ ʤʠʥʥʹʤ modes of carrying loads on the horizontal plane 
ʭʥʧʺʡʭʩʡʺʥʫʤʺʩʡʸʮʩʣʩʬʲʨʨʥʶʮʥʩʦʫʸʮʫʡʹʧʰʤʦʸʷʧʮʺʥʠʹʮʺʠʩʹʰʬʺʥʶʥʴʰ  

ʬʷʹʮ ʠʹʰ ʭʩʷʣʡʰʤʮ ʣʧʠ ʬʫ ʸʹʠʫ ʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʨʩʹ ʲʡʹ ʯʩʡ ʤʠʥʥʹʤ ʠʩʤ ʩʥʱʩʰʤ ʺʸʨʮ 
ʪʬʤʮʡʹʮʷ ʺʥʸʩʤʮʡʮʷ ʪʸʥʠʬʤʫʩʬʤʡʥʰʧʡʰʹʺʥʨʩʹʤʮʺʧʠʬʫʡʢʷ ʬʹ 

ʩʥʱʩʰʤ ʳʺʺʹʮ ʬʫ ʬʹ ʯʶʮʧʤ ʺʫʩʸʶʥ ʡʬʤ ʺʥʮʩʲʴ ʡʶʷ ʤʩʢʸʰʠʤ ʺʠʶʥʤ ʥʷʣʡʰ ʩʥʱʩʰʤ 
ʬʷʹʮʥʺʥʠʺʠʩʹʰʬʺʥʰʥʹʺʥʨʩʹʯʩʡʭʩʸʥʸʡʭʩʩʢʥʬʥʩʱʩʴʭʩʬʣʡʤʭʩʮʩʩʷʩʫʤʠʸʤ  

ʤʣʥʺʮʬʫʡʺʥʠʶʥʺʤʥʥʷʣʡʰʹʤʠʩʹʰʤʺʥʣʥʺʮ 

ʯʴʥʠʡʸʥʧʠʮʣʧʠʥʭʩʰʴʬʮʣʧʠʭʩʧʰʥʮʭʩʥʥʹʭʩʷʹʩʰʹʬʷʬʥʧʮʠʹʮʤ ±ʬʥʴʫʷʹ  

ʺʠ ʺʸʡʧʮ ʺʴʱʥʰ ʤʲʥʶʸ ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤ ʬʲʮ ʺʥʸʡʥʲ ʭʤʩʰʩʡ ʺʥʸʡʧʮ ʺʥʲʥʶʸʥ ʩʸʨʮʩʱ 

ʺʩʰʥʫʱʧʤ ʤʨʩʹʤ ʩʤʥʦ ʩʫ ʤʬʲ ʩʥʱʩʰʤ ʺʥʰʷʱʮʮ ʺʸʸʧʥʹʮ ʤʸʥʶʡ ʭʩʷʹʤ ʺʩʺʧʺ 

ʡʧʸʰʧʨʹʬʤʫʩʮʺʺʷʥʬʧʺʸʹʴʠʮʠʩʤʡʬʤʬʲʤʱʩʮʲʮʺʥʧʴʩʫʤʥʤʩʢʸʰʠʡʸʺʥʩʡ 
ʩʥʥʹ ʺʸʹʴʠʮ ʺʥʩʥʰʴ ʭʩʩʣʩʤ ʺʠ ʤʸʩʺʥʮ ʭʩʸʩʸʹ ʬʹ ʺʥʬʥʣʢ ʺʥʶʥʡʷ ʬʹ ʺʥʡʸʥʲʮʥ  

ʭʤʤʨʩʹʤʺʥʰʥʸʱʧʳʥʢʤʬʹʣʡʥʫʤʦʫʸʮʬʡʥʸʷʱʮʥʲʤʬʹʤʠʩʹʰʺʸʹʴʠʮʥʬʷʹʮ 

ʪʩʬʤʺ ʺʠ ʺʫʡʱʮʥ ʸʺʥʩ ʥʠ ʺʥʧʴ ʤʥʥʹ ʤʸʥʶʡ ʱʮʥʲʤ ʺʠ ʷʬʧʬ ʺʡʩʩʧʮ ʤʨʩʹʤ 

ʭʩʸʶʷ ʭʩʷʧʸʮʬ ʺʩʡʩʨʷʸʨʠ ʺʥʧʴʫ ʺʱʴʺʰ ʥʦ ʤʨʩʹ ʠʹʮʤ ʬʹ ʤʸʱʤʤʥ ʤʹʩʡʬʤ 
ʤʮʩʠʺʮʤʮʩʺʸʺʫʸʲʮʡʶʥʲʺʯʫʭʠʠʬʠ 

ʯʤʩʺʹ ʥʠ ʺʧʠ ʣʩ ʺʣʴʥʸʮ ʺʲʡʨʡ ʹʠʸʬ ʸʥʹʷ ʬʱʡ ʠʶʮʰ ʠʹʮʤ ± ʹʠʸ ʺʠʩʹʰ  
ʩʸʩʸʹʥʦʤʨʩʹʡʩʫʤʬʲʩʥʱʩʰʤʮʭʬʥʲʡʤʠʩʹʰʬʺʥʶʥʴʰʤʺʥʨʩʹʤʺʧʠʠʹʮʡʺʫʮʥʺ 
ʠʬ ʺʠʶʮʰ ʠʩʤ ʭʩʩʬʢʸʤ ʬʲʥ ʤʸʣʹʤ ʣʥʮʲ ʬʲ ʠʥʤ ʱʮʥʲʤ ʸʷʩʲʥ ʭʩʶʥʥʫʺʮ ʸʠʥʥʶʤ 

ʺʹʸʥʣʥʦʤʨʩʹʤʩʢʸʰʠʡʩʢʥʬʥʩʱʩʴʯʥʫʱʧʺʰʩʧʡʮʬʥʴʫʤʷʹʤʺʨʩʹʩʸʧʠʭʬʥʱʡʷʥʧʸ 
ʤʬʥʫʩʺʧʠʣʩʭʰʮʠʭʩʹʷʧʨʹʩʠʰʺʬʤʮʩʠʺʮʤʰʩʠʥʹʠʸʤʬʲʠʹʮʤʯʥʦʩʠʡʯʥʮʩʠ 
ʺʬʡʢʥʮʣʥʠʮʳʥʢʤʺʲʥʰʺʪʠʺʸʸʧʥʹʮʺʥʩʤʬ 

ʤʥʡʢʬʩʮʸʺʤʭʥʷʩʮʸʹʠʫʺʥʲʥʶʸʡʭʩʩʴʺʫʬʸʡʥʧʮʤʬʩʮʸʺʡʠʶʮʰʠʹʮʤ ±ʬʩʮʸʺ  
ʯʥʸʺʩʤ ʩʫ ʩʥʱʩʰʤ ʺʰʷʱʮ ʸʴʱ ʺʩʡ ʩʣʩʮʬʺʥ ʭʩʬʩʩʧ ʬʶʠ ʤʶʥʴʰ ʤʠʩʹʰ ʺʸʥʶ ʡʢʤ ʬʲ 
ʥʦʤʨʩʹʯʥʫʸʳʥʢʤʥʤʸʥʧʠʺʥʫʥʹʮʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʺʥʩʥʰʴʭʩʩʣʩʤʹʪʫʡʠʥʤʤʨʩʹʡʩʦʫʸʮʤ 
ʬʩʮʸʺʤʬʣʥʢʩʣʩʬʲʬʡʢʥʮʯʲʨʮʤʬʣʥʢʥʭʩʸʶʷʭʩʷʧʸʮʬʤʮʩʠʺʮʤʰʩʠ 

ʪʫ ʧʶʮʤ ʡʩʡʱ ʤʲʥʶʸʡ ʪʮʺʰʥ ʡʢʤ ʬʲ ʷʹʡ ʠʶʮʰ ʠʹʮʤ ± ʤʲʥʶʸ ʭʲ ʸʥʹʷ ʷʹ  
ʤʺ ʩʴʨʥʷ ʭʩʸʤ ʩʱʴʨʮ ʡʸʷʡ ʸʷʩʲʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʡ ʺʠʶʮʰ ʥʦ ʤʨʩʹ ʺʥʸʸʧʥʹʮ ʭʩʩʣʩʤʹ 
ʲʰʣʡʥʫʤʦʫʸʮʥʤʮʩʣʷʤʨʥʰʳʥʢʤʯʥʮʩʠʺʹʸʥʣʤʤʨʩʹʩʤʥʦʩʫʤʬʲʩʥʱʩʰʤʮʭʩʬʡʱʥ 

ʬʩʮʸʺʤʬʲʯʥʸʺʩʤʬʯʩʠʤʹʲʮʬʥʭʩʸʤʱʥʴʩʨʬʤʮʩʠʺʮʥʦʤʨʩʹʤʨʮʬʥʤʮʩʣʷ 

ʺʥʷʦʧʥʮʺʥʰʥʩʬʲʤʺʥʰʩʴʤʩʺʹʹʫʡʢʤʬʲʪʮʺʰ ʱʥʡʰʷʷʹʡʠʶʮʰʠʹʮʤ ±ʦʸʥʠʷʹ  
ʬʹ ʺʥʠʹʮ ʺʸʡʲʤʬ ʭʩʬʲʥʴʡʸʷʡ ʤʶʥʴʰ ʥʦ ʤʠʩʹʰʺʨʩʹʭʩʥʥ ʺʸʦʲʡ ʥʠ ʭʩʩʣʩʡ 

ʣʥʮʲʥʤʮʩʣʷʯʫʥʸʳʥʢʤʥʦʤʨʩʹʡʩʫʤʬʲʩʥʱʩʰʤʮʺʩʠʬʷʧʺʸʶʥʺʺʱʮʲʤʡʢʷ  

ʩʣʮʬʤʧʥʨʡʤʰʩʠʥʦʤʨʩʹʱʮʥʲʤʺʩʡʸʮʺʠʭʩʠʹʥʰʭʩʫʥʮʱʤʭʩʸʩʸʹʥʤʸʣʹʤ 

ʬʹʥʩʺʥʶʷʮʣʧʠʬʫʬʲʭʩʬʡʧʤʹʥʬʹʺʸʦʲʡʩʥʬʺʥʤʥʥʹʤʸʥʶʡʷʬʥʧʮʠʹʮʤ ±ʬʥʲ  
ʺʥʸʥʧʱ ʺʠʡʤʬ ʤʶʥʴʰʥ ʥʣʥʤʡ ʺʬʡʥʷʮ ʤʠʩʹʰ ʺʨʩʹ ʠʹʥʰʤ ʩʴʺʫ ʬʲ ʭʷʥʮʮʤ ʨʥʮ 

ʨʥʮʥʺʥʠʠʥʤ ʸʷʧʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʥʡʤʹʲʰʹʷʥʡʮʡʤʨʥʮʩʫʤʬʲʩʥʱʩʰʤʮʷʥʹʡʤʸʩʫʮʬ 
ʤʹʷʥʩʹʴʥʧʯʴʥʠʡʲʰʯʲʨʮʤʯʥʮʩʠʠʬʬʹʥʮʩʹʬʧʥʰʥʰʩʠ ʺʥʩʸʴʫʺʥʩʱʥʬʫʥʠʹʮʹʮʹ 

ʤʮʩʣʷʥʣʧʠʣʶʬʺʩʲʡʨʠʬʤʸʥʶʡʭʩʨʥʰʸʠʥʥʶʤʥʳʥʢʤʬʷʹʮʤʩʥʥʹʺʣʥʷʰʺʠʠʥʶʮʬ 

ʵʥʴʰ ʭʩʩʣʩʤ ʩʺʹʡ ʠʹʩʰʥ ʺʥʣʴʥʸʮ ʺʥʩʣʩ ʭʲ ʭʩʷʹ ʩʰʹʡ ʠʶʮʰ ʠʹʮʤ ± ʭʩʩʣʩ ʩʺʹ  
ʥʦ ʤʨʩʹ ʤʣʩʮ ʤʰʷ ʬʫʡ ʩʫ ʤʬʲ ʩʥʱʩʰʤʮ ʭʩʠʬʮ ʭʩʩʬʣ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʬʹ ʤʸʥʶʺʡ ʣʧʥʩʮʡ 
ʺʴʩʩʲʮ ʩʫʤʥ ʤʱʩʮʲʮ ʩʫʤ ʤʩʢʸʰʠʡ ʺʩʰʦʡʦʡ ʩʫʤ ʤʬʩʲʩ ʺʥʧʴ ʩʫʤ ʤʨʩʹʬ ʺʡʹʧʰ 

ʺʧʠʣʩʡ ʷʸʠʹʩʰʬʷʹʮʤʭʠʭʩʸʷʥʧʤʮʺʩʡʸʮʩʣʩʬʲʺʶʬʮʥʮʺʥʧʴʩʫʤʥʦʤʨʩʹ 

ʸʺʥʩʣʥʲʲʥʸʢʡʶʮʤ   

ʬʹʣʡʥʫʤʦʫʸʮʺʡʸʷʡʬʷʹʮʤʺʠ ʺʷʬʧʮʤʬʥʴʫʤʷʹʤʺʨʩʹʩʫʠʩʤ ʸʷʧʮʤʺʰʷʱʮ 

ʤʩʢʸʰʠʤ ʺʠʶʥʤ ʸʥʲʦʮʬ ʭʩʫʸʣʤ ʺʧʠ ʩʫ ʸʷʧʮʤʮ ʤʬʲ ʣʥʲ ʸʺʥʩʡ ʺʶʬʮʥʮʤ ʠʩʤ ʳʥʢʤ 

ʸʷʧʮʤ ʪʹʮʤʡ ʠʹʥʰʤ ʭʣʠʤ ʬʹ ʣʡʥʫʤ ʦʫʸʮʬ ʸʹʴʠʤ ʬʫʫ ʡʥʸʷ ʱʮʥʲʤ ʭʥʷʩʮ ʠʩʤ 
ʥʬʠʺʥʶʬʮʤʭʥʹʩʩʬʺʥʩʥʸʹʴʠʷʥʣʡʬʤʱʰʠ 

The ʸʷʧʮʤʺʸʨʮ    Cook and Neomannʩʣʩʬʲʭʥʧʺʡʲʶʡʺʤʸʧʠʸʷʧʮ
effect of load placement on the activity of the low back muscles during load 
ʯʮʦʡ ʩʰʺʥʮʤ ʸʥʦʠʡ ʺʩʸʩʸʹʤ ʺʥʬʩʲʴʤ ʡʥʹʩʧ ʠʩʤ  carrying by men and women 

ʱʮʥʲʤ ʣʶʡ ʡʢʤ ʩʸʩʸʹ ʺʥʬʩʲʴ ʺʷʩʣʡʥ ʸʥʧʠʮʥ ʭʩʰʴʬʮ ʭʩʠʹʩʰ ʭʩʱʮʥʲ ʸʹʠʫ ʤʣʩʮʲ 
ʥʠʭʩʮʩʥʱʮʭʩʱʮʥʲʡʭʩʰʩʮʤʯʩʡʭʩʬʣʡʤʭʩʮʩʩʷʭʠʤʤʷʩʣʡʠʩʤʺʴʱʥʰʤʸʨʮʩʣʢʰʤʣʶʡʥ 

ʺʥʰʥʹʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʸʥʶʡ  

ʤʫʩʬʤʡ ʤʠʩʹʰ ʺʥʨʩʹ  ʣʧʠ ʬʫ ʥʷʣʡ ʭʩʹʰ ʭʺʩʶʧʮʥ ʭʩʸʡʢ ʭʺʩʶʧʮ  ʩʥʱʩʰʤ ʩʴʺʺʹʮ 
ʠʹʥʰʤ ʳʥʢ ʬʷʹʮʮ  ʤʥʥʤ ʱʮʥʲʤ ʤʰʥʹʠʸʤ ʭʲʴʡ ʭʩʩʮʲʴ ʲʶʡʺʤ ʩʥʱʩʰʤ ʸʹʠʫ 
ʥʣʮʶʥʤ ʭʩʴʺʺʹʮʤʮ ʣʧʠ ʬʫʬ ʠʹʥʰʤ ʳʥʢ ʬʷʹʮʮ  ʤʥʥʤ ʱʮʥʲʤ ʤʩʰʹʤ ʭʲʴʡʥ 

ʤʫʩʬʤʩʣʫʪʥʺ EMG ʺʩʸʩʸʹʤʺʩʬʮʹʧʤʺʥʬʩʲʴʤʺʣʩʣʮʬʺʥʣʥʸʨʷʬʠ  

ʥʷʣʡʰʹʤʠʩʹʰʤʺʥʨʩʹ 

ʤʣʥʥʦʮʤʣʶʡʤʣʣʮʰʺʩʸʩʸʹʤʺʥʬʩʲʴʤʸʹʠʫʤʣʥʥʦʮʬʣʥʮʬʹʺʩʣʩʶʤʠʩʹʰ  
ʩʣʢʰʤʤʣʶʡʤʣʣʮʰʺʩʸʩʸʹʤʺʥʬʩʲʴʤʸʹʠʫʤʣʥʥʦʮʬʣʥʮʬʹʺʩʣʩʶʤʠʩʹʰ  
ʭʩʩʣʩʤʺʸʦʲʡʬʣʥʮʬʹʺʩʮʣʷʤʠʩʹʰ  

ʬʩʮʸʺʺʸʦʲʡʬʣʥʮʤʬʹʺʩʸʥʧʠʤʠʩʹʰ   

ʩʸʩʸʹʵʮʠʮʺʹʸʥʣʤʤʠʩʹʰʤʺʨʩʹʠʩʤʬʩʮʸʺʺʸʥʶʡʡʢʤʬʲʤʠʩʹʰʩʫʤʬʲ ʸʷʧʮʤʮ 
ʩʸʩʸʹ ʬʹ ʭʩʡʥʸʮ ʭʩʶʮʠʮ ʺʹʸʥʣ ʤʮʩʣʷʮ ʭʩʩʣʩʤ ʩʺʹʡ ʠʹʮ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʥʬʩʠʥ ʸʺʥʩʡ ʪʥʮʰ 

ʣʥʮʲ ʬʲʹ ʱʮʥʲʤ ʬʲ ʤʩʸʨʮʩʱʠ ʤʴʩʱʥʮ ʺʧʠ ʣʩʡ ʬʷʹʮ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʭʩʣʣʶʤ ʩʰʹʡ ʡʢʤ 
ʣʶʡʭʩʸʩʸʹʤʺʥʬʩʲʴʺʠʤʬʲʮʪʠʠʹʥʰʤʣʶʤʮʡʢʡʭʩʸʩʸʹʺʥʬʩʲʴʤʺʩʧʴʮʥʤʸʣʹʤ 
ʱʮʲʥʮʥʰʩʠʹ  

ʲʡʥʰ ʭʩʸʡʢʥ ʭʩʹʰ ʬʹ ʺʩʮʣʷ ʤʠʩʹʰ ʯʩʡ ʤʬʢʺʤʹ ʸʫʩʰʤ ʬʣʡʤʤʹ ʠʩʤ ʭʩʸʷʥʧʤ ʺʲʣ 
ʤʡʥʢʡ ʩʮʣʷʤ ʯʲʨʮʤ ʺʠ ʺʠʹʬ ʥʹʸʣʰ ʩʥʱʩʰʤ ʩʴʺʺʹʮ ʬʫ ʩʥʱʩʰʤ ʲʥʶʩʡ ʯʴʥʠʮ ʤʠʸʰʫ 

ʳʥʢʤʮ ʸʺʥʩ ʬʥʣʢ ʷʧʸʮʡ ʯʲʨʮʤ ʺʷʦʧʤʬ ʭʸʥʢ ʤʦʧʤ ʤʰʡʮ ʭʩʹʰʬʹ ʣʥʲʡ ʤʦʧʤ 
ʳʱʥʰʸʷʧʮʡʥʦʤʣʥʷʰʷʥʣʡʬʥʸʥʦʧʬʥʶʩʬʮʤʭʩʸʷʥʧʤ   

ʭʩʸʡʢʬ ʭʩʹʰʯʩʡ ʤʠʥʥʹʤ ʤʺʹʲʰʥʡʣʩʧʩʤ ʸʷʧʮʤ ʠʥʤʹ ʯʥʥʩʫʮ ʣʧʥʩʮʡ ʡʥʹʧ ʤʦ ʸʷʧʮ 

ʤʷʩʣʡ ʭʩʹʸʥʣʥ ʭʩʸʷʥʧʤ ʺʲʣʬ ʷʴʱʡ ʭʩʬʨʥʮ ʭʩʸʣʢʮʤ ʯʩʡ ʥʬʢʺʰʹ ʭʩʬʣʡʤʤʹ ʺʥʸʮʬ 
ʩʥʱʩʰʡʭʩʴʺʺʹʮʤʩʣʩʬʲʠʹʩʰʹʬʷʹʮʤʹʯʥʥʩʫʮʣʧʥʩʮʡʩʨʰʥʥʬʸʤʦʸʷʧʮʯʫʥʮʫʺʴʱʥʰ 

ʭʤʡʭʩʸʧʠʤʭʩʸʷʧʮʤʺʩʡʸʮʺʮʥʲʬʷʥʰʩʺʬʹʬʷʹʮʺʥʮʣʬʬʥʫʩʥʺʩʱʧʩʯʨʷʬʷʹʮʠʥʤ 
ʭʩʮʸʢʥʬʩʷʺʥʸʹʲʤʮʫʭʩʠʹʥʰʭʩʷʣʡʰʤ  

ʺʹʸʥʣ ʭʩʩʣʩʤ ʩʺʹʡ ʺʩʮʣʷ ʤʠʩʹʰ ʩʫ ʤʬʩʢʥ ʺʥʰʥʹ ʤʠʩʹʰ ʺʥʨʩʹ ʸʴʱʮ ʷʣʡ ʤʦ ʸʷʧʮ 

ʬʷʹʮ ʺʠʩʹʰʡ ʲʩʩʱʬ ʸʥʮʠ ʲʩʶʤʬ ʺʹʷʡʮ ʩʰʠ ʥʺʥʠ ʠʹʰʮʤ ʭʩʡʥʸʮ ʭʩʸʩʸʹ ʵʮʠʮ 
ʭʩʩʣʩʤʸʥʸʧʹʪʥʺ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʤʮʩʣʷʮ  

ʬʹ ʸʠʥʣʤ ʺʥʸʩʹʡ ʭʩʸʥʥʣʤ ʩʨʥʷʬʩ ʺʠ ʹʣʧʮ ʥʰʧʡ   Dempsey, Ayoub et al 

ʸʠʺʮ Ergonomic investigation of letter-carrier satchels: Part I ʸʮʠʮʤ ʡʤʸʠ 

ʭʩʸʮʠʮ ʬʹʤʸʣʱʮʯʥʹʠʸʷʬʧʠʥʤʤʦʸʷʧʮʭʩʸʥʥʣʺʩʩʱʥʬʫʥʠʡʸʷʡʲʶʡʺʤʹʸʷʧʮ 
ʤʣʡʲʮʡʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʧʥʺʩʰʸʠʺʮʩʰʹʤʷʬʧʤʣʥʲʡʧʨʹʸʷʧʮʸʠʺʮʠʥʤʥ  

ʭʩʨʥʷʬʩʩʱʥʴʩʨʤʲʡʸʠʡʹʮʺʹʤʸʷʧʮʡʥʴʺʺʹʤʹʭʩʸʥʥʣʤʮʣʧʠʬʫ 

ʺʸʥʢʧ ʬʹ ʺʴʱʥʺʥ ʺʮʩʩʷʤ ʤʲʥʶʸʤ ʺʠ ʤʴʩʬʧʮʹ ʤʡʧʸ ʺʩʰʥʱʫʬʠ ʤʲʥʶʸ ʭʲ ʨʥʷʬʩ A 
ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮ 

ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʺʸʥʢʧʥʳʺʫʡʡʧʸʥʷʥʮʲʣʥʴʩʸʬʹʤʫʩʮʺʭʲʩʣʩʶʨʥʷʬʩʬʹʤʰʥʹʱʥʴʩʨ B 

ʺʥʰʺʩʰ ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤ ʺʥʲʥʶʸ ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮ ʺʸʥʢʧʥ ʭʩʩʴʺʫ ʺʥʲʥʶʸ ʩʺʹʬ ʸʡʧʺʮʹ ʬʥʴʫ ʨʥʷʬʩ C 
ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤʺʸʥʢʧʡʷʸʹʥʮʩʹʸʹʴʠʺʮʥʷʥʺʩʰʬ 

ʺʣʣʥʡʺʩʰʥʱʫʬʠʳʺʫʺʲʥʶʸʭʲʣʩʧʩʱʩʫʬʲʡʩʨʸʣʰʨʱʩʧʫʥʰʨʥʷʬʩ D  

ʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʧʥʥʣʥʭʩʬʩʮʸʺʤʮʣʧʠʬʫʡʹʥʮʩʹʡʸʥʥʣʬʫʤʱʰʺʤʸʷʧʮʤʬʹʯʥʹʠʸʤʥʷʬʧʡ 

Cʱʥʴʩʨʮʨʥʷʬʩʬʩʬʬʫʯʴʥʠʡʤʸʥʸʡʤʴʣʲʤʥʬʲʤʺʥʠʶʥʺʤʭʤʬʹʺʥʧʥʰʤʺʣʩʮʬʲʯʥʬʠʹ 

ʧʥʰʡʥʶʩʲʡʩʣʯʩʠʹʥʷʬʷʬʧʤʩʤBʱʥʴʩʨʬʹʳʺʫʤʣʥʴʩʸʩʫʤʬʲʤʸʷʧʮʤʺʥʧʥʰʺʰʩʧʡʮ 
ʺʥʧʴʩʫʤʫʱʴʺʰʩʧʫʥʰʤʨʥʷʬʩʤʱʥʴʩʨʭʩʸʮʥʧʤʬʹʪʥʫʩʧʤʺʮʸʺʠʷʥʣʡʬʭʢʹʩʹʯʠʫʮ 
ʧʥʰ  

ʺʩʬʰʥʩʶʴʥʠʤʫʩʮʺʥʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʺʸʥʢʧʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʩʸʨʮʩʱʯʴʥʠʡʠʹʮʺʠʩʹʰʩʫʤʬʲʸʷʧʮʤʮ 
ʤʩʬʠ ʱʧʩʩʺʠʥ ʸʷʧʮʤ ʪʹʮʤʬ ʤʡʥʹʧ ʥʦ ʤʰʷʱʮ ʸʺʥʩʡ ʤʧʥʰʤ ʤʨʩʹʤ ʠʩʤ ʭʩʩʴʺʫʡ 
ʩʣʩʺʲʤʸʶʥʮʤʯʥʫʩʺʡ  

Ayoub and  Joe Lin, Dempsey, Smith ʩʣʩ ʬʲ ʲʶʡʺʤʹ ʸʷʧʮʤ ʬʹ ʩʰʹʤ ʥʷʬʧ 

ʺʷʩʣʡ ʭʩʨʥʷʬʩ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʬʹ ʺʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʤ ʤʲʴʹʤʤ ʺʷʩʣʡʡ ʣʷʮʺʮ   Bernard 
L5S1ʺʥʩʬʥʧʡʺʥʣʷʮʺʤʪʥʺʤʸʣʹʤʣʥʮʲʬʲʥʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʺʸʥʢʧʬʲʭʩʱʮʥʲʤ  

ʭʲʴ ʩʨʨʱ ʡʶʮ  ʤʣʩʮʲʡ ʥʠʣʩʥʡ ʥʮʬʥʶ ʸʹʠ ʭʩʴʺʺʹʮ  ʤʣʡʲʮʡ ʥʷʣʡʰ ʤʦ ʸʷʧʮʡ 

ʥʰʮʥʱ ʥʮʶʲ ʨʥʷʬʩʤʥ ʭʩʩʫʸʡʤ ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤ ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤ ʠʬʬ ʺʧʠ ʭʲʴʥ ʬʩʮʸʺʤ ʭʲ ʺʧʠ 
ʩʫʤʺʩʩʤʸʷʧʮʤʺʧʰʤʬʩʮʸʺʤʠʬʬʥʭʲʧʰʮʤʩʥʰʩʹʡʯʩʧʡʤʬʤʩʤʯʺʩʰʪʫʥʨʬʥʡʸʷʸʮʡ 

ʭʩʲʶʡʮʹ ʤʣʥʡʲʤ ʢʥʱʬ ʤʮʥʣ ʠʥʤʹ ʯʥʥʩʫʮ ʺʥʠʩʶʮʬ ʡʥʸʷ ʷʩʴʱʮ ʠʥʤ ʩʨʨʱʤ ʧʥʺʩʰʤ 

ʡʹʧʬʩʣʫʳʺʫʤʬʲʵʧʬʬʢʸʤʳʫʬʲʵʧʬʭʩʠʡʤʭʩʰʥʺʰʤʥʷʣʡʰʭʥʬʩʶʬʳʱʥʰʡʭʩʸʥʥʣʤ 

Schults and Andersson ʬʹ ʬʣʥʮʡ ʥʹʮʺʹʤ L5  S1 ʺʥʩʬʥʧʤ ʬʹ ʵʧʬʤ ʺʥʧʥʫ ʺʠ 
   

ʣʥʮʲʡ ʥʷʣʡʰʹ ʺʥʩʬʥʧʤ ʬʲ ʵʧʬʥ ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤ ʬʲ ʱʮʥʲ ʺʰʩʧʡʮ ʩʫ ʤʬʲ ʩʥʱʩʰʤ ʺʥʠʶʥʺʮ 

ʸʺʥʩʺʰʦʥʠʮʤʷʥʬʧʸʹʴʠʮʠʥʤʹʯʥʥʩʫʮʸʺʥʩʡʯʥʫʰʤʠʥʤ Cʨʥʷʬʩʱʥʴʩʨʩʫʸʫʩʰʤʸʣʹʤ 
ʬʹʥʰʥʸʱʧʤʬʥʴʫʤʤʮʩʺʸʤʬʬʢʡʤʤʥʡʢʺʥʡʩʶʩʸʹʴʠʮʨʥʷʬʩʤʤʫʩʬʤʯʮʦʡʱʮʥʲʤʬʹ 
ʵʩʷʡ ʭʮʧʮʥ ʤʸʱʤʥ ʤʹʩʡʬʡ ʬʡʸʥʱʮ ʺʥʩʤʬ ʬʥʬʲʹ ʺʥʲʥʶʸʤ ʸʴʱʮʡ ʠʥʤ Cʨʥʷʬʩʱʥʴʩʨ 

ʹʮʺʹʮʤ ʬʹ ʸʺʩ ʺʲʥʰʺʬʥ ʳʺʫʡ ʱʮʥʲʬ ʭʸʢ B ʱʥʴʩʨʮ ʨʥʷʬʩʤ  ʸʩʥʠ ʸʡʲʮʡ ʬʡʢʥʮ 

ʺʸʦʲʡʬʥʴʩʬʬʩʮʸʺʤʺʩʩʨʰʬʲʺʥʶʴʬʥʱʩʰʭʩʹʮʺʹʮʤʥʳʺʫʤʮʷʩʬʧʤʬʤʨʰʠʥʤʹʯʥʥʩʫʮ 
ʺʰʩʧʡʮ ʤʩʩʱʥʬʫʥʠʤ ʬʬʫʬ ʭʩʮʩʠʺʮ ʭʰʩʠ ʭʩʨʥʷʬʩʤʮ ʷʬʧ ʩʫ ʠʶʮʰ ʩʲʡʨ ʠʬ ʳʥʢ ʧʰʮ 
ʺʥʢʩʸʧʭʤʩʺʥʣʩʮʹʭʩʹʰʠʬʺʥʹʣʧʺʥʣʩʮʥʲʶʥʤʥʺʥʣʩʮ  

ʱʮʥʲʤ ʬʹ ʺʰʦʥʠʮ ʤʷʥʬʧ ʸʹʴʠʮʤ ʨʥʷʬʩ ʱʥʴʩʨ ʥʺʥʠ ʩʫ ʤʬʲ ʤʣʡʲʮʤ ʺʷʩʣʡʡ ʭʢ 

ʥʷʬʧʮʤʰʷʱʮʤʺʠʷʦʧʮʪʫʡʥʸʺʥʩʡʯʥʫʰʤʠʥʤʤʬʥʴʫʤʮʩʺʸʥʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʺʸʥʢʧʺʥʲʶʮʠʡ 

ʸʷʧʮʤʬʹ ʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʱʤ ʯʥʹʠʸʤ  

ʺʣʮʺʮʤʹʩʢʥʯʩʲʸʹʷʩʣʫʪʥʺʯʢʠʤʸʥʦʠʡʬʷʹʮʺʠʩʹʰʬʹʤʩʲʡʭʲʣʣʥʮʺʮʤʦʸʷʧʮ 

ʭʤʸʺʥʩʡʧʥʰʫʤʬʢʺʤʹʬʩʮʸʺʤʬʹʥʩʺʥʰʥʸʱʧʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʬʭʢʺʥʡʥʹʧʺʥʰʥʫʺ±ʯʲʨʮʬ 
ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʬʭʩʠʹʰʮʤʮʸʫʩʰʷʬʧʩʡʢʬʭʤʭʢʭʩʰʥʫʰʬʡʢʥʮʸʩʥʠʸʡʲʮʥʤʹʩʡʬʡʬʥʡʸʱ 

Comparison of five modes of carrying a ʭʸʮʠʮʡ   Legg and Mahanty 

ʭʩʣʣʮ ʺʥʲʶʮʠʡ ʯʤ ʤʠʩʹʰ ʺʥʨʩʹ ʹʮʧ ʯʩʡ ʤʠʥʥʹʤ ʥʫʸʲ load close to the trunk 
ʩʥʱʩʰʡʭʩʴʺʺʹʮʤʬʹʺʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʱʤʡʥʢʺʺʷʩʣʡʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʯʤʥʭʩʩʢʥʬʥʩʱʩʴ   

ʤʣʡʲʮʩʠʰʺʡʯʥʫʩʬʤ ʬʲʤʲʹʪʹʮʡ ʪʬʤʳʺʺʹʮʬʫʭʩʠʩʸʡʭʩʸʡʢ ʩʥʱʩʰʡʥʴʺʺʹʤ 

ʺʥʣʥʺʮ ʹʮʧʡ ʥʴʥʢ ʬʷʹʮʮ  ʬʹ ʱʮʥʲ ʭʲ ʭʩʮʲʴʤ ʸʠʹʡʥ  ʱʮʥʲ ʠʬʬ ʺʧʠ ʭʲʴ 
ʯʥʬʠʹ ʷʬʥʧ ʩʥʱʩʰʤ ʳʥʱʡʥ ʡʬʤ ʺʥʮʩʲʴ ʡʶʷ ʯʶʮʧʤ ʺʫʩʸʶ ʤʣʣʮʰ ʥʷʣʡʰʹ ʤʠʩʹʰʤ 
ʭʩʴʺʺʹʮʤʯʩʡʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʱ  

ʥʷʣʡʰʹʤʠʩʹʰʤʩʰʴʥʠ 

ʺʫʺʮʣʬʹʭʲʤʩʬʢʰʠʠʡʶʬʹʩʰʷʺʡʢʬʩʮʸʺʡʥʬʥʫʱʮʥʲʤ  

ʺʫʺʮʣʬʹʠʬʬʤʩʬʢʰʠʠʡʶʬʹʩʰʷʺʡʢʬʩʮʸʺʡʥʬʥʫʱʮʥʲʤ  

ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʺʸʥʢʧʡʥʰʮʮʺʩʶʧʮʥʺʫʺʮʣʬʹʭʲʡʢʬʩʮʸʺʡʱʮʥʲʤʮʺʩʶʧʮ  

ʤʦʧʤʤʡʥʢʡʩʮʣʷʷʩʺʡʺʩʶʧʮʥʺʫʺʮʣʬʹʭʲʡʢʬʩʮʸʺʡʱʮʥʲʤʮʺʩʶʧʮ  
ʩʣʥʲʩʩʬʩʲʮʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤʡʩʡʱʥʬʥʫʸʦʥʴʱʮʥʲʤ   

ʺʥʰʥʹʤʤʠʩʹʰʤʺʥʨʩʹʯʩʡʭʩʸʫʩʰʭʩʩʨʱʩʨʨʱʭʩʬʣʡʤʥʴʶʰʠʬʺʥʩʢʥʬʥʩʱʩʴʤʺʥʣʩʣʮʤʬʫʡ 

ʱʮʤʨʩʹʤʩʸʧʠʥ
ʱʮʤʨʩʹʬʤʸʥʸʡʤʴʣʲʤʤʺʩʩʤʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʱʤʯʥʬʠʹʡʺʠʦʺʮʥʲʬ 
ʯʩʡ ʩʢʥʬʥʩʱʩʴ ʬʣʡʤ ʭʩʩʷʹ ʪʫ ʬʲ ʲʩʡʶʮ ʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʱʤ ʯʥʬʠʹʤʹ ʠʩʤ ʭʩʸʷʥʧʤ ʺʰʷʱʮ 

ʭʩʸʡʧʮʤ ʬʣʡʤʤ ʬʲ ʲʩʡʶʤʬ ʭʩʬʥʫʩ ʭʰʩʠ ʤʦ ʸʷʧʮʡ ʥʸʧʡʰʹ ʭʩʣʣʮʤ ʭʬʥʠ ʺʥʨʩʹʤ 
EMGʺʥʣʩʣʮʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʧʥʺʩʰʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʸʷʧʮʪʹʮʤʬʲʭʩʶʩʬʮʮ  

ʺʥʨʩʹʤʸʠʹʩʰʴʬʲʺʴʣʲʥʮʬʥʴʫʤʷʹʤʺʨʩʹʩʫʤʬʥʲʤʦʸʷʧʮʡʭʢ 

ʠʹʮʺʠʩʹʰʮʭʸʢʰʤʵʮʠʮʬʸʺʥʩʡʯʥʫʰʣʣʮʫEMGʺʣʩʣʮʬʲʭʩʶʩʬʮʮʭʩʸʷʥʧʤ 

Load carriage using packs: A  ʭʸʮʠʮʡ  ʥʫʸʲ   Harman, Knapik et al 

ʬʹ ʤʴʩʷʮ ʤʸʩʷʱ review of physiological, biomechanical and medical aspects 
ʺʩʠʥʴʸʥ ʺʩʰʫʮʥʩʡ ʺʩʢʥʬʥʩʱʩʴ ʨʡʮ ʺʣʥʷʰʮ ʬʩʮʸʺʡ ʠʹʮ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʬʲ ʺʮʩʩʷʤ ʺʥʸʴʱʤ 
ʤʠʩʹʰʤʸʥʴʩʹʬʺʥʩʨʷʸʴʺʥʶʲʬʬʥʫʸʮʠʮʤ  

ʥʷʣʡʰʹʭʩʩʢʥʬʥʩʱʩʴʤʭʩʨʷʴʱʠʤʭʥʫʩʱ 

ʸʹʠʫ ʪʥʮʰ ʩʨʢʸʰʠ ʸʩʧʮ  ʹʸʥʣ ʳʥʢʤ ʬʹ ʣʡʥʫʤ ʦʫʸʮʬ ʯʺʩʰʹ ʬʫʫ ʡʥʸʷ ʱʮʥʲʤ ʭʥʷʩʮ 

ʭʩʡʸ ʭʩʸʮʠʮʡ ʺʰʩʥʶʮ ʬʥʴʫʤ ʷʹʤ ʺʨʩʹ  ʥʱʸʥʨʤ ʬʹ ʯʥʩʬʲʤ ʷʬʧʤ ʬʲ ʠʹʩʰ ʬʷʹʮʤ 

ʬʥʴʫʤʷʹʤʺʨʩʹʥʡʢʤʬʩʮʸʺʯʩʡʤʠʥʥʹʤʡʡʢʤʬʩʮʸʺʸʹʠʮʤʩʢʸʰʠʡʸʺʥʩʺʩʰʥʫʱʧʫ 

ʷʹʤ ʸʺʥʩ ʤʡʸ ʺʥʹʩʮʢ ʸʹʴʠʮ ʡʢʤ ʬʩʮʸʺ ʤʧʥʰ ʬʥʴʫʤ ʷʹʤ ʺʨʩʹʹ ʺʥʸʮʬ ʩʫ ʤʬʥʲ 
ʤʮʩʺʸ ʬʲ ʺʥʹʷʤʬʥ ʩʮʣʷʤ ʤʩʠʸʤ ʤʣʹ ʺʠ ʬʩʡʢʤʬ ʤʲʥʰʺʤ ʺʠ ʬʩʡʢʤʬ ʬʥʫʩ ʬʥʴʫʤ 

ʷʬʧʬʲʸʡʢʺʤʬʬʥʫʩʯʥʫʰʡʥʶʩʲʹʯʫʺʩʸʥʸʥʥʠʸʱʥʧʬʹʤʩʲʡʸʶʥʥʩʤʬʤʬʥʬʲʯʫʥʮʫʤʸʱʤʥ 

ʥʬʬʤʺʥʩʲʡʤʮ  

ʥʷʣʡʰʹʭʩʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʤʭʩʨʷʴʱʠʤʭʥʫʩʱ 

ʬʥʫʩʤʹʲʮʬ ʭʩʸʩʸʹʤʬʹʺʩʬʮʹʧʺʥʬʩʲʴ EMGʤʬʷʠʹʮʺʠʩʹʰʡʭʤʡʭʩʡʶʮʭʰʹʩ 

ʷʬʧʤʬʹʣʡʥʫʤʦʫʸʮʡʩʥʰʩʹʡʸʡʱʥʮʯʩʩʰʲʤʬʷʹʮʤʺʠʩʹʰʠʬʬʸʹʠʮʸʺʥʩʪʥʮʰʺʥʩʤʬ 
ʬʩʮʸʺʤʠʬʬʣʡʥʫʤʦʫʸʮʺʮʥʲʬʬʷʬʩʮʸʺʭʲʳʥʢʤʬʹʯʥʩʬʲʤ 

ʸʥʦʠʬ ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤ ʸʥʦʠʮ ʱʮʥʲʤʮ ʸʫʩʰ ʷʬʧ ʸʩʡʲʤʬ ʭʩʬʥʫʩʭʩʩʰʺʥʮ ʺʸʥʢʧʥʬʩʮʸʺ ʬʹ ʣʬʹ 

ʭʲ ʬʩʮʸʺ ʺʮʥʲʬ ʱʥʩʦʴʸʨʤ ʩʸʩʸʹ ʬʹ ʺʸʡʢʥʮ ʺʥʬʩʲʴʬ ʭʸʥʺ ʣʬʹ ʠʬʬ ʬʩʮʸʺ ʭʩʩʫʸʩʤ 
ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʺʸʥʢʧʥʣʬʹ  

ʥʷʣʡʰʹʺʥʩʠʥʴʸʺʥʩʲʡ 
ʺʥʬʡʩ  
ʤʫʩʬʤʩʸʡʹ  

ʭʩʩʫʸʡʩʡʠʫ  

ʯʥʺʧʺʤʡʢʤʬʹʺʥʲʩʶʴ  
ʩʮʥʷʮʷʥʺʩʹ  

ʠʹʮʺʠʩʹʰʪʬʤʮʡʺʩʮʥʷʮʺʥʴʩʩʲʥʺʥʧʥʰʩʠ  

ʠʹʩʰʹʱʮʥʲʸʹʠʮʺʥʧʥʰʩʠʺʥʲʴʥʺʺʥʧʴʬʲʧʥʥʣʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤʬʲʠʹʩʰʱʮʥʲʤʸʷʩʲʸʹʠʫ 

ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʬʲ  

ʬʩʮʸʺʡʠʹʮʺʠʩʹʰʬʲʤʬʷʤʬʭʩʫʸʣʸʴʱʮ 
ʩʬʬʫʤʱʮʥʲʡʤʺʧʴʤ  
ʣʥʩʶʤʺʮʠʺʤ  

ʠʹʮʤʢʥʶʩʩʸʥʴʩʹ  

ʺʥʩʸʹʴʠʺʥʲʩʶʴʺʺʧʴʤʬʺʥʮʸʥʺʤʺʥʬʥʲʴ   

ʯʰʫʺʬʵʬʮʥʮʪʫʬʹʡʠʹʩʰʤʬʷʹʮʤʺʠʺʩʧʴʤʬʠʩʤʱʮʥʲʤʺʠʺʩʧʴʤʬʺʥʨʩʹʤʮʺʧʠ 
ʳʱʥʰʱʮʥʲʳʩʱʥʤʬʠʬʩʣʫʡʸʹʴʠʤʬʫʫʬʷʹʮʬʷʤʠʩʹʰʣʥʩʶ 

ʺʨʩʹʡ ʠʹʮ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʬʩʮʸʺʬ ʤʠʥʥʹʤʡ ʤʡʥʹʧ ʺʥʲʮʹʮ ʬʲʡ ʠʥʤ ʤʠʩʹʰʤ ʩʲʶʮʠ ʯʥʰʫʺ 
ʥʦʬʤʮʥʣʤʫʩʬʤʺʸʥʶʥʺʩʮʥʷʮʺʥʧʥʰʩʠʺʥʧʴʤʩʢʸʰʠʺʥʧʴʺʠʶʥʤʬʺʮʸʥʢʬʥʴʫʤʷʹʤ 
ʬʥʴʫʤʷʹʤʺʨʩʹʡʺʥʩʨʷʸʴʺʥʩʲʡʤʮʫʯʰʹʩʺʠʦʺʮʥʲʬʠʹʮʠʬʬʬʹ 

ʭʩʸʩʸʹʤʺʥʴʩʩʲʺʠʺʩʧʴʮʯʢʠʺʸʥʢʧʡʹʥʮʩʹʩʫʤʬʥʲʭʩʨʥʷʬʩʡʥʶʩʲʡ 

ʬʲʱʮʥʲʤʺʺʧʴʤʭʤʩʰʩʡʺʥʰʥʸʺʩʸʴʱʮʬʬʥʫʡʨʩʤʺʣʴʥʸʮʯʢʠʺʸʥʢʧʭʲʣʬʹʡʹʥʮʩʹ 

ʺʥʲʩʶʴʤʸʴʱʮʺʺʧʴʤʭʩʩʴʺʫʤ  

ʤʫʩʬʤ ʺʲʹʡ ʸʧʠ ʸʥʦʠʬ ʳʥʢʤ ʬʹ ʣʧʠ ʸʥʦʠʮ ʱʮʥʲʤ ʺʸʡʲʤ ʸʹʴʠʮʤ ʤʠʩʹʰ ʣʥʩʶ 

ʸʥʦʠʬ ʱʮʥʲʤʮ ʷʬʧ ʺʸʡʲʤ  ʺʸʦʲʡ ʵʮʠʮʤ ʺʠ ʺʩʧʴʤʬ ʬʥʫʩ ʺʥʰʰʥʥʫʺʮ ʺʥʲʥʶʸ ʺʸʦʲʡ 

ʳʥʢʤʬʹʸʧʠ  

ʭʩʸʡʣʭʥʷʩʮʬʤʴʣʲʤʤʰʹʩʡʨʩʤʺʥʬʥʬʱʭʩʫʸʣʥʠʭʩʹʩʡʫʡʺʸʫʩʰʤʲʴʹʤʧʨʹʤʩʠʰʺʬ 
ʺʥʸʹʴʠʤ ʺʠ ʺʩʧʴʤʬʥ ʸʺʥʩ ʤʡʥʨ ʤʡʩʶʩʬ ʭʥʸʢʬ ʩʣʫʡ ʬʩʮʸʺʤ ʬʹ ʯʥʩʬʲʤ ʥʷʬʧʡ ʭʩʣʡʫ 

ʸʺʥʩʺʮʸʥʺʬʩʮʸʺʤʪʥʺʡʬʷʹʮʤʬʹʤʥʥʹʤʷʥʬʧʷʬʧʠʬʧʨʹʡʯʥʺʧʺʤʡʢʡʺʥʩʲʡʬ 
ʺʥʡʩʶʩʬ  

ʭʰʩʠ ʭʩʸʧʠ ʭʩʸʷʧʮʹ ʭʩʨʷʴʱʠʡ ʲʢʥʰ ʪʠ ʣʡʬʡ ʭʩʬʩʮʸʺ ʺʠʩʹʰʡ ʷʱʥʲ ʭʰʮʠ ʸʷʧʮʤ 
ʭʹʩʩʬʤʱʰʠʥʩʺʥʰʷʱʮʮʷʬʧʭʤʩʬʠʭʩʱʧʩʩʺʮ 

ʸʹʴʠʤʬʫʫʬʷʹʮʬʷʤʠʩʹʰʣʥʩʶʯʥʰʫʺʩʣʩʬʲʱʮʥʲʤʺʺʧʴʤ  
ʭʩʸʩʸʹʤʺʥʴʩʩʲʺʠʺʩʧʴʮʤʯʢʠʺʸʥʢʧʡʹʥʮʩʹ  

ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʬʲʱʮʥʲʤʺʠʺʩʧʴʮʤʯʢʠʺʸʥʢʧʭʲʣʬʹʡʹʥʮʩʹ  

ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʬʲʥʺʠʩʹʰʸʹʠʮʸʺʥʩʤʧʥʰʤʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤʬʲʱʮʥʲʤʸʷʩʲʺʠʩʹʰ  

ʺʲʹʡ ʸʧʠ ʸʥʦʠʬ ʳʥʢʤ ʬʹ ʣʧʠ ʸʥʦʠʮ ʱʮʥʲʤ ʺʸʡʲʤ ʸʹʴʠʮʤ ʤʠʩʹʰ ʣʥʩʶ  
ʵʮʠʮʺʩʧʴʤʬʩʥʹʲʺʥʰʰʥʥʫʺʮʺʥʲʥʶʸʺʸʦʲʡʤʫʩʬʤ  

ʺʸʨʮ  Holewijn and Lotensʬʹʭʸʷʧʮʠʥʤʡʢʩʬʩʮʸʺʡʣʷʮʺʮʤʳʱʥʰʸʷʧʮ 

ʺʰʩʧʡ ʠʩʤ The influence of backpack design on physical performance ʸʷʧʮʤ 

ʤʸʥʶʺʹʠʩʤʸʷʧʮʤʺʧʰʤʳʥʢʤʩʲʥʶʩʡʡʤʣʩʸʩʬʱʧʩʡʡʢʩʬʩʮʸʺʬʹʺʥʰʥʹʺʥʩʶʸʥʢʩʴʰʥʷ 
ʸʮʥʬʫ ʳʥʢʤ ʬʹ ʤʱʮʤ ʦʫʸʮ ʭʥʷʩʮ ʺʠ ʤʰʹʺ ʠʬʹ ʥʦ ʤʩʤʺ ʡʢ ʬʩʮʸʺ ʬʹ ʺʩʬʮʩʨʴʥʠ 
ʯʢʠʤʡʩʡʱʸʦʥʴʮʤʩʤʩʬʷʹʮʤʺʩʡʸʮʹ  

ʺʥʲʶʮʠʡ ʸʦʥʴ ʱʮʥʲʤ ʺʥʰʥʹ ʤʠʩʹʰ ʺʥʨʩʹ  ʡ ʹʮʺʹʤ ʬʩʩʧ ʬʫ ʭʩʬʩʩʧ  ʥʷʣʡʰ 

ʳʥʢʬʹʬʷʹʮʸʱʧʧʴʰʯʩʡʬʤʱʮʯʩʡʥʣʩʸʴʤʭʩʸʷʥʧʤʬʩʣʡʺʥʬʥʷʹʮʭʲʺʥʸʥʢʧʺʫʸʲʮ 
ʠʹʩʰ 

ʥʷʣʡʰʹʤʠʩʹʰʤʺʥʨʩʹ 

ʺʥʸʥʢʧʤʺʫʸʲʮ  
ʡʢʤʬʲʸʨʩʬ  

ʯʥʺʧʺʤʡʢʤʬʲʢʷ  

ʯʥʺʧʺʤʡʢʤʬʲʢʷʡʢʤʬʲʸʨʩʬ  
ʡʢʤʬʲʸʨʩʬʤʦʧʤʬʲʸʨʩʬ   

ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤʡʩʡʱʸʦʥʴʮʬʷʹʮʢʷ  

ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤʡʩʡʱʸʦʥʴʮʬʷʹʮʢʷʡʢʤʬʲʸʨʩʬʤʦʧʤʬʲʸʨʩʬ  
ʯʥʩʬʲʤʡʢʤʬʲʬʷʹʮʢʷ  

ʯʥʩʬʲʤʡʢʤʬʲʬʷʹʮʢʷʡʢʤʬʲʸʨʩʬ  

ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʮʺʥʲʥʶʸʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʩʥʬʺʥʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤʡʩʡʱʸʦʥʴʮʬʷʹʮʢʷ  

ʣʣʮ ʸʥʺʡ ʹʮʩʹ ʯʮʦʤ ʡʥʸʡʹ ʺʥʩʥʬʩʲʴ ʬʹ ʨʱ ʥʲʶʩʡ ʩʥʱʩʰʡ ʥʴʺʺʹʤʹ ʭʩʬʩʩʧʤ ʬʫ 

ʬʲʭʩʰʥʬʠʹʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʭʩʬʩʩʧʤʥʬʠʹʰʥʴʥʱʡʹʤʲʹʬʹʲʱʮʲʶʥʡʺʥʩʥʬʩʲʴʤʯʩʡʭʩʲʥʶʩʡʬ 
ʭʤʩʺʥʹʥʧʺʥʭʺʥʴʩʩʲʺʣʩʮ  

ʡʩʡʱ ʺʸʦʥʴʮ ʤʺʩʩʤ ʤʱʮʤ ʸʹʠʫ ʤʣʣʮʰ ʭʩʲʥʶʩʡʡ ʤʰʨʷ ʩʫʤ ʤʣʩʸʩ ʲʶʥʮʮ ʯʴʥʠʡ 

ʤʡʸʤʡʤʺʥʧʴʭʩʲʥʶʩʡʡʤʣʩʸʩʤʬʲʧʴʰʤʸʥʦʩʴʯʴʥʠʺʲʴʹʤʹʥʧʫʰʭʩʸʷʥʧʤʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤ 
ʤʱʮʤʸʥʦʩʴʯʴʥʠʺʲʴʹʤʮ  

ʺʫʸʲʤʬ ʺʩʸʡʢʬʠ ʤʧʱʥʰʬ ʭʩʸʷʥʧʤ ʥʲʩʢʤ ʩʥʱʩʰʤ ʺʥʠʶʥʺ ʬʹ ʩʨʱʩʨʨʱ ʧʥʺʩʰ ʺʥʲʶʮʠʡ 
ʳʥʢʬ ʳʱʥʥʺʮʤ V  ʧʴʰʡʥ ʳʱʥʥʺʮʤ W  ʬʷʹʮʡ ʺʥʬʺʫ LP  ʭʩʲʥʶʩʡʡ ʤʣʩʸʩʤ ʺʣʩʮ 

ʺʠ ʥʷʣʡ ʭʩʸʷʥʧʤ ʭʩʦʥʧʠʡ ʺʣʣʮʰ ʭʩʲʥʶʩʡʡ ʤʣʩʸʩʤ  LP=1.07*W+0.2XV ʤʧʱʥʰʤ 
ʤʺʥʠʥʺʮʩʠʪʫʡʥʭʩʸʧʠʭʩʩʥʱʩʰʬʹʺʥʠʶʥʺʬʥʮʬʠʤʧʱʥʰʤ 

ʠʩʤʺʴʱʥʰʤʰʷʱʮʤʲʥʰʺʤʸʹʥʫʬʺʩʺʥʲʮʹʮʤʸʥʶʡʭʥʸʺʬʬʥʫʩʬʷʹʮʥʧʴʰʬʹʯʥʫʰʸʥʦʩʴ 
ʩʠʮʶʲʭʸʥʢʫʭʤʮʣʧʠʬʫʬʱʧʩʩʺʤʬʥʧʴʰʺʷʥʬʧʯʩʡʬʬʷʹʮʺʷʥʬʧʯʩʡʣʩʸʴʤʬʯʺʩʰʩʫ 

ʺʠʩʹʰʬ ʸʺʥʩ ʣʩʮʲ ʯʢʠʤ ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤ ʡʩʡʱ ʤʱʮʤ ʺʩʡʸʮ ʺʠ ʱʩʮʲʤʬ ʭʩʶʩʬʮʮ ʭʩʸʷʥʧʤ 
ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʸʹʠʮʺʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʱʹʩʢʸʺʥʧʴʳʠʥʷʥʧʸʧʥʥʨʬʤʱʮ  

ʥʩʲʥʶʩʡʡʤʣʩʸʩʤʺʠʤʸʥʤʤʸʥʡʲʺʩʺʮʫʱʡʹʧʬʤʹʲʮʬʯʺʩʰʤʩʴʬʤʧʱʥʰʷʴʱʮʸʷʧʮʤ 
ʺʠ ʱʩʮʲʤʬ ʤʶʬʮʤʬ ʸʷʧʮʤ ʪʹʮʤʡ ʱʧʩʩʺʤʬ ʩʺʰʥʥʫʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʬʷʹʮ ʺʠʩʹʰʮ ʤʠʶʥʺʫ 

ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤʡʩʡʱʤʱʮʤʺʩʡʸʮ  

ʺʥʩʹʲʮʤ ʺʥʰʷʱʮʤ ʯʬʤʬ ʺʥʠʹʮ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʭʥʧʺʡ ʭʩʸʷʱʰʤ ʭʩʸʮʠʮʤ ʬʫ ʪʥʺʮ ʭʥʫʩʱʬ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʬʹʩʣʩʺʲʯʥʫʩʺʬʺʥʩʨʰʥʥʬʸʤ 

ʡʢʤʩʸʩʸʹʬʹʭʩʡʥʸʮʭʩʶʮʠʮʺʹʸʥʣʤʮʩʣʷʮʭʩʩʣʩʤʩʺʹʡʠʹʮʺʠʩʹʰ ‡ 

ʩʨʢʸʰʠʸʩʧʮʹʸʥʣʠʹʥʰʤʭʣʠʤʬʹʣʡʥʫʤʦʫʸʮʬʯʺʩʰʹʬʫʫʡʥʸʷʱʮʥʲʤʭʥʷʩʮ ‡ 
ʺʩʱʧʩʪʥʮʰ 

ʸʹʠʮ ʺʥʧʥʰ ʩʠ ʺʥʲʴʥʺ ʺʥʧʴ ʬʲ ʧʥʥʣʮ ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤ ʬʲ ʠʹʩʰ ʱʮʥʲʤ ʸʷʩʲ ʸʹʠʫ ‡ 
ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʬʲʠʹʩʰʹʱʮʥʲ  

ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤ ʸʥʦʠʮ ʱʮʥʲʤʮ ʸʫʩʰ ʷʬʧ ʸʩʡʲʤʬ ʭʩʬʥʫʩ ʯʢʠ ʺʸʥʢʧʥ ʬʩʮʸʺ ʬʹ ʣʬʹ ‡ 
ʺʥʲʩʶʴʬʬʠʩʶʰʨʥʴʤʥʭʩʸʩʸʹʤʺʥʴʩʩʲʺʠʺʩʧʴʤʬʭʩʩʫʸʩʤʸʥʦʠʬ 

ʸʹʴʠʤʬʫʫʬʷʹʮʬʷʤʠʩʹʰʣʥʩʶʯʥʰʫʺʩʣʩʬʲʱʮʥʲʤʺʩʧʴʤʬʯʺʩʰ ‡ 

ʦʫʸʮʺʡʸʷʡʬʷʹʮʤʺʷʥʬʧʬʹʡʸʺʥʩʡʺʶʬʮʥʮʤʤʨʩʹʤʠʩʤʬʥʴʫʤʷʹʤʺʨʩʹ ‡ 
ʤʲʥʰʺʤ ʺʬʥʫʩ ʺʬʡʢʤ ʭʤ ʤʨʩʹʤ ʺʥʰʥʸʱʧ ʤʩʢʸʰʠʡ ʯʥʫʱʧʥ ʳʥʢʤ ʬʹ ʣʡʥʫʤ 
ʬʥʫʩ ʯʥʫʰ ʡʥʶʩʲ ʸʥʸʥʥʠ ʺʩʩʲʡʥ ʤʸʱʤʥ ʤʮʩʺʸʡ ʩʹʥʷ ʩʮʣʷʤ ʤʩʠʸʤ ʤʣʹ ʺʬʡʢʤ 
ʺʥʩʲʡʤʮʷʬʧʬʲʸʡʢʺʤʬ  

ʯʨʡʺʸʥʢʧʡʹʥʮʩʹ 

ʺʠʩʹʰ ʭʲ ʺʥʣʣʥʮʺʤʡ ʲʩʩʱʮ ʸʦʩʡʠʫ ʸʫʮʰʤ ʷʥʹʡ ʭʩʩʷ ʸʶʥʮ ʠʩʤ ʺʩʨʱʬʠ ʯʨʡ ʺʸʥʢʧ 

ʩʰʥʸʷʲ ʯʴʥʠʡ ʥʺʥʡʩʶʩʬ ʲʩʩʱʬʥ ʯʥʺʧʺʤ ʡʢʤ ʩʸʩʸʹʡ ʪʥʮʺʬ ʠʥʤ ʤʸʥʢʧʤ ʣʩʷʴʺ ʺʥʠʹʮ 

ʭʩʣʷʮʺʮʭʩʠʡʤʭʩʸʷʧʮʤʲʩʩʱʮʩʲʶʮʠʫʩʣʩʺʲʠʹʰʮʡʡʬʺʹʤʬʤʦʢʥʱʮʤʸʥʢʧʤʬʥʫʩ 

ʭʩʱʮʥʲʺʺʩʧʴʮʫʯʨʡʺʸʥʢʧʬʹʺʥʩʡʩʨʷʴʠʤʺʮʸʺʷʩʣʡʡ  

ʬʹ ʤʲʴʹʤʤ ʺʲʩʡʷ ʥʺʸʨʮʹ ʸʷʧʮʥʫʸʲ   Hansson, Magnusson and Pope 
ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤ ʸʥʦʠ ʬʲ ʩʬʬʫʤ ʱʮʥʲʤʥ ʯʥʺʧʺʤ ʡʢʤ ʩʸʩʸʹ ʺʬʥʲʴ ʬʲ ʡʢ ʺʫʩʮʺ ʺʸʥʢʧ 

ʥʷʣʡʰ "Does a back support have a positive biomechanical effect ʭʸʷʧʮʡ 

ʩʺʹʸʹʠʫʺʥʶʥʡʷʩʺʹʬʥʷʬʥʧʭʩʷʣʡʰʤʡʢʩʡʠʫʬʹʤʩʸʥʨʱʩʤʠʬʬʥʭʩʠʩʸʡʭʩʴʺʺʹʮʤ 

ʯʩʡ ʪʸʲʰ ʩʥʱʩʰʤ ʭʥʺʡ ʡʢʤ ʺʫʩʮʺʬ ʤʸʥʢʧ ʠʬʬʥ ʭʲ ʠʹʮ ʺʮʸʤ ʺʥʬʥʲʴ ʥʲʶʩʡ ʺʥʶʥʡʷʤ 
ʤʫʩʮʺʤʺʸʥʢʧʡʹʥʮʩʹʩʡʢʬʭʤʩʺʥʹʥʧʺʬʲʸʶʷʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʱʯʥʬʠʹʭʩʴʺʺʹʮʤ  

ʡʢʤ ʸʥʦʠʡ ʺʩʸʩʸʹʤ ʺʥʬʩʲʴʤ ʺʠ ʺʩʧʴʤ ʯʫʠ ʡʢʤ ʺʫʩʮʺʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʤ ʩʫ ʤʬʲ ʩʥʱʩʰʤʮ 

ʤʬʷʤʬ ʤʮʸʺ ʯʫʠ ʤʸʥʢʧʤʹ ʺʥʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʱ ʺʥʫʸʲʤ ʭʢ ʥʲʩʡʤ ʭʩʴʺʺʹʮʤ ʯʫʥ ʯʥʺʧʺʤ 
ʡʢ ʺʫʩʮʺ ʺʸʩʢʧ ʬʹ ʤʮʥʸʺʤ ʠʹʥʰʡ ʭʩʸʧʠ ʭʩʡʸ ʭʩʸʷʧʮ ʥʸʷʱʰ ʤʦ ʸʮʠʮʡ ʤʠʩʹʰʡ 

ʠʹʥʰʡʥʹʲʰʹʭʩʸʷʧʮʤʺʥʰʷʱʮʡʺʥʷʤʡʥʮʸʱʥʧʭʩʩʷʩʫʯʩʩʶʮʥʤʠʩʹʰʤʺʬʥʫʩʡʸʥʴʩʹʬ  

ʺʫʩʮʺʺʸʥʢʧʡʹʥʮʩʹʩʫʤʬʥʲʥʰʮʮʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʱʸʷʧʮʥʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʠʸʷʧʮʬʷʬʧʰʤʦʸʷʧʮ 
ʤʰʷʱʮʭʩʬʲʮʭʰʩʠʥʡʭʩʸʷʱʰʹʭʩʸʧʠʭʩʸʮʠʮʩʫʭʠʲʩʩʱʮʯʫʠʺʥʠʹʮʺʠʩʹʰʺʲʡʡʢ 

ʠʹʥʰʡʺʩʲʮʹʮʣʧ  

ʬʲʯʨʡʺʸʥʢʧʺʥʲʴʹʤʺʠ  Ivancic, Cholewicki et alʥʷʣʡʠʹʥʰʡʳʱʥʰʸʷʧʮʡ 
ʯʨʡʤʺʸʥʢʧʬʹʤʲʴʹʤʤʺʠʩʰʺʥʮʤʸʥʦʠʤʩʸʩʸʹʺʥʬʩʲʴʮʺʲʡʥʰʤʤʸʣʹʤʣʥʮʲʺʥʡʩʶʩ 

ʬʹ ʺʩʡʩʨʷʴʠʤ ʺʥʡʩʶʩʤ ʺʠ ʺʥʦʧʬ ʯʺʩʰ ʭʠʤ ʥʰʧʡʥ L4/L5 ʺʥʩʬʥʧ ʯʩʡ ʵʧʬʤ ʺʥʧʥʫ ʬʲ 
ʤʸʥʢʧʤʡʶʮʥʺʩʡʩʨʷʠʤʺʥʡʩʶʩʤʩʴʬʲʤʸʣʹʤʣʥʮʲ 

Effects of the abdominal belt on muscle-generated spinal stability and ʸʮʠʮʡ 

ʸʷʧʮ ʺʨʩʹʡ  Ivancic, Cholewicki et alʥʹʮʺʹʤ L4/L5 joint compression force 
ʺʩʡʩʨʷʴʠʤʥʺʩʡʩʨʷʠʤʺʥʡʩʶʩʤʺʠʬʣʮʮʹ Cholewickiʬʹʩʨʮʺʮʬʣʥʮʬʲʺʱʱʡʺʮʤ 
ʤʸʣʹʤʣʥʮʲʬʹ  

ʺʩʺʸʣʹʤʺʥʡʩʶʩʤʬʲʯʨʡʤʺʸʥʢʧʬʹʤʲʴʹʤʬʫʤʺʴʶʰʠʬʩʫʤʬʥʲʸʷʧʮʤʺʥʰʷʱʮʮ 

ʺʥʬʩʲʴʤ ʺʺʧʴʤʬ ʤʮʸʺ ʯʨʡʤ ʺʸʥʢʧ ʱʮʥʲ ʳʠʡʥ ʯʥʥʫ ʳʠʡ ʺʩʸʩʸʹ ʺʥʬʩʲʴʮ ʺʲʡʥʰʤ 

L4/L5ʡʵʧʬʤʬʲʤʲʴʹʤʪʫʬʤʺʩʩʤʠʬʪʠʤʸʣʹʤʣʥʮʲʡʩʡʱʭʩʸʩʸʹʤʬʹʺʩʬʮʹʧʤ  

ʹʥʮʩʹʬʹʧʥʥʨʺʥʫʥʸʠʺʥʲʴʥʺʯʧʡʸʹʠ Reddell et al ʬʹʸʷʧʮʸʠʥʺʯʥʩʣʤʺʸʢʱʮʡ 

ʤʴʥʲʺʤʤʣʹʡʤʱʮʲʤʩʬʲʥʴ ʬʲʯʨʡʺʸʥʢʧʬʹʹʥʮʩʹʥʰʧʡʤʦʩʥʱʩʰʡʯʨʡʺʸʥʢʧʡ 

ʡʢʤ ʺʥʲʩʢʴ ʸʴʱʮʡ ʤʣʩʸʩʬ ʤʮʸʺ ʠʬ ʤʸʥʢʧʤ ʩʫ ʥʬʲʤ ʩʥʱʩʰʤ ʺʥʠʶʥʺ ʭʩʹʣʥʧ  ʪʸʥʠʬ 

ʤʣʡʥʲ ± ʡʢʤ ʺʥʲʩʢʴ ʸʴʱʮʡ ʤʩʬʲ ʤʺʴʶʰ ʩʥʱʩʰʤ ʭʥʩʱ ʸʧʠʬ ʤʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʤ ʪʬʤʮʡ 
ʭʩʸʩʸʹʬʹʺʥʹʬʧʤʬʭʩʰʮʩʱʬʲʤʠʸʰʫʤʲʩʡʶʮʹ  

ʺʥʠʹʮ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʬʲ ʺʩʨʱʬʠ ʯʨʡ ʺʸʥʢʧ ʬʹ ʤʺʲʴʹʤ ʩʫ ʷʩʱʤʬ ʯʺʩʰ ʥʸʷʱʰʹ ʭʩʸʷʧʮʤʮ 

ʲʥʩʱʬ ʩʲʶʮʠʫ ʯʨʡ ʺʸʥʢʧʬ ʤʣʥʡʲʤ ʪʹʮʤʡ ʱʧʩʩʺʤʬ ʧʸʫʤ ʯʩʠʹ ʪʫ ʺʩʲʮʹʮ ʣʧ ʤʰʩʠ 
ʤʠʩʹʰʡ  

ʠʹʩʰʤʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹʭʩʩʣʴʥʨʸʥʠʭʩʨʡʩʤ 

ʲʣʩʮʤ ʩʲʣʮ ʯʴʥʠʡ ʥʸʷʧʰ ʭʸʨ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʨʡʮ ʺʣʥʷʰʮ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʠʩʹʰʡ ʭʩʩʠʥʴʸʤ ʭʩʨʡʩʤʤ 
ʤʩʣʴʥʨʸʥʠʭʥʧʺʡʵʸʠʡʭʩʸʩʫʡʭʩʠʴʥʸʤʹʥʬʹʭʲʺʥʧʩʹʮʥʡʥʸʡʤʬʲʤʦʷʸʴʡʲʩʴʥʮʤ 

ʧʮʬʤʰʮ±ʩʠʡʥʸʰʡʷʲʩ
ʴʥʸʴʭʸʫʯʩʲʤʱʣʤʧʤʩʡʸʩʫʡʭʩʣʬʩʣʴʥʨʸʥʠ±ʯʣʮʬʯʥʸʸʣ 
ʧʤʩʡ ʺʩʣʴʥʨʸʥʠ
ʧʮ ʹʠʸ ʸʡʲʹʬ ʯʩʩʨʹ ʭʩʩʧ
ʴʥʸʴ ʸʮʥʹʤ ʬʺ ʧʤʩʡ ʺʩʣʴʥʨʸʥʠ 

ʭʡʮʸ  

ʠʹʰʮʡʯʮʦʷʩʴʱʮʭʩʬʡʮʭʰʩʠʩʡʸʲʮʤʭʬʥʲʡʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʩʫʠʩʤʺʧʥʥʸʤʤʲʣʤʩʬʬʫʯʴʥʠʡ 

ʭʬʥʲʡʺʥʸʧʠʺʥʩʱʥʬʫʥʠʬʣʥʢʩʰʡʺʠʦʥʣʬʹʤʺʫʸʲʮʬʲʤʲʴʹʤʭʩʩʷʺʺʹʺʰʮʬʲ  

ʭʩʸʥʦʠʤʹʥʬʹʡʤʫʩʮʺʷʴʱʬʡʥʹʧʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʩʹʰʡ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤʹʠʸʡʤʫʩʮʺ  
ʷʥʰʩʺʤʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺ  
ʷʥʰʩʺʤʩʫʸʩʷʥʱʩʴ    

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʹʠʸʡʤʫʩʮʺ 

ʭʰʩʠ ʭʩʰʨʷ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺ ʬʶʠ ʸʠʥʥʶʤ ʩʸʩʸʹ ± ʹʠʸʤ ʺʧʩʰʶʬ ʤʰʲʮ ʺʺʬ ʪʩʸʶ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮ 
ʺʠ ʺʠʹʬ ʭʩʬʢʥʱʮʥ ʭʩʡʩʶʩ ʷʩʴʱʮ ʭʤ ʥʡ ʡʬʹʬ ʣʲ ʭʹʠʸʡ ʪʥʮʺʬ ʪʸʥʶ ʹʩʥ ʭʩʣ ʭʩʷʦʧ 

ʸʹʩʥʷʡʷʥʰʩʺʤʸʠʥʥʶʺʷʦʧʤʩʣʩʬʲʩʥʨʩʡʩʣʩʬʠʥʡʺʹʠʸʡʤʫʩʮʺ ʭʮʶʲʡʹʠʸʤʬʷʹʮ 
ʥʬʹʤʸʣʹʤʣʥʮʲʬʪʹʮʤʫ  

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺ 

ʭʠʠʹʰʮʡʺʩʰʥʩʧʫʤʰʩʩʥʶʷʥʰʩʺʤʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺʤʫʩʮʺʬʷʥʷʦʥʥʩʣʷʦʧʥʰʩʠʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹʡʢʤ 
ʠʥʤʳʥʷʦʥʡʢʹʪʫʷʥʰʩʺʷʩʦʧʤʬʹʩʯʩʩʨʹ
ʴʥʸʴʩʴʬʲʸʥʸʡʯʴʥʠʡʸʣʢʥʤʠʬʤʮʥʷʩʮʩʫ 
ʩʧʹʤʩʺʡʡʥʯʢʠʡʺʥʲʹʴʮʡʪʮʺʰ  

ʭʩʩʫʸʩʷʥʱʩʴ 

DDH ʪʸʩʤʷʸʴʮʬʹʺʥʷʩʸʴʥʭʩʲʷʰʠʩʤʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʺʩʩʣʴʥʨʸʥʠʡʺʥʶʥʴʰʤʺʥʲʴʥʺʤʺʧʠ 

ʯʴʥʠʡ ʯʩʷʺ ʥʰʩʠ ʣʥʬʩʡ ʪʸʩʤ ʷʸʴ ʥʡ ʡʶʮ ʥʰʩʤ Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip 
ʩʺʹʯʩʡʲʢʮʤʥʠʤʸʥʶʤʭʠʯʢʠʡʭʠʥʺʲʷʹʭʲʲʢʮʡʠʶʮʰʥʬʥʢʲʪʸʩʤʭʶʲʹʠʸʬʩʢʸ 

ʭʣʠʤʬʷʹʮʡʸʩʮʺʠʺʠʹʬʸʥʮʠʹʪʸʩʤʷʸʴʥʤʰʩʷʺʤʰʰʩʠʯʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʭʢʴʰʺʥʮʶʲʤ 
DDHʬʭʩʮʸʥʢʤʩʡʢʬʺʥʡʸʺʥʩʸʥʠʩʺʺʥʮʩʩʷ ʯʥʸʯʣʮʬ   ʩʬʮʸʥʰʯʴʥʠʡʣʷʴʺʩʠʬ 
ʲʥʣʩ ʥʰʩʠ ʡʶʮʬ ʭʸʥʢʤ ʣʥʲʥ ʭʩʩʺʹʸʥʺ ʭʩʨʡʩʤ ʭʧʸʡ ʺʥʴʩʴʶʤʥ ʸʡʥʲʤ ʺʧʥʰʺ ʯʤʩʰʩʡʥ 

ʺʥʠʣʥʥʡ 

ʺʠʸʩʦʧʤʬʯʩʩʣʲʯʺʩʰʯʺʩʰʤʰʹʩʶʧʬʩʢʣʲʥʹʣʥʧʬʩʢʮʣʬʩʤʬʩʢʩʴʬʲʡʷʰDDHʡʬʥʴʩʨʤ 
ʤʰʩʤʹ Pavlik Harness ʷʩʬʡʴʺʮʺʩʸʩʣʩʬʲʠʥʤʤʲʴʥʺʡʵʥʴʰʤʬʥʴʩʨʤʥʮʥʷʮʬʷʸʴʤ 

ʡʩʡʱʺʥʫʸʤʺʥʮʷʸʤʹʣʲʥʮʥʷʮʡʷʸʴʤʺʠʤʷʩʦʧʮʤʺʥʲʥʶʸʺʸʣʱʮʺʡʫʸʥʮʤʤʮʺʸ 
ʺʥʬʲʮ±ʫʬʹʧʺʴʮʺʸʶʩʩʮʤʮʺʸʤʷʸʴʬʺʥʡʩʶʩʺʥʷʴʱʮʥʯʩʩʣʺʥʷʦʧʷʸʴʤ 
ʩʥʫʩʱʤ ʭʩʩʫʸʩʤ ʯʩʡ ʷʥʱʩʴ ʯʩʠ ʸʹʠʫ ʥʰʩʩʠʥʸʹ ʭʩʠʴʥʸʤ ʺʣʮʲ ʩʴ ʬʲ ʭʩʩʬʢʸʤ ʩʺʹ ʯʩʡ 

ʷʥʱʩʴʤʬʣʥʢʬʲʢʥʰʡʤʶʬʮʤʬʫʯʩʠʸʺʥʩʤʥʡʢʪʸʩʺʥʷʩʸʴʬ 

ʯʫʹ  ʭʥʩʤ ʺʥʲʹ ʺʩʡʸʮ ʪʸʥʠʬ ʭʩʠʹʰʮʡ ʺʥʹʮʺʹʮʤ ʺʥʩʱʥʬʫʥʠ ʬʲ ʺʥʩʴʶʺ ʸʡʲʡ ʥʫʸʲʰ 

ʤʰʷʱʮʤ ʭʩʠʷʩʸʴʠ ʭʩʨʡʹʥʭʩʰʠʩʣʰʩʠʤ ʯʥʢʫ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʺʠ ʺʠʹʥʰ ʠʩʤ ʸʹʠʫ ʺʣʡʥʲ ʭʠʤ 

ʪʸʩʤʷʸʴʺʥʷʩʸʴʺʥʧʩʫʹʭʩʩʫʸʩʷʥʱʩʴʡʣʬʩʤʺʠʷʩʦʧʮʠʹʰʮʤʸʹʠʫʹʤʺʩʩʤʺʩʸʷʩʲʤ 

 ʯʥʸʯʣʮʬ ʥʦʬʥʦʺʥʣʮʶʥʮʭʩʩʬʢʸʤʭʲʭʩʷʦʧʥʮʤʥʬʠʬʺʩʱʧʩʺʩʺʥʲʮʹʮʤʰʨʷ  

ʯʩʠ ʭʩʩʧ ʯʩʩʨʹ
ʴʥʸʴ ʡʷʲʩ ʩʠʡʥʸʰ
ʴʥʸʴ ʯʥʸ ʯʣʮʬ ʸʣ  ʩʺʧʧʥʹ ʭʮʲ ʭʩʠʴʥʸʤ ʩʰʩʲʡ 

ʭʩʣʷʤʬʠʬʷʥʰʩʺʬʹʯʥʫʰʧʰʮʡʣʩʴʷʤʬʹʩʩʫʭʠʺʸʧʠʥʠʥʦʫʤʠʩʹʰʺʧʥʰʺʬʺʥʲʮʹʮ  

ʥʮʶʲʺʥʧʥʫʡʡʹʥʩʥʰʩʠʹʷʥʰʩʺʡʩʹʥʤʬʯʩʠ ±ʸʮʥʬʫʥʬʹʭʩʩʲʡʨʤʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʤʩʡʬʹʺʠ 
ʺʥʹʸʣʰʤʺʥʫʩʮʺʤʭʥʩʷʬʲʣʩʴʷʤʬʹʩʥ  

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʣʬʹʬʷʦʰʲʥʰʮʬʩʣʫʡʭʩʠʴʥʸʤʺʥʰʥʩʠʸʮʥʬʲʹʩʴʫʭʩʩʣʴʥʨʸʥʠʤʭʩʨʡʩʤʤʭʥʫʩʱ 

ʸʠʥʥʶʤ ʩʸʩʸʹ ʸʹʠ ʣʲ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʹʠʸʡ ʭʩʸʥʦʠ ʤʹʥʬʹʡ ʤʫʩʮʺ ʷʴʱʬ ʹʩ ʥʺʠʩʹʰ ʺʲʡ 
ʬʥʫʩ ʸʹʠ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʩʬʢʸ ʯʩʡ ʥʤʹʬʫ ʷʥʱʩʴ ʸʮʹʩʩ ʩʫ ʢʥʠʣʬ ʹʩʥ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʡʢʡ ʭʩʩʣ ʭʩʷʦʧ 

ʪʸʩʤʭʶʲʺʷʩʸʴʺʥʩʲʡʺʲʩʰʮʡʲʩʩʱʬ  

ʭʩʠʹʰʮʺʥʧʩʨʡ 

ʤʰʩʷʺ ʺʮʩʩʷʺʮ ʭʬʥʲʡ ʸʺʥʩʡ ʭʩʹʩʢʸ ʭʩʡʹʧʰ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺ ʩʸʶʥʮ ʬʹ ʺʥʧʩʨʡʤ ʩʨʡʩʤ 
ʬʹ ʺʥʧʩʨʡ ʺʥʹʩʸʣ ʸʩʣʢʮ ʯʷʺʤ ʯʷʺ ʥʺ ʭʩʠʹʥʰ ʭʤʮ ʭʩʡʸʥ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺ ʩʸʶʥʮʬ ʺʧʺʥʴʮ 
ʺʥʧʩʨʡʯʷʺʠʥʤʷʥʰʩʺʩʠʹʰʮʬʭʥʩʫʭʬʥʲʡʭʩʩʷʤʣʩʧʩʤʯʷʺʤʤʷʩʣʡʬʺʥʣʥʺʮʯʫʥʭʩʸʶʥʮ 
ʺʰʹʮʩʴʥʸʩʠʤʣʥʧʩʠʤʬʹ  

ʺʥʣʥʺʮʥ ʺʥʧʩʨʡ ʺʥʹʩʸʣ ʸʩʣʢʮʤ ʯʷʺ ʭʱʸʴ   ʩʴʥʸʩʠʤ ʭʩʰʷʺʤ ʯʥʫʮ   CEN 

ʭʩʩʣʩ ʺʲʥʰʺ ʸʹʴʠʮʥ ʸʢʥʡʮʤ ʳʥʢ ʬʹ ʯʥʩʬʲʤ ʥʷʬʧʬ ʸʡʥʧʮʤ ʷʥʰʩʺʬ ʠʹʰʮ ʬʹ ʤʷʩʣʡʬ 
ʤʫʩʬʤʥʤʣʩʮʲʺʲʹʡʺʩʹʴʥʧ 

ʯʷʺʤʩʴʬʲʸʶʥʮʤʺʥʸʣʢʤ 

ʸʩʶʸʹʠʫʳʥʢʤʬʹʯʥʩʬʲʤʷʬʧʤʣʶʬʭʩʸʩʲʶʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʩʹʰʬʨʩʸʴ  Sling ʤʬʺʮ  
ʸʢʥʡʮʤʬʹʤʩʸʨʮʩʱʤʸʩʶʬʬʩʡʷʮʥʰʩʠʣʬʩʤʬʹʤʩʸʨʮʩʱʤ 

ʬʹʩʮʣʷʤʷʬʧʤʬʲ ʡʶʩʰʡʡʥʸʬ ʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʩʹʰʬʨʩʸʴ  Front Carrier ʩʮʣʷʠʹʰʮ  
ʸʢʥʡʮʤʬʹʤʩʸʨʮʩʱʤʸʩʶʬʬʩʡʷʮʣʬʩʤʬʹʤʩʸʨʮʩʱʤʸʩʶʹʪʫʸʢʥʡʮʤʳʥʢ 

ʳʥʢʬʹʩʸʥʧʠʤʷʬʧʤʬʲʡʶʩʰʡʡʥʸʬʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʩʹʰʬʨʩʸʴ Back Carrier ʡʢʠʹʰʮ  
ʸʢʥʡʮʤʬʹʤʩʸʨʮʩʱʤʸʩʶʬʬʩʡʷʮʣʬʩʤʬʹʤʩʸʨʮʩʱʤʸʩʶʹʪʫʸʢʥʡʮʤ 

ʺʥʲʥʶʸʥʠʺʥʸʥʢʧʣʥʮʶʡʤʠʩʹʰʬʤʮʩʺʸʺʫʸʲʮ±ʺʥʸʥʢʧʥʺʥʲʥʶʸ Restraint ʯʱʸ  
ʸʢʥʡʮʤʳʥʢʬʹʯʥʩʬʲʤʥʷʬʧʬʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʧʨʡʠʺʸʨʮʬʷʥʰʩʺʬʠʹʰʮʬʺʥʮʠʺʥʮʤ 

ʡʥʸʬʭʩʮʠʺʥʮʤʤʸʥʢʧʥʤʮʩʺʸʺʥʲʥʶʸʬʹʡʫʸʤ Restraint system ʯʥʱʩʸʺʫʸʲʮ  
ʠʹʰʮʤʪʥʺʡʠʶʮʰʤʣʬʩʤʺʠʯʱʸʬʤʸʨʮʡʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʬ   

ʯʷʺʤʸʩʣʢʮʹʺʥʧʩʨʡʤʺʥʹʩʸʣ 

ʤʷʩʣʡʺʣʥʺʮʭʢʺʸʣʢʥʮʤʹʩʸʣʬʫʸʥʡʲ 

ʭʩʸʮʥʧʩʡʢʬʺʥʹʩʸʣ  

ʤʩʶʷʥʸʨʱʰʥʷʤʺʥʹʩʸʣ  

ʭʩʦʦʭʩʷʬʧʩʡʢʬʺʥʹʩʸʣ  
ʢʥʴʱʩʩʥʬʩʮʺʥʹʩʢʰ  

ʷʥʰʩʺʬʠʹʰʮʬʹʸʥʡʩʧʤʺʥʫʸʲʮʬʹʺʥʹʩʸʣ  
ʺʥʩʬʸʢʨʰʩʠʤʺʥʮʺʸʤʬʹʺʥʬʩʲʩ  
ʹʠʸʪʮʥʺ  

ʯʷʺʡʺʥʲʩʴʥʮʹʺʥʴʱʥʰʺʥʸʣʢʤ 
ʤʦʩʸʠʺʥʸʣʢʤ  

ʯʥʮʩʱʤʺʥʸʣʢʤ  

ʹʥʮʩʹʤʺʥʠʸʥʤʬʤʷʩʴʸʢʥʡʥʺʩʫʺʸʣʢʤ  
ʤʹʩʫʸʬʲʣʩʮʺʸʣʢʤ  

ʺʣʥʺʮ ʺʠʥ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʬ ʠʹʰʮ ʬʹ ʺʥʧʩʨʡʤ ʺʥʹʩʸʣ ʺʠ ʸʩʣʢʮʤ ʩʮʹʸ ʪʮʱʮ ʠʥʤ ʯʷʺʤ 
ʩʱʥʴʩʨ ʺʠ ʺʸʣʥʱʮ ʤʸʥʶʡ ʯʷʺʤ ʸʩʣʢʮ ʯʫ ʥʮʫ ʺʥʹʩʸʣʤʮ ʺʧʠ ʬʫ ʸʥʡʲ ʤʷʩʣʡʤ 
ʺʥʧʩʨʡʤʯʷʺʺʥʹʩʸʣʡʡʹʧʺʩʩʣʩʺʲʤʠʹʰʮʯʥʫʩʺʹʸʺʥʩʡʡʥʹʧʭʩʠʹʰʮʤ  

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʬʭʸʥʺʭʸʥʢʫʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʤ 

ʭʩʩʢʥʬʥʫʥʱʩʴ ʭʩʨʡʩʤʬ ʭʩʱʧʩʩʺʮ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʠʹʥʰʡ ʥʲʶʥʡʹ ʭʩʣʩʧʩʤ ʭʩʸʷʧʮʤ 
ʩʩʥʱʩʰʩʰʹʤʥ ʩʢʥʬʥʴʥʸʺʰʠʣʧʠʤ±ʭʩʠʡʤʭʩʸʷʧʮʤʩʰʹʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʬʹʭʩʩʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʥ 

ʭʠʤ ʬʹ ʺʥʸʹʷʩʤʬʥ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʬ ʭʸʥʺʤ ʭʸʥʢʫ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʠʩʹʰʬ ʭʩʱʧʩʩʺʮ 

ʤʷʥʰʩʺʬ  

ʤʩʧ ʸʹʠʫ ʤʫʸʲʹ ʩʢʥʬʥʴʥʸʺʰʠ ʸʷʧʮ ʺʸʠʺʮ   ʳʶʸʤ ʯʥʸʷʲ ʤʸʴʱʡ ʳʥʬʣʩʬ ʯ
ʩʢ 

ʧʸʥʠʺʠʤʸʷʧʳʥʬʣʩʬʤʬʠʥʶʰʥʺʥʸʲʩʡʩʰʠʩʣʰʩʠʤʤʰʠʥʷʩʤʨʡʹʭʲʣʧʩʡʭʩʩʺʰʹʪʹʮʡ 
ʳʥʬʣʩʬ ʤʧʺʩʴ ʤʦ ʸʷʧʮ ʺʥʡʷʲʡ ʤʰʠʥʥʷʩʤ ʨʡʹ ʩʣʬʩ ʭʩʬʣʢ ʤʡ ʪʸʣʤʥ ʭʩʰʠʩʣʰʩʠʤ ʩʩʧ 

 ConceptContinuum ʳʶʸʤʺʩʩʸʥʠʺʠʩʤʭʣʠʤʲʡʨʬʲʤʬʹʮʤʱʩʴʺ  

ʠʩʤ ʪʫʩʴʬʥ ʵʸʠʤ ʸʥʣʫ ʬʫ ʩʰʴ ʬʲ ʠʥʤ ʣʧʠ ʭʣʠʤ ʲʡʨʹ ʠʩʤ ʳʥʬʣʩʬ ʬʹ ʸʷʧʮʤ ʺʧʰʤ 
ʩʡʸʲʮʤ ʭʣʠʤ ʯʩʡ ʭʩʣʬʩʤ ʬʥʣʩʢ ʯʴʥʠʡ ʭʩʩʺʥʤʮʤ ʭʩʬʣʡʤʤ ʭʤʮ ʤʸʴʱʡ ʯʩʡʤʬ ʤʱʰʮ  

ʤʡʸʤʡ ʭʩʩʠʮʶʲʥ ʭʩʲʥʢʸ ʭʩʸʹʥʠʮ ʤʬ ʥʠʸʰ ʭʩʰʠʩʣʰʩʠʤ ʩʣʬʩ ʤʰʠʥʥʷʩʤ ʨʡʹʡ ʭʣʠʬ 
ʬʥʮʬʠʤʰʠʥʥʷʩʤʨʡʹʡʭʩʬʣʢʹʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʩʩʧʡʺʥʰʰʥʡʺʤʥʤʠʥʥʹʤʪʥʺʮ ʡʸʲʮʡʭʩʣʬʩʤʮ 

ʤʸʥʶʡ ʺʡʺʥʫ ʠʩʤ ʭʩʠʶʮʮʤ ʺʠ ʭʩʬʣʡʤʤ ʬʲ ʳʥʬʣʩʬ ʤʣʮʬ ʩʡʸʲʮʤ ʭʬʥʲʡ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺ 
ʯʮʥʩʯʩʲʮʭʢʠʥʤʹʤʸʴʱʡʺʩʹʴʥʧ  

ʭʩʹʣʥʧʡ ʠʹʰʮʡʭʩʠʹʩʰʤʤʰʠʥʥʷʩʤʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʺʥʢʤʰʺʤʯʩʡʨʬʥʡ ʬʣʡʤʹʩʹʤʠʶʮʳʥʬʣʩʬ 
ʡʥʸ ʤʬʩʡʷʮʤ ʤʴʥʷʺʡ ʭʩʬʡʮʤ ʭʩʩʡʸʲʮʤ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʺʥʢʤʰʺʤ ʯʩʡʬ ʭʤʩʩʧʬ ʭʩʰʥʹʠʸʤ 
ʥʷʩʦʧʩʹ ʭʩʣʢʰʺʮ ʭʰʩʠ ʭʤʥ ʭʤʡ ʬʴʨʬ ʬʷ ʭʩʫʸ ʤʰʠʥʥʷʩʤ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺ ʩʱʩʴ ʣʥʣʩʡʡ ʭʰʮʦ 
ʭʤʩʬʢʸʡ ʭʩʨʲʥʡ ʭʩʩʡʸʲʮ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺ ʭʺʮʥʲʬ ʠʩʤʹ ʤʧʥʰʺ ʬʫʡ ʭʺʥʠ ʥʠʹʩʩ ʥʠ ʭʺʥʠ 
ʤʱʩʸʲʡʭʩʧʺʮʺʮʥʭʩʬʺʴʺʮʭʤʤʧʥʺʮʺʹʷʡʭʡʢʺʠʭʩʧʩʹʷʮʥʭʤʩʺʥʲʥʸʦʡʭʩʴʴʥʰʮ 
ʸʱʥʧ ʬʹ ʺʥʲʹʮ ʤʠʶʥʺʫ ʭʴʥʢʡ ʸʡʨʶʤʹ ʧʺʮʤ ʺʠ ʸʸʧʹʬ ʺʰʮ ʬʲ ʺʠʦ ʬʫ ʤʬʢʲʡʥ 

ʤʲʥʰʺ  

ʺʠ ʷʦʧʺ ʭʩʰʥʹʠʸʤ ʥʩʩʧ ʩʹʣʥʧʺʰʥʮʹ ʣʲ ʺʹʹʡ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʩʫ ʺʰʲʥʨ ʳʥʬʣʩʬ 
ʠʩʤʩʡʥʩʧʥʭʸʥʺʩʰʲʡʥʺʩʺʬʡʩʺʥʸʡʧʭʣʠʬʥʺʫʩʴʤʬʺʥʣʥʱʩʤʺʠʧʩʰʺʥʩʮʶʲʤʥʰʥʧʨʩʡ 

ʭʠʫʤʬʹʳʶʸʤʺʠʺʸʹʬʭʢʪʫʡʥ ʷʥʰʩʺʬʹʳʶʸʤʺʠʺʸʹʬʬʩʧʺʺʹʭʠʩʫʤʰʩʮʠʮ 
ʩʺʥʡʸʺʬʥʡʬʡʮʺʩʡʸʲʮʤʤʸʡʧʡʬʡʥʱʬʬʫʪʸʣʡʹʤʬʹʩʲʡʨʤʨʷʰʩʨʱʩʠʤʤʡʷʦʧʺʩ  

ʸʠʹʤ ʯʩʡʥ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʬʥʣʩʢ ʯʴʥʠʡ ʦʫʸʺʮʤ ʥʢʥʱʮ ʣʩʧʩ ʩʢʥʬʥʴʥʸʺʰʠ ʸʷʧʮ ʸʠʺʮ ʸʴʱʤ 

ʬʲʡ ʠʥʤ ʭʩʰʥʹʠʸʤ ʭʩʩʧʤ ʩʹʣʥʧʡ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹ ʩʫ ʤʰʷʱʮʤ ʭʺʠʩʹʰ ʩʴʥʠʡ 
ʸʷʧʮʤʠʹʥʰʺʥʡʩʹʧʺʠʺʷʦʧʮʤʡʸʺʥʲʮʹʮ  

ʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʩʹʰʬʹʺʩʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʤʤʲʴʹʤʡʭʤʭʢ ʥʷʱʲ   Anisfeld, Casper et al 

ʭʠʤʤʷʩʣʡʠʩʤ "Does infant carrying promote attachmentʭʸʷʧʮʺʸʨʮʠʹʰʮʡ 
ʤʡʥʢʺʣʣʥʲʩʯʥʥʫʮʯʴʥʠʡʭʸʢʰʹʩʱʩʴʲʢʮʩʥʡʩʸʭʠʤʺʥʸʹʷʩʤʺʣʣʥʲʮʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʩʹʰ 

ʺʩʱʩʴʺʥʧʫʥʰʩʫʠʩʤʸʷʧʮʤʺʧʰʤʥʮʠʬʷʥʰʩʺʤʯʩʡʸʺʥʩʷʦʧʸʹʷʥʸʺʥʩʤʷʦʧ ʺʩʤʮʩʠ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʩʫʸʥʶʬ ʤʡʥʹʷʥ ʺʲʣʥʮ ʸʺʥʩʬ ʤʫʴʤʬʥ ʭʠʤ ʬʲ ʲʩʴʹʤʬ ʤʬʥʫʩ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʬʹ ʤʡʥʸʷ 
ʸʺʥʩ ʤʡʸ ʺʥʬʷʡ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʠʶʮʰʹ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʬʶʠ ʺʥʧʥʰ ʩʠ ʥʠ ʡʲʸ ʩʰʮʩʱ ʺʥʤʦʬ ʤʬʥʫʩ ʭʠʤ 
ʤʰʮʮʷʧʥʸʮʥʤʬʢʲʡʠʶʮʰʤʷʥʰʩʺʬʶʠʸʹʠʮ  

ʤʬʡʩʷʹʤʶʥʡʷʺʥʶʥʡʷʩʺʹʬʤʷʥʬʧ ʩʲʤʣʣʮʰʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʬʺʥʤʮʠʤʯʩʡʩʱʩʴʤʲʢʮʤʺʥʮʫ 

ʺʥʧʴʭʩʸʹʴʠʮʤʭʩʧʩʹʷʭʩʡʹʥʮʤʬʡʩʷʹʤʶʥʡʷʥ ʩʱʩʴʲʢʮʭʩʸʹʴʠʮʤ ʭʩʫʸʭʩʠʹʰʮ 
ʺʥʸʹʷʩʤʥʭʠʬʤʡʥʢʺʬʹʤʣʩʣʮʥʺʥʩʴʶʺʩʲʤʠʥʥʹʤʤʫʸʲʰʺʥʶʥʡʷʤʩʺʹʯʩʡʩʱʩʴʲʢʮ 

ʤʩʬʠ  

ʯʩʡʬ ʪʸ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʺʥʲʶʮʠʡ ʲʶʡʺʤʹʩʱʩʴ ʲʢʮ ʯʩʡ ʸʹʷ ʬʲ ʲʩʡʶʤ ʸʷʧʮʤ 

ʸʷʧʮʤ ʺʸʢʱʮʡ ʣʥʣʩʲ ʤʬ ʯʺʩʰʹ ʤʹʣʧʤ ʤʩʶʷʠʸʨʰʩʠʤ ʭʠʬ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʯʩʡ ʺʥʸʹʷʩʤʤ ʩʴʥʠ 

ʯʴʥʠʡ ʺʥʡʩʢʮʬ ʥʫʴʤ ʺʥʤʮʠʤ ʺʥʤʮʠʤ ʬʹ ʯʤʥ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʬʹ ʯʤ ʺʥʢʤʰʺʤʤ ʬʲ ʤʲʩʴʹʤ 

ʤʷʦʧʥʺʱʱʥʡʮʸʹʷʺʫʸʲʮʥʧʺʩʴʪʸʠʹʰʮʡʥʠʹʩʰʹʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʤʥʯʤʩʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʬʸʺʥʩʩʣʩʩʮ 

ʺʥʤʮʠʤʭʲ  

ʩʫʤʬʲʩʺʫʸʲʹʹʥʴʩʧʤʮʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʬʭʩʠʹʰʮʺʸʶʩʩʮʤSnugliʺʸʡʧʩʣʩʬʲʯʮʥʮʤʦʸʷʧʮ 

ʬʲʡʺʥʩʤʬʩʥʹʲʪʸʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʩʫʤʬʥʲʥʰʮʮʥʠʹʥʰʡʤʫʣʲʤʹʲʰʹʣʩʧʩʤʩʥʱʩʰʤʥʤʦ 

ʥʺʥʡʩʹʧʬʲʲʩʡʶʮʥʠʹʥʰʡʷʥʱʩʲʤʺʠʷʩʣʶʮʸʷʧʮʤʥʮʠʬʷʥʰʩʺʤʯʩʡʸʹʷʤʬʲʤʲʴʹʤ  

ʬʲ ʯʤʥ ʭʠʤ ʬʲ ʯʤ ± ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʬʹ ʺʥʩʡʥʩʧ ʺʥʲʴʹʤ ʭʩʸʠʺʮ ʬʰʤ ʭʩʸʷʧʮʤ ʩʰʹ 

ʭʥʧʺʡʤʷʮʲʤʥʤʸʩʷʧʺʥʷʩʣʶʮʺʥʩʡʥʩʧʺʥʲʴʹʤʯʺʥʠʷʥʰʩʺʤ   

ʷʥʹʡʭʩʬʩʡʥʮʭʩʠʹʰʮʺʢʶʤ 

ʨʰʸʨʰʩʠʤ ʪʸʣ ʺʥʩʥʰʧʡ ʤʸʩʫʮʬ ʭʩʲʶʥʮʤ ʭʩʰʥʹ ʭʩʠʹʰʮ ʯʥʥʢʮ ʬʩʫʮ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʩʸʶʥʮ ʷʥʹ 
ʤʸʩʹʷ ʩʠʹʰʮ ʬʩʮʸʺ ʩʠʹʰʮ ʺʥʩʸʷʩʲ ʺʥʶʥʡʷ ʹʥʬʹʬ ʭʷʬʧʬ ʯʺʩʰ ʭʩʩʨʸʴ ʭʩʶʩʴʮ ʪʸʣʥ 
ʷʥʹʡʭʩʬʩʡʥʮʤʥʭʩʶʥʴʰʤʭʩʠʹʰʮʤʮʸʧʡʮʬʹʤʸʩʷʱʤʲʩʴʥʮʯʬʤʬʯʥʱʫʬʠʩʠʹʰʮʥ  

ʬʩʮʸʺʩʠʹʰʮ 

Baby Bjorn - Active Baby Carrierʸʶʥʮʤʭʹʯʸʶʩ              

Baby Bjorn - Active Baby Carrierʭʩʹʸʺ
Figure 1: Baby Bjorn - Active Baby Carrier  

ʷʥʰʩʺʬʡʹʥʮʭʩʮʦʡʠʺʸʦʲʡʥʦʬʥʦʺʥʸʡʥʧʮʤʺʥʣʩʧʩʹʥʬʹʮʩʥʹʲʩʸʨʮʩʱʠʹʰʮʸʥʠʺ 
ʡʢʬʤʫʩʮʺʸʥʦʠʭʩʩʴʺʫʬʤʮʩʺʸʺʫʸʲʮ 
ʢʷʬʷʹʮʬʩʢʬʣʲʥʩʮ 

ʺʥʩʸʹʴʠʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺ 

ʩʸʨʮʩʱʧʰʮʡʤʸʥʤʬʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʺʩʦʧʡʤʡʩʹʩ  
ʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʺʩʦʧʡʤʡʩʹʩ  
ʺʥʰʥʸʺʩ 

ʬʷʹʮʬʷ  

ʤʬʷʤʸʱʤʥʤʹʩʡʬ  

ʠʹʰʮʤʪʥʺʬʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹʤʨʥʹʴʤʱʰʫʤ  
ʯʥʺʧʺʤʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺ   

ʺʥʰʥʸʱʧ 

ʺʥʰʥʠʺʡʷʲʸʡʲʡʤʲʡʺʰʤʸʡʧʤ ʭʦʡʠʬʲʡʹʥʩʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʩʩʲʡ  
ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʬʲʱʮʥʲʤʸʷʩʲ   

Snugli - City Sport Front & Back Pack Soft Carrierʸʶʥʮʤʭʹʯʸʶʩ              

Snugli - City Sport Front & Back Pack Soft Carrierʭʩʹʸʺ 

Figure 2: Snugli - City Sport Front & Back Pack Soft Carrier  

ʭʩʩʴʺʫ ʺʥʲʥʶʸ ʩʺʹ ʷʥʰʩʺʬ ʡʹʥʮ ʬʲ ʱʱʥʡʮʤ ʺʧʠ ʤʣʩʧʩ ʩʥʹʲ ʩʸʨʮʩʱ ʠʹʰʮ ʸʥʠʺ 
ʳʱʥʰʣʥʩʶʺʠʩʹʰʬʱʩʫʭʢʺʬʬʥʫʤʯʥʺʧʺʤʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺʺʸʥʢʧʥ 

ʢʷʬʷʹʮʬʩʢʬʣʲʥʩʮ 

ʺʥʩʸʹʴʠʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺ 

ʩʸʨʮʩʱʧʰʮʡʤʸʥʤʬʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʺʩʦʧʡʤʡʩʹʩ  
ʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʺʩʦʧʡʤʡʩʹʩ  

ʩʸʨʮʩʱʧʰʮʡʤʸʥʤʤʡʢʬʲʤʡʩʹʩ  
ʺʥʰʥʸʺʩ 

ʤʧʥʰʬʷʹʮʺʷʥʬʧʬʺʲʩʩʱʮʤʤʡʧʸʯʢʠʺʸʥʢʧ  
ʤʬʷʤʸʱʤʥʤʹʩʡʬ  

ʠʹʰʮʤʪʥʺʬʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹʤʨʥʹʴʤʱʰʫʤ  
ʤʲʩʦʳʥʣʩʰʬʧʺʴ   

ʳʱʥʰʣʥʩʶʺʠʩʹʰʬʭʩʱʩʫ  

ʺʥʰʥʸʱʧ 

ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʬʲʱʮʥʲʤʸʷʩʲ   

ʤʸʩʹʷʩʠʹʰʮ 

Wilkinet - baby carrierʸʶʥʮʤʭʹʯʸʶʩ 

Wilkinet - baby carrierʭʩʹʸʺ
Figure 3: Wilkinet - baby carrier  

ʭʩʩʴʺʫ ʺʥʲʥʶʸ ʩʺʹ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʡʹʥʮʮ ʡʫʸʥʮʤ ʺʧʠ ʤʣʩʧʩ ʩʥʹʲ ʩʸʨʮʩʱ ʠʹʰʮ ʸʥʠʺ 
ʡʢʤʩʸʥʧʠʮʺʥʸʹʷʰʥʤʮʩʺʸʺʥʸʥʢʧʬʭʢʺʥʫʴʥʤʹ 

ʢʷʭʥʮʩʰʩʮʬʷʹʮʬʩʢʬʣʲʥʩʮ 

ʺʥʩʸʹʴʠʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺ 

ʩʸʨʮʩʱʧʰʮʡʤʸʥʤʬʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʺʩʦʧʡʤʡʩʹʩ  
ʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʺʩʦʧʡʤʡʩʹʩ  

ʩʸʨʮʩʱʧʰʮʡʤʸʥʤʤʡʢʬʲʤʡʩʹʩ  
ʤʸʥʤʤʯʺʥʮʬʲʤʡʩʹʩ  
ʺʥʰʥʸʺʩ 

ʤʧʥʰʬʷʹʮʺʷʥʬʧʬʺʲʩʩʱʮʤʤʡʧʸʯʢʠʺʸʥʢʧ  
ʭʩʮʦʡʠʬʲʠʬʥʤʸʩʹʷʩʸʥʡʩʧʬʲʱʱʥʡʮ   

ʺʥʰʥʸʱʧ 

ʺʡʫʸʥʮʤʸʱʤʥʤʹʩʡʬ  

ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʬʲʱʮʥʲʤʸʷʩʲ   

ʱʩʫʥʰʩʺʩʸʠʹʰʮʸʶʥʮʤʭʹʯʸʶʩ         

ʱʩʫʥʰʩʺʩʸʠʹʰʮʭʩʹʸʺ 

Figure 4: Baby Sling  

ʺʥʩʥʸʹʴʠʯʥʥʢʮʡʤʸʩʹʷʺʸʹʴʠʮʤʭʩʸʨʮ ʡʧʥʸʡʥʭʩʸʨʮ ʪʸʥʠʡʣʡʺʲʩʸʩʸʥʠʺ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʩʹʰʬʡʧʸʺʥʧʥʰʺʯʥʥʢʮʥʳʥʢʤʡʩʡʱ 

ʬʷʹʮʥʬʩʢʺʥʬʡʢʤʠʬʬʬʷʹʮʬʩʢʬʣʲʥʩʮ 

ʺʥʩʸʹʴʠʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺ 

ʤʸʥʤʬʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʺʩʦʧʡʤʡʩʹʩ  

ʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʺʩʦʧʡʤʡʩʹʩ  

ʩʸʨʮʩʱʧʰʮʡʤʸʥʤʤʡʢʬʲʤʡʩʹʩ  
ʤʸʥʤʤʯʺʥʮʬʲʤʡʩʹʩ  
ʬʥʱʸʩʲ  

ʩʸʨʮʩʱʠʧʰʮʡʤʸʥʤʬʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʺʩʦʧʡʤʡʩʹʩ  
ʩʸʨʮʩʱʠʧʰʮʡʤʸʥʤʤʡʢʬʲʤʡʩʹʩ  
ʺʥʰʥʸʺʩ 

ʤʧʥʰʬʷʹʮʺʷʥʬʧ  

ʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺʬʹʡʧʸʯʥʥʢʮ  
ʹʮʺʹʮʬʫʬʯʥʰʥʥʫʺʬʥʫʩ   

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʹʠʸʩʥʱʩʫʬʺʥʸʹʴʠ  

ʺʥʰʥʸʱʧ 

ʬʡʸʥʱʮʥʬʷʹʮʣʡʫ  

ʺʡʫʸʥʮʤʸʱʤʥʤʹʩʡʬ  

ʸʺʩʭʥʮʩʧ   

ʯʥʱʫʬʠʩʠʹʰʮ 

OSBH - Over the shoulder baby holderʸʶʥʮʤʭʹʯʸʶʩ  

Over the shoulder baby holderʭʩʹʸʺ
Figure 5: Over the shoulder baby holder  

ʤʲʩʸʩʤʺʥʥʶʷʩʰʹʤʩʣʶʩʰʹʡʺʣʴʥʸʮʺʧʠʣʡʺʲʩʸʩʩʥʹʲʩʸʨʮʩʱʠʩʺʸʥʱʮʠʹʰʮʸʥʠʺ 
ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤ ʺʧʠ ʬʲ ʧʰʥʮ ʠʹʰʮʤ ʯʥʰʥʥʫ ʸʹʴʠʮʤ ʺʥʲʡʨ ʸʡʧʮ ʺʸʦʲʡ ʤʦʬ ʤʦ ʭʩʸʡʧʺʮ 
ʯʥʱʫʬʠʡʳʥʢʬʭʺʸʰʥ 

ʬʷʹʮʥʬʩʢʺʥʬʡʢʤʠʬʬʬʷʹʮʬʩʢʬʣʲʥʩʮ 

ʺʥʩʸʹʴʠʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺ 

ʩʸʨʮʩʱʠʧʰʮʡʤʸʥʤʤʡʢʬʲʤʡʩʹʩ  
ʤʸʥʤʤʯʺʥʮʬʲʤʡʩʹʩ  
ʬʥʱʸʩʲ  

ʩʸʨʮʩʱʠʧʰʮʡʤʸʥʤʬʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʺʩʦʧʡʤʡʩʹʩ    

ʺʥʰʥʸʺʩ 

ʤʬʷʤʸʱʤʥʤʹʩʡʬ  
ʨʥʹʴʯʥʰʥʥʫ  

ʠʹʰʮʤʪʥʺʬʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹʤʨʥʹʴʤʱʰʫʤ  

ʺʥʰʥʸʱʧ 

ʺʩʸʨʮʩʱʠʬʷʹʮʺʷʥʬʧ  

ʺʥʬʷʡʬʥʴʩʬʬʥʫʩʥʭʥʺʸʥʰʩʠʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʩʩʲʡ   

Premaxx - Baby Bagʸʶʥʮʤʭʹʯʸʶʩ 

Premaxx - Baby Bagʭʩʹʸʺ
Figure 6: Premaxx - Baby Bag 
ʤʦʭʩʸʡʧʺʮʠʹʰʮʤʺʥʥʶʷʩʰʹʺʣʴʥʸʮʺʧʠʤʣʩʧʩʩʥʹʲʩʰʸʣʥʮʩʸʨʮʩʱʠʠʹʰʮʸʥʠʺ 
ʯʥʱʫʬʠʡʳʥʢʬʭʺʸʰʥʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʺʧʠʬʲʧʰʥʮʠʹʰʮʤʯʥʰʥʥʫʸʹʴʠʮʤʭʦʡʠʺʸʦʲʡʤʦʬ 
ʹʣʥʧʬʩʢʬʷʹʮʬʩʢʬʣʲʥʩʮ 

ʺʥʩʸʹʴʠʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺ 
ʬʥʱʸʩʲ  

ʩʸʨʮʩʱʠʧʰʮʡʤʸʥʤʬʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʺʩʦʧʡʤʡʩʹʩ  
ʺʥʰʥʸʺʩ 

ʤʬʷʤʸʱʤʥʤʹʩʡʬ  
ʨʥʹʴʯʥʰʥʥʫ  

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʸʩʹʷʬʺʥʸʹʴʠ  
ʳʱʥʰʣʥʩʶʺʠʩʹʰʬʭʩʱʩʫ  

ʺʥʰʥʸʱʧ 

ʺʩʸʨʮʩʱʠʬʷʹʮʺʷʥʬʧ   

ʬʦʥʢʬʱʸʶʥʮʤʭʹʯʸʶʩ 

ʬʦʥʢʬʱʭʩʹʸʺ
Figure 7: Salagozal 
ʺʫʮʺʰʤʺʩʰʥʱʬʠʭʩʩʴʺʫʺʸʥʢʧʥʯʢʠʺʸʥʢʧʷʥʰʩʺʡʹʥʮʮʡʫʸʥʮʤʩʸʨʮʩʱʠʠʹʰʮʸʥʠʺ 

ʺʧʠʳʺʫʬʲ 

ʭʩʹʣʥʧʬʩʢʮʬʧʤʬʷʹʮʬʩʢʬʣʲʥʩʮ 

ʺʥʩʸʹʴʠʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺ 

ʩʸʨʮʩʱʧʰʮʡʤʸʥʤʬʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʺʩʦʧʡʤʡʩʹʩ  
ʩʸʨʮʩʱʧʰʮʡʤʸʥʤʤʡʢʬʲʤʡʩʹʩ  
ʤʸʥʤʤʯʺʥʮʬʲʤʡʩʹʩ  
ʺʥʰʥʸʺʩ 

ʤʧʥʰʬʷʹʮʺʷʥʬʧʬʺʲʩʩʱʮʤʤʡʧʸʯʢʠʺʸʥʢʧ  
ʩʬʸʢʨʰʩʠʲʡʥʫ  

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʩʹʰʩʣʫʪʥʺʺʥʧʥʰʺʯʩʡʸʡʲʮʬʺʥʸʹʴʠ  
ʳʱʥʰʣʥʩʶʺʠʩʹʰʬʭʩʱʩʫ  

ʺʥʰʥʸʱʧ 

ʺʩʸʨʮʩʱʠʬʷʹʮʺʷʥʬʧ  

ʭʩʰʥʹʠʸʤʭʩʩʧʤʩʹʣʥʧʬʭʩʠʺʮʥʰʩʠ   

ʭʩʫʸʭʩʠʹʰʮʭʥʧʺʡʭʩʨʰʨʴ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʩʠʹʰʮʭʥʧʺʡʲʣʩʬʳʱʥʰʪʡʣʰʷʴʱʮʩʠʷʩʸʮʠʤʭʩʨʰʨʴʤʭʹʸʬʹʭʩʨʰʨʴʤʸʢʠʮ 
ʭʩʩʺʥʲʮʹʮʭʩʹʥʣʩʧʩʬʲʡʭʩʨʰʨʴʬʹʳʱʥʠʯʬʤʬʲʩʴʥʮʤʦʸʢʠʮʪʥʺʮ  

 ʡʤʸʠ ʨʰʨʴʸʴʱʮ 

Benhadt B. Fischer, Jrʠʩʶʮʮʤʭʹ 

/ʭʥʹʩʸʪʩʸʠʺ 

ʺʩʬʸʨʬʩʱʴʩʠʤʳʺʫʡʺʴʱʥʰʤʫʩʮʺʬʲʡʩʰʥʱʫʬʠʤʡʩʹʩʠʹʰʮʯʥʩʲʸʤʺʥʰʹʣʧ             


ʱʮʨʰʨʴʭʩʹʸʺ
Figure 8: Patent no 4487346   

D294,429 ʡʤʸʠ ʨʰʨʴʸʴʱʮ 

VasquezMichael Eʠʩʶʮʮʤʭʹ 

/ʭʥʹʩʸʪʩʸʠʺ 

ʡʹʥʮ ʯʩʡ ʺʥʸʡʧʮʤ ʺʥʧʩʹʷ ʺʥʲʥʸʦ ʩʺʹ ʬʹ ʤʫʩʮʺ ʬʲʡ ʤʡʩʹʩ ʠʹʰʮ ʯʥʩʲʸʤ ʺʥʰʹʣʧ  

ʺʩʡʩʱʮʯʢʠʺʸʥʢʧʬʷʥʰʩʺʤ              

D294,429
ʱʮʨʰʨʴʭʩʹʸʺ 

Figure 9: Patent no D294,429 
 ʡʤʸʠ ʨʰʨʴʸʴʱʮ 

Peter C. Reillyʠʩʶʮʮʤʭʹ 

/ʭʥʹʩʸʪʩʸʠʺ 

ʸʢʥʡʮʤ ʩʴʺʫ ʬʲ ʤʡʩʹʩ ʬʹ ʡʶʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʺʠ ʭʺʥʸʤ ʤʡʩʹʩ ʠʹʰʮ ʯʥʩʲʸʤ ʺʥʰʹʣʧ 

ʩʧʹʤʩʺʡʡʥ ʧʶʮʤʥʷ ʹʠʸʤʳʷʩʤʡʠʹʥʰʤʸʢʥʡʮʬʭʺʸʰʯʷʺʮʤ           


ʱʮʨʰʨʴʭʩʹʸʺ

Figure 10: Patent no    

 ʡʤʸʠ ʨʰʨʴʸʴʱʮ 

Ann A.Mooreʠʩʶʮʮʤʭʹ 

/ʭʥʹʩʸʪʩʸʠʺ 

ʭʩʩʬʢʸʤ ʧʺʴʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʡʹʥʮ ʬʹ ʯʥʰʥʥʫ ʸʹʴʠʮʤ ʹʩʮʢ ʤʡʩʹʩ ʠʹʰʮ ʯʥʩʲʸʤ ʺʥʰʹʣʧ 
ʹʠʸʤʺʫʩʮʺʸʥʦʠʡʥ         


ʱʮʨʰʨʴʭʩʹʸʺ

Figure 1: Patent no    

 ʡʤʸʠ ʨʰʨʴʸʴʱʮ 

Warren E. Schroederʠʩʶʮʮʤʭʹ 

/ʭʥʹʩʸʪʩʸʠʺ 

ʤʸʦʢ ʬʲʡ ʬʥʱʸʩʲ ʺʧʥʰʺʥ ʤʡʩʹʩ ʺʥʧʥʰʺ ʸʹʴʠʮʤ ʹʩʮʢ ʩʰʥʱʫʬʠ ʠʹʰʮ ʯʥʩʲʸʤ ʺʥʰʹʣʧ 

ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʩʺʹʡʤʫʩʮʺʺʸʹʴʠʮʤ         


ʱʮʨʰʨʴʭʩʹʸʺ

Figure 1: Patent no     

 ʡʤʸʠ ʨʰʨʴʸʴʱʮ 

Sandra M. Darling, Curt J. Mahlstedtʠʩʶʮʮʤʭʹ 

/ʭʥʹʩʸʪʩʸʠʺ 

ʡʹʥʮ ʬʹ ʭʩʢʥʱ ʸʴʱʮʥ ʺʧʠ ʤʮʩʺʸ ʺʫʸʲʮ ʩʥʹʲʤ ʪʸ ʩʸʨʮʩʱ ʠʹʰʮ ʯʥʩʲʸʤ ʺʥʰʹʣʧ 

ʤʮʩʺʸʺʫʸʲʮʤʺʥʠʬʲʹʥʮʩʹʬʥʤʴʬʧʤʬʭʩʰʺʩʰʤʷʥʰʩʺʬ             


ʱʮʨʰʨʴʭʩʹʸʺ 

Figure 13: Patent no   

 ʡʤʸʠ ʨʰʨʴʸʴʱʮ 

Nancy Goldʠʩʶʮʮʤʭʹ 

/ʭʥʹʩʸʪʩʸʠʺ 

ʤʸʥʢʧʥ ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮ ʺʸʥʢʧ ʺʥʲʶʮʠʡ ʠʹʥʰʤ ʳʥʢʬ ʭʺʸʰ ʩʸʨʮʩʱ ʪʸ ʠʹʰʮ ʯʥʩʲʸʤ ʺʥʰʹʣʧ 

ʺʠʹʬ ʭʢ ʯʺʩʰ ʠʹʰʮ ʥʺʥʠʡ ʺʩʸʨʮʩʱ ʤʸʥʶʡ ʭʩʩʰʺʮʬ ʸʠʥʥʶʤ ʯʩʡ ʺʧʰʥʮʤ ʺʴʱʥʰ ʤʡʧʸ   

ʩʰʥʱʫʬʠʧʰʮʡʷʥʰʩʺ                  


ʱʮʨʰʨʴʭʩʹʸʺ

Figure 1: Patent no   

 ʡʤʸʠ ʨʰʨʴʸʴʱʮ 

Kay J. Prunty, Buckley, Washʠʩʶʮʮʤʭʹ 

/ʭʥʹʩʸʪʩʸʠʺ 

ʭʩʸʥʧ ʺʥʲʶʮʠʡ ʤʡʩʹʩ ʺʧʥʰʺ ʬʹ ʸʥʴʩʹ ʲʩʶʮʤ ʩʰʥʱʫʬʠ ʬʥʱʸʩʲ ʠʹʰʮ ʯʥʩʲʸʤ ʺʥʰʹʣʧ  

ʥʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʤʩʬʢʸʬ       


ʱʮʨʰʨʴʭʩʹʸʺ

Figure 1: Patent no    

A1/ ʡʤʸʠ ʨʰʨʴʸʴʱʮ 

Kenzou Kassaiʠʩʶʮʮʤʭʹ 

/ʭʥʹʩʸʪʩʸʠʺ 

ʺʧʥʰʺ ʯʫʥ ʡʢʤ ʬʲʥ ʭʩʰʴʬʮ ʤʡʩʹʩ ʺʥʧʥʰʺ ʸʹʴʠʮʤ ʩʸʨʮʩʱ  ʠʹʰʮ ʯʥʩʲʸʤ ʺʥʰʹʣʧ 

ʬʥʱʸʩʲ          

A1/
ʱʮʨʰʨʴʭʩʹʸʺ

Figure 1: Patent no A1/   

ʺʥʸʴʱʤʸʷʱʭʥʫʩʱ 

ʭʩʱʧʩʩʺʮ ʭʺʩʡʸʮʥ ʸʢʥʡʮ ʭʣʠ ʳʥʢ ʬʲ ʬʷʹʮ ʺʱʮʲʤ ʠʹʥʰʡ ʥʲʶʥʡ ʭʩʨʲʮ ʭʩʸʷʧʮ  

ʳʥʢʤ ʬʹ ʣʡʥʫʤ ʦʫʸʮ ʡʩʡʱ ʬʷʹʮʤ ʺʱʩʸʴ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʬʷʹʮʮ ʤʡʸʤʡ ʭʩʣʡʫ ʺʥʠʹʮʬ 
ʤʠʩʹʰʤ ʺʣʥʺʮʫ ʺʰʮʺʱʮ ʯʢʠʤ ʩʣʩ ʬʲ ʠʹʩʰ ʬʷʹʮʤ ʺʩʡʸʮʹ ʪʫ ʩʸʨʮʩʱ ʯʴʥʠʡ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʬʷʹʮʺʠʩʹʰʬʹʺʩʰʠʫʮʥʩʡʤʤʲʴʹʤʤʺʠʷʣʡʹʸʷʧʮʲʶʥʡʭʸʨʺʶʬʮʥʮʤ 
ʳʥʢʤʺʩʦʧʡ 

ʱʮʥʲ ʬʲ ʤʬʷʤʬ ʲʩʩʱʮʫ ʷʥʥʹʮʤ ʷʥʹʡ ʭʩʩʷ ʸʶʥʮ ʠʩʤ ʯʨʡʤ ʸʥʦʠʬ ʤʫʩʮʺ ʺʸʥʢʧ  

ʣʧʥʤʸʥʸʡʤʰʩʠʤʸʥʢʧʤʺʲʴʹʤʩʫʭʩʬʲʮʭʥʧʺʡʥʲʶʥʡʹʭʩʸʷʧʮʤʺʥʠʹʮʺʠʩʹʰʡ 
ʱʮʥʲʡʤʬʷʤʡʺʲʩʩʱʮʧʸʫʤʡʤʰʩʠʩʫʥʺʩʲʮʹʮ 

ʣʬʹʬʷʦʰʲʥʰʮʬʩʣʫʡʭʩʸʩʫʡʭʩʣʬʩʩʠʴʥʸʬʹʺʥʰʥʩʠʸʮʥʬʲʹʩʴʫʭʩʩʣʴʥʨʸʥʠʭʩʨʡʩʤ  
ʩʸʩʸʹʸʹʠʣʲʷʥʰʩʺʤʹʠʸʡʭʩʸʥʦʠʤʹʥʬʹʡʤʫʩʮʺʷʴʱʬʹʩʥʺʠʩʹʰʺʲʡʷʥʰʩʺʤ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʩʬʢʸ ʯʩʡ ʥʤʹʬʫ ʷʥʱʩʴ ʸʮʹʩʩ ʩʫ ʢʥʠʣʬ ʹʩʥ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʡʢʡ ʭʩʩʣ ʭʩʷʦʧ ʸʠʥʥʶʤ 
ʪʸʩʤʭʶʲʺʷʩʸʴʺʥʩʲʡʺʲʩʰʮʡʲʩʩʱʬʬʥʫʩʸʹʠ 

ʭʩʰʷʺʤ ʯʥʫʮ ʠʩʶʥʤʹ ʯʷʺ ʺʥʧʩʨʡ ʩʨʡʩʤ ʺʰʩʧʡʮ ʡʫʸʥʮ ʸʶʥʮ ʠʥʤ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮ  
ʤʹʩʸʣʬʫʸʥʡʲʤʷʩʣʡʤʺʥʣʥʺʮʥʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʺʠʸʩʣʢʮʩʠʴʥʸʩʠʤ 

ʭʩʸʷʧʮʩʰʹʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʢʶʥʤʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʤʭʶʲʬʩʡʩʨʩʰʢʥʷʤʥʩʹʴʰʤʬʠʰʥʩʶʸʤ  
ʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʩʫʠʩʤʭʤʩʰʹʮʤʬʥʲʤʤʰʷʱʮʤʩʲʣʮʩʥʱʩʰʩʰʹʤʥʩʢʥʬʥʴʥʸʺʰʠʣʧʠʤ± 

ʥʮʠʬʷʥʰʩʺʤʯʩʡʸʹʷʤʬʲʥʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʬʲʺʩʡʥʩʧʤʲʴʹʤʬʲʡʠʥʤʷʥʰʩʺ 

ʭʩʬʩʡʥʮʤʭʩʸʶʥʮʤʷʸʴʡʥʢʶʥʤʷʥʹʡʭʩʮʩʩʷʤʷʥʰʩʺʩʠʹʰʮʬʹʡʧʸʤʸʧʡʮʤʪʥʺʮ  
ʯʥʱʫʬʠʩʠʹʰʮʥʤʸʩʹʷʩʠʹʰʮʬʩʮʸʺʩʠʹʰʮʭʩʠʡʤʭʩʱʥʴʩʨʤʭʩʬʬʫʰʭʤʡ 

ʭʩʨʰʨʴʤ ʭʹʸ ʬʹ ʭʩʨʰʨʴʤ ʸʢʠʮ ʪʥʺʮ ʭʥʧʺʡ ʭʩʩʰʹʣʧ ʭʩʧʥʺʩʴ ʬʲ ʳʱʥʰ ʣʥʮʩʬ  
ʩʠʷʩʸʮʠʤ    

ʸʷʧʮʤʺʥʸʨʮ 

ʠʹʥʰʤ ʣʥʷʴʺ ʺʥʹʩʸʣ ʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡ ʺʥʹʩʸʣ ʬʲ ʤʰʲʩʹ ʠʹʰʮʬ ʭʩʰʥʩʴʠ ʺʫʸʲʮ ʺʸʣʢʤ 
ʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʥ 

ʺʸʣʢʤ ʠʹʥʰʤ ʳʥʢ ʬʲ ʺʥʲʴʹʤʤ ʺʰʩʧʡ ʤʠʩʹʰ ʱʮʥʲ ʭʥʮʩʰʩʮ ± ʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡ ʺʥʹʩʸʣ  
ʠʹʩʰʤʷʥʰʩʺʬʭʩʰʥʫʰʤʫʩʮʺʥʤʰʡʮ  

ʩʮʥʰʥʢʸʠ ʤʰʡʮ ʺʸʣʢʥʮ ʺʥʩʮʥʩ ʺʥʬʨʮ ʺʸʣʱʡ ʤʬʥʲʴ ʹʴʥʧ ± ʠʹʥʰʤ ʣʥʷʴʺ ʺʥʹʩʸʣ  
ʠʹʥʰʬ ʤʮʠʺʤ ʩʷʹʮʮ ʠʹʰʮ ʩʸʢʱ ʬʹ ʺʩʡʩʨʩʦʥʴ ʤʬʲʴʤ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʡʥ ʤʠʩʹʰʡ 
ʺʥʩʧʥʰʡ ʲʥʢʴʬ ʩʬʡʮ ʭʩʬʷʠ ʺʥʹʩʸʣʡ ʤʣʩʮʲ ʺʸʣʢʥʮ ʣʥʷʴʺ ʺʡʩʡʱʬ ʤʮʠʺʤʥ 

ʭʩʹʮʺʹʮʤ 

ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʩʠʹʰʮʺʥʧʩʨʡʬʩʠʴʥʸʩʠʤʯʷʺʡʤʣʩʮʲ±ʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʥʹʩʸʣ   

ʤʩʢʥʬʥʣʥʺʮ 

ʣʥʷʴʺ ʺʥʹʩʸʣ ʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡ ʺʥʹʩʸʣ ʬʲ ʤʰʲʩʹ ʠʹʰʮʬ ʭʩʰʥʩʴʠ ʺʫʸʲʮ ʺʸʣʢʤ ʪʸʥʶʬ 
ʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʠʥʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʱʭʩʩʦʫʸʮʭʩʫʩʬʤʥʸʧʡʰʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʥʠʹʥʰʤ 

ʲʩʩʱʬ ʤʬʥʫʩ ʭʩʫʸʶ ʭʺʥʠ ʺʰʡʤ ʣʲʩʤ ʬʤʷ ʩʫʸʶ ʺʰʡʤ ʠʩʤ ʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʱʤ ʪʩʬʤʤ ʺʸʨʮ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʩʹʮʺʹʮʡʸʷʡʸʷʱʬʬʥʫʸʷʧʮʤʬʹʤʦʷʬʧʯʥʫʰʸʶʥʮʩʰʥʩʴʠʺʸʣʢʤʡ 

ʬʹʭʤʩʺʥʩʥʫʩʠʺʠʪʩʸʲʤʬʯʺʩʰʥʩʴʬʣʩʧʠʤʣʩʣʮʩʬʫʺʩʩʰʡʯʤʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʠʤʪʩʬʤʤʺʥʸʨʮ 

ʪʩʬʤʤ ʸʶʥʮʤ ʯʥʫʩʺ ʬʲ ʭʩʲʩʴʹʮʤ ʭʩʸʨʮʸʴ ʬʹ ʩʱʧʩ ʢʸʣʮ ʺʩʩʰʡʥ ʭʩʰʥʹ ʭʩʠʹʰʮ 

ʺʩʩʰʡʥ ʱʩʱʡ ʺʥʹʩʸʣʬ ʭʩʮʩʩʷ ʭʩʸʶʥʮ ʬʹ ʤʮʠʺʤ ʺʷʩʣʡ ʬʬʥʫ ʸʷʧʮʤ ʬʹ ʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʠʤ 
ʺʥʹʩʸʣʯʺʥʠʬʺʥʩʥʴʩʣʲʢʸʣʮ  

ʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʱʸʷʧʮʬʤʩʢʥʬʥʣʥʺʮ 

ʭʩʸʥʤ ʡʸʷʡ ʤʣʹ ʸʷʱ ʲʶʥʡ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮʮ ʷʥʹʤ ʩʫʸʶ ʬʹ ʡʶʮ ʺʰʥʮʺ ʬʡʷʬ ʩʣʫʡ 

ʬʥʲʴʺʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʥʧʥʰʤʸʥʤʤʺʥʧʥʰʺʥʧʩʨʡʩʠʹʥʰʡʺʥʬʠʹʯʥʥʢʮʬʩʫʤʯʥʬʠʹʤʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʬ 
ʺʥʴʱʥʰʺʥʩʬʬʫʺʥʬʠʹʥ 

ʠʹʰʮʤʡʥʶʩʲʬʲʢʥʰʡʠʹʰʮʩʹʮʺʹʮʺʥʣʮʲʬʹʤʣʹʺʷʩʣʡʯʥʬʠʹʤʺʸʨʮ 

ʯʥʫʰʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʬʨʴʱʰʥʷʯʥʫʩʺʬʭʩʡʥʹʧʤʭʩʥʥʷʤʭʤʮʸʷʧʮʤʺʬʠʹ  

ʯʥʬʠʹʤʺʩʩʰʡʡʺʥʰʥʸʷʲ 

ʸʺʥʩʡ ʭʩʲʩʴʹʮʤ ʭʩʰʺʹʮʤ ʺʠ ʸʺʠʬʥ ʺʥʸʲʹʤʥ ʺʥʰʥʩʲʸ ʧʺʴʬ ʺʹʷʡʮ ʩʰʠ ʤʦ ʸʷʧʮʡ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʯʥʫʩʺʬʲ 

ʭʩʢʥʱʤʲʡʸʠʮʺʥʬʠʹʺʥʢʶʥʮʥʡʭʥʧʺʡʹʥʹʩʢʸʷʧʮʥʤʦ 

ʩʴʬʲ ±ʤʲʩʡʷʤʭʲʥʺʮʫʱʤʺʣʩʮʺʠʨʬʧʥʮʯʴʥʠʡʯʩʩʶʮʬʠʹʰʤʯʤʡʺʥʰʲʨʺʥʲʩʡʷ  
ʺʠʥʩʰʴʡʺʥʢʩʶʮʥʺʥʬʷʡʤʣʮʲʨʥʷʰʬʸʷʱʰʬʺʥʸʹʴʠʮʥʺʥʸʶʷʺʥʬʠʹʤʨʸʷʩʬʭʬʥʱ 

ʭʩʰʥʹʤʭʩʠʹʥʰʤ 

ʩʦʫʸʮʤ ʯʥʸʺʩʤ ʥʤʹʬʫ ʭʥʬʩʱ ʠʬʬ ʤʡʥʹʺ ʺʥʩʥʸʹʴʠ ʸʴʱʮ ʺʥʬʲʡ ʺʥʸʥʢʱ ʺʥʬʠʹ  
ʺʥʲʶʥʮʤʺʥʸʧʠʤʺʥʡʥʹʺʬʱʧʩʡʺʧʠʤʡʥʹʺʬʹʺʩʲʮʹʮʣʧʤʴʣʲʤʠʥʤʤʨʩʹʡ 

ʯʥʥʩʫʮ ʯʺʥʡʩʹʧ ʺʮʸ ʩʴ ʬʲ ʠʹʰʮ ʺʥʰʥʫʺ ʢʸʣʮ ʯʩʩʠʥʸʮʤ ʺʥʰʥʫʺ ʬʹ ʩʱʧʩ ʢʥʸʩʣ  
ʢʥʸʩʣʤ   ʧʮʶ ʭʥʸʮʨʩʩʡ  ʭʩʫʸʲ ʬʹ ʬʥʣʢ ʸʴʱʮ ʢʸʣʬ ʭʩʹʷʺʮ ʭʩʰʩʩʠʥʸʮʹ 

ʸʹʠʨʬʧʥʮʤʢʥʸʣʬʭʩʬʹʮʷʬʧʫʠʡʥʺʥʩʦʫʸʮʺʥʰʥʫʺʬʹʯʨʷʸʴʱʮʷʸʬʬʥʫʩʱʧʩʤ 
ʭʣʥʷʤʳʩʲʱʡʲʩʴʥʮ 

ʤʬʲ ʠʬʹ ʪʸʣʡ ʠʹʥʰʡ ʠʨʡʺʤʬ  ʥʠ ʤʣʮʲ ʲʩʡʤʬ ʸʷʱʰʬ ʺʸʹʴʠʮʤ ʤʧʥʺʴ ʤʬʠʹ  
ʸʥʢʱʤʯʥʬʠʹʤʺʸʢʱʮʡʺʥʹʲʬʥʩʣʩʡ   

ʤʸʨʮʤʺʩʩʱʥʬʫʥʠ 

ʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʡʥʱʰʺʤʸʹʠʬʠʸʹʩʡʤʰʹʬʩʢʣʲʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʬʭʩʸʥʤʤʰʩʤʤʸʨʮʤʺʩʩʱʥʬʫʥʠ 

ʤʣʡʥʲʤʬʹʡʺʥʠʶʥʺʤʺʠʺʥʨʤʬʤʬʥʬʲʸʺʥʩʭʩʬʥʣʢʭʩʣʬʩʬʭʩʸʥʤʺʸʩʷʱʥʤʹʬʫʷʥʰʩʺ 
ʠʹʰʮʡʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʩʹʰʫʺʩʨʰʥʥʬʸʠʬʥʤʷʥʧʸʤʩʶʠʥʨʩʱʭʩʧʫʥʹʭʩʡʸʭʩʸʥʤʹ 

ʷʬʧ ʬʲ ʤʲʣ ʺʥʥʧʬ ʥʹʷʺʩ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʡ ʬʬʫʡ ʥʱʰʺʤ ʠʬʹ ʭʩʸʥʤ ʩʫ ʠʩʤ ʤʧʰʤʤ 
ʺʥʡʥʹʺʤʺʥʰʮʩʤʮʡʲʢʴʩʸʡʣʤʥʯʥʬʠʹʡʺʥʢʶʥʮʤʺʥʣʮʲʤʮ 

ʭʩʩʰʥʸʩʲʭʩʡʥʹʩʩʡʤʤʥʡʢʺʩʰʥʰʩʡʺʩʮʥʰʥʷʠʥʩʶʥʱʤʮʸʡ ʤʩʩʱʥʬʫʥʠʡʸʷʡʥʸʡʲʥʤʭʩʰʥʬʠʹʤ 
ʵʸʠʤʯʥʴʶʡʥʦʫʸʮʡʭʩʩʸʴʫʥ  

ʭʩʰʥʺʰʤʳʥʱʩʠ 

ʬʫʬ ʩʫ ʠʩʤ ʤʧʰʤʤ ʭʩʲʥʹʲʹ ʩʰʢʥ ʤʧʴʹʮʤ ʺʥʠʩʸʡʬ ʺʥʰʧʺ ʭʤ ʭʩʰʥʺʰʤ ʳʥʱʩʠ ʩʣʷʥʮ 

ʡʥʹʩʩʡʭʩʸʥʤʤʺʩʩʱʥʬʫʥʠʬʹʢʶʩʩʮʪʺʧʲʩʢʮʬʰʤʭʩʣʷʥʮʤʮʣʧʠ 

ʬʩʢʡʣʬʩʸʷʱʰʬʭʠʸʥʸʡʪʸʲʰʯʩʩʠʥʸʮʤʩʰʴʡʠʹʥʰʤʺʢʶʤʺʸʢʱʮʡʥʯʥʬʠʹʤʲʥʶʩʡʩʰʴʬ 

ʤʣʩʮʡ "ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʸʡʲʡ ʺʹʮʺʹʤʹʮʺʹʮ ʤʺʠ ʭʠʤ ʤʬʠʹʤ ʤʬʠʹʰʥ ʩʨʰʥʥʬʸʤ 
ʬʱʴʰʯʩʩʠʥʸʮʤʺʩʬʩʬʹʠʩʤʤʡʥʹʺʤʥ  

ʳʷʥʺ 

ʩʰʹʩʰʴʡʢʶʥʤʯʥʬʠʹʤʤʸʨʮʤʺʩʩʱʥʬʫʥʠʡʸʷʡʥʲʶʥʡʹʭʣʷʩʰʥʬʠʹʬʲʱʱʡʺʮʯʥʬʠʹʤ 
ʥʺʸʨʮʩʴʬʲʺʥʩʨʰʥʥʬʸʺʥʣʮʲʢʶʩʩʮʯʫʠʯʥʬʠʹʤʩʫʭʺʲʣʺʥʥʧʤʬʡʷʺʰʥʭʥʧʺʡʭʩʧʮʥʮ   

ʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʺʷʩʣʡʬʭʩʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʠʭʩʬʥʷʩʹʪʸʲʮ 

ʭʩʮʩʩʷʤ ʭʩʸʶʥʮʤ ʺʮʠʺʤ ʺʣʩʮ ʺʷʩʣʡʬ ʩʬʫ ʭʩʥʥʤʮ 
ʱʮ ʭʩʮʩʹʸʺʤ ʺʶʥʡʷ 
ʭʩʷʣʡʰʤʭʩʸʨʮʸʴʡʠʹʰʮʤʺʣʩʮʲʬʹʩʬʬʫʯʥʩʶʥʥʤʩʥʩʺʥʠʶʥʺʭʥʫʩʱʱʩʱʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʬ 
ʤʷʩʣʡʩʶʥʸʲʤʹʥʬʹʬʭʩʷʬʧʰʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʡʭʩʸʥʹʷʤʭʩʸʨʮʸʴʤ 
ʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʡʠʹʰʮʤʺʣʩʮʲ  

ʭʩʩʦʫʸʮʭʩʰʥʥʫʤʹʥʬʹʡʠʹʰʮʤʣʥʷʴʺʺʷʩʣʡ  
ʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʡʠʹʰʮʤʺʣʩʮʲ   

ʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʺʥʹʩʸʣ 

ʩʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʤʡʬʹʤʥʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʩʢ 

ʳʠʥʭʩʬʩʴʫʮʭʤʸʶʷʯʮʦʪʥʺʸʺʥʩʡʸʩʤʮʡʶʷʡʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʭʩʬʣʢʭʩʰʥʹʠʸʤʭʩʩʧʤʩʹʣʥʧʡ 
ʬʹ ʥʬʣʥʢʬ ʭʠʺʤʡ ʭʩʰʺʹʮ ʠʹʰʮʤʮ ʤʸʥʤʤʥ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʩʫʸʶ ʭʺʣʩʬ ʬʷʹʮ ʺʠ ʭʩʹʬʹʮ 

ʥʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʩʡʬʹʬʥʷʥʰʩʺʤ  

ʺʩʮʶʲʤʤʲʥʰʺʤʺʬʥʫʩʩʴʬʲʭʩʡʬʹʤʹʥʬʹʬʺʷʬʧʰʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹʤʠʩʹʰʤʺʴʥʷʺ 
ʤʬʩʧʦʤʣʩʬʬʩʢ 

ʣʶʬ ʣʶʮ ʺʥʫʴʤʺʤ ʣʡʬʮ  ʺʩʠʮʶʲ ʤʸʥʶʡ ʲʥʰʬ ʬʢʥʱʮ ʥʰʩʠʥ ʪʸʥ ʯʨʷ ʤʦ ʡʬʹʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 
ʥʺʥʠʺʠʹʬʬʷʥʺʩʱʧʩʬʷʹʮʬʷʯʩʩʣʲʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʵʬʧʰ ʷʸʹ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʬʹ ʥʩʩʧʡ ʩʥʰʩʹʤ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʺʠʩʹʰʬ ʤʡʸ ʺʥʲʮʹʮ ʹʩ ʥʦ ʤʴʥʷʺʡ 
ʷʴʥʣʤʥʭʩʸʫʥʮʤʤʴʥʢʩʹʧʸʺʲʩʮʹʭʠʤʳʥʢʬʺʥʣʮʶʤʡʹʲʢʮʤʸʺʥʩʡʩʰʥʶʩʷʥʮʠʭʧʸʮ 
 ʳʥʬʣʩʬ ʭʧʰʮʭʸʥʢʭʩʥʥʤʮʤʬʹ  

ʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺ 

ʥʩʸʥʤʬʷʥʰʩʺʤʯʩʡʩʱʩʴʲʢʮʥʯʩʲʸʹʷʬʹʤʡʥʸʮʺʥʮʫʸʥʶʩʬʡʥʹʧʭʩʩʧʤʬʹʯʥʹʠʸʤʡʬʹʡ 
ʯʩʡʬ ʥʰʩʡ ʲʢʮʤ ʧʨʹ ʸʹʠʫ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʺʠ ʺʠʹʬ ʭʩʶʩʬʮʮʤ ʹʩ   ʳʥʬʣʩʬ 

ʩʬʮʩʱʷʮʤʸʥʤʤ 

ʪʫʬʹʡʥʥʮʠʯʨʡʡʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʧʥʰʺʺʠʪʩʹʮʮʤʤʦʫʡʹʧʰ ʺʩʰʥʱʫʬʠʤʠʩʹʰ ʬʥʱʸʩʲʧʰʮ 
ʳʶʸʤʯʥʸʷʲʺʹʩʢʡʭʩʫʮʥʺʤʩʣʩʬʲʭʩʣʥʬʩʩʬʵʬʮʥʮ 

ʥʬʲʩʩʱʬʹʩʯʫʬʲʥʳʥʷʦʭʣʠʬʪʥʴʤʬʩʣʫʡʥʮʠʯʨʡʮʵʬʧʰʷʥʰʩʺʤʩʫʺʰʲʥʨʤʫʥʴʤʤʤʹʩʢ 

ʭʩʣʣʶʬ ʺʥʹʥʸʴ ʭʩʩʣʩʥ ʭʩʩʬʢʸ ʭʲ  ʤʡʩʹʩ ʺʧʥʰʺʡ ʤʠʩʹʰ ʺʥʲʶʮʠʡ ʥʴʥʢ ʩʷʬʧ ʺʠ ʸʹʩʩʬ 

ʠʹʰʮʤ ʺʥʲʶʮʠʡ ʪʮʺʰ ʷʸ ʠʬʠ ʥʮʶʲ ʺʥʧʥʫʡ ʤʡʩʹʩʤ ʺʬʥʲʴ ʺʠ ʲʶʡʮ ʥʰʩʠ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʥʬʬʤʭʩʧʰʮʤʩʰʹʺʠʬʥʬʫʩʤʰʥʹʠʸʤʭʩʩʧʤʺʴʥʷʺʬʡʥʨʠʹʰʮ  

ʺʷʧʥʸʮʤ ʤʡʩʡʱʡ ʯʩʩʰʲʺʮ ʥʰʩʠ ʯʩʩʣʲ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʭʶʮʥʶʮ ʩʰʥʹʠʸʤ ʬʩʢʡ ʤʩʠʸʤ ʤʣʹʹ ʯʥʥʩʫʮ 

ʬʹ ʤʠʩʹʰ ʺʧʥʰʺ ʬʩʫʩ ʠʹʰʮʤʹ ʤʦ ʡʬʹʡ ʪʸʥʶ ʯʩʠ ʪʫʩʴʬ ʤʡʥʸʷʤ ʥʺʡʩʡʱʡ ʷʸ ʠʬʠ 

ʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʷʥʰʩʺʤ  

ʷʥʰʩʺʡʤʫʩʮʺ 

ʷʩʴʱʮʭʩʷʦʧʸʠʥʥʶʤʩʸʩʸʹʹʡʬʹʬʣʲʷʥʰʩʺʤʹʠʸʺʧʩʰʶʬʤʰʲʮʺʺʬʪʩʸʶʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮ 
ʥʹʠʸʬʷʹʮʺʠʺʠʹʬʭʩʬʢʥʱʮʥ 

ʺʣʮʲ ʩʴ ʬʲ  DDH  ʪʸʩʤ ʷʸʴʮ ʬʹ ʺʥʷʩʸʴʥ ʭʩʲʷʰʬ ʤʩʨʰ ʭʲ ʭʩʣʬʥʰ ʭʩʡʸ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺ 

ʤʥʡʢ ʪʸʩ ʺʥʷʩʸʴʬ ʩʥʫʩʱʤ ʭʩʩʫʸʩʤ ʯʩʡ ʷʥʱʩʴ ʯʩʠ ʸʹʠʫ ʥʦ ʤʣʥʡʲ ʪʸʥʶʬ ʥʰʩʩʠʥʸʹ ʭʩʠʴʥʸ 
ʷʥʱʩʴʤʬʣʥʢʬʲʢʥʰʡʺʩʠʥʴʸʤʶʬʮʤʬʫʯʩʠʸʺʥʩ 

ʡʩʶʩʥʰʩʠʥʹʬʧʯʩʩʣʲʤʦʹʯʥʥʩʫʮʤʠʩʹʰʬʹʧʰʮʬʫʡʣʩʮʺʺʹʸʣʰʷʥʰʩʺʤʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺ  

ʤʸʥʤʡʤʫʩʮʺ 

ʥʩʡʤʰʩʧʡʮʤʸʩʡʱʤʮʸʡʤʫʩʮʺʤʩʤʺʹʡʥʹʧʤʫʥʸʠʤʠʩʹʰʬʩʫʭʠʬʷʹʮʬʷʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʯʥʺʧʺʤ ʡʢʤʥ ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤ ʸʥʦʠʡ ʺʥʩʤʬ ʺʥʫʩʸʶ ʤʸʥʤʬ ʺʥʩʸʷʩʲʤ ʤʫʩʮʺʤ ʺʥʣʥʷʰ ʺʩʰʠʫʮ 

ʤʣʩʬʤʮʺʥʹʹʥʠʺʤʡʤʴʥʢʹʯʥʥʩʫʮʭʠʬʣʧʥʩʮʡʤʡʥʹʧʤʫʩʮʺʤ  

ʤʣʩʮʲʤʬʩʧʦʬʩʢ 

ʭʲʩʱʩʴʲʢʮʭʩʡʸʭʩʸʷʮʡʹʷʡʮʯʩʩʣʲʩʫʭʠʺʩʠʮʶʲʤʲʥʰʺʹʴʧʮʷʥʰʩʺʤʥʦʤʴʥʷʺʡ 

ʩʸʩʸʡʹ ʺʥʧʴʫ ʱʴʺʰ ʠʥʤ ʥʰʥʶʸ ʩʴ ʬʲ ʬʡʢʥʮ ʯʴʥʠʡ ʲʥʰʬ ʬʢʥʱʮ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʤʦ ʡʬʹʡ ʥʩʸʥʤ 
ʯʩʩʣʲʩʫʭʠʸʺʥʩʣʡʫʷʥʰʩʺʤʯʫʥʮʫʸʺʥʩʡʩʶʩʥʴʥʢʥʥʹʠʸʬʷʹʮʺʠʷʩʦʧʤʬʬʢʥʱʮʠʥʤ 
ʤʴʥʷʺʬ ʭʩʱʧʩʩʺʮ ʷʥʹʡ ʭʥʩʫ ʭʩʩʥʶʮʤ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʬ ʭʩʠʹʰʮʤ ʺʩʡʸʮ ʤʠʩʹʰʬ ʧʥʰ ʬʷʹʮʡ 

ʥʦʺʩʺʥʧʺʴʺʤ  

ʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺ 

ʤʡʩʹʩʬʺʥʸʹʴʠʠʹʰʮʡʤʩʤʺʹʡʥʹʧʯʫʬʲʥʥʺʡʩʡʱʡʯʩʩʰʲʺʤʬʬʩʧʺʮʷʥʰʩʺʤʤʦʡʬʹʡ 

ʭʩʰʥʹʤʭʩʩʥʸʩʢʬʳʹʧʩʤʬʬʫʥʩʷʥʰʩʺʤʹʪʫʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤʭʲ 

ʭʲ ʤʡʩʹʩ ʺʧʥʰʺʡ ʯʫʥ ʤʰʩʹʬʥ ʤʧʥʰʮʬ ʬʥʱʸʩʲ ʺʧʥʰʺʡ ʹʮʺʹʤʬ ʭʩʨʥʰ ʯʩʩʣʲ ʤʦ ʡʬʹʡ 

ʤʸʥʤʤʬʠʭʩʰʴʤ  

ʷʥʰʩʺʡʤʫʩʮʺ 

ʬʩʢʬʫʡʷʥʰʩʺʬʩʨʰʥʥʬʸ±ʡʢʺʫʩʮʺ 

ʭʩʹʣʥʧʤʹʩʹʬʩʢʣʲʩʨʰʥʥʬʸ±ʭʩʩʫʸʩʷʥʱʩʴ   

ʤʸʥʤʡʤʫʩʮʺ 

ʹʩʥ ʸʧʠʮ ʤʬʥʲʥ ʪʬʥʤ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʤ ʥʬʩʠʥ ʯʥʹʠʸʤ ʡʬʹʡ ʸʹʠʮ ʸʺʥʩ ʣʡʫ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 
ʡʢʤʥʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤʸʥʦʠʡʺʥʩʤʬʤʫʩʸʶʤʸʥʤʬʤʫʩʮʺʤʸʷʩʲʸʺʥʩʷʦʧʸʡʫʷʥʰʩʺʤʩʫʤʹʥʧʺ 
ʯʥʺʧʺʤ  

ʤʫʩʬʤʤʣʩʮʲʬʩʢ 

ʥʰʩʠ ʯʩʩʣʲ ʩʫ ʭʠ ʥʣʡʬ ʭʥʷʮʬ ʭʥʷʮʮ ʲʩʢʤʬʥ ʩʠʮʶʲ ʯʴʥʠʡ ʲʥʰʬ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʬʢʥʱʮ ʤʦ ʡʬʹʡ 
ʸʺʥʩʤʱʩʮʲʮʥʺʠʩʹʰʥʣʡʫʤʹʲʰʥʴʥʢʬʷʹʮʥʩʺʥʲʥʰʺʡʡʩʶʩʥʣʷʥʮʮ  

ʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺ 

ʤʡʩʹʩʺʧʥʰʺʬʷʹʮʤʱʮʥʲʭʲʣʣʥʮʺʤʬʵʬʠʰʥʺʠʹʬʹʷʡʮʹʤʸʥʤʤʥʸʺʥʩʬʥʣʢʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʤʡʤʧʥʰʺʠʩʤʥʩʸʥʧʠʮʤʩʰʹʬʢʸʥʥʴʥʢʺʩʦʧʡʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹʺʧʠʬʢʸʸʹʠʫʤʸʥʤʤʯʺʥʮʬʲ 
ʺʩʧʴʤʬʸʹʴʠʮʥʦʤʧʥʰʺʡʤʠʩʹʰʬʲʩʩʱʮʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʠʹʰʮʠʬʬʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʹʬʬʡʥʷʮ 

ʺʥʧʥʰʺʯʩʩʣʲʯʤʤʶʥʧʤʥʠʤʧʥʰʮʬʤʸʥʤʤʬʠʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʤʡʩʹʩʤʸʥʤʤʳʥʢʬʲʱʮʥʲʤʺʠ 
ʤʦʬʩʢʬʺʩʨʰʥʥʬʸʤʰʩʠʸʡʫʬʥʱʸʩʲʺʧʥʰʺʭʩʫʥʸʠʠʬʯʮʦʩʷʸʴʬʺʥʧʥʰ  

ʷʥʰʩʺʡʤʫʩʮʺ 

ʬʩʢʬʫʡʷʥʰʩʺʬʩʨʰʥʥʬʸ±ʡʢʺʫʩʮʺ 

ʤʧʥʰʤʡʩʹʩʬʺʥʸʹʴʠʥʯʢʠʡʤʫʩʮʺ±ʤʡʩʹʩʺʧʥʰʺʡʷʥʰʩʺʡʤʫʩʮʺ  

ʤʸʥʤʡʤʫʩʮʺ 

ʯʥʺʧʺʤʡʢʤʥʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤʸʥʦʠʡʤʸʥʤʬʤʫʩʮʺʤʣʧʥʩʮʡʤʡʥʹʧʯʠʫʭʢ  

ʣʥʷʴʺʺʥʹʩʸʣ 

ʥʣʥʲʩʩʬʠʹʰʮʤʺʮʠʺʤ 

ʥʬ ʤʶʥʧʮʥ ʺʩʡʡ ʭʩʸʥʣʩʱ ʬʥʩʨ ± ʤʫʩʬʤ ʤʹʥʬʹʬ ʭʩʷʬʧʰ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʭʩʩʸʷʩʲʤ ʭʩʹʥʮʩʹʤ 
ʤʫʥʡʷʥʰʩʺʺʲʢʸʤʥʤʮʣʸʤ  

ʤʫʩʬʤ 

ʠʹʰʮ ʳʥʢʤ ʬʲ ʩʱʩʴ ʱʮʥʲ ʤʥʥʤʮ ʺʫʹʥʮʮ ʤʫʩʬʤʡ ʯʩʩʣʲ ʯʨʷ ʠʥʤ ʭʠ ʭʢ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʠʩʹʰ 

ʬʹ ʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʤ ʺʥʹʩʸʣʡ ʡʹʧʺʤʬ ʪʩʸʶ ʬʥʩʨ ʥʠ ʤʫʩʬʤʬ ʸʷʩʲʡ ʤʸʥʤʤ ʺʠ ʹʮʹʮʤ 
ʸʢʥʡʮʭʣʠʩʣʩʬʲʺʥʠʹʮʺʠʩʹʰ  

ʯʢʠʤ ʸʥʦʠʬ ʱʮʥʲʤ ʺʠ ʸʩʡʲʤʬ ʸʹʴʠʺ ʤʸʥʤʤ ʩʰʺʮʡʥ ʯʥʺʧʺʤ ʡʢʤ ʸʥʦʠʡ ʤʫʩʮʺ 
ʭʩʡʠʫʮ ʬʥʡʱʬʥ ʣʧʥʩʮʡ ʹʩʢʸ ʺʥʩʤʬ ʤʨʥʰ ʸʹʠ ʡʢʤ ʬʲ ʱʮʥʲʤʮ ʺʩʧʴʤʬ ʪʫʡʥ ʭʩʩʬʢʸʤʥ 
ʪʥʮʰʩʨʢʸʰʠʸʩʧʮʡʥʪʹʥʮʮʯʮʦʪʸʥʠʬʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʺʠʹʬʸʹʴʠʺʱʮʥʲʤʺʸʡʲʤʭʩʱʮʥʲʥ 
ʤʸʥʤʤʬʹʸʺʥʩ  

ʭʩʸʥʣʩʱ 

ʠʹʰʮʤ ʺʠ ʭʥʺʸʬ ʤʸʩʤʮʥ ʤʬʷ ʺʥʸʹʴʠʡ ʯʩʩʨʶʤʬ ʪʩʸʶ ʺʥʸʶʷ ʺʥʬʥʲʴʬ ʹʮʹʮʤ ʠʹʰʮ 

ʠʹʰʮʤʮʥʠʩʶʥʤʬʥʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʱʩʰʫʤʬʤʸʩʤʮʥʤʬʷʺʥʸʹʴʠʡʯʫʥʳʥʢʤʮʥʸʩʱʤʬʥʳʥʢʬ  

ʤʲʢʸʤ 

ʤʧʥʰʤʡʩʡʱʺʥʥʤʬʪʩʸʶʷʥʰʩʺʺʮʣʸʤʥʤʫʥʡʷʥʰʩʺʺʲʢʸʤʺʥʬʥʲʴʬʸʷʩʲʡʹʮʹʮʤʠʹʰʮ 
ʧʩʰʤʬʯʺʩʰʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʲʢʸʤʬʬʬʫʪʸʣʡʲʩʩʱʮʷʥʰʩʺʬʤʸʥʤʤʯʩʡʩʱʩʴʲʢʮʷʥʰʩʺʬʤʮʩʲʰʥ 

ʤʲʩʢʸʮʤʡʩʡʱʸʥʶʩʩʡʲʩʩʱʺʷʥʰʩʺʬʤʡʥʨʤʫʩʮʺʭʢʩʫ  

ʩʸʷʩʲʤʹʮʺʹʮʬʠʹʰʮʤʺʮʠʺʤ 
ʠʮʠ 

ʩʹʰʳʥʢʤʰʡʮʬʩʬʬʫʯʴʥʠʡʭʩʠʺʤʬʠʹʰʮʤʬʲʭʠʤʠʥʤʠʹʰʮʡʩʸʷʩʲʤʹʮʺʹʮʤʥʤʣʩʮʡ 
ʤʦʧʤʤʰʡʮʥʯʢʠʬʣʲʥʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤʮʺʥʡʧʸʺʤʬʹ  

ʺʥʸʹʴʠ ʤʰʹʩ ʥʬʩʠʥ ʤʶʷ ʺʥʣʩʮ ʬʬʥʫ ʺʥʣʩʮʤ ʬʫʬ ʯʰʥʥʫʺʩ ʣʲʥʩʮʤ ʠʹʰʮʤʹ ʺʥʸʹʴʠ ʹʩ 

ʭʢʤʸʷʮʬʫʡʹʮʺʹʮʬʺʷʩʩʥʣʮʸʺʥʩʤʸʥʶʡʭʠʺʥʮʤʣʢʡʬʤʮʥʣʡʺʥʣʩʮʡʠʹʰʮʸʥʫʮʬ 
ʳʥʢʡ ʭʩʩʥʰʩʹʬ ʥʮʶʲ ʺʠ ʭʩʠʺʤʬ ʩʣʫʡ ʺʮʩʩʥʱʮ ʤʣʩʮʡ ʯʰʥʥʫʺʮ ʺʥʩʤʬ ʪʩʸʶ ʤʦʫ ʠʹʰʮ 

ʤʣʩʬʤʩʸʧʠʸʡʫʤʬʭʩʠʺʤʬʪʩʸʶʠʹʰʮʤʹʭʠʡʸʡʥʣʮʭʠʸʷʩʲʡʡʥʹʧʸʡʣʤʤʸʥʤʤ 
ʤʣʩʬʤʸʧʠʬʹʺʥʲʥʡʹʡʤʴʥʢʤʰʡʮʡʭʩʩʥʰʩʹʤʸʧʠʬʭʢʥ 

ʭʩʹʰʬʹʭʩʰʥʺʧʺʤʭʩʧʥʥʨʡʩʺʩʩʲʡʸʷʩʲʡ±ʤʶʷʺʥʣʩʮʡʭʩʹʰʬʭʢʭʩʠʺʤʬʪʩʸʶʠʹʰʮʤ 
ʣʧʥʩʮʡʺʥʰʨʷʺʥʣʩʮʡ  

ʩʸʧʠ ʭʠʤ ʳʥʢ ʥʮʠ ʬʶʠ ʩʺʥʲʮʹʮ ʩʥʰʩʹ ʭʢ ʬʧ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʬʹ ʤʰʥʹʠʸʤ ʭʩʩʧʤ ʺʴʥʷʺʡ 

ʭʩʩʹʷʥ ʭʩʡʠʫʮ ʺʥʲʥʡʹ ʸʴʱʮ ʭʠʤ ʺʬʡʥʱ ʭʩʡʸ ʭʩʸʷʮʡ ʭʶʮʨʶʮʥ ʤʰʺʹʮ ʤʣʩʬʤ 
ʬʹ ʯʥʺʧʺʤ ʡʢʡ ʤʫʩʮʺ ʸʺʥʩʡ ʤʡʥʹʧ ʯʫ ʬʲ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʮ ʺʲʰʮʰ ʭʩʺʩʲʬʥ ʣʥʷʴʺʡ 

ʭʠʤ  

ʠʡʠ 

ʳʥʢ ʤʰʡʮʬ ʩʬʬʫ ʯʴʥʠʡ ʭʩʠʺʤʬ ʠʹʰʮʤ ʬʲ ʡʠʤ ʠʥʤ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʩʸʷʩʲʤ ʹʮʺʹʮʤʥ ʤʣʩʮʡ 
ʤʦʧʤʺʩʡʤʰʡʮʥʭʩʩʴʺʫʣʲʥʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤʮʺʥʡʧʸʺʤʸʹʩʯʢʠʬʹʩʸʡʢ 

ʬʹ ʭʩʰʥʩʬʲʤ ʭʩʧʥʥʨʡ ʩʺʩʩʲʡ ʸʷʩʲʡ ± ʤʶʷ ʺʥʣʩʮʡ ʭʩʸʡʢʬ ʭʢ ʭʩʠʺʤʬ ʪʩʸʶ ʠʹʰʮʤ 
ʣʧʥʩʮʡʭʩʡʧʸʥʭʩʤʥʡʢʭʩʸʡʢ  

ʸʩʥʠʤʢʦʮʩʠʰʺʬʠʹʰʮʤʺʮʠʺʤ 
ʭʥʧ 

ʺʩʩʲʡ ʠʩʤ ʬʠʸʹʩʡ ʣʧʥʩʮʡ ʺʨʬʥʡʤ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʡ ʺʥʩʦʫʸʮʤ ʺʥʩʲʡʤ ʺʧʠ 

ʤʸʥʨʸʴʮʨʤ  

ʭʤʩʰʩʡ ʸʩʥʠʤ ʩʸʡʲʮ ʺʮʩʱʧʥ ʤʸʥʤʤ ʳʥʢʬ ʥʺʣʮʶʤ ʥʡʩʡʱ ʭʥʧ ʸʶʩʩʮ ʥʮʶʲ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 
ʤʸʥʨʸʴʮʨʤʺʠʬʲʤʬʤʩʨʰʭʲʤʡʩʡʱʭʩʸʶʩʩʮʠʹʰʮʤʺʥʲʶʮʠʡ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʡʩʡʱʡʥʬʩʠʥʤʲʦʤʬʥʺʥʧʥʰʩʠʬʺʮʸʥʢʤʸʥʤʤʺʡʩʡʱʡʵʩʷʡʤʸʥʨʸʴʮʨʤʺʠʬʲʤ 
ʭʩʰʥʥʫʩʰʹʮʯʥʸʺʴʤʩʲʡʬʤʠʩʸʡʠʬʤʡʩʡʱʺʸʶʩʩʮ 

ʸʩʥʠʸʡʲʮʥʤʲʩʦʳʥʣʩʰʣʣʥʲʮʤʤʰʡʮʡʹʥʮʩʹ  

ʸʥʲʤʺʡʩʡʱʮʭʩʬʦʥʰʸʡʲʮʭʩʸʹʴʠʮʤʤʤʥʡʢʣʥʣʩʡʺʬʥʫʩʩʬʲʡʭʩʸʮʥʧʡʹʥʮʩʹ  
ʤʶʥʧʤ  

ʸʥʷ 

ʯʫʥʮʫʷʥʰʩʺʬʺʮʮʧʮʥʺʴʨʥʲʤʡʩʡʱʬʲʸʥʮʹʬʪʸʥʶʹʩʺʥʸʷʺʥʰʩʣʮʡʥʳʸʥʧʤʺʴʥʷʺʡ 
ʩʣʥʲʩʩʳʸʥʧʩʥʱʩʫʤʩʤʩʯʥʸʺʴʤʥʯʫʺʩʤʦʤʸʷʮʡʺʥʧʥʸʩʰʴʮʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʲʯʢʤʬʪʸʥʶʹʩ  

ʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʥʹʩʸʣ 

ʩʴʥʸʩʠʺʥʧʩʨʡʯʷʺʡʤʣʩʮʲ 

ʺʥʹʩʸʣ ʺʠ ʤʸʥʸʡ ʤʸʥʶʡ ʸʩʣʢʮ (1998 ,CEN  prEN 13209 ʩʴʥʸʩʠʤ ʺʥʧʩʨʡʤ ʯʷʺ 
ʺʥʷʩʣʡʡ ʠʹʰʮʤ ʺʥʣʩʮʲ ʺʠ ʷʥʣʡʬ ʤʰʥʷʤ ʬʹ ʥʣʩʷʴʺ ʤʦ ʯʩʠʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮʮ ʺʥʧʩʨʡʤ 
ʯʷʺʤʥʺʺʠʠʹʥʰʤʰʥʷʠʥʤʹʠʹʰʮʤʩʫʣʩʴʷʤʬʪʩʸʶʤʰʥʷʤʯʷʺʤ  

ʭʥʩʱ  

ʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʯʥʩʶ 
ʩʬʮʩʱʷʮ 

ʷʰ 

ʯʫ   

ʠʬ 

ʠʹʰʮʤʭʠʤ 
ʣʮʥʲ 
ʥʩʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʡ 
"ʺʥʩʰʫʮ 

ʥʩʡʺʥʹʩʸʣ 
ʺʥʩʰʫʮ   

ʭʩʹʸʺʬʤʩʰʴʤ 
ʺʥʹʩʸʣʺʷʩʣʡ   

ʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡ     

ʠʹʰʮʬʩʬʮʩʱʷʮʯʥʩʶ 
ʺʥʣʥʷʰ  

ʺʥʹʩʸʣʡʣʮʥʲ
ʷʰ38-42 
ʸʺʥʩʡʤʤʥʡʢʤʮʸʡ  

ʺʥʹʩʸʣʡʣʮʥʲ±
ʷʰ29-38 
ʤʡʥʨʤʮʸʡ  

ʺʥʹʩʸʣʡʣʮʥʲ
ʷʰ21-29 
ʺʩʰʥʰʩʡʤʮʸʡ  

ʥʰʩʠʹʠʹʰʮ± 
ʷʰ0-21 
ʺʥʹʩʸʣʡʣʮʥʲ    

 ʭʥʩʱ  

ʣʥʷʴʺʯʥʩʶ 
ʩʬʮʩʱʷʮ 
ʺʥʣʥʷʰ 

ʯʫ 

ʠʬ  

ʠʹʰʮʤʭʠʤ 
ʣʮʥʲ 
ʺʥʹʩʸʣʡ 
"ʣʥʷʴʺ 

ʺʥʹʩʸʣ 
ʣʥʷʴʺ 

ʺʷʩʣʡ 
ʠʹʰʮ 
ʷʥʰʩʺ   

ʭʩʹʸʺʬʤʩʰʴʤ 
ʣʥʷʴʺʺʷʩʣʡ        

ʭʥʩʱ  

ʺʥʧʩʨʡʯʥʩʶ 
ʺʥʣʥʷʰʬʬʥʫ 

ʯʫ 

ʠʬ  

ʠʹʰʮʤʭʠʤ 
ʣʮʥʲ 
ʥʺʬʺʥʹʩʸʣʡ 
 "ʯʷʺ 

ʺʥʹʩʸʣ 
ʺʥʧʩʨʡ   

ʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʺʷʩʣʡʬʭʩʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʠʤʭʩʬʥʷʩʹʤʪʸʲʮʺʠʸʠʺʮʤʩʹʠʸʭʩʹʸʺʭʩʹʸʺ
Figure 17: Main Figure Describing the Baby Carrier Objective Consideration
Layout  

ʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʺʥʹʩʸʣ 
ʩʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʡʬʹʤʦʩʠʡ 
"ʷʥʰʩʺʤ  

ʤʫʩʬʤʤʣʩʮʲ 
ʠʹʰʮʡʭʠʤ 
ʺʥʧʥʰʺ 
ʺʥʮʩʠʺʮʤ 
ʡʬʹʬ 
ʩʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʤ 
"ʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹ  

ʭʲʤʡʩʹʩ 
ʭʩʰʴʤ 
ʤʶʥʧʤ 

ʯʫ 

ʬʲʤʡʩʹʩ 
ʤʸʥʤʤʯʺʥʮ 

ʠʹʰʮʤʭʠʤ 
ʡʨʩʤʪʮʥʺ 
ʳʥʢʡ 
"ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 
ʯʫ 

ʯʫ 

ʯʫ 

ʠʬ 

ʭʥʩʱ 

ʤʫʩʮʺ 
ʺʧʥʰʺʡ 
ʤʡʩʹʩ 
ʠʬ 

ʭʥʩʱ 

ʤʫʩʮʺ 
ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʡ 
ʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺ 
ʯʥʺʧʺʤ 

ʬʬʥʫʯʥʩʶ 

ʤʬʩʧʦʤʣʩʬ 

ʠʹʰʮʡʭʠʤ 
ʺʥʧʥʰʺ 
ʺʥʮʩʠʺʮʤ 
ʡʬʹʬ 
ʩʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʤ 
"ʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹ 

ʠʹʰʮʡʭʠʤ 
ʺʥʧʥʰʺ 
ʺʥʮʩʠʺʮʤ 
ʡʬʹʬ 
ʩʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʤ 
"ʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹ  

ʠʬ 

ʭʥʩʱ 

ʯʫ 

ʭʲʤʡʩʹʩ 
ʭʩʰʴʤ 
ʤʸʥʤʬ 

ʯʫ 

ʬʥʱʸʩʲ 

ʺʧʥʰʺ 

ʭʲʤʡʩʹʩ 

ʯʫ 

ʠʹʰʮʤʭʠʤ 

ʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʠʹʰʮʤʭʠʤ 
ʡʨʩʤʪʮʥʺ 
ʳʥʢʡ 
"ʤʸʥʤʤ 
ʯʫ 

ʭʥʩʱ 

ʭʲʤʡʩʹʩ 
ʭʩʰʴʤ 
ʤʸʥʤʬ 

ʯʫ 

ʯʫ 

ʠʬ 

ʤʣʩʮʲʤʬʩʧʦ 

ʡʨʩʤʪʮʥʺ 
ʳʥʢʡ 
"ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʯʫ 

ʭʥʩʱ 

ʩʫʸʩʷʥʱʩʴ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʠʹʰʮʤʭʠʤ 
ʡʨʩʤʪʮʥʺ 
ʳʥʢʡ 
"ʤʸʥʤʤ 

ʯʫ 

ʠʬ  

ʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʯʫ 

ʯʫ 

ʭʩʰʴʤ 
ʤʶʥʧʤ 

ʠʬ 

ʭʥʩʱ 

ʤʫʩʮʺ 
ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʡ 
ʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺ 
ʯʥʺʧʺʤ 

ʬʬʥʫʯʥʩʶ  

ʠʬ 

ʭʥʩʱ 

ʭʲʤʡʩʹʩ 

ʯʫ 

ʤʸʥʤʬʭʩʰʴʤ 

ʯʫ 

ʺʧʥʰʺ 
ʬʥʱʸʩʲ 

ʠʹʰʮʤʭʠʤ 
ʡʨʩʤʪʮʥʺ 
ʳʥʢʡ 
"ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʠʬ 

ʭʥʩʱ 

ʯʫ 

ʤʫʩʮʺ 
ʹʠʸʡ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʯʫ 

ʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʯʫ 

ʩʫʸʩʷʥʱʩʴ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʠʹʰʮʤʭʠʤ 
ʡʨʩʤʪʮʥʺ 
ʳʥʢʡ 
"ʤʸʥʤʤ 
ʯʫ 

ʯʫ 

ʭʥʩʱ 

ʤʫʩʮʺ 
ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʡ 
ʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺ 
ʯʥʺʧʺʤ 

ʬʬʥʫʯʥʩʶ 

ʥʩʡʯʥʩʶ 

ʷʰʩʬʮʩʱʷʮʩʰʫʮ  

ʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʺʷʩʣʡʬʭʩʬʥʷʩʹʤʪʸʲʮʸʥʠʺʭʩʹʸʺ 

ʠʬ 

Figure 18: Bio-Mechanical Requirements DescriptionLayout  

ʣʥʷʴʺ  

ʩʠʰʺʭʤʮ 
"ʸʩʥʥʠʤʢʦʮ 

ʠʬ 

ʠʹʰʮʤʭʠʤ 
ʭʩʠʺʮ 
ʥʹʮʺʹʮʬ  
"ʩʸʷʩʲʤ 

ʭʥʩʱ  

ʠʬ 

ʠʹʰʮʤʭʠʤ 
ʭʩʠʺʮ 
"ʥʣʥʲʩʩʬ 

ʭʥʩʱ 

ʠʬ 

ʭʥʩʱ  

ʯʫ 

ʯʫ  

ʯʫ 

ʯʫ   

ʯʫ 

ʯʫ 

ʯʫ 

ʤʲʢʸʤ 

ʭʩʸʥʣʩʱ 

ʤʫʩʬʤ   

ʠʮʠ 

ʠʡʠ 

ʸʥʷ 

+1  

ʺʮʠʺʤ  

ʯʥʰʥʥʫʥʺʥʣʩʮʤ 
ʤʶʷʺʥʣʩʮʬ  

+1 

ʩʰʴʮʤʰʢʤ 
ʺʥʸʥʨʸʴʮʨ 
ʺʥʫʥʮʰ 

ʩʰʴʮʤʰʢʤ 
ʸʺʩʭʥʮʩʧ 
ʺʡʩʡʱʡ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

+1 

+1 

ʩʰʴʮʤʰʢʤ 
ʺʥʧʥʸ 

ʤʲʩʦʳʥʣʩʰ 
ʸʩʤʮ 

+1 

+1 

ʺʥʣʥʷʰʬʬʥʫʯʥʩʶ 

ʤʮʠʺʤ 
ʳʥʢʤʰʡʮʬ 
ʩʹʰ 

+1 

ʺʮʠʺʤ 
ʯʥʰʥʥʫʥʺʥʣʩʮʤ 
ʤʶʷʺʥʣʩʮʬ     

ʤʷʩʸʴ 
ʤʬʷʤʰʩʲʨʥ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹ 

ʤʫʩʮʺ 
ʩʰʺʥʮʡ 
ʤʸʥʤʤ 

ʤʫʩʮʺ 
ʺʩʬʮʩʱʷʮ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʬ 

ʬʷʠʹʰʮ 
ʤʮʩʺʸʬ 
ʤʸʱʤʬʥ 

ʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺ 
ʬʹʯʥʺʧʺʤ 
ʤʸʥʤʤ 

+1   

ʤʮʠʺʤ  
ʳʥʢʤʰʡʮʬ 
ʩʸʡʢ 

ʭʥʧ 

ʩʱʩʴʲʢʮ 
ʤʸʥʤʤʯʩʡ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʬ 

+1 

+1 

+1 

+1 

ʡʢʺʫʩʮʺ 
ʭʠʬʯʥʺʧʺ 
ʤʣʩʬʩʸʧʠ 
+1      

ʺʥʣʥʷʰʬʬʥʫʯʥʩʶ  

+1 

ʺʥʸʹʴʠ 
ʺʠʩʹʰʬ 
ʳʱʥʰʣʥʩʶ 

+1  

+1 

ʺʥʣʥʷʰʬʬʥʫʯʥʩʶ   

ʺʥʣʥʷʰʩʬʮʩʱʷʮʣʥʷʴʺʯʥʩʶ  

ʣʥʷʴʺʺʥʹʩʸʣʺʷʩʣʡʬʭʩʬʥʷʩʹʤʪʸʲʮʸʥʠʺʭʩʹʸʺ 

Figure 19: Functioning Requirements DescriptionLayout  

AHPʺʷʩʰʫʨʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʭʩʸʨʮʸʴʬʹʩʱʧʩʢʸʣʮʺʩʩʰʡ 

ʡʫʸʥʮʤ ʭʩʬʥʷʩʹʤʥ ʺʥʹʩʸʣʤ ʪʸʲʮ ʪʥʺʮ ʸʺʥʩʡ ʭʩʡʥʹʧʤ ʭʩʮʸʥʢʤ ʭʤʮ ʯʩʡʤʬ ʩʣʫʡ 
ʭʩʮʸʥʢʤʯʥʥʢʮʬʹʺʥʩʥʡʩʹʧʤʢʸʣʮʺʩʩʰʡʪʸʥʶʬʩʱʧʩʺʥʩʥʡʩʹʧʢʸʣʮʬʲʩʢʤʬʹʩʢʶʥʤʹ 

 Saaty, 1980 Analytic Hierarchy Processʺʨʩʹʡʹʮʺʹʤʬʩʺʸʧʡ  

ʺʥʰʹʺʬʩʧʺʡThomas L. Sattyʩʲʧʺʥʴ AHP Analytic Hierarchy Processʺʨʩʹ 

ʭʩʡʸʭʩʴʥʢʩʣʩʬʲʤʮʹʥʩʠʩʤʥʺʥʡʫʸʥʮʺʥʩʲʡʡʺʥʨʬʧʤʺʬʡʷʡʲʩʩʱʬʤʠʡʤʨʩʹʤʤ 
ʠʩʤʤʨʩʹʤʺʸʨʮʣʥʲʥʤʸʡʧʤʬʫʬʫʤʩʢʥʬʥʰʫʨʩʮʥʧʺʡʺʥʰʩʣʮʩʹʠʸʥʺʥʬʹʮʮʭʤʩʰʩʡ 

ʬʫ ʩʫ ʠʩʤ ʣʥʱʩʤ ʺʧʰʤ ʡʧʸ ʭʩʮʥʧʺʯʥʥʢʮʮ ʺʥʩʲʡʬ ʭʩʰʥʩʸʨʩʸʷʤ ʢʥʸʩʣ ʪʩʬʤʺ ʺʠ ʣʧʠʬ 

ʠʬʥʭʩʸʧʠʤʭʩʮʸʥʢʬʺʩʱʧʩʣʣʮʰʭʸʥʢʬʫʪʫʩʴʬʩʱʧʩʱʩʱʡʬʲʺʹʧʸʺʮʤʨʬʧʤʺʬʡʷ 
ʨʬʧʥʮʯʴʥʠʡ  

ʸʣʱ ʩʴ ʬʲ ʭʩʰʥʺʰ ʬʹ ʬʥʣʢ ʸʴʱʮ ʢʸʣʬ ʣʶʩʫ ʠʩʤ ʤʨʬʧʤ ʺʬʡʷʡ ʺʩʺʥʲʮʹʮʤ ʤʩʲʡʤ 
ʷʬʧʬʭʩʱʧʩʩʺʮʤʭʩʰʥʩʸʨʩʸʷʸʴʱʮʪʮʱʬʲʺʬʷʹʰʬʬʫʪʸʣʡʺʩʱʧʩʺʥʡʩʹʧʭʺʥʡʩʹʧ 

ʭʩʮʸʥʢʤʬʫʬʥʠ  

ʸʡʣ ʬʹ ʥʴʥʱʡ ʸʹʠʫ ʭʩʮʸʥʢ ʺʥʢʥʦ ʺʠʥʥʹʤ ʬʹ ʤʸʥʣʶʥʸʴ ʬʲ ʱʱʥʡʮ AHP ʤ ʪʩʬʤʺ 

ʬʫʬʤʩʲʡʤʺʠʷʸʴʬʹʩʪʩʬʤʺʤʺʠʲʶʡʬʩʣʫʡʺʥʩʥʸʹʴʠʤʬʫʬʹʩʱʧʩ ʢʸʣʮʬʭʩʲʩʢʮ 
ʺʥʡʩʹʧʤ ʩʴʬ ʭʩʩʸʴʱʮ ʭʩʫʸʲ ʺʥʶʷʤʬ ʩʫʸʸʩʤ ʸʣʱʡ ʭʩʡʩʫʸʮʤ ʬʫ ʸʣʱʬ ʤʩʡʩʫʸʮ 

ʺʠʠʥʶʮʬʩʣʫʡʩʨʮʺʮʧʥʺʩʰʲʶʡʬʥʤʮʸʤʺʥʠʡʡʩʫʸʮʬʫʬʥʮʬʠʡʩʫʸʮʬʫʬʹʺʩʱʧʩʤ 
ʭʩʮʸʥʢʤʬʫʬʹʩʺʩʮʠʤʢʸʣʮʤ  

ʥʦʤʨʩʹʡʹʮʺʹʤʬʩʺʸʧʡʩʲʣʮʯʴʥʠʡʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʬʭʩʸʥʹʷʤʭʩʮʸʥʢʤʬʫʺʠʢʸʣʬʩʣʫʡ 
ʺʩʨʮʺʮʤʸʥʶʡʭʩʰʥʩʸʨʩʸʷʬʹʢʥʸʩʣʺʸʹʴʠʮʤ 

ʺʥʸʥʷʮʩʰʹʬʲʱʱʥʡʮʤʦʬʥʮʤʦʭʩʰʥʩʸʨʩʸʷʣʮʶʬʫʬʹʯʧʡʮʡʲʡʷʰʹʩʱʧʩʤʬʷʹʮʤ 
ʷʥʹʸʷʱʥʩʲʥʶʷʮʲʣʩ 

ʭʩʩʨʰʥʥʬʸʤ ʭʩʮʥʧʺʡ ʭʩʬʩʡʥʮ ʲʥʶʷʮ ʩʹʰʠ ʬʹ ʲʣʩʥ ʺʥʸʴʱʤʮ ʲʣʩʮ ʡʫʸʥʮ ʩʲʥʶʷʮ ʲʣʩ 
ʠʩʤʺʥʧʮʺʤʤʺʮʸʥʡʸʹʠʸʷʧʮʡʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʠʯʴʢʶʩʩʬʠʥʤʩʲʥʶʷʮʤʲʣʩʤʬʹʥʺʥʡʩʹʧ 
ʷʣʡʰʤʸʶʥʮʡʲʶʥʮʮʤʹʮʺʹʮʤʬʹʮʤʤʥʡʢ 

ʸʥʷʮʫ ʹʮʹʮ ʸʷʱʤ ʤʦ ʸʷʧʮʡ ʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʱʤ ʷʬʧʤ ʠʥʤ ʲʣʩʮʤ ʧʷʬʰ ʥʰʮʮ ʷʥʹʤ ʸʷʱ 
ʷʥʹʤʺʥʹʩʸʣʺʠʢʶʩʩʮʤʲʣʩʮ  

ʤʣʥʡʲʤʪʩʬʤʺ 

ʩʫʸʸʩʤʤʰʡʮʺʩʩʰʡ 

ʺʠ ʯʥʧʡʬʥ ʷʬʧ ʬʫ ʯʩʡʤʬ ʥʰʬ ʸʹʴʠʮ ʭʤʬʹ ʩʫʸʸʩʤ ʭʥʹʩʸʥ ʤʩʡʩʫʸʮ ʬʫʬ ʤʩʲʡʤ ʬʥʶʩʴ 
ʥʸʹʷʤ  

ʡʩʫʸʮʬʫʬʹʥʺʢʸʣʡʥʹʩʧ 

ʭʩʸʨʮʸʴʤ ʬʥʮ ʺʩʢʥʦ ʤʸʥʶʡ ʯʧʡʩ ʤʩʸʥʢʨʷ ʬʫʡ ʸʨʮʸʴ ʬʫ ʺʥʶʩʸʨʮ ʨʱ ʺʩʩʰʡ ʺʥʲʶʮʠʡ 

ʢʥʸʩʣ ʤʨʬʧʤ ʣʮʶ ʬʫ ʩʡʢʬ ʺʥʩʥʡʩʹʧ ʸʣʱ ʲʥʡʷʬʥ ʺʩʰʩʩʰʲ ʯʥʧʡʬ ʯʺʩʰ ʤʦ ʯʴʥʠʡ ʭʩʸʧʠʤ 
ʷʥʹʲʣʩʥʩʲʥʶʷʮʲʣʩʬʹʬʥʬʷʹʱʩʱʡʬʲʸʥʮʠʫʲʶʡʺʩʺʥʶʩʸʨʮʡʭʩʰʥʩʸʨʩʸʷʤ  

 Saaty, 1980 ʭʩʰʥʩʶʤʢʸʣʮ 
ʤʥʥʹʺʥʡʩʹʧ  

ʺʩʰʥʰʩʡʺʥʡʩʹʧ± 
ʤʤʥʡʢʺʥʡʩʹʧ± 

ʣʥʠʮʤʤʥʡʢʺʥʡʩʹʧ± 
ʤʰʥʩʬʲʺʥʡʩʹʧ± 

ʭʩʩʰʩʡʩʫʸʲ±  

ʡʥʹʩʧʩʣʩʬʲʲʶʡʺʮʭʬʥʫʭʩʰʥʩʸʨʩʸʷʤʢʥʸʣʩʮʬʭʩʰʥʩʸʨʩʸʷʺʥʢʥʦʬʹʺʥʠʥʥʹʤʤʮʸʡʲʮʤ 
ʤʧʩʨʡʮ AHPʤ ʺʨʩʹ ʤʶʩʸʨʮʤ ʬʹ ʩʬʮʩʱʷʮʤ ʩʮʶʲʤ ʪʸʲʬ ʭʩʠʺʮʤ ʩʮʶʲʤ ʸʥʨʷʥʤ 
ʩʫʸʥʶʬ ʩʮʶʲʤ ʸʥʨʷʥʡ ʭʩʸʡʩʠʤ ʬʹ ʩʸʴʱʮʤ ʸʣʱʬ ʤʮʩʠʺʮ ʭʩʰʥʩʸʨʩʸʷʤ ʺʥʡʩʹʧʹ 

ʬʤʥʥʹʤʩʤʩʭʮʥʫʱʹʪʫʬʮʸʰʬʢʥʤʰʩʮʶʲʤʸʥʨʷʥʤʩʫʸʲʺʠʺʥʣʩʧʠ  

Matlabʺʰʫʥʺʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʲʶʥʡʮʩʨʮʺʮʤʧʥʺʩʰʤ    

ʭʩʠʶʮʮ

Analytic AHPʺʷʩʰʫʨʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʤʩʥʴʩʮʺʥʠʶʥʺʥʸʷʱʤʩʠʶʮʮʥʲʩʴʥʩʤʦʷʸʴʡ 

 Hierarchy Process 

ʭʩʬʩʫʮ ʭʩʠʶʮʮʤ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʡ ʥʱʰʺʤʹ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʬ ʭʩʸʥʤ ʡʸʷʡ ʲʶʡʺʤ ʸʷʱʤ 

ʺʥʣʮʲʥ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʮ ʤʠʶʥʺʫ ʱʮʥʲʥ ʭʩʡʠʫ ʥʣʥʷʴʺʥ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʬ ʲʢʥʰʡ ʺʥʣʮʲ 
ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮ ʬʹ ʣʲʩʤ ʬʤʷ ʭʤ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʬ ʭʩʸʥʤ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʩʠʹʰʮ ʩʡʢʬ ʭʩʸʥʤʤ ʬʹ ʺʥʩʬʬʫ 
ʩʡʢʬʺʥʰʷʱʮʷʩʱʤʬʥʸʹʴʠʺʥʠʶʥʺʤʤʦʬʤʷʩʫʸʶʺʠʣʥʮʬʬʥʯʩʡʤʬʤʺʩʩʤʸʷʱʤʺʸʨʮʥ 

ʩʣʩʺʲʤʠʹʰʮʤʯʥʫʩʺ 

ʭʩʸʨʮʸʴʤ ʬʹ ʭʩʱʧʩʤ ʢʸʣʮ ʡʥʹʩʧ ʺʥʠʶʥʺ ʺʥʲʩʴʥʮ ʭʩʠʶʮʮʤ ʷʸʴ ʬʹ ʩʰʹʤ ʥʷʬʧʡ 

ʺʥʶʬʮʤ ʺʥʬʬʥʫ ʤʦ ʷʸʴʡ ʺʥʰʷʱʮʤ AHP ʺʷʩʰʫʨ ʩʴ ʬʲ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮ ʯʥʫʩʺʬ ʭʩʲʩʸʫʮʤ 
ʺʥʧʩʨʡʤʺʥʹʩʸʣʥʣʥʷʴʺʤʺʥʹʩʸʣʸʶʥʮʤʮʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʤʺʥʹʩʸʣʤʭʥʧʺʡ 
ʸʷʱʤʩʠʶʮʮ 

ʺʥʠʡʤʺʥʩʨʱʩʨʨʱʤʺʥʨʩʹʡʹʥʮʩʹʤʹʲʰʭʩʰʥʬʠʹʤʩʰʥʺʰʣʥʡʩʲʡ 

ʭʥʮʩʱʷʮʥʭʥʮʩʰʩʮ ʭʩʧʥʥʨʯʷʺʺʥʩʨʱʭʩʰʥʩʶʧʭʩʲʶʥʮʮʺʩʸʥʠʺʤʷʩʨʱʩʨʨʱ  
ʺʥʩʥʧʩʫʹʥ 

ʲʥʡʩʸʡʩʧʯʧʡʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʥʺʥʩʥʫʩʮʱʺʬʡʨʺʩʩʰʡʭʩʩʸʥʢʨʷʭʩʰʺʹʮʯʩʡʸʹʷʺʷʩʣʡ  
Fisher Exactʯʧʡʮʡʥ 

ʯʮʸʩʴʱʭʠʺʮʡʥʹʩʧʭʩʩʬʰʩʣʸʥʠʭʩʰʺʹʮʯʩʡʸʹʷʺʷʩʣʡ   

ʭʩʩʴʸʢʥʮʣʭʩʰʩʩʴʠʮ 

ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʡ ʥʱʰʺʤʹ ʤʰʹ ʬʩʢ ʣʲ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʬ ʭʩʸʥʤ ʤʬʬʫ ʸʷʧʮʤ ʺʩʩʱʥʬʫʥʠ 

ʭʩʩʸʴʫʥ ʭʩʩʰʥʸʩʲ ʭʩʡʥʹʩʩʮ ʤʤʥʡʢ ʺʩʮʥʰʥʷʠʥʩʶʥʱ ʤʮʸʡ ʭʩʸʷʱʰ ʡʸʷʡ ʥʶʴʥʤ ʭʩʰʥʬʠʹʤ 
ʸʺʥʩʡʺʰʥʥʢʮʠʩʤʥʦʸʷʧʮʺʩʩʱʥʬʫʥʠʵʸʠʤʯʥʴʶʡʥʦʫʸʮʡ 

ʭʩʩʸʴʫ ʭʩʡʥʹʩʩʮ   ʭʩʹʰ  ʥ   ʭʩʸʡʢ  ʭʫʥʺʮ ʭʩʡʩʹʮ  ʬʬʫ ʸʷʱʤ 
ʵʸʠʤʯʥʴʶʡʥʦʫʸʮʡʭʩʩʰʥʸʩʲʥ 

ʭʩʩʸʴʫʭʩʡʥʹʩʡʭʩʸʢʭʩʸʷʱʰʤʮʣʥʲʡʺʩʰʥʸʩʲʤʩʩʱʥʬʫʥʠʮʭʤʭʩʸʷʱʰʤʮ  

ʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʬʩʢ

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ        

ʬʩʢʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

Figure 20: Distribution of Responders by Age 

ʤʧʴʹʮʡʭʩʣʬʩʤʸʴʱʮ
50
40

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ 

ʤʬʲʮʥ         

30
47
38

20
10

3

ʭʩʣʬʩ4

12

ʭʩʣʬʩ3

ʭʩʣʬʩ2

0

1ʣʬʩ 

ʭʩʣʬʩʸʴʱʮʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 
Figure 21:Distribution of Responders by Child Number  

ʥʣʥʷʴʺʥʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʬʲʢʥʰʡʺʥʣʮʲ 

ʭʩʰʩʩʴʠʮ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹ ʤʠʩʹʰ ʺʥʧʥʰʺʬ ʺʥʸʥʹʷʤ ʭʩʸʥʤʤ  ʺʥʣʮʲ ʺʥʲʩʴʥʮ ʤʦ ʷʸʴʡ 

ʭʩʰʩʩʴʠʮʬ ʭʩʸʥʹʷʤ ʭʩʠʶʮʮʤ ʷʸʴʡ ʭʩʲʩʴʥʮ ʯʫ ʥʮʫ ʥʩʲʥʶʩʡʥ ʠʹʰʮʤ ʣʥʷʴʺʬ ʭʩʸʥʹʷʤ 
ʱʮʥʲʡʠʫʩʸʥʦʠʭʩʠʹʥʰʡʭʩʸʥʤʤʺʥʡʥʹʺʮʭʩʬʥʲʭʤʹʩʴʫʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʩʹʰʬʹʭʩʩʰʫʮʥʩʡ 
ʤʫʩʮʺʥ

ʺʴʣʲʥʮʤʠʩʹʰʺʧʥʰʺ    

ʭʩʹʰ  

ʡʢ   

ʯʺʥʮ      

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ 

ʭʩʸʡʢ  

ʬʥʱʸʩʲ   

ʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴ

ʤʸʥʤʬʭʩʰʴ  

ʺʴʣʲʥʮʤʠʩʹʰʺʧʥʰʺʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

Figure 22:Distribution of Responders by Preferred Carrying Posture  

ʩʫʣʥʮʬʬʯʺʩʰʥʰʮʮʺʩʸʣʢʮʤʷʥʬʧʩʴʬʲʺʥʴʣʲʥʮʤʤʠʩʹʰʤʺʥʧʥʰʺʺʠʢʩʶʮ ʭʩʹʸʺ 

ʤʶʥʧʤ ʭʩʰʴʤ ʭʲʥ ʤʸʥʤʬ ʭʩʰʴʤ ʭʲ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʯʤ ʸʺʥʩʡ ʺʥʴʣʲʥʮʤ ʺʥʧʥʰʺʤ 
ʭʩʸʡʢʤʮ  ʥʭʩʹʰʤʮ ʭʩʰʴʬʷʥʰʩʺʤʭʥʷʩʮʥʩʸʨʮʩʱʧʰʮʬʲʺʥʸʮʥʹʤʺʥʧʥʰʺ 
ʤʶʥʴʰ ʥʦ ʤʧʥʰʺʥ ʯʫʺʩ ʤʸʥʤʤ ʬʠ ʤʮʩʰʴ ʭʩʰʴʤ ʭʲ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʬʹ ʤʡʩʹʩ ʺʧʥʰʺ ʭʩʴʩʣʲʮ 
ʣʧʥʩʮʡʭʩʰʨʷʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʬʤʮʩʠʺʮʪʫʩʴʬʥʤʸʥʤʬʷʥʰʩʺʤʯʩʡʯʩʲ ʸʹʷʭʩʩʷʺʮʹʯʥʥʩʫʮʣʥʠʮ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹʤʡʩʹʩʺʧʥʰʺʭʩʴʩʣʲʮʭʩʹʰʤʮ ʥʭʩʸʡʢʤʮ ʸʶʷʤʩʠʸʧʥʥʨʩʬʲʡ 

ʺʥʮʸ ʸʥʮʹʬ ʬʥʫʩʥ ʤʡʩʡʱʡ ʭʩʡʸ ʭʩʩʥʸʩʢʬ ʳʹʧʰ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʥʦ ʤʧʥʰʺʡ ʤʶʥʧʤ ʭʩʰʴʤ ʭʲ 
ʩʣʩʬʲʺʴʣʲʥʮʯʹʩʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʹʬʬʡʥʷʮʤʡʬʥʱʸʩʲʤʺʧʥʰʺʯʩʩʰʲʥʺʥʰʸʲʬʹʺʥʤʥʡʢ 

ʺʸʮʥʹʤʰʩʠʠʩʤʪʠʤʡʩʫʹʩʶʧʡʯʥʹʩʬʬʥʫʩʷʥʰʩʺʤʥʦʤʧʥʰʺʡʭʩʸʡʢʤʮʥʭʩʹʰʤʮ 

ʯʺʥʮ ʬʲ ʤʡʩʹʩʡ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʺʩʮʥʰʥʢʸʠ ʤʰʩʧʡʮ ʤʰʥʫʰ ʺʥʧʴ ʪʫʩʴʬʥ ʩʸʨʮʩʱ ʧʰʮ ʬʲ 

ʲʡʨʮʥ ʸʺʥʩ ʭʩʣʡʫ ʥʬʠ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺ ʭʺʡʩʹʩʡ ʭʩʡʩʶʩʥ ʸʺʥʩ ʭʩʬʥʣʢ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʬ ʤʣʲʥʰ ʤʸʥʤʤ 
ʭʬʥʲʡ ʺʬʡʥʷʮ ʺʥʧʴ ʡʢʤ ʬʲ ʭʩʰʨʷ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʺʥʧʴ ʭʩʠʹʩʰ ʭʩʸʡʣʤ 
ʺʥʰʥʹʺʥʡʩʱʮʩʡʸʲʮʤ 

ʠʹʰʮʡʭʩʩʸʷʩʲʭʩʹʥʮʩʹ   

ʭʩʸʡʢ    

ʸʧʠ    

ʶʧʺʡʤʲʩʱʰ ʺʩʡʺʥʣʥʡʲ  

ʤʲʢʸʤ 

ʭʩʸʥʣʩʱ 

ʤʫʩʬʤʬʥʩʨ

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ 

ʭʩʹʰ     

ʠʹʰʮʡʭʩʩʸʷʩʲʭʩʹʥʮʩʹʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

Figure 23:Distribution of Responders by Main Usage of the Carrier 
ʬʥʩʨ ʪʸʥʶʬ ʸʷʩʲʡ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʭʩʹʮʺʹʮ ʭʩʸʥʤʤ ʺʩʡʸʮ  ʭʩʹʸʺʮ ʣʥʮʬʬ ʯʺʩʰʹ ʩʴʫ 
ʥʮʫ ʧʥʰ ʺʥʧʴ ʠʥʤ ʤʬʢʲʡ ʹʥʮʩʹ ʭʤʡ ʭʩʡʶʮʡ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʮʺʹʤʬ ʭʩʸʧʥʡ ʭʩʸʥʤ ʤʫʩʬʤʥ 

ʭʩʸʣʢʮʤʯʩʡʬʣʡʤʤʺʥʢʸʣʮʩʡʥʸʮʺʥʮʥʷʮʡʥʠʭʩʤʺʴʹʬʲʤʫʩʬʤʧʨʹʡʬʥʩʨʬʹʮʬ 
ʭʩʹʰʤʮ  ʷʸ ʣʥʲʡ ʬʥʩʨʬʥ ʤʫʩʬʤʬ ʸʷʩʲʡ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʭʩʹʮʺʹʮ ʭʩʸʡʢʤʮ  ʤʥʡʢ 

ʠʹʥʰʤ ʬʲ ʤʱʩʮʲʮ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʪʹʥʮʮ ʬʥʩʨʡ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʤʦ ʹʥʮʩʹʬ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʺʥʹʮʺʹʮ 
ʭʩʺʩʲʬ ʭʩʩʺʧʴʹʮ ʭʩʬʥʩʨʡ ʤʦ ʢʥʱʮʺʥʬʥʲʴʮ ʲʰʮʩʤʬ ʥʬʣʺʹʩʤʣʩʬ ʸʧʠʬ ʭʩʹʰ ʩʫ ʯʫʺʩʥ 

ʬʥʣʢʤʩʸʣʢʮʤʬʣʡʤʤʯʠʫʮʩʫʯʫʺʩʥʠʹʰʮʤʺʠʠʹʥʰʹʠʥʤʸʡʢʤʺʥʡʥʸʷ 

ʧʥʰ ʠʬʥ ʬʡʸʥʱʮ ʺʥʩʤʬ ʬʥʫʩ ʤʬʢʲʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʤ ʯʤʡ ʺʥʴʱʥʰ ʺʥʩʶʠʥʨʩʱ ʯʤ ʺʥʩʰʷʥ ʭʩʸʥʣʩʱ 

ʺʥʩʰʷ ʺʬʢʲ ʳʥʧʣʬ ʹʸʣʰ ʤʸʥʤʤ ʤʡ ʤʩʰʷʡ ʬʹʮʬ ʥʠ ʤʧʥʰ ʠʬ ʤʹʩʢʤ ʭʤʡ ʭʩʸʲ ʩʸʥʦʠʡ 
ʠʹʰʮʤʬʹʤʡʩʨʰʸʨʬʠʡʭʩʸʧʥʡʯʫʬʥʷʥʰʩʺʺʬʢʲʭʢʳʥʧʣʬʸʺʥʩʡʬʡʸʥʱʮʤʦʤʩʤʩ 

ʭʩʹʮʺʹʮ ʭʩʸʡʢʤʮ  ʣʥʲʡ ʺʥʩʰʷʥ ʭʩʸʥʣʩʱʬ ʸʷʩʲʡ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʺʥʹʮʺʹʮ ʭʩʹʰʤʮ 
ʭʩʹʣʥʧʡ ʩʫ ʯʫʺʩʥ ʭʩʹʣʥʧ ʸʴʱʮ ʤʣʩʬ ʺʹʴʥʧʡ ʡʥʸʬ ʺʥʠʶʮʰ ʭʩʹʰ ʤʦ ʹʥʮʩʹʬ ʠʹʰʮʡ 

ʺʥʩʰʷʥʭʩʸʥʣʩʱʯʥʢʫʭʥʩʭʥʩʩʹʥʮʩʹʬʠʹʰʮʡʸʺʥʩʹʮʺʹʤʬʺʥʨʥʰʯʤʥʬʠ 

ʬʲʭʺʥʠʭʩʠʹʥʰʸʹʠʫʲʢʸʤʬʭʩʨʥʰʥʺʥʫʹʥʮʮʺʥʲʹʪʸʥʠʬʭʩʺʩʲʬʭʩʫʥʡʭʩʰʨʷʺʥʷʥʰʩʺ 

ʣʥʲʡ ʤʧʥʰʮ ʸʱʧ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʲʢʸʤʬ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʺʥʹʮʺʹʮ ʭʩʹʰʤʮ  ʠʹʰʮʡ ʥʠ ʭʩʩʣʩʤ 

ʭʩʹʰʹʤʣʡʥʲʤʮʲʡʥʰʬʣʡʤʤʥʯʫʺʩʯʠʫʭʢʤʦʹʥʮʩʹʬʠʹʰʮʡʭʩʹʮʺʹʮʭʩʸʡʢʤʮ 
ʭʩʸʡʢʤʸʹʠʮ ʤʣʩʬʤʺʹʴʥʧʺʴʥʷʺʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤʭʲʯʮʦʸʺʥʩʺʥʬʡʮ  

ʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʮʤʠʶʥʺʫʡʠʫʩʸʥʦʠ  

ʭʩʸʡʢ
ʭʩʹʰ       

ʭʩʡʠʫʠʬʬ

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ   

ʯʢʠ    

ʭʩʩʴʺʫ

ʯʥʩʬʲʡʢ

ʯʥʺʧʺʡʢ   

ʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʮʤʠʶʥʺʫʡʠʫʩʸʥʦʠʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

Figure 24:Distribution of Responders by Pain Areas Using baby Carrier  

ʭʩʹʰʬʹʤʥʡʢʦʥʧʠʩʫʯʩʧʡʤʬʯʺʩʰʥʡʭʢʥʸʣʢʩʮʩʴʬʲʡʠʫʤʩʸʥʦʠʭʩʨʸʥʴʮʭʩʹʸʺʡ 

ʭʩʡʠʫ ʬʲ ʬʬʫ ʭʩʧʥʥʣʮ ʭʰʩʠ ʭʤʮ  ʹ ʭʩʸʡʢʬ ʣʥʢʩʰʡ ʺʠʦʥ ʡʢ ʩʡʠʫ ʬʲ ʧʥʥʣʮ 
ʭʩʩʧʤʩʹʣʥʧʡʹʤʡʩʱʤʺʥʠʮʲʥʡʰʬʬʥʫʩʬʥʣʢʤʩʸʣʢʩʮʤʬʣʡʤʤʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʮʤʠʶʥʺʫ 

ʥ ʭʩʹʰʤʮ  ʡʠʤ ʸʹʠʮ ʸʺʥʩ ʡʥʸʬ ʥʺʠ ʤʬʡʮ ʭʠʤ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʬʹ ʭʩʰʥʹʠʸʤ 

ʭʩʡʠʫʬʲʸʺʥʩʺʥʧʥʥʣʮʭʩʹʰʹʤʣʡʥʲʤʥʯʫʺʩʯʥʺʧʺʤʡʢʡʭʩʡʠʫʬʲʭʩʧʥʥʣʮʭʩʸʡʢʤʮ 
ʺʥʹʹʥʠʺʤʡʤʹʠʤʳʥʢʥʡʯʮʦʤʷʸʴʥʤʣʩʬʸʧʠʬʳʥʢʡʭʩʩʬʬʫʭʩʡʠʫʮʺʲʡʥʰʯʥʺʧʺʤʡʢʡ 
ʭʩʮʩʩʷʤ ʭʩʠʹʰʮʤ ʺʩʡʸʮ ʩʺʩʩʲʡʥ ʹʩʢʸ ʡʹʧʰ ʯʥʺʧʺʤ ʡʢʤ ʸʥʦʠ ʩʬʬʫ ʯʴʥʠʡ ʤʣʩʬʤʮ 

ʡʢʡ ʭʩʡʠʫ ʬʲ ʺʹʸʣʰʤ ʤʫʩʮʺʤ ʺʠ ʥʬ ʭʩʰʷʮ ʭʰʩʠʥ ʤʦ ʸʥʦʠ ʺʥʹʩʢʸʡ ʭʩʡʹʧʺʮ ʭʰʩʠ 

ʩʬʥʠʯʺʩʰ  ʭʩʸʡʢʤʮʣʥʠʮʯʨʷʦʥʧʠʬʣʥʢʩʰʡ  ʭʩʹʰʤʮʬʥʣʢʦʥʧʠʧʥʥʣʮʯʥʩʬʲʤ 
ʭʩʹʰʬʣʲʡʧʥʨʹʤʦʧʭʩʸʡʢʬ ±ʭʩʰʩʮʤʯʩʡʳʥʢʤʤʰʡʮʡʩʰʥʹʬʬʥʣʢʤʬʣʡʤʤʺʠʪʩʩʹʬ 
ʷʥʰʩʺ ʭʩʠʹʥʰ ʸʹʠʫ ʳʥʢʤ ʬʲ ʭʩʲʩʴʹʮʤ ʺʥʧʥʫʤ ʺʠ ʺʥʰʹʬ ʬʥʫʩʥ ʳʥʢʤʮ ʨʬʥʡʤ ʤʦʧ 

ʲʥʡʰʬ ʬʥʫʩ ʤʦ ʯʥʺʰ ʭʩʩʴʺʫ ʩʡʠʫ ʬʲ ʭʩʧʥʥʣʮ ʭʩʸʡʢʤʮ  ʥ ʭʩʹʰʤʮ  ʭʩʰʴʬʮ 
ʠʹʥʰʤʩʴʺʫʬʲʪʮʺʰʱʮʥʲʤʮʸʫʩʰ ʷʬʧʭʡʥʸʡʸʹʠʷʥʰʩʺʩʠʹʰʮʬʹʩʧʫʥʰʤʯʥʰʫʺʤʮ 
ʭʩʸʡʢʤʮ  ʣʥʲʡ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʡʷʲ ʯʢʠʡ ʭʩʡʠʫ ʬʲ ʧʥʥʣ ʠʬ ʭʩʹʰʤ ʡʸʷʡ 

ʩʨʱʩʨʨʱʸʹʷʠʶʮʰʩʢʥʬʥʩʱʩʴʬʣʡʤʡʵʥʲʰʩʰʥʹʤʥʯʫʺʩʯʠʫʭʢʤʦʸʥʦʠʡʭʩʡʠʫʬʲʥʧʥʥʣ 
P<0.01ʬʹʺʥʷʤʡʥʮʡʸʣʢʮʬʡʠʫʤʭʥʷʩʮʯʩʡ  

ʡʢʩʡʠʫʬʩʬʭʸʥʢʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹ    

ʭʩʹʰ       

ʨʬʧʤʡʭʩʫʱʮ 

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ 

ʭʩʸʡʢ     

ʭʩʫʱʮʩʣ

ʩʬʤʰʹʮʠʬ

ʭʩʫʱʮʪʫʬʫʠʬ   

ʭʩʫʱʮʠʬʬʬʫʡ  

ʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʮʤʠʶʥʺʫʡʢʩʡʠʫʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

Figure 25:Distribution of Responders by Back Pain Using Carrier  

ʭʩʹʰʤʮ ʩʫ ʭʩʹʸʺʮʣʥʮʬʬʯʺʩʰʤʮʫʱʤʬʲʺʥʣʩʲʮʤʺʥʣʥʮʲʤʺʠʭʩʸʡʧʮʭʠ 
ʥʬʠʭʩʡʠʫʮʭʩʬʡʥʱʭʩʸʡʢʤʮ ʷʸʣʥʲʡʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʮʤʠʶʥʺʫʡʢʩʡʠʫʮʺʥʬʡʥʱ 

ʤʣʩʬ ʸʧʠʬ ʭʩʹʰʹ ʤʣʡʥʲʤ ʠʩʤ ʭʩʸʡʢʬ ʭʩʹʰ ʯʩʡ ʤʥʡʢʤ ʬʣʡʤʬ ʤʡʩʱʤʥ ʯʫʺʩ ʯʠʫ ʭʢ 
ʭʥʸʢʬ ʬʥʫʩ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʠʩʹʰʡ ʳʱʥʰʹ ʱʮʥʲʤʥ ʭʩʡʠʫʥ ʺʥʹʬʥʧʮ ʩʬʬʫ ʯʴʥʠʡ ʺʥʬʡʥʱ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʭʲ ʸʺʥʩ ʺʥʬʡʮ ʭʩʹʰʹ ʺʥʩʤʬ ʤʬʥʫʩ ʺʸʧʠ ʤʡʩʱ ʸʺʥʩ ʤʡʸ ʺʥʬʷʡ ʡʢ ʩʡʠʫʬ 
ʭʩʸʡʢʬʭʩʹʰʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʯʩʡʺʩʨʱʩʨʨʱʤʺʥʰʥʹʤʺʮʶʥʲʠʹʰʮʡʸʺʥʩʺʥʹʮʺʹʮʪʫʩʴʬʥ 

P<0.01ʬʹʺʥʷʤʡʥʮʡʲʥʡʩʸʡʩʧʯʧʡʮʡʸʺʥʩʡʤʤʥʡʢʤʠʶʮʰʡʢʩʡʠʫʬʱʧʩʡ
ʱʮʥʲʤʡʸʩʮʭʥʷʩʮʺʴʣʲʤ   

ʭʩʹʰ    

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ 

ʭʩʸʡʢ      

ʭʩʩʴʺʫ

ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮ

ʯʢʠ 

ʯʥʺʧʺʡʢ 

ʱʮʥʲʤʡʸʩʮʭʥʷʩʮʺʴʣʲʤʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ    

Figure 26:Distribution of Responders by Preferred Main Load Area  

ʺʩʸʣʢʮʤʷʥʬʧʡʱʮʥʲʤʸʷʩʲʭʥʷʩʮʩʡʢʬʭʩʬʠʹʰʤʺʥʴʣʲʤʺʥʨʸʥʴʮ ʭʩʹʸʺʡ 
ʭʩʸʡʢʤ  ʣʥʲʡ ʯʢʠʤ ʬʲ ʤʩʤʩ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʬʷʹʮ ʬʹ ʱʮʥʲʤ ʸʷʩʲʹ ʺʥʴʩʣʲʮ ʭʩʹʰʤʮ 
ʩʢʥʬʥʩʱʩʴʤ ʤʰʡʮʤʮ ʭʩʲʡʥʰ ʭʩʬʣʡʤʤʥ ʯʫʺʩ ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤ ʬʲ ʬʷʹʮʤ ʸʷʩʲ ʺʠ ʭʩʴʩʣʲʮ 

ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤʥʯʢʠʤʺʴʣʲʤʯʩʡʭʩʬʥʣʢʭʰʩʠʭʩʬʣʡʤʤʩʬʬʫʯʴʥʠʡʭʩʸʡʢʤʥʭʩʹʰʤʬʹʤʰʥʹʤ 
ʸʥʦʠʫ ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤ ʺʠ ʭʩʰʩʩʶʮ ʭʩʸʡʢʤʮ  ʥ ʭʩʹʰʤʮ  ʳʠʥ ʱʮʥʲ ʩʫʮʥʺ ʭʩʸʥʦʠʫ 

ʸʹʠʭʩʮʩʩʷʤʭʩʠʹʰʮʤʭʲʺʥʸʫʩʤʪʥʺʮʺʲʡʥʰʥʦʤʴʣʲʤʥʯʫʺʩʩʱʮʥʲʤʭʥʷʩʮʬʳʣʲʥʮ 
ʺʥʸʹʴʠʭʩʸʩʫʮʥʠʭʩʠʥʸʭʩʹʰʠʺʥʧʴʤʡʩʱʤʺʥʠʮʥʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʬʲʠʥʤʱʮʥʲʤʸʷʩʲʭʬʥʫʡ 

ʯʥʫʰʤʭʥʷʩʮʤʺʩʮʥʰʥʢʸʠʤʰʩʧʡʮʯʥʺʧʺʤʡʢʤʸʥʦʠʬʲʬʹʮʬʤʩʤʩʱʮʥʲʤʸʷʩʲʥʡʡʶʮʬ 
ʯʥʺʧʺʤʡʢʤʸʥʦʠʡʠʥʤʳʥʢʤʬʲʱʮʥʲʺʠʹʬʸʺʥʩʡ 

ʬʹ ʺʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʱ ʺʥʬʫʺʱʤ ʪʥʺʮ ʺʩʲʥʶʷʮ ʺʩʮʥʰʥʢʸʠ ʤʩʢʥʱʡ ʤʹʲʮʬ ʤʰʣ ʥʦ ʤʬʠʹ 

ʭʩʩʷʤʭʲʺʥʸʫʩʤʬʲʠʬʠʩʲʥʶʷʮʲʣʩʮʬʲʺʰʲʹʰʤʰʩʠʭʩʸʥʤʤʺʴʷʹʤʭʩʸʥʤʤ 

ʭʩʴʣʲʥʮʤʫʩʮʺʩʸʥʦʠ      

ʯʥʩʬʲʡʢ

ʭʩʩʴʺʫ    

ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮ

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ 

ʯʥʺʧʺʡʢ  

ʤʫʩʮʺʩʸʥʦʠʺʴʣʲʤʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

Figure 27:Distribution of Responders by Preferred Support Areas 
ʭʩʸʥʦʠʤ ʺʠ ʸʠʺʮ ʭʩʹʸʺʤ ʭʩʹʸʺ ʩʴ ʬʲ ʭʢ ʺʸʫʩʰ ʯʥʺʧʺʤ ʡʢʤ ʸʥʦʠ ʬʹ ʥʺʥʹʩʢʸ 
ʤʫʩʮʺʭʩʴʩʣʲʮʭʩʸʥʤʤʯʮʩʫʣʥʮʬʬʯʺʩʰʤʫʩʮʺʤʺʩʡʸʮʺʠʭʩʸʥʤʤʭʩʴʩʣʲʮʭʤʡ 
ʭʩʨʲʮ ʺʥʲʩʶʴ ʬʹ ʭʩʰʥʹ ʭʩʢʥʱʬ ʳʥʹʧʥ ʹʩʢʸ ʡʹʧʰ ʯʥʺʧʺʤ ʡʢʤ ʯʥʺʧʺʤ ʡʢʤ ʸʥʦʠʡ 

ʺʮʸʥʢ ʯʥʺʧʺʤ ʡʢʡ ʤʫʩʮʺ ʠʬʬ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʤʦ ʸʥʦʠʡ ʤʫʩʮʺ ʭʩʲʩʶʮʤ ʭʩʠʹʰʮʤ 
 ʤʦ ʸʥʦʠʡ ʤʫʩʮʺ  ʭʩʴʩʣʲʮ ʭʩʡʸ ʭʩʸʥʤ ʪʫʩʴʬʥ ʡʠʫʥ ʺʥʧʥʰ ʩʠʬ ʭʩʡʸ ʭʩʡʶʮʡ 
ʭʩʮʩʩʷʤ ʭʩʠʹʰʮʤ ʺʩʡʸʮ ʭʥʩʫ ʭʩʩʴʺʫʡ ʤʫʩʮʺ ʭʩʴʩʣʲʮ ʭʤ ʩʫ ʭʩʰʩʩʶʮ ʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ 
ʹʥʮʩʹʡ ʥʱʰʺʤʹ ʭʩʡʸʤ ʭʩʸʥʤʤʥ ʯʫʺʩ ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤ ʬʲ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʬʷʹʮ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʬʲ ʭʩʱʱʡʺʮ  

ʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ ʷʸʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʸʥʦʠʬʤʫʩʮʺʡʪʸʥʶʭʩʹʩʢʸʮʥʺʥʧʥʰʩʠʥʥʧʤʦʢʥʱʮʠʹʰʮʡ 
ʺʥʧʥʰ ʩʠʥ ʭʩʡʠʫʮ ʺʥʧʴ ʬʡʥʱʤ ʸʥʦʠ ʤʠʸʰʤ ʬʫʫ ± ʯʥʩʬʲʤ ʡʢʤ ʸʥʦʠʡ ʤʫʩʮʺʡ ʭʩʰʩʰʥʲʮ 

ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤʸʥʦʠʡʤʫʩʮʺʡʭʩʰʩʰʥʲʮ  ʺʥʧʴʣʥʲʥʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʡʷʲ 

ʤʲʥʰʺʤʺʬʥʫʩʺʠʬʩʡʢʮʠʥʤʭʠʭʢʠʹʰʮʡʹʮʺʹʤʬʯʫʥʮʩʰʠ
ʩʬʹ    

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ      

ʨʬʧʤʡʭʩʫʱʮ  

ʭʩʫʱʮʩʣ

ʩʬʤʰʹʮʠʬ

ʭʩʫʱʮʪʫʬʫʠʬ ʭʩʫʱʮʠʬʬʬʫʡ     

ʤʲʥʰʺʤʺʬʥʫʩʺʬʡʢʤʬʤʮʫʱʤʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

Figure 28:Distribution of Responders by Consent to Limit Moving Ability  

ʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʮʤʠʶʥʺʫʤʲʥʰʺʤʺʬʥʫʩʺʬʡʢʤʩʡʢʬʭʩʸʥʤʤʺʣʮʲʺʠʢʩʶʮ ʭʩʹʸʺ 
ʭʩʮʩʫʱʮ ʭʰʩʠ ʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ  ʩʫ ʷʩʱʤʬ ʯʺʩʰ ʤʮʫʱʤ ʩʠ ʬʲ ʺʥʣʩʲʮʤ ʺʥʣʥʮʲʤ ʸʥʡʩʧʮ 

ʤʮʫʱʤʬʲʺʥʣʩʲʮʤʺʥʣʮʲʤʸʥʡʩʧʮʥʬʩʠʥʭʺʲʥʰʺʺʬʥʫʩʺʠʬʩʡʢʮʤʠʹʰʮʡʹʮʺʹʤʬ 
ʺʠ ʬʩʡʢʮ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮ ʬʫ ʤʦʫ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʮʺʹʤʬ ʥʮʩʫʱʩ ʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ  ʩʫ ʷʩʱʤʬ ʯʺʩʰ 
ʺʸʡʥʢʥʺʫʬʥʤʤ ʺʥʩʸʠʬʥʴʥʴʤ ʺʥʸʮʬ ʸʧʠ ʥʠ ʤʦʫ ʯʴʥʠʡ ʥʡ ʹʮʺʹʮʤ ʬʹ ʤʲʥʰʺʤ ʺʬʥʫʩ 

ʺʠ ʸʩʡʱʤʬ ʬʥʫʩ ʭʺʲʥʰʺ ʺʬʥʫʩ ʺʬʡʢʤʬ ʭʩʸʥʤʤ ʬʹ ʭʺʮʫʱʤ ʩʠ ʭʩʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹ ʬʹ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʩʠʹʰʮʡʭʩʸʥʤʬʹʺʩʱʧʩʨʲʥʮʤʹʥʮʩʹʤ  

ʠʹʰʮʤʬʹʤʸʩʢʱʩʲʶʮʠʺʴʣʲʤ 

ʥʠʣʡʺʸʩʹʷ
ʺʥʲʥʶʸ 

ʭʩʮʦʡʠ  

ʠʹʰʮʤʬʹʤʸʩʢʱʩʲʶʮʠʺʴʣʲʤʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ 

Figure 29:Distribution of Responders by Preferred Carrier Closing System  

ʩʺʥʧʩʨʡʤ ʨʡʩʤʤʮ ʯʤʥ ʩʣʥʷʴʺʤ ʨʡʩʤʤʮ ʯʤ ʤʡʥʹʧ ʤʩʢʥʱ ʠʥʤ ʠʹʰʮ ʬʹ ʤʸʩʢʱ ʩʲʶʮʠ 
ʣʥʲʡʭʩʮʦʡʠʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʸʢʱʰʤʠʹʰʮʭʩʴʩʣʲʮʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ ʩʫʣʥʮʬʬʯʺʩʰ ʭʩʹʸʺʮ 

ʭʩʮʦʡʠʡʹʥʮʩʹʤʺʥʲʥʶʸʥʠʣʡʺʸʩʹʷʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʸʢʱʰʤʠʹʰʮʭʩʴʩʣʲʮʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ  

ʺʸʩʹʷʡʹʥʮʩʹʸʡʧʮʤʬʹʤʤʥʡʢʺʥʰʩʮʠʡʩʩʧʮʪʠʤʸʩʤʮʥʤʬʷʤʧʩʺʴʥʤʸʩʢʱʸʹʴʠʮ 
ʬʲ ʭʩʱʱʥʡʮʤ ʭʩʠʹʰʮʹ ʯʥʥʩʫʮ ʤʤʥʡʢ ʺʥʰʩʮʠ ʸʸʥʲʮ ʪʠ ʸʺʥʩ ʬʡʸʥʱʮ ʬʬʫ ʪʸʣʡ ʭʩʣʡ 

ʩʫ ʣʥʮʬʬ ʯʺʩʰ ʭʩʹʸʺʡ ʤʬʥʲʤʮ ʺʩʺʥʧʩʨʡʥ ʤʬʥʴʫ ʤʸʩʹʷ ʺʮʩʩʷʺʮ ʬʬʫ ʪʸʣʡ ʤʸʩʹʷ 
ʭʩʮʦʡʠʡ ʯʥʧʨʡ ʷʩʴʱʮ ʭʩʹʧʥʹʥʮʩʹʬ ʬʷʥ ʸʩʤʮ ʤʬʩʲʰ ʯʥʸʺʴʡ ʭʩʰʩʰʥʲʮ ʭʩʸʥʤʤ ʺʩʡʸʮ 

ʣʡʬʮ ʺʸʧʠ ʤʬʩʲʰ ʺʥʸʹʴʠ ʭʲ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʩʠʹʰʮ ʷʥʹʡ ʯʩʠ ʩʫ ʯʩʩʶʬ ʡʥʹʧ ʭʤʬ ʭʩʲʶʥʮʤ 
ʤʸʩʹʷʥʠʭʩʮʦʡʠ  

ʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʬʲʢʥʰʡʺʥʩʬʬʫʺʥʣʮʲ 

ʠʹʰʮʤ ʺʷʩʣʡ ʯʥʢʫ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʩʠʹʰʮʬ ʱʧʩʡ ʭʩʸʥʤ ʬʹ ʺʥʩʬʬʫ ʺʥʣʮʲ ʺʥʲʩʴʥʮ ʤʦ ʷʸʴʡ 
ʯʩʡ ʩʱʩʴ ʲʢʮ ʺʴʣʲʤ ʭʩʸʥʤʤ ʩʰʩʲʡ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʺʥʡʩʹʧ ʤʬʢʲʬ ʤʡʩʨʰʸʨʬʠʫ 

ʠʹʰʮʤʺʥʩʺʰʴʥʠʥʭʩʩʲʡʨʭʩʸʮʥʧʺʴʣʲʤʤʸʥʤʬʠʹʰʮʡʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʤʬʢʲʬʤʡʥʨʤʡʩʨʰʸʨʬʠʠʥʤʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮ
35
30

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ

25
20
33

33

15

26

10
3

ʨʬʧʤʡʭʩʫʱʮ

ʭʩʫʱʮʩʣ

5

5

ʩʬʤʰʹʮʠʬ

ʪʫʬʫʠʬ
ʭʩʫʱʮ

ʠʬʬʬʫʡ
ʭʩʫʱʮ

0  

ʤʬʢʲʬʤʡʩʨʰʸʨʬʠʫʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʩʡʢʬʭʺʣʮʲʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ
Figure 30: Distribution of Responders by Position to Using a Baby Carrier as
Substitute for BabyTrolley  

ʭʩʮʩʫʱʮʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ ʩʫʤʬʥʲ ʭʩʹʸʺʡʤʮʫʱʤʬʲʺʥʣʩʲʮʤʺʥʣʥʮʲʤʩʺʹʸʥʡʩʧʮ 

ʺʥʣʥʮʲʤʺʠʭʩʸʡʧʮʭʠʥʬʩʠʥʤʬʢʲʬʤʡʥʨʤʡʩʨʰʸʨʬʠʠʥʤʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʩʫʤʲʩʡʷʤʭʲ 
ʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ  ʷʸ ʥʦ ʤʲʩʡʷ ʭʲ ʭʩʮʩʫʱʮ ʭʰʩʠ ʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ  ʤʮʫʱʤ ʩʠ ʬʲ ʺʥʣʩʲʮʤ 
ʩʫ ʸʫʩʰ ʥʦ ʤʲʩʡʷ ʭʲ ʭʩʸʥʤʤ ʺʩʡʸʮ ʬʹ ʤʮʫʱʤʤ ʺʥʸʮʬ 
ʠʹʥʰʡ ʤʣʮʲ ʩʸʱʧ 
ʭʰʩʤ 
ʯʤʡ ʺʥʧʴʹʮʤ ʺʥʨʲʮʹ ʯʥʥʩʫʮ ʺʥʮʩʥʱʮ ʺʥʩʶʠʥʨʩʱʡ ʷʸ ʤʬʢʲʬ ʤʡʩʨʰʸʨʬʠ ʠʥʤ ʠʹʰʮʤ 
ʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʤʹʲʰʠʬʯʤʡʺʥʧʴʹʮʤʺʥʡʸʥʬʩʠʥʷʥʰʩʺʺʬʢʲʡʹʥʮʩʹʤʹʲʰʠʬ 

ʠʹʰʮʡʩʩʣʬʩʺʠʺʠʹʬʣʥʠʮʩʬʡʥʹʧʩʬʬʫʯʴʥʠʡ
60
50

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ

40
30
50

20

39
31
20

ʨʬʧʤʡʭʩʫʱʮ

13

ʭʩʫʱʮʩʣ

17
9

ʩʬʤʰʹʮʠʬ

13

ʭʩʫʱʮʪʫʬʫʠʬ

10
4

3

ʭʩʫʱʮʠʬʬʬʫʡ

0  

ʠʹʰʮʡʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʩʹʰʬʺʱʧʥʩʮʤʺʥʡʩʹʧʤʺʣʩʮʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ
Figure 31: Distribution of Responders by Degree of Importance They Ascribe
to Carrying a Baby in a Carrier   

ʩʫ ʭʩʹʸʺʮʣʥʮʬʬʯʺʩʰʭʩʹʰʤʡʸʷʡʤʮʫʱʤʬʲʺʥʣʩʲʮʤʺʥʣʥʮʲʤʺʠʭʩʸʡʧʮʭʠ 

ʭʩʸʡʢʤʮ  ʣʥʲʡ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʺʠʩʹʰʡ ʺʮʩʥʱʮ ʺʥʡʩʹʧ ʺʥʠʥʸ ʭʩʹʰʤʮ  
ʪʸʥʶ ʭʩʡʸ ʭʩʸʷʮʡ ʺʥʹʧ ʯʮʧʸʡ ʸʡʥʲʤ ʺʠ ʺʥʠʹʥʰʹ ʺʥʤʮʠ ʠʹʥʰʬ ʭʩʹʩʣʠ ʥʬʠʹʰʹ 

ʣʥʣʩʲʬʤʫʥʦʹʠʹʥʰ±ʤʷʰʤʡʸʷʩʲʡʠʨʡʺʮʤʦʩʱʩʴʸʹʷʣʬʥʰʤʪʸʤʭʲʡʥʸʷʩʱʩʴʲʢʮʬ 
ʠʹʰʮʡʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʩʹʰʡʭʢʪʠʺʥʰʥʸʧʠʤʭʩʰʹʡʣʱʮʮʤ 

ʯʩʡ ʺʩʡʩʱʰʨʰʩʠ ʺʩʱʩʴ ʤʡʸʷ ʬʲ ʺʥʶʩʬʮʮʤ ʺʥʸʧʠ ʺʥʩʸʥʠʩʺʥʳʥʬʣʩʬ ʯʩ
ʢ ʬʹ ʳʶʸʤ ʯʥʸʷʲ 
ʺʠʩʹʰ ʬʲ ʺʧʠ ʠʬ ʺʥʶʩʬʮʮ ʯʤʥ ʺʥʰʥʸʧʠʤ ʭʩʰʹʡ ʸʺʥʩʡ ʺʥʶʥʴʰ ʥʫʴʤ ʷʥʰʩʺʬ ʤʸʥʤʤ 

ʺʬʲʡ ʤʬʥʲʴ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʺʠʩʹʰʡ ʭʥʩʫ ʭʩʠʥʸ ʭʩʡʸ ʭʩʸʥʤ ʪʫʩʴʬ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 
ʺʥʡʩʹʧ ʭʩʠʥʸ ʭʰʩʠ ʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʮ ʣʡʬʡ ʭʩʨʲʮ ʭʩʦʥʧʠ ʤʡʥʹʧ ʪʫʩʴʬʥ ʺʥʩʡʥʩʧ ʺʥʲʴʹʤ 
ʠʹʰʮʡʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʩʹʰʡ 

ʠʥʤʹʯʮʦʡʷʥʰʩʺʤʯʩʡʬʩʰʩʡʩʱʩʴʲʢʮʤʩʤʩʹʳʩʣʲʮʩʰʠ
ʠʹʰʮʡ
45
40
35

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ

30
25
40

20
31

15

25

ʨʬʧʤʡʭʩʫʱʮ 

ʭʩʫʱʮʩʣ

ʩʬʤʰʹʮʠʬ

10
2

2

ʪʫʬʫʠʬ
ʭʩʫʱʮ

ʭʩʫʱʮʠʬʬʬʫʡ

5
0 

ʠʹʩʰʤʷʥʰʩʺʤʭʲʩʱʩʴʲʢʮʺʴʣʲʤʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ

Figure 32: Distribution of Responders by Preference of Physical Contact with 
the Carried Baby  

ʺʥʧʴʸʹʴʠʬʥʭʤʩʰʩʡʵʥʶʧʬʥʠʷʥʰʩʺʬʤʸʥʤʤʯʩʡʸʩʹʩʩʱʩʴʲʢʮʸʹʴʠʬʬʥʫʩʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮ 
ʸʥʡʩʧʮʷʥʰʩʺʤʯʩʡʬʭʰʩʡʩʱʩʴʲʢʮʡʭʩʰʩʰʥʲʮʭʩʸʥʤʤʤʩʴʬʤʮʢʮʹʩʧʮʮʭʩʹʸʺʲʢʮ 

ʭʲ ʩʱʩʴ ʲʢʮ ʭʩʴʩʣʲʮ ʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ  ʩʫ ʤʬʥʲ ʤʮʫʱʤ ʺʥʣʮʲ ʬʲ ʺʥʣʩʲʮʤ ʺʥʣʥʮʲʤ 
ʺʴʥʷʺʡʸʷʩʲʡ ±ʺʥʮʮʧʺʤʬʥʺʥʧʥʰʩʠʬʭʥʸʢʬʬʥʫʩʲʢʮʤʹʳʠʬʲʺʠʦʥʠʹʩʰʤʷʥʰʩʺʤ 
ʤʩʺʥʮʥʣʥ ʳʥʬʣʩʬʯʩ
ʢ ʳʶʸʤʺʩʩʸʥʠʩʺʮʲʴʹʥʮʺʥʩʤʬʬʥʫʩʭʣʥʷʤʥʮʫʤʦʠʹʥʰʭʢʵʩʷʤ 

ʥʩʸʥʤʯʩʡʬʥʰʩʡʸʹʷʤʥʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʬʭʸʥʺʷʥʰʩʺʬʤʸʥʤʤʯʩʡʪʹʥʮʮʩʱʩʴʲʢʮʯʤʩʴʬ  

ʭʩʩʲʡʨʭʩʸʮʥʧʮʠʹʰʮʳʩʣʲʮʩʰʠ    

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ          

ʨʬʧʤʡʭʩʫʱʮ

ʭʩʫʱʮʩʣ

ʩʬʤʰʹʮʠʬ 

ʭʩʫʱʮʪʫʬʫʠʬ ʭʩʫʱʮʠʬʬʬʫʡ   

ʭʩʩʲʡʨʭʩʸʮʥʧʮʠʹʰʮʺʴʣʲʤʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ

Figure 33: Distribution of Responders by Preference to a Natural Materials 
Carrier  

ʯʩʩʣʲ ʠʹʰʮʬ ʭʩʩʲʡʨʭʩʸʮʥʧʡ ʹʥʮʩʹ ʠʹʥʰʡ ʭʩʹʩʣʠ ʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ  ʹ ʤʣʡʥʲʤ ʺʥʸʮʬ 

ʭʩʸʥʤʤʮʩʫʤʮʫʱʤʬʲʺʥʣʩʲʮʤʺʥʣʥʮʲʤʺʠʭʩʸʡʧʮʭʠʭʩʹʸʺʮʣʥʮʬʬʯʺʩʰ 

ʺʥʰʥʹ ʺʥʩʥʹʩʢʸʥ ʺʥʩʢʸʬʠʮ ʭʩʬʡʥʱ ʭʩʡʸ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺ ʩʲʡʨ ʸʮʥʧʮ ʩʥʹʲʤ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʯʩʩʰʥʲʮ ʯʫ 

ʭʩʩʲʡʨ ʭʩʸʮʥʧʡ ʹʥʮʩʹ ʺʥʧʴ ʷʩʦʮʥ ʸʺʥʩ ʯʥʫʰ ʤʠʸʰ ʩʲʡʨ ʸʮʥʧʡ ʹʥʮʩʹ ʪʫʩʴʬ ʸʥʲʡ 

ʺʥʠʩʸʡʬʲʤʸʩʮʹʬʹʡʧʸʣʰʸʨʡʺʡʬʺʹʮʥʺʸʡʢʺʮʥʺʫʬʥʤʤʮʢʮʠʩʤʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʩʸʶʥʮʬ 
ʥʺʡʩʡʱʥʭʣʠʤ

ʩʺʰʴʥʠʥʩʨʺʱʠʤʩʤʩʠʹʰʮʤʹʩʬʡʥʹʧ    

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ       

ʨʬʧʤʡʭʩʫʱʮ 

ʭʩʫʱʮʩʣ

ʩʬʤʰʹʮʠʬ 

ʭʩʫʱʮʪʫʬʫʠʬ ʭʩʫʱʮʠʬʬʬʫʡ    

ʩʺʰʴʥʠʥʩʨʺʱʠʠʹʰʮʺʴʣʲʤʩʴʬʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʥʢʬʴʺʤʭʩʹʸʺ
Figure 34: Distribution of Responders by Preference to an Aesthetic and 
Fashionable Carrier   

ʤʶʷ ʺʥʲʣ ʩʬʲʡ ʭʤ ʭʩʨʲʮʥ ʠʹʰʮʤ ʤʠʸʮʬ ʲʢʥʰʡ ʭʩʹʩʣʠ ʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ  ʬʥʣʢ ʦʥʧʠ 
ʬʹ ʣʥʮʬʬ ʯʺʩʰʤʮʫʱʤ ʩʠʥ ʤʮʫʱʤ ʬʲ ʺʥʣʩʲʮʤ ʺʥʣʥʮʲʤ ʺʠ ʭʩʴʸʶʮ ʭʠ ʠʹʥʰʡ 
ʯʺʩʰ ʡʥʹʧ ʠʬ ʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ  ʬ ʥʬʩʠʥ ʩʺʰʴʠʥ ʩʨʺʱʠ ʤʩʤʩ ʠʹʰʮʤʹ ʡʥʹʧ ʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ 

ʤʣʡʥʲʤ ʺʥʸʮʬ ʺʠʦʥʩʬʥʹ ʠʹʥʰ ʠʥʤʠʹʰʮʤ ʤʠʸʮ ʭʩʸʥʤʤ ʩʰʩʲʡ ʩʫ  ʭʩʹʸʺʮ ʣʥʮʬʬ 
ʪʸʲ ʹʩ ʠʹʰʮʤ ʤʠʸʮʬ ʤʸʩʫʮʤ ʣʮʲʮʡʹ ʯʡʥʮʫ ʩʺʰʴʥʠ ʣʰʸʨ ʠʥʤ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʤʹ 

ʸʺʥʩʭʩʡʥʹʧʤʠʸʰʫʣʥʷʴʺʤʩʮʸʥʢʭʩʹʮʺʹʮʤʭʩʸʥʤʤʩʰʩʲʡʩʫʭʠʬʥʣʢ  

ʭʩʩʨʱʩʨʨʱʭʩʸʹʷ 

ʸʴʱʮ ʥʲʶʡʺʤ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʤ ʩʴʥʠ ʬʲ ʭʩʸʧʠʥ ʥʬʠʫ ʭʩʮʸʥʢ ʬʹ ʺʥʲʴʹʤ ʷʥʣʡʬ ʩʣʫʡ 
ʸʷʧʮʤʩʰʺʹʮʯʩʡʭʩʸʹʷʸʥʺʩʠʬʺʥʩʨʱʩʨʨʱʺʥʷʩʣʡ 

ʥʷʣʡʰʹʭʩʸʹʷʤ 

ʯʢʠʭʩʩʴʺʫʯʥʺʧʺʯʥʩʬʲʡʢʩʡʠʫ±ʠʹʰʮʤʩʲʠʹʥʰʬʭʩʮʸʢʰʹʭʩʰʥʹʭʩʡʠʫʯʩʡʸʹʷ  
ʬʷʹʮʥʤʡʥʢʳʥʢʤʰʡʮʭʩʩʱʩʴʤʥʩʰʩʩʴʠʮʯʩʡʬʭʩʸʧʠʥʠ 

ʥʬʹʩʱʩʴʤʤʰʡʮʤʯʩʡʬʤʸʥʤʬʥʮʸʢʰʹʭʩʰʥʹʭʩʡʠʫʯʩʡʩʨʱʩʨʨʱʸʹʷʬʫʠʶʮʰʠʬ 
ʤʠʩʹʰʤ ʺʧʥʰʺ ʯʩʡʬ ʬʷʹʮʥ ʤʡʥʢ ʳʥʢ ʤʰʡʮ  ʤʸʥʤʤ ʬʹ ʭʩʩʱʩʴʤ ʥʩʰʩʩʴʠʮ ʯʩʡ ʸʹʷ  
ʥʩʬʲʺʴʣʲʥʮʤ 

ʤʸʥʤʤ ʬʷʹʮ ʯʩʡ ʭʩʷʤʡʥʮ ʭʩʩʨʱʩʨʨʱ ʭʩʸʹʷ ʸʴʱʮ ʭʩʮʩʩʷ ʩʫ ʤʬʲ ʥʦ ʤʷʩʣʡʡ 

ʤʠʩʹʰʺʧʥʰʺʬʲʢʥʰʡʥʩʺʥʴʣʲʤʬ            

ʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʩʹʰʬʤʴʣʲʤʬʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮʯʩʡʸʹʷʤ

80
70
60

40

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ

50

30

ʢʷ40-59ʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮʮ

20

ʢʷ60-79ʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮ

10

ʢʷ80-100ʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮ

0
ʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʷʥʰʩʺʤ
ʤʶʥʧʤ

ʺʸʧʠʤʧʥʰʺʡʷʥʰʩʺʤ  

ʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʩʹʰʬʥʺʴʣʲʤʬʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮʯʩʡʸʹʷʭʩʹʸʺ
Figure 35: Correlation between Parent Weight and his Preference to Carrying 
the Baby Facing Outwards  

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʺʠʹʬʥʺʴʣʲʤʤʬʣʢʪʫʤʸʥʤʤʬʹʥʬʷʹʮʬʣʢʹʬʫʫʩʫʣʥʮʬʬʯʺʩʰʭʩʹʸʺʤʮ 

ʠʩʤʤʮʢʮʤʭʹʺʥʸʧʠʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺʭʩʴʩʣʲʮʤ ʭʩʸʥʤʬʣʥʢʩʰʡʺʠʦʥʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤʭʲ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʺʠ ʺʠʹʬ ʧʥʰ ʹʩʢʸʮ ʪʫʩʴʬʥ ʯʥʧʨʡ ʸʺʥʩ ʹʧ ʤʥʡʢ ʬʷʹʮʡ ʤʸʥʤʥ ʯʫʺʩ  ʤʫʥʴʤ 

ʺʠʺʠʹʬʥʺʴʣʲʤʬʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮʯʩʡʩʨʱʩʨʨʱʤʸʹʷʤʺʥʷʤʡʥʮʺʰʰʥʢʮʺʥʧʴʤʧʥʰʺʡ 

!Pʫʺʣʣʮʰʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʷʥʰʩʺʤ  

ʤʮʩʰʴʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʩʹʰʬʤʴʣʲʤʬʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮʯʩʡʸʹʷʤ

80
70
60

40

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ

50

30

ʢʷ40-59ʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮʮ

20

ʢʷ60-79ʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮ

10

ʢʷ80-100ʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮ

0
ʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʷʥʰʩʺ
ʤʸʥʤʬ

ʤʧʥʰʺʡʷʥʰʩʺʤ
ʺʸʧʠ 

ʤʮʩʰʴʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʩʹʰʬʥʺʴʣʲʤʬʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮʯʩʡʸʹʷʭʩʹʸʺ 

Figure 3: Correlation between Parent Weight and his Preference to Carrying
the Baby Facing Inwards  

ʺʠʺʠʹʬʥʺʴʣʲʤʤʬʣʢʪʫʤʸʥʤʤʬʹʥʬʷʹʮʣʸʥʩʹʬʫʫʩʫʣʥʮʬʬʯʺʩʰʭʩʹʸʺʮ 

ʥʩʬʲʯʥʲʹʥʤʸʥʤʤʬʠʥʩʰʴʭʲʷʥʰʩʺʤʤʡʥʦʤʠʩʹʰʺʧʥʰʺʥʯʫʺʩʤʮʩʰʴʭʩʰʴʤʭʤʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʸʹʠʪʥʮʰʬʷʹʮʩʬʲʡʭʩʸʥʤʡʸʷʡʸʺʥʩʺʬʡʥʷʮʯʫʬʥʤʸʥʤʤʬʹʥʴʥʢʬʲʺʥʧʴʤʱʩʮʲʮ 

ʥʺʴʣʲʤʬʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮʯʩʡʩʨʱʩʨʨʱʤʸʹʷʤʸʺʥʩʤʥʡʢʱʮʥʲʤʮʬʥʡʱʬʭʤʬʹʬʠʩʶʰʨʥʴʤ 
!Pʬʹʺʩʨʱʩʨʱʱʺʥʷʡʥʮʡʠʶʮʰʤʮʩʰʴʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʺʠʹʬ    

ʬʥʱʸʩʲʺʧʥʰʺʡʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʩʹʰʬʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮʯʩʡʸʹʷ

90
80
70

50
40

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ

60

30

ʢʷ40-59ʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮʮ

20

ʢʷ60-79ʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮ

10

ʢʷ80-100ʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮ

0
ʺʧʥʰʺʡʷʥʰʩʺʤ
ʬʥʱʸʩʲ 

ʤʧʥʰʺʡʷʥʰʩʺʤ
ʺʸʧʠ  

ʬʥʱʸʩʲʺʧʥʰʺʡʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʩʹʰʬʥʺʴʣʲʤʬʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮʯʩʡʸʹʷʭʩʹʸʺ
Figure 3: Correlation between Parent Weight and his Preference to Carrying
the Baby Snuggled  

ʺʠ ʺʠʹʬ ʥʺʴʣʲʤ ʤʬʣʢ ʪʫ ʸʺʥʩ ʪʥʮʰ ʤʸʥʤʤ ʬʷʹʮʹ ʬʫʫ ʩʫ  ʭʩʹʸʺʮ ʣʥʮʬʬ ʯʺʩʰ 

ʺʠ ʺʠʹʬ ʤʴʣʲʤʤ ʺʠ ʺʰʩʩʴʠʮʤ ʤʫʥʴʤʤ ʤʮʢʮʬ ʣʥʢʩʰʡ ʺʠʦʥ ʬʥʱʸʩʲ ʺʧʥʰʺʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 
ʬʥʱʸʩʲʺʧʥʰʺʡʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʩʹʰʬʤʴʣʲʤʬʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮʯʩʡʸʹʷʤʺʸʧʠʤʧʥʰʺʡʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʤʡ ʬʥʱʸʩʲ ʺʧʥʰʺ Fisher's Exact ʯʧʡʮʡ !P ʬʹ ʺʩʨʱʩʨʨʱ ʺʥʷʤʡʥʮʡ ʠʶʮʰ 

ʪʸʥʶʭʩʠʶʥʮʸʺʥʩʪʥʮʰʬʷʹʮʩʬʲʡʭʩʸʥʤ ʪʫʩʴʬʩʬʥʠʥʸʺʥʩʺʰʰʥʢʮʫʺʱʴʺʰʡʥʫʹʷʥʰʩʺʤ 
ʤʡʹʮʺʹʤʬ  

ʺʴʣʲʥʮʤ ʤʠʩʹʰʤ ʺʧʥʰʺ ʯʩʡʬ ʠʹʰʮʤ ʩʲ ʠʹʥʰʬ ʥʮʸʢʰʹ ʭʩʰʥʹ ʭʩʡʠʫ ʯʩʡ ʸʹʷ  
ʠʹʰʮʡʩʸʷʩʲʹʥʮʩʹʥ  

ʺʥʧʥʰʺ ʬʫ ʯʩʡʬ ʭʥʸʢʬ ʬʥʫʩ ʠʹʰʮʤʹ ʭʩʰʥʹʤ ʭʩʡʠʫʤ ʩʢʥʱ ʬʫ ʯʩʡ ʥʰʧʡʰ ʭʩʡʸ ʭʩʸʹʷ 

ʤʬʲʥʦʤʴʩʷʮʤʷʩʣʡʮʠʹʰʮʡʭʩʹʮʺʹʮʭʩʸʥʤʭʤʡʭʩʹʥʮʩʹʤʬʫʥʺʥʴʣʲʥʮʤʤʠʩʹʰʤ 

ʯʩʡʬʺʩʡʡʺʥʣʥʡʲʬʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʯʩʡ P<0.001ʺʥʷʤʡʥʮʡ ʣʧʠʷʤʡʥʮʩʨʱʩʨʨʱʸʹʷ 
ʯʥʩʬʲʤʡʢʤʸʥʦʠʡʠʹʰʮʤʩʲʥʮʸʢʰʹʭʩʡʠʫ 

ʯʥʩʬʲʤʡʢʡʭʩʡʠʫʯʩʡʬʺʩʡʺʥʣʥʡʲʬʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʯʩʡʸʹʷʤ

82

90
80
70
60

56
44

50

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ

40
18

30
20

ʭʩʸʧʠʭʩʹʥʮʩʹ

10
0

ʺʩʡʡʺʥʣʥʡʲʲʥʶʩʡʬʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹ
ʯʥʩʬʲʤʡʢʡʭʩʡʠʫ

ʯʥʩʬʲʤʡʢʡʭʩʡʠʫʠʬʬ  

ʤʸʥʤʤʬʹʯʥʩʬʲʤʡʢʡʭʩʡʠʫʯʩʡʬʺʩʡʺʥʣʥʡʲʬʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʯʩʡʸʹʷʭʩʹʸʺ
Figure 38: Correlation between Using the Carrier for Household Chores and
Parent’s Upper Back Pains 
ʺʩʡʡ ʺʥʣʥʡʲ ʲʥʶʩʡʬ ʸʷʩʲʡ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʭʩʹʮʺʹʮʤ ʭʩʸʥʤʤ ʯʩʡʮ ʩʫ ʤʬʥʲ ʭʩʹʸʺʤʮ 
ʲʥʶʩʡ ʯʥʩʬʲʤ ʡʢʤ ʸʥʦʠʡ ʭʤʬ ʭʸʥʢ ʠʹʰʮʤʹ ʭʩʡʠʫ ʬʲ ʭʩʧʥʥʣʮ   ʺʩʶʧʮ ʬʲʮ 

ʷʥʰʩʺ ʭʲ ʣʧʩ ʯʺʥʠ ʭʩʲʶʡʮ ʭʠ ʩʠʣʥʥʡʥ ʡʢ ʩʡʠʫʬ ʭʥʸʢʬ ʺʥʬʥʫʩ ʯʮʶʲʬʹʫ ʺʩʡʡ ʺʥʣʥʡʲ 
ʠʹʰʮʡ  

ʬʲ ʭʩʩʲʡʨ ʭʩʸʮʥʧ ʺʴʣʲʤ ʺʮʸʯʩʡʬ ʵʩʷʡ ʠʹʰʮʤ ʸʥʸʥʥʠʬ ʺʥʡʩʹʧʤ ʺʮʸ ʯʩʡ ʸʹʷ  
ʺʰʺʩʰʤ ʺʥʡʩʹʧʤ ʺʮʸ  ʯʩʡ ʭʩʸʥʤʤ ʬʶʠ ʩʬʠʥʨʴʱʰʥʷ ʸʹʷ ʭʩʩʷʺʩ ʩʫ ʤʫʸʲʤʤ ʪʮʱ 

ʸʹʷʤ ʷʣʡʰ ʭʩʩʲʡʨ ʭʩʸʮʥʧʮ ʩʥʹʲʤ ʠʹʰʮ ʭʺʴʣʲʤ ʯʩʡʬ ʵʩʷʡ ʠʹʰʮʤ ʸʥʸʥʥʠʬ 
P<0.01ʬʹʺʩʨʱʩʨʨʱʺʥʷʤʡʥʮʡʠʶʮʰʥ

ʭʩʩʲʡʨʭʩʸʮʥʧʮʠʹʰʮʺʴʣʲʤʯʩʡʬʤʲʩʦʤʳʥʣʩʰʺʬʥʫʩʺʥʡʩʹʧʯʩʡʸʹʷʤ
45
40
35

25
20

ʭʩʡʩʹʮʸʴʱʮ

30

15
10
5
ʤʲʩʦʳʥʣʩʰʬʤʤʥʡʢʺʥʡʩʹʧ
ʹʩʣʠ

0

ʤʲʩʦʳʥʣʩʰʬʤʫʥʮʰʺʥʡʩʹʧ
ʤʴʣʲʤ
ʤʫʥʮʰ
ʭʩʸʮʥʧʬ
ʭʩʩʲʡʨ

ʪʫʬʫʠʬ
ʯʩʩʰʥʲʮ
ʭʩʸʮʥʧʡ
ʭʩʩʲʡʨ

ʹʩʣʠ

ʤʴʣʲʤ
ʯʩʩʰʥʲʮʩʣ ʤʤʥʡʢ
ʭʩʸʮʥʧʡ ʭʩʸʮʥʧʬ
ʭʩʩʲʡʨ ʭʩʩʲʡʨ 

ʭʩʩʲʡʨʭʩʸʮʥʧʮʠʹʰʮʺʴʣʲʤʯʩʡʬʤʲʩʦʤʳʥʣʩʰʺʬʥʫʩʺʥʡʩʹʧʯʩʡʸʹʷʭʩʹʸʺ
Figure 39: Correlation between Importance of Absorbance Ability and
Preference of Natural Materials for the Carrier 
ʠʹʰʮʬ ʭʩʸʥʤʤ ʩʰʩʲʡ ʺʥʡʩʹʧʤ ʤʬʥʲʹ ʬʫʫ ʩʫ ʤʸʥʸʡ ʺʩʴʸʢ ʤʸʥʶʡ ʺʥʠʸʬ ʯʺʩʰ ʭʩʹʸʺʡ 
ʭʩʩʲʡʨ ʭʩʸʮʥʧʬ ʭʩʩʲʡʨ ʭʩʸʮʥʧʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʬ ʭʺʴʣʲʤ ʤʬʥʲ ʪʫ ʤʲʩʦ ʳʥʣʩʰʬ ʺʬʥʫʩ ʬʲʡ 

ʤʲʩʦʺʥʧʴʭʩʸʡʥʶʥʸʺʥʩʭʩʸʸʥʥʠʮʬʹʺʩʮʣʺʤʠʸʰʫʺʮʩʩʷ  

ʠʹʰʮʡʳʱʥʰʣʥʩʶʺʠʩʹʰʬʺʥʸʹʴʠʭʥʩʷʺʴʣʲʤʯʩʡʬʠʹʰʮʡʩʸʷʩʲʹʥʮʩʹʯʩʡʸʹʷ  

ʳʱʥʰ ʣʥʩʶ ʺʠʩʹʰʬ ʺʥʸʹʴʠ ʠʹʰʮʬ ʳʩʱʥʤʬ ʤʩʤʩ ʩʠʣʫ ʯʤʡ ʺʥʡʩʱʰʤ ʺʠ ʷʥʣʡʬ ʩʣʫʡ 

ʥʺʴʣʲʤʬʠʹʰʮʡʤʸʥʤʤʬʹʩʸʷʩʲʤʹʥʮʩʹʤʯʩʡʸʹʷʤʷʣʡʰ ʤʮʥʣʫʥʭʩ
ʶʥʠʴʭʩʱʩʫ 

ʷʤʡʥʮ ʩʨʱʩʨʨʱ ʸʹʷ ʠʶʮʰ ʠʹʰʮʤ ʩʡʢ ʬʲ ʳʱʥʰ ʣʥʩʶ ʺʠʩʹʰʬ ʺʥʸʹʴʠ ʭʩʩʷʺʺʹ 
ʳʱʥʰʣʥʩʶʺʠʩʹʰʺʥʸʹʴʠʬʤʴʣʲʤʯʩʡʬʤʫʩʬʤʬʥʩʨʬʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʯʩʡ P<0.01 
ʠʹʰʮʡʩʸʷʩʲʹʥʮʩʹʯʩʡʬʳʱʥʰʣʥʩʶʺʠʩʹʰʬʺʥʸʹʴʠʺʴʣʲʤʯʩʡʸʹʷʤ
ʤʫʩʬʤʬʥʩʨʬ

60
50

30

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ

40

20
10
0

ʸʧʠʩʸʷʩʲʹʥʮʩʹ
ʤʫʩʬʤʬʥʩʨʬʩʸʷʩʲʹʥʮʩʹ
ʤʴʣʲʤ
ʤʤʥʡʢ
ʺʥʸʹʴʠʬ
ʣʥʩʶʺʠʩʹʰ
ʳʱʥʰ

ʯʩʩʰʥʲʮʩʣ
ʺʥʸʹʴʠʡ
ʣʥʩʶʺʠʩʹʰʬ
ʳʱʥʰ

ʹʩʣʠ

ʤʴʣʲʤʯʩʠ
ʪʫʬʫʠʬ ʺʥʸʹʴʠʬ
ʯʩʩʰʥʲʮ
ʣʥʩʶʺʠʩʹʰ
ʺʥʸʹʴʠʡ
ʳʱʥʰ
ʣʥʩʶʺʠʩʹʰʬ
ʳʱʥʰ 

ʠʹʰʮʡʩʸʷʩʲʹʥʮʩʹʯʩʡʬʳʱʥʰʣʥʩʶʺʠʩʹʰʬʺʥʸʹʴʠʺʴʣʲʤʯʩʡʸʹʷʭʩʹʸʺ  

ʤʫʩʬʤʬʥʩʨʬ

Figure 40: Correlation between Preference of Adding Equipment to the Carrier
and Using the Carrier Mainly for Walking/Traveling  

ʺʮʩʩʷʤʫʩʬʤʬʥʩʨʬʸʷʩʲʡʠʹʰʮʡʭʩʹʮʺʹʮʤʭʩʸʥʤʤʡʸʷʡʩʫʭʩʹʸʺʮʣʥʮʬʬʯʺʩʰ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʭʲ ʤʡʸʤ ʭʩʫʬʥʤʹ ʭʩʸʥʤ ʠʹʰʮʬ ʳʱʥʰ ʣʥʩʶ ʺʠʩʹʰʬ ʺʥʸʹʴʠʬ ʤʤʥʡʢ ʤʴʣʲʤ 

ʺʥʸʹʴʠʤʭʥʩʷʬʸʺʥʩʭʩʷʥʷʦʪʫʩʴʬʥʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʩʹʰʡʭʩʫʹʥʮʮʯʮʦʩʷʸʴʭʩʬʡʮʠʹʰʮʡ 

ʠʹʰʮʤʩʡʢʬʲʳʱʥʰʣʥʩʶʺʠʩʹʰʬ   

ʱʮʥʲʤʭʥʷʩʮʺʴʣʲʤʯʩʡʬʠʹʰʮʡʩʸʷʩʲʹʥʮʩʹʯʩʡʸʹʷ  

ʬʷʹʮ ʬʹ ʱʮʥʲʤ ʡʸʩʮ ʭʥʷʩʮʬ ʲʢʥʰʡ ʭʩʸʥʤʤ ʬʹ ʭʤʩʺʥʴʣʲʤ ʺʠ ʯʩʡʤʬ ʤʸʨʮʡ 

ʠʹʰʮʤ ʬʹ ʭʩʰʥʹʤ ʭʩʹʥʮʩʹʡ ʭʩʩʴʺʫ ʥʠ ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮ ʯʢʠ ʯʥʺʧʺʤ ʡʢʤ ʬʲ  ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʡʸʩʮ ʺʴʣʲʤ ʯʩʡ P<0.001  ʷʤʡʥʮ ʨʱʩʨʨʱ ʸʹʷ ʭʩʩʷʺʮ ʩʫ ʠʶʮʰ ʤʦ ʸʹʷ ʷʣʡʰ 

ʺʥʩʰʷʥʭʩʸʥʣʩʱʬʸʷʩʲʡʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʯʩʡʬʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʬʲʱʮʥʲʤ

ʺʥʩʰʷʥʭʩʸʥʣʩʱʬʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʯʩʡʬʭʩʩʴʺʫʬʲʱʮʥʲʤʡʸʩʮʺʴʣʲʤʯʩʡʸʹʷʤ

80
72

70

58

60
42

40
28

ʭʩʦʥʧʠ

50

30
20

ʭʩʸʧʠʺʥʮʥʷʮʡʱʮʥʲʤʡʸʩʮʺʴʣʲʤ

10

ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʬʲʱʮʥʲʤʡʸʩʮʺʴʣʲʤ

0
ʭʩʸʥʣʩʱʬʩʸʷʩʲʹʥʮʩʹ
ʺʥʩʰʷʥ

ʸʧʠʩʸʷʩʲʹʥʮʩʹ 

ʭʩʸʥʣʩʱʬʸʷʩʲʡʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʬʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʬʲʱʮʥʲʤʡʸʩʮʺʴʣʲʤʯʩʡʸʹʷʭʩʹʸʺ 
ʺʥʩʰʷʥ

Figure 41: Correlation between Preference of Placing Most of the Load on the
Shoulders, and Using the Carrier Mainly for Arrangements & Shopping  

ʭʡʥʸ ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤ ʬʲ ʱʮʥʲʤ ʡʸʩʮ ʺʠ ʭʩʴʩʣʲʮʤ ʭʩʸʥʤʤ ʯʩʡʮ ʩʫ ʣʥʮʬʬ ʯʺʩʰ ʭʩʹʸʺʤʮ 

ʸʷʩʲʡ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʭʩʹʮʺʹʮʤ ʭʩʸʥʤ ʺʥʩʰʷʥ ʭʩʸʥʣʩʱʬ ʸʷʩʲʡ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹ ʭʩʹʥʲ 
ʺʥʩʴʺʫʩʠʹʰʮʡʥʸʬʭʤ ʥʬʠʭʩʠʹʰʮʤʸʱʤʥʤʹʩʡʬʬʬʷʠʹʰʮʬʭʩʷʥʷʦʺʥʩʰʷʥʭʩʸʥʣʩʱʬ 

±ʺʸʫʥʮʤʩʶʠʥʨʩʱʳʩʣʲʤʬʭʩʨʥʰʭʩʸʥʤʤʩʫʠʩʤʤʧʰʤʤʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʬʲʱʮʥʲʤʺʩʡʸʮʭʤʡ 
ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʬʲʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʷʹʮʡʸʩʮʺʠʱʩʮʲʮʥʺʥʩʰʷʥʭʩʸʥʣʩʱʩʹʥʮʩʹʬʭʤʬʧʥʰʹʠʹʰʮ  

ʺʴʣʲʥʮʤʠʩʹʰʺʧʥʰʺʯʩʡʬʠʹʰʮʡʩʸʷʩʲʤʹʥʮʩʹʤʯʩʡʸʹʷ   

ʠʹʰʮʡ ʭʩʩʥʱʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʬ ʺʮʩʩʥʱʮʤʠʩʹʰ ʺʧʥʰʺ ʬʹ ʤʴʣʲʤ ʺʮʩʩʷ ʭʠʤ ʣʥʮʬʬ ʩʣʫʡ 
ʲʥʶʩʡ ʺʥʩʰʷʥ ʭʩʸʥʣʩʱ ʤʫʩʬʤʬʥʩʨ ± ʠʹʰʮʡ ʭʩʩʸʷʩʲʤ ʭʩʹʥʮʩʹʤ ʯʩʡ ʭʩʸʹʷʤ ʥʷʣʡʰ 

ʬʠ ʭʩʸʧʠ ʭʩʹʥʮʩʹ ʥʠ ʺʩʸʥʡʩʶ ʤʸʥʡʧʺʡ ʤʲʩʱʰ ʤʫʥʡ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʲʢʸʤ ʺʩʡʡ ʺʥʣʥʡʲ 
ʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤʤʸʥʤʬʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʷʥʰʩʺʤ ±ʭʩʸʥʤʤʬʲʺʥʴʣʲʥʮʤʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺʬʥʮ 

ʯʩʡ ʭʩʷʤʡʥʮ ʭʩʩʨʱʩʨʨʱ ʭʩʸʹʷ ʥʠʶʮʰ ʠʬ ʤʸʥʤʤ ʡʢ ʬʲ ʥʠ ʯʺʥʮʤ ʬʲ ʡʥʹʩ ʬʥʱʸʩʲ 
ʥʬʠʺʥʶʥʡʷʩʺʹ  

AHPʺʷʩʰʫʨʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʯʥʫʰʸʶʥʮʮʺʥʹʩʸʣʩʥʴʩʮ 

ʠʹʰʮ ʯʥʫʩʺʬ ʭʩʲʩʸʫʮʤ ʭʩʸʨʮʸʴʤ ʬʹ ʭʩʱʧʩʤ ʢʸʣʮ ʡʥʹʩʧ ʺʥʠʶʥʺ ʺʥʲʩʴʥʮ ʤʦ ʷʸʴʡ 
ʩʰʹʪʮʱʬʲʯʧʡʮʡʥʣʮʲʤʦʬʥʮʤʦʥʰʧʡʰʹʭʩʰʥʩʸʨʩʸʷʣʮʶʬʫAHPʺʷʩʰʫʨʩʴʬʲʷʥʰʩʺ 
ʷʥʹʸʷʱʥʩʲʥʶʷʮʲʣʩʭʩʩʸʷʩʲʺʥʸʥʷʮ 

ʤʤʫʯʥʥʢʡʭʩʹʢʣʥʮʸʺʥʩʡʤʥʡʢʤʯʥʩʶʤʺʠʥʬʡʩʷʹʭʩʸʨʮʸʴʤ   

ʺʥʠʶʥʺ 

ʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʺʥʹʩʸʣ  

ʤʸʥʤʬʭʩʰʴ 

ʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴ 

ʭʩʰʴ 

ʤʸʥʤʬ 
/ 

ʭʩʰʴ 

ʤʶʥʧʤ 

ʬʥʱʸʲ 

ʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺ 

ʬʥʱʸʲ  ʯʺʥʮʤʬʲ 

/ 
/ 

ʩʮʶʲ 

/ 

/ 

/  

/ 

/ 

/  

/ 

ʯʺʥʮʤʬʲ 

ʸʥʨʷʥ 

ʡʢʤʬʲ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

ʡʢʤʬʲ  

/ 

ʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺʠʹʥʰʡʺʥʩʥʴʩʣʲʤʢʸʣʮʡʥʹʩʧʤʬʡʨ  

/ 

Table 1 :Calculating Priority Hierarchy According to Carrying Posture   

ʷʥʰʩʺʡʺʥʫʩʮʺ 

ʡʢʺʫʩʮʺ 
ʡʢʺʫʩʮʺ 

ʹʠʸʺʫʩʮʺ 

ʭʩʩʬʢʸʤʷʱʴʮʡʤʫʩʮʺ 

/ 

ʺʫʩʮʺ 

ʹʠʸ 
/ 

ʤʫʩʮʺ 

ʷʱʴʮʡ  ʩʮʶʲʸʥʨʷʥ 

ʭʩʩʬʢʸʤ 

/ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʡʺʥʫʩʮʺʠʹʥʰʡʺʥʩʥʴʩʣʲʤʢʸʣʮʡʥʹʩʧʤʬʡʨ 

/  

/ 

 

/ 

Table 2 :Calculating Priority Hierarchy According to Baby Support     

ʬʲ ʱʮʥʲ ʬʲ ʱʮʥʲ ʬʲ 
ʡʢʤ 

ʯʥʺʧʺʤʡʢʤʬʲʱʮʥʲ 

/ 

ʯʢʠʤʬʲʱʮʥʲ 

ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤʬʲʱʮʥʲ 

ʤʸʥʤʤʬʲʱʮʥʲʺʷʥʬʧ

ʱʮʥʲ ʬʲ

ʱʮʥʲ 

ʯʢʠʤ 

ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤ 

ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤ 

/ 

/ 

/

ò 

/ 
/ 

ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʬʲʱʮʥʲ 

ʩʮʶʲʸʥʨʷʥ 

/  

/  

/ 

ʤʸʥʤʤʬʲʱʮʥʲʺʷʥʬʧʠʹʥʰʡʺʥʩʥʴʩʣʲʤʢʸʣʮʡʥʹʩʧʤʬʡʨ  

Table 3 :Calculating Priority Hierarchy According to Parent Load Distribution 

ʣʥʷʴʺʺʥʹʩʸʣ 
ʺʥʸʹʴʠ 

ʺʠʩʹʰʬ 

ʳʱʥʰʣʥʩʶ 

ʣʥʩʶ 

ʺʥʸʹʴʠ 

ʤʰʩʲʨ

ʺʠʩʹʰʬ 
ʳʱʥʰ

ʺʥʬʷ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʷʩʸʴʥ 

ʤʮʩʺʸ

ʺʥʬʷ 

ʤʸʱʤʥ 

ʤʸʥʤ ʩʱʩʴ ʲʢʮ 
ʷʥʰʩʺ 

ʤʰʡʮʬ ʤʮʠʺʤ 
ʩʸʡʢʥʠʩʹʰʳʥʢ 

ʯʥʰʥʥʫʥ ʤʮʠʺʤ 

ʤʶʷʺʥʣʩʮʬ 

ʭʥʧ ʩʰʴʮ ʤʰʢʤ 

ʺʥʧʬʥ 

/ 

ʺʥʬʷ 

ʤʰʩʲʨ 

ʺʷʩʸʴʥ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʺʥʬʷ 

ʤʮʩʺʸ 

ʤʸʱʤʥ 

ʲʢʮ 

ʩʱʩʴ 

ʤʮʠʺʤ 

ʤʰʡʮʬ 

ʤʮʠʺʤ 

ʯʥʰʥʥʫʥ 

ʤʸʥʤ 

ʥʠʩʹʰʳʥʢ 

ʺʥʣʩʮʬ 

ʷʥʰʩʺ 

ʩʸʡʢ 

ʤʶʷ 

ʤʰʢʤ 

ʩʰʴʮʤʰʢʤ 

ʺʥʧʬʥ 

ʺʥʧʥʸʥ 

ʭʥʧ ʩʰʴʮ 

ʸʥʨʷʥ 
ʩʮʶʲ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/

1/2  

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/  

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/  

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/  

/ 

/ 

/ 

/  

/ 

/ 

/  

/ 

/  

/  

ʸʥʷ ʩʰʴʮ ʤʰʢʤ 

ʺʥʧʥʸʥ 

ʸʥʷ 

ʣʥʷʴʺʺʥʹʩʸʣʠʹʥʰʡʺʥʩʥʴʩʣʲʤʢʸʣʮʡʥʹʩʧʤʬʡʨ

Table 4 :Calculating Priority Hierarchy According to Functioning Requests  

ʺʥʰʩʮʠ 

ʭʩʸʡʧʮ 
ʭʩʸʡʧʮʺʥʰʩʮʠ 

ʩʴʥʸʩʠʯʷʺʥʺʡʤʣʩʮʲ 

ʺʥʰʩʴʥʺʥʥʶʷʠʬʬ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʬʤʸʥʤʤʯʩʡʯʩʲʸʹʷ 

ʭʩʠʩʸʡʥʭʩʩʺʥʧʩʨʡʭʩʸʮʥʧ 

/ 

ʤʣʩʮʲ 

ʯʷʺ ʥʺʡ 

ʠʬʬ ʯʩʲ ʸʹʷ 

ʺʥʥʶʷ ʤʸʥʤʤʯʩʡ 

ʩʴʥʸʩʠ 

ʺʥʰʩʴʥ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʬ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 
/ 

/ 

ʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʥʹʩʸʣ 
ʭʩʸʮʥʧ 

ʸʥʨʷʥ 

ʭʩʩʺʥʧʩʨʡ 

ʭʩʠʩʸʡʥ 

/  

/  

/ 

/ 
/ 

/ 

ʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʠʹʥʰʡʺʥʩʥʴʩʣʲʤʢʸʣʮʡʥʹʩʧʤʬʡʨ 

ʩʮʶʲ 

/    

Table 5 :Calculating Priority Hierarchy According to Safety Requirements  

ʺʥʰʷʱʮ 

ʯʤʸʺʥʩʡʺʥʡʥʹʧʤʺʥʹʩʸʣʤ  

ʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʺʥʹʩʸʣ 

ʭʲʡʥʹʩʷʥʰʩʺʤʤʸʥʤʤʬʠʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʡʥʹʩʷʥʰʩʺʤʸʺʥʩʡʺʥʡʥʹʧʤʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺ  
ʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤ 

ʥʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺʠʩʤʷʥʰʩʺʡʸʺʥʩʡʺʩʺʥʲʮʹʮʤʤʫʩʮʺ  

ʯʢʠʤʬʲʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʷʹʮʮʸʺʥʩʹʤʮʫʱʩʮʲʮʤʤʦʫʪʩʸʶʠʹʥʰʤʤʸʥʤʤʬʲʱʮʥʲʤʸʥʦʩʴ  
ʤʸʥʤʤʬʹ  

ʣʥʷʴʺʺʥʹʩʸʣ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʷʩʸʴʥʤʰʩʲʨʺʥʬʷ  

ʠʹʰʮʤʬʹʤʸʱʤʥʤʹʩʡʬʺʥʬʷ  

ʺʥʧʬʥʭʥʧʩʰʴʮʤʰʢʤ   

ʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʥʹʩʸʣ 

ʺʸʧʠʺʩʺʥʧʩʨʡʤʹʩʸʣʬʫʮʸʺʥʩʤʡʥʹʧʭʩʸʡʧʮʤʺʥʰʩʮʠ  

ʭʩʠʶʮʮʡʯʥʩʣ 

ʭʩʩʺʥʡʸʺ ʭʩʬʣʡʤ ʩʫ ʸʫʩʰ ʪʠ ʭʬʥʲʡ ʭʩʡʧʸʰ ʭʩʸʥʦʠʡ ʬʡʥʷʮ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹ 

ʭʩʸʥʦʠʡʥ ʩʹʩʬʹʤ ʭʬʥʲʤ ʺʥʰʩʣʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʺʠʩʹʰ ʯʴʥʠ ʬʲ ʺʩʺʥʲʮʹʮ ʤʸʥʶʡ ʭʩʲʩʴʹʮ 

ʺʠ ʲʶʡʬʥ ʣʥʡʲʬ ʤʬ ʺʸʹʴʠʮʤ ʤʸʥʶʡ ʯʮʠ ʡʢ ʬʲ ʭʩʠʹʩʰ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʭʬʥʲʡ ʭʩʧʺʴʺʮʤ 
ʭʩʸʧʠʤʠʩʹʰʩʲʶʮʠʭʩʬʡʥʷʮʠʬʥʬʠʭʩʸʥʦʠʡʤʧʴʹʮʤʭʥʩʷʪʹʮʤʬʺʥʹʸʣʰʤʺʥʬʥʲʴʤ 

ʥʠʩʠʰʴʺʥʡʸʺʮʷʬʧʫʠʨʡʺʮʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʤʺʥʧʺʥʴʮʤʺʥʰʩʣʮʡʠʹʰʮʤʣʡʬʮ 

ʭʩʸʧʠʤʠʩʹʰʩʲʶʮʠʬʳʱʥʰʡʥʣʡʬʡʭʩʮʩʥʱʮʭʩʠʰʺʡʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʩʹʰʬʹʮʹʮʤʸʦʲʩʲʶʮʠ 
ʭʩʰʴʬʮʷʸʭʩʰʨʷʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʹʬʬʡʥʷʮʥʬʠʺʥʰʩʣʮʡʬʷʬʱʥʠʤʬʢʲʯʥʢʫ  

ʧʰʮʬʲʺʥʸʮʥʹʤʺʥʧʥʰʺʤʯʤʸʷʧʮʡʥʴʺʺʹʤʹʭʩʸʥʤʤʬʲʺʥʴʣʲʥʮʤʤʠʩʹʰʤʺʥʧʥʰʺ 
ʧʰʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʸʹʠʫ ʠʩʤ ʭʩʹʰʤ ʡʸʷʡ ʺʴʣʲʥʮʤ ʤʧʥʰʺʤ ʭʩʰʴʬʮ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʬʹ ʩʸʨʮʩʱ 

ʸʹʠʫ ʠʩʤ ʺʴʣʲʥʮʤ ʤʧʥʰʺʤ ʭʩʸʡʢʤ ʡʸʷʡ ʣʥʲʡ    ʤʸʥʤʤ ʬʠ ʭʩʰʴʤ ʭʲ ʩʸʨʮʩʱ 

ʸʥʮʹʬʺʥʴʩʣʲʮʺʥʤʮʠʩʫʤʬʢʮʤʦʠʶʮʮ  ʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʩʸʨʮʩʱʧʰʮʡʷʥʰʩʺʤ 

ʤʠʸʰʫʭʩʴʩʣʲʮʺʥʡʠʤʥʬʩʠʥʷʥʰʩʺʤʭʲʭʩʰʴʬʠʭʩʰʴʬʹʧʰʮʡʸʹʴʠʺʮʤʯʩʲʸʹʷʬʲ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʤʡʬʥʱʸʩʲʤʺʧʥʰʺʤʺʥʠʣʮʥʬʥʤʡʩʡʱʡʭʩʩʥʸʩʢʬʳʹʧʰʷʥʰʩʺʤʤʡʤʧʥʰʺʤʺʠ 
ʺʥʧʥʰʺ ʭʩʴʩʣʲʮ ʭʩʸʥʤʤ ʬʹ ʣʡʬʡ ʭʩʰʨʷ ʭʩʦʥʧʠ ʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ  ʬʲ ʺʴʣʲʥʮ ʡʥʫʹ 

ʬʫʡʲʩʴʥʤʬʺʥʡʩʩʧʸʺʥʩʡʺʥʴʣʲʥʮʤʺʥʧʥʰʺʤʩʫʷʩʱʤʬʯʺʩʰʥʬʠʭʩʠʶʮʮʩʴʬʲʺʥʸʧʠ 
ʬʥʱʸʩʲʺʧʥʰʺʡʤʠʩʹʰʬʺʥʸʹʴʠʭʢʤʩʤʺʹʵʬʮʥʮʳʠʥʠʹʰʮ  

ʠʥʤ ʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ  ʡʸʷʡ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮʬ ʩʸʷʩʲʤ ʹʥʮʩʹʤ ʥʴʱʠʰʹ ʸʷʧʮʤ ʩʰʥʺʰ ʩʴ ʬʲ 
ʥʡ ʭʩʹʮʺʹʮ  ʥ ʺʥʩʰʷʥ ʭʩʸʥʣʩʱʬ ʸʷʩʲʡ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʭʩʹʮʺʹʮ  ʤʫʩʬʤʬʥʩʨ 

ʠʹʰʮ ʩʫ ʷʩʱʤʬ ʯʺʩʰ ʯʠʫʮ ʭʩʸʧʠ ʭʩʹʥʮʩʹ ʥʸʧʡ ʭʩʰʨʷ ʭʩʦʥʧʠ ʤʫʥʡ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʲʢʸʤʬ 

ʭʤʩʫʸʥʶʡʡʹʧʺʤʬʥʭʩʬʩʩʨʮʭʩʸʥʤʸʥʡʲʸʷʩʲʡʡʶʥʲʮʺʥʩʤʬʪʩʸʶʩʣʩʺʲ 

ʣʬʹ ʬʹ ʤʡʩʶʩ ʩʥʰʩʹʥʱʮʥʲ ʺʥʧʴʹ ʤʮʫʬ ʭʸʥʢʤ ʩʮʥʰʥʢʸʠ ʤʰʡʮ ʬʲʡ ʺʥʩʤʬ ʪʩʸʶ ʠʹʰʮʤ 
ʤʸʥʤʤ ʣʥʲʡ ʥʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʬʹ ʺʫʹʥʮʮ ʺʥʤʹ ʸʹʴʠʬ ʠʹʰʮʤ  ʤʰʡʮ ʬʲ ʠʹʥʰʤ ʤʸʥʤʤ 
ʺʸʱʤʥ ʤʹʩʡʬʡ ʯʩʩʴʠʺʮ ʺʥʩʰʷʥ ʭʩʸʥʣʩʱ  ʥʺʥʡʩʹʧʡ ʩʰʹʤ ʩʸʷʩʲʤ ʹʥʮʩʹʤ ʤʲʥʰʺʡ 

ʠʹʰʮʤ ʬʹ ʤʬʷ ʤʸʱʤʥ ʤʹʩʡʬʬ ʺʥʸʹʴʠ ʤʩʤʺʹ ʩʥʶʸ ʸʶʷ ʯʮʦʡ ʺʥʡʸ ʭʩʮʲʴ ʠʹʰʮʤ 
ʥʰʮʮʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹʤʬʷʤʸʱʤʥʤʮʩʺʸʥ 

ʺʠʩʹʰʬʺʥʸʹʴʠʺʴʣʲʤʯʩʡʬʤʫʩʬʤʬʥʩʨʬʸʷʩʲʡʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʯʩʡʩʨʱʩʨʨʱʸʹʷʠʶʮʰ 

ʩʣʩʺʲʸʶʥʮʯʥʰʫʺʡʠʹʰʮʡʵʥʴʰʤʩʸʷʩʲʤʹʥʮʩʹʤʥʤʦʥʺʥʩʤʠʹʰʮʤʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʳʱʥʰʣʥʩʶ 
ʳʱʥʰʣʥʩʶʺʠʩʹʰʥʸʹʴʠʩʹʺʥʮʺʸʥʯʥʱʧʠʩʬʬʧʭʩʱʩʫʬʥʬʫʬʹʩ   

ʤʦʯʥʺʰʮʠʹʰʮʡʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʺʠʹʬʯʤʩʰʩʲʡʡʥʹʧʩʫʥʰʩʩʶʸʷʱʡʥʴʺʺʹʤʹʭʩʹʰʤʮ 
ʩʰʥʹʭʩʹʣʧʭʩʸʶʥʮʯʥʰʫʺʥʤʡʩʹʧʬʭʥʧʺʤʺʸʩʷʧʬʤʬʥʣʢʺʥʲʮʹʮʤʰʹʩʩʫʣʥʮʬʬʯʺʩʰ 

ʺʥʬʡʮ ʭʩʹʰ ʭʩʸʷʮʤ ʺʩʡʸʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʺʠʩʹʰʬ ʭʺʥʱʧʩʩʺʤʡ ʭʩʹʰʥ ʭʩʸʡʢ ʯʩʡ ʭʩʩʷ ʤʰʡʥʮ 

ʣʥʲʡ ʥʦ ʤʴʥʷʺʡ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʺʥʩʸʷʩʲʤ ʺʥʹʮʺʹʮʤ ʯʤʥ ʭʩʰʥʹʠʸʤ ʥʩʩʧ ʩʹʣʥʧʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʭʲ 
ʤʬʥʲʥ ʬʣʢ ʯʥʸʧʠʤ ʤʦ ʸʹʠʫ ʩʠʰʴʤ ʺʥʲʹʡ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʺʠ ʺʠʹʬ ʭʩʬʩʧʺʮ ʭʩʸʡʢʤ 
ʭʠʤʬʹʤʴʥʢʬʲʸʺʥʩʱʩʮʲʮʤʯʴʥʠʡʬʷʹʮʡ  

ʤʠʩʹʰʺʧʥʰʺʬʥʺʴʣʲʤʥʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮʯʩʡʸʹʷʭʩʩʷʩʫʤʬʲʭʩʰʺʹʮʯʩʡʭʩʸʹʷʺʷʩʣʡʮ 
ʣʥʲʡʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʩʹʰʬʥʺʴʣʲʤʤʬʣʢʤʬʥʲʤʸʥʤʤʬʷʹʮʹʬʫʫʺʮʩʥʱʮ 
ʬʥʱʸʩʲʡ ʥʠ ʤʮʩʰʴ ʭʩʰʴʤ ʭʲ ʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʩʹʰʬ ʥʺʴʣʲʤ ʤʬʣʢ ʣʸʥʩ ʤʸʥʤʤ ʬʷʹʮʹ ʬʫʫʹ 

ʺʠʤʸʥʤʬʫʬʸʹʴʠʬʥʣʲʩʤʬʤʷʬʹʺʥʰʥʹʤʺʥʩʨʰʡʡʹʧʺʤʬʪʸʥʶʹʩʩʣʩʺʲʸʶʥʮʯʥʰʫʺʡ 

ʥʩʬʲʺʴʣʲʥʮʤʤʠʩʹʰʤʺʧʥʰʺ  

ʡʢʥ  ʭʩʩʴʺʫ  ʯʥʺʧʺʡʢʭʤʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʮʤʠʶʥʺʫʭʩʩʸʷʩʲʤʡʠʫʤʩʸʥʦʠ 

ʠʹʰʮʬʹʯʥʫʰʯʥʰʫʺʡʩʫʭʠʡʢʩʡʠʫʬʭʥʸʢʬʤʬʥʬʲʤʸʥʶʬʫʡʠʹʮʺʠʩʹʰ  ʯʥʩʬʲ 
ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤʥʡʢʤʸʥʦʠʬʲʱʮʥʲʺʥʧʴʹʤʮʫʸʹʴʠʬʺʥʱʰʬʥʭʩʰʥʺʰʡʡʹʧʺʤʬʯʺʩʰʩʣʩʺʲ 

ʭʩʰʩʰʥʲʮ   ʭʩʸʥʤʤ ʺʩʡʸʮ ʩʫ ʤʬʥʲ ʭʩʴʣʲʥʮ ʤʫʩʮʺ ʩʸʥʦʠ ʠʹʥʰʡ ʭʩʸʥʤʤ ʺʥʡʥʹʺʮ 
ʤʫʩʮʺʡ ʭʩʰʩʰʥʲʮ ʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ  ʯʥʺʧʺʤ ʡʢʤ ʸʥʦʠʬ ʷʴʱʩ ʠʹʰʮʤʹ ʤʫʩʮʺ ʺʴʱʥʺʡ 
ʯʺʩʰ ʸʷʱʤ ʺʥʠʶʥʺʮ ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤ ʸʥʦʠʡ  ʥ ʯʥʩʬʲʤ ʡʢʤ ʸʥʦʠʡ  ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤ ʸʥʦʠʡ 

ʡʢʤʸʥʦʠʠʥʤ ±ʭʩʡʠʫʤʺʩʡʸʮʭʩʮʸʢʰʥʡʸʥʦʠʡʤʫʩʮʺʡʭʩʰʩʰʥʲʮʯʫʠʭʩʸʥʤʤʩʫʣʥʮʬʬ 
ʹʥʮʩʹʮ ʤʠʶʥʺʫ ʭʩʡʠʫʮ ʭʩʡʸ ʭʩʸʥʤ ʭʩʬʡʥʱ ʭʹ ʭʢ ± ʭʩʩʴʺʫʤ ʸʥʦʠʡ ʯʫʥ ʯʥʺʧʺʤ 
ʤʫʩʮʺʤ ʩʸʥʦʠʥ ʭʩʡʠʫʤ ʠʹʥʰ ʭʲ ʣʣʥʮʺʤʬ ʤʩʤʩ ʹʣʧ ʠʹʰʮ ʯʥʫʩʺʡ ʬʥʣʢ ʸʢʺʠ ʠʹʰʮʡ 

ʡʠʫʬʭʤʬʭʸʥʢʤʸʶʥʮʡʹʥʮʩʹʬʲʥʸʺʥʥʩʭʩʡʸʭʩʸʥʤʹʯʥʥʩʫʩʺʥʤʮʤʦʠʹʥʰʭʩʹʸʣʰʤ 

ʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ  ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʤ ʺʲʹʡ ʡʥʸʬ ʺʲʢʴʰ ʤʸʥʤʤ ʬʹ ʤʲʥʰʺʤ ʺʬʥʫʩ 

ʥʮʶʲʠʹʰʮʤʹʡʥʹʧʪʫʩʴʬʭʺʲʥʰʺʺʬʥʫʩʺʠʬʩʡʢʮʤʠʹʰʮʡʹʮʺʹʤʬʭʩʮʩʫʱʮʭʰʩʠ 
ʤʸʥʤʬʤʲʥʰʺʺʬʥʫʩʭʥʮʩʱʷʮʸʹʴʠʩʹʪʫʭʩʣʮʮʯʨʷʥʬʷʤʩʤʩ  

ʺʸʩʢʱʺʥʲʥʶʸʥʠʣʡʺʸʩʹʷʠʬʥʭʩʮʦʡʠʠʥʤʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ ʬʲʳʣʲʥʮʤʤʸʩʢʱʤʩʲʶʮʠ 
ʬʫ ʭʩʺʩʲʬʥ ʺʥʩʤ ʺʥʰʩʮʠ ʸʱʥʧ ʺʩʩʲʡ ʺʸʶʥʩ ʩʫ ʭʠ ʹʥʮʩʹʬ ʤʨʥʹʴʥ ʤʬʷ ʠʩʤ ʭʩʮʦʡʠ 
ʯʫʺʩʩʹʮʺʹʮʬʩʥʥʧʺʷʴʱʮʤʰʩʠʥʺʸʩʢʱʺʬʥʲʴʸʹʠʣʣʥʡʭʦʡʠʬʲʯʲʹʰʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʷʹʮ 
ʹʥʮʩʹʬʬʷʥʯʩʮʠʤʸʩʢʱʩʲʶʮʠʤʥʥʤʩʹʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʬʩʣʥʲʩʩʭʦʡʠʡʥʶʩʲʬʭʥʷʮʹʩʥ   

ʠʹʰʮʡʠʹʩʰʠʥʤʹʯʮʦʡʷʥʰʩʺʤʯʩʡʬʭʰʩʡʩʱʩʴʲʢʮʡʭʩʰʩʰʥʲʮ  ʭʩʡʩʹʮʤʺʩʡʸʮ 

ʺʠʦʭʲʣʧʩʪʠʷʥʰʩʺʬʤʸʥʤʤʯʩʡʲʢʮʸʹʴʠʬʥʤʦʯʥʺʰʡʡʹʧʺʤʬʪʩʸʶʹʣʧʸʶʥʮʯʥʰʫʺ 
ʭʩʮʧʭʩʬʷʠʩʠʰʺʡʸʺʩʺʥʮʮʧʺʤʲʥʰʮʬʩʣʫʡʸʩʥʠʸʡʲʮʩʶʥʸʲʸʹʴʠʬʪʩʸʶ  

ʤʣʴʷʤʤʰʹʩʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʩʸʶʥʮʬʲʢʥʰʤʬʫʡʭʩʩʲʡʨʭʩʸʮʥʧʮʠʹʰʮʡʭʩʰʩʰʥʲʮʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ 
ʬʹʤʥʡʢʤʺʥʩʥʹʩʢʸʤʬʠʩʶʰʨʥʴʬʹʡʺʥʧʥʷʬʤʬʹʯʤʥʤʰʩʷʺʤʺʥʩʥʹʸʬʹʯʤʤʤʥʡʢʤʮʸʡ 

ʳʥʣʩʰʺʬʥʫʩʺʥʡʩʹʧʯʩʡʩʨʱʩʨʨʱʸʹʷʭʩʩʷʭʩʩʲʡʨʭʩʸʮʥʧʡʹʮʺʹʤʬʯʥʫʰʤʠʸʰʺʥʷʥʰʩʺ 
ʭʩʸʥʡʱʭʩʸʥʤʤʺʩʡʸʮʩʫʤʠʸʰʭʩʩʲʡʨʭʩʸʮʥʧʮʠʹʰʮʺʴʣʲʤʯʩʡʬʠʹʰʮʤʬʹʤʲʩʦʤ 

ʵʥʴʰʤ ʩʲʡʨʤ ʸʮʥʧʤ ʤʹʲʮʬ ʠʹʰʮʤ ʬʹ ʤʲʩʦ ʳʥʣʩʰʬ ʸʺʥʩ ʭʩʰʥʫʰ ʭʩʩʲʡʨ ʭʩʸʮʥʧ ʩʫ 

ʹʣʧʸʶʥʮʯʥʰʫʺʡʸʺʥʩʡʺʥʫʥʮʰʺʥʧʬʸʡʲʮʺʥʬʥʫʩʤʬʸʹʠʤʰʺʥʫʤʠʥʤʭʩʠʹʰʮʡʸʺʥʩʡ 
ʺʥʧʬʥ ʭʥʧ ʡʥʨ ʭʩʸʩʡʲʮ ʭʰʩʠ ʭʩʡʸ ʭʩʩʲʡʨ ʭʩʣʡʹ ʯʥʥʩʫʮ ʤʣʩʴʷʡ ʸʮʥʧʤ ʺʠ ʸʥʧʡʬ ʹʩ 
ʸʺʥʩʡʭʩʫʥʮʰʤʠʩʹʰʩʠʰʺʸʥʶʩʬʭʩʬʥʫʩʥ  

ʩʣʩʺʲʠʹʰʮʯʥʰʫʺʩʡʢʬʺʥʹʩʸʣʸʴʱʮʥʬʲʸʷʧʮʤʬʹʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʠʤʷʬʧʤʬʲʺʥʰʷʱʮʤʮ 
ʩʡʩʨʷʩʩʡʥʱʤʪʩʬʤʤʬʹʥʬʠʬʺʥʮʥʣʥʩʤʺʥʠʶʥʺʤʩʬʬʫʯʴʥʠʡʩʫʺʥʠʸʬʯʺʩʰ 

ʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʡʥʹʩʷʥʰʩʺʤʤʸʥʤʤʬʠʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʡʥʹʩʷʥʰʩʺʤʸʺʥʩʡʺʥʡʥʹʧʤʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺ 
ʬʹʯʢʠʤʬʲʤʩʤʩʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʷʹʮʮʸʺʥʩʹʤʮʫʹʪʫʱʮʥʲʤʬʹʯʥʫʰʸʥʦʩʴʬʢʥʠʣʬʹʩʤʶʥʧʤ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʥʰʮʮʷʥʸʴʬʥʱʩʮʲʤʬʯʫʥʠʹʰʮʤʺʠʸʩʱʤʬʥʹʥʡʬʬʬʷʤʩʤʩʹʡʥʹʧʤʸʥʤʤ 

ʯʷʺ ʺʥʹʩʸʣʡ ʣʥʮʲʬ ʠʹʰʮʤ ʬʲ ʭʩʮʧ ʸʩʥʠ ʢʦʮ ʩʠʰʺʮ ʺʩʡʸʮ ʤʰʢʤ ʷʴʱʬ ʠʹʰʮʤ ʬʲ 
ʭʩʸʡʧʮʤʺʥʰʩʮʠʺʠʠʣʥʥʬʹʩʸʷʩʲʡʥʷʥʰʩʺʩʠʹʰʮʬʩʴʥʸʩʠʤʺʥʧʩʨʡʤ  

ʺʩʰʠʫʮ ʤʩʩʰʡ ʡʩʩʧʮʤ ʸʶʥʮ ʠʥʤ ʥʦ ʤʣʥʡʲʡ ʺʥʶʬʮʤʤ ʺʥʱʧʩʩʺʮ ʥʩʬʠ ʩʣʩʺʲʤ ʸʶʥʮʤ 
ʤʥʡʢ ʦʥʧʠ ʩʫ ʤʬʥʲ ʸʷʱʤ ʺʥʠʶʥʺʮ  ʭʩʩʨʺʰʩʱ ʡʥʸʬ  ʭʩʩʰʹʣʧ ʭʩʸʮʥʧʡ ʹʥʮʩʹʥ ʺʡʫʸʥʮ 
ʠʹʰʮ ʬʹ ʥʤʠʸʮʥ ʥʺʩʮʣʺ ʭʩʩʲʡʨ ʭʩʸʮʥʧʮ ʩʥʹʲʤ ʸʶʥʮʡ ʹʮʺʹʤʬ ʯʩʩʰʥʲʮ ʭʩʸʥʤʤʮ 

ʹʮʺʹʮʪʠʭʩʩʢʥʬʥʰʫʨʭʩʲʶʮʠʡʸʶʥʩʮʥʡʶʥʲʮʤʸʶʥʮʬʹʣʥʢʩʰʤʮʥʲʴʹʥʩʣʲʥʩʮʤʷʥʰʩʺʤ 
ʺʩʲʡʨʤʩʥʥʤʸʣʹʮʥʭʩʩʲʡʨʭʩʸʮʥʧʡʭʢ 

ʹʮʺʹʮʤ ʬʹ ʩʺʰʴʥʠʤ ʤʠʸʮʬ ʭʸʥʺʤ ʤʦʫ ʺʥʩʤʬ ʥʩʬʲ ʩʸʧʱʮ ʸʶʥʮʡ ʸʡʥʣʮʹ ʯʥʥʩʫʮ 
ʭʩʩʲʡʨʭʩʸʮʥʧʡʹʥʮʩʹʬʹʭʥʩʤʺʧʥʥʸʤʤʮʢʮʤʥʬʹʺʩʺʸʡʧʤʺʥʫʩʩʹʤʺʹʥʧʺʬʲʩʩʱʮʥ 
ʸʶʥʮʬʬʩʡʥʤʬʤʬʥʫʩ ʭʤʬʹʷʥʸʩʴʤʥʸʥʶʩʩʤʪʩʬʤʺʡʤʡʩʡʱʬʷʦʰʭʩʡʱʮʭʰʩʠʹ ʭʩʩʢʥʬʥʷʠʥ 

ʭʲʣʧʩʬʲʥʴʡʤʦʫʺʥʥʤʬʭʢʥʤʸʥʤʤʳʥʢʬʷʥʰʩʺʤʳʥʢʯʩʡʩʲʡʨʸʥʡʩʧʬʹʤʸʩʥʠʸʣʹʮʤ 
ʺʥʩʰʫʮʤʺʥʹʩʸʣʬʤʤʥʡʢʤʮʸʡʩʢʥʬʥʰʫʨʤʤʰʲʮʯʺʩʹʩʺʩʩʹʲʺʸʶʥʮʡʸʡʥʣʮʺʠʦ 

ʭʩʲʶʮʠʡ ʸʶʥʩʮʤ ʭʫʧʥʺʮ ʸʶʥʮ ʯʩʡʹ ʧʺʮʤʥ ʣʥʢʩʰʤʮ ʤʠʸʹʤ ʡʥʠʹʬ ʸʶʥʮʤ ʡʥʶʩʲ ʬʲ 
ʩʲʡʨʤʣʰʸʨʤʬʲʤʰʥʲʤʩʢʥʬʥʷʠʸʶʥʮʯʩʡʬʭʩʩʺʩʩʹʲʺ   

ʺʥʰʷʱʮ 

ʺʥʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʬʺʥʰʥʸʺʴʺʲʶʤ 

ʤʸʥʤʤʳʥʢʬʲʸʺʥʩʤʰʥʫʰʱʮʥʲʺʷʥʬʧ 

ʩʥʶʮʡʶʮ 

ʲʶʥʮʯʥʸʺʴ 

ʯʦʥʠʮʥʰʩʠʹʭʩʩʷʡʶʮʺʮʥʲʬʤʡʩʶʩʤʯʥʦʩʠʬʩʰʥʸʷʲʯʥʸʺʴʭʩʹʸʺ 

Figure 42: Concept Solution for a Balanced Posture in Contrast With the 
Current Unbalanced Situation  

ʧʩʹʷ ʳʥʢʡ ʹʥʮʩʹ ʺʥʲʶʮʠʡ ʤʡʩʶʩʤʯʥʦʩʠ ʯʥʸʺʴʬ ʯʥʸʷʲ ʺʩʺʮʫʱʤʸʥʶʡ ʢʩʶʮ  ʭʩʹʸʺ 
ʯʢʠʺʸʥʢʧʥ 

ʡʶʮʡ ʷʥʹʡ ʭʩʮʩʩʷʤ ʭʩʠʹʰʮʤ ʺʩʡʸʮʡ ʩʧʫʥʰʤ ʡʶʮʤ ʲʩʴʥʮ ʭʩʹʸʺʤ ʬʹ ʩʬʠʮʹʤ ʣʶʡ 

ʭʩʩʴʺʫ ʺʥʸʥʢʧ ʺʥʲʶʮʠʡ ʸʷʩʲʡ ʤʸʥʤʤ ʳʥʢʬ ʭʥʺʸʥ ʭʩʰʴʬʮ ʠʹʩʰ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʤʦ ʭʩʩʷ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʥʠʹʥʰʤʭʣʠʤʬʹʳʺʥʹʮʤʣʡʥʫʤʦʫʸʮʯʢʠʺʸʥʢʧʬʹʤʫʩʮʺʭʢʺʮʩʩʷʭʩʺʩʲʬʥ 

ʭʩʶʮʠʮ ʬʩʲʴʤʬ ʠʹʥʰʤ ʭʣʠʤ ʹʸʣʰʤʦ ʡʶʮʡ ʩʡʥʡʩʱ ʨʰʮʥʮ ʸʶʩʩʮʥ ʤʮʩʣʷ ʸʡʥʲ ʠʹʩʰʤ 
ʯʥʦʩʠʬʲʸʥʮʹʬʥʨʰʮʥʮʬʣʢʰʺʤʬʩʣʫʡʭʩʩʬʢʸʤʺʥʴʫʥʯʥʺʧʺʤʡʢʤʩʸʩʸʹʬʹʭʩʡʥʸʮ 

ʪʮʺʩʩʠʹʩʰʤʷʥʰʩʺʤʤʦʯʥʸʷʲʩʴʬʲʲʶʥʮʤʯʥʸʺʴʬʯʥʸʷʲʢʶʥʮʭʩʹʸʺʤʬʹʩʰʮʩʤʥʣʶʡ 
ʯʥʺʧʺʤʡʢʬʩʡʩʱʮʤʫʩʮʺʩʲʶʮʠʭʢʤʥʥʤʮʤʤʡʧʸʯʢʠʺʸʥʢʧʥʡʹʥʮʬʹʧʩʹʷʪʸʲʮʡ  

ʺʥʧʴ ʲʥʰʩ ʠʹʩʰʤ ʷʥʰʩʺʤʥ ʠʹʥʰʤ ʭʣʠʤ ʬʹ ʳʺʥʹʮʤ ʣʡʥʫʤ ʦʫʸʮ ʤʦ ʪʸʲʮ ʺʥʲʶʮʠʡ 
ʯʥʺʧʺʤʡʢʤʩʸʩʸʹʬʹʯʥʦʩʠʤʩʶʮʠʮʪʫʩʴʬʥʸʺʥʩʯʨʷʸʶʥʥʩʹʨʰʮʥʮʤʩʧʫʥʰʤʡʶʮʡʸʹʠʮ 
ʸʺʥʩʭʩʰʨʷʥʩʤʩʭʩʩʬʢʸʤʺʥʴʫʥ 

ʸʺʥʩʤʧʥʰʥʺʥʧʴʤʱʩʮʲʮʬʪʥʴʤʺʤʠʩʹʰʤʠʹʥʰʤʭʣʠʤʬʹʥʺʡʩʶʩʸʴʺʹʺʥʦʤʸʥʶʡ 

ʩʺʩʮʠʬʣʥʮʡʹʮʺʹʮʤʤʣʡʲʮʩʥʱʩʰʤʣʥʡʲʺʧʰʤʸʣʢʡʥʣʡʬʡʩʰʥʸʷʲʠʥʤʢʶʥʮʤʯʥʩʲʸʤ 
ʤʧʰʤʺʮʠʬʩʣʫʡʹʸʣʩʩ(EMG ʺʩʸʩʸʹʤʺʩʬʮʹʧʤʺʥʬʩʲʴʤʺʥʣʩʣʮʲʶʡʮʥʸʶʥʮʬʹ 

ʥʦ  

ʠʹʩʰʤʷʥʰʩʺʤʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺ 

ʺʹʸʣʰʤ ʸʺʥʩʡ ʺʩʺʥʲʮʹʮʤ ʤʫʩʮʺʤ ʭʩʩʣʴʥʨʸʥʠ ʭʩʠʴʥʸ ʭʲ ʥʫʸʲʰʹ ʺʥʰʥʩʠʸʤ ʩʴ ʬʲ 
ʥʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺʠʩʤʥʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʩʡʬʹʬʫʡʷʥʰʩʺʬ 

ʯʢʠʭʷʥʮʩʥʡʳʶʷʥʮʸʮʩʬʥʴʬʹʧʩʹʷʤʰʡʮʩʥʹʲʷʥʰʩʺʡʤʫʩʮʺʤʪʸʲʮʬʹʯʥʺʧʺʤʥʷʬʧ 

ʤʧʩʹʷ ʤʫʩʮʺ ʺʥʸʹʴʠʮʤ ʺʥʩʬʥʧ ʸʴʱʮʮ ʩʥʰʡ ʤʫʩʮʺʤ ʪʸʲʮ ʬʹ ʯʥʩʬʲʤ ʥʷʬʧ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹʥʴʥʢʡʭʩʩʥʰʩʹʬʺʥʹʩʮʢʭʢʪʠʤʸʥʤʤʬʠʭʩʰʥʴʥʩʰʴʸʹʠʫʷʥʰʩʺʤʹʠʸʬʥʡʢʬ 
ʯʺʩʰʺʥʰʥʩʬʲʤʺʥʩʬʥʧʤʺʠʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹʧʰʮʬʡʷʬʸʹʴʠʮʺʥʩʬʥʧʤʪʸʲʮ 

ʥʮʶʲʺʥʧʥʫʡʥʹʠʸʺʠʷʩʦʧʤʬʥʺʬʥʫʩʥʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʥʧʺʴʺʤʬʭʠʺʤʡʸʩʱʤʬ  

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʹʠʸʡʥʡʢʡʤʫʩʮʺʪʸʲʮʭʩʹʸʺ

Figure : Baby Back & Head Support Layout  

ʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺ 

ʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʡʥʹʩʷʥʰʩʺʤ±ʸʺʥʩʡʺʥʶʥʴʰʤʤʠʩʹʰʤʺʥʧʥʰʺʩʺʹʺʠʸʹʴʠʮʤʫʩʮʺʤʪʸʲʮ 

ʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʡʥʹʩʷʥʰʩʺʤʥʤʸʥʤʤʬʠ  

ʣʥʷʴʺʺʥʹʩʸʣʬʭʩʲʶʥʮʺʥʰʥʸʺʴ 
ʤʸʱʤʥʤʹʩʡʬ 

ʥʣʷʩʡʣ
ʵʨʥʷʱ Velcroʥʭʩʮʦʡʠʬʹʪʸʲʮʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʺʲʶʡʺʮʠʹʰʮʤʺʸʱʤʥʤʹʩʡʬ 
ʸʥʡʩʧʩʸʥʦʠʬʺʧʺʮʷʥʰʩʺʤʡʹʥʮʬʹʣʶʬʫʡʩʸʨʮʩʱʯʴʥʠʡʭʩʷʬʥʧʮʭʩʮʦʡʠʤ ʩʣʣʶ 

ʩʷʬʧ ʬʹ ʺʧʠ ʤʲʩʢʰʡ ʩʣʩʩʮ ʭʥʷʩʮʥ ʸʥʡʩʧ ʥʸʹʴʠʩʹ Velcro ʩʸʥʡʩʧ ʭʩʮʷʥʮʮ ʭʦʡʠʤ 
ʩʰʹ ʭʩʮʷʥʮʮ ʯʢʠʤ ʺʸʥʢʧʡ ʧʥʨʡʠʥ ʺʩʴʥʱ ʤʸʩʢʱ ʭʩʸʹʴʠʮ ʭʩʮʦʡʠʤ ʳʥʢʤ ʬʠ ʠʹʰʮʤ 
ʬʲʮʭʩʸʶʭʩʮʦʡʠʩʰʹʯʫʥʭʩʸʶʭʩʮʦʡʠʩʰʹʭʩʮʷʥʮʮʭʩʩʣʩʤʩʧʺʴʬʲʮʭʩʡʧʸʭʩʮʦʡʠ 

ʺʠ ʸʩʱʤʬʥ ʹʥʡʬʬ ʺʰʮ ʬʲ ʣʧʠ ʣʶ ʩʮʦʡʠʡ ʷʸ ʹʥʮʩʹ ʷʩʴʱʮ ʤʹʲʮʬ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʹʠʸ 
ʯʤ ʤʧʥʰ ʤʸʩʢʱʥ ʤʧʩʺʴ ʸʹʴʠʮʥ ʭʩʰʺʹʮ ʭʩʫʸʶʬ ʤʰʲʮ ʯʺʥʰ ʠʹʰʮʤ ʩʫ ʭʠ ʠʹʰʮʤ 
ʨʱʥʥʺʹʩʡʬʬʤʬʥʲʴʺʰʩʧʡʮʤʮʥʣʠʹʰʮʤʺʹʩʡʬʭʩʩʬʠʮʹʬʯʤʥʭʩʩʰʮʩʬ  

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʶʥʤʥʤʱʰʫʤ 

ʺʹʩʡʬʪʩʬʤʺʡʣʡʬʡʭʩʮʦʡʠʩʰʹʬʹʤʧʩʺʴʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʺʲʶʡʺʮʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʶʥʤʥʤʱʰʫʤ 

ʯʫʮ ʸʧʠʬ ʯʢʠʤ ʺʸʥʢʧ ʺʠ ʺʩʹʠʸ ʸʢʥʱʥʤʧʥʰ ʤʸʥʶʡ ʭʷʮʮ ʠʥʤ ʤʸʥʤʤ ʳʥʢ ʬʲ ʠʹʰʮʤ 
ʭʩʮʦʡʠʤʮ ʣʧʠ ʬʫ ʬʠ ʭʩʴʱʥʰʤ ʭʩʮʦʡʠʤ ʩʰʹ ʺʠ ʸʥʢʱʩʥ ʥʮʥʷʮʡ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʺʠ ʡʩʹʥʩ 

ʭʩʸʥʤʤʥʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹʭʩʰʺʹʮʤʭʩʬʣʢʬʩʡʨʩʮʯʥʰʥʥʫʸʹʴʠʺʹʤʫʸʠʤʺʲʥʶʸʸʡʧʺʺ 
ʺʥʧʬʥʭʥʧʩʰʴʮʤʰʢʤ 

ʭʩʸʥʹʩʮʸʴʱʮʡʺʲʶʡʺʮʭʧʭʩʬʷʠʩʲʢʴʩʰʴʮʤʸʥʤʤʬʲʥʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʲʤʰʢʤ 

ʺʥʸʥʨʸʴʮʨʤʺʣʸʥʤʬʹ ʨʷʴʠʥʺʥʧʬʺʫʬʥʤʬʹʺʥʤʥʡʢʺʥʰʥʫʺʬʲʡʣʡʡʹʥʮʩʹ  
ʠʹʰʮʤʩʸʮʥʧʡʷʱʥʲʤʷʸʴʡʥʨʸʥʴʩʣʡʤʺʥʰʥʫʺʳʥʢʤʺʡʩʡʱʡ 

ʥʰʩʠʠʥʤʺʩʱʧʩʯʨʷʠʹʰʮʤʬʹʭʩʰʴʤʧʨʹ ±ʷʥʰʩʺʤʥʤʸʥʤʤʳʥʢʬʩʥʱʩʫʭʥʮʩʰʩʮ  
ʤʫʩʮʺʭʩʡʩʩʧʮʭʰʩʠʹʭʩʸʥʦʠʡʷʥʰʩʺʤʥʠʤʸʥʤʤʳʥʢʺʠʳʨʥʲ 

ʹʥʮʩʹ ʤʹʲʰ ʭʤʡ ʭʩʧʩʹʷʤ ʭʩʸʮʥʧʤ ± ʭʩʧʩʹʷʤ ʭʩʸʮʥʧʡ ʸʩʥʥʠ ʸʡʲʮ ʩʧʺʴ  
ʸʩʥʠʸʡʲʮʸʹʴʠʮʤʸʸʥʧʮʥʭʩʧʥʺʴʭʩʠʺʬʲʡʳʶʷʥʮʸʮʥʧʭʩʩʥʹʲʠʹʰʮʡ  

ʷʥʰʩʺʤ±ʩʺʩʦʧʨʡʮ 
ʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤʭʲ  

ʩʸʥʧʠʨʡʮ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʤ±ʩʺʩʦʧʨʡʮ 
ʤʸʥʤʬʭʩʰʴʤʭʲ 

ʣʶʨʡʮ 

ʲʶʥʮʤʠʹʰʮʡʭʩʸʡʧʮʤʥʣʡʤʺʱʩʸʴʭʩʹʸʺ 

Figure 44: Fabric and Fastening Layout in the Optimal Carrier  

ʭʩʸʮʥʧʬʺʥʲʶʤ 

ʭʩʣʡ 

ʢʥʸʠ ʣʡ ʭʷʥʮʮ ʠʹʰʮʤʮ ʷʬʧʡ ʣʡ ʠʥʤ ʤʸʥʤʤ ʳʥʢʥ ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʳʥʢ ʭʲ ʲʢʮʡ ʠʡʹ ʸʮʥʧʤ 
ʤʲʥʰʺʥʺʥʹʩʮʢʸʹʴʠʮʤʢʥʸʱʣʡʭʷʥʮʮʸʧʠʤʥʷʬʧʡʥʺʩʰʡʮʺʥʡʩʶʩʬʲʡ  

ʷʥʡʮʡʩʡʩʱʠʥʤʠʹʰʮʤʩʥʹʲʥʰʮʮʣʡʬʭʬʢʤʸʮʥʧ 

ʩʬʲʡ ʺʥʩʣʥʧʩʩ ʺʥʰʥʫʺ ʡʩʱʬ ʬʩʨʱʷʨʤ ʺʩʩʹʲʺʡ ʺʩʱʧʩ ʹʣʧ ʡʩʱ ʠʥʤ ʷʥʡʮʡʤ ʡʩʱ 

ʤʰʥʺʧʺʤ ʤʹʡʬʤʤ ʺʩʩʹʲʺʡ ʹʮʹʮ ʤʦ ʡʩʱ ʯʰʫʥʺʮʤ ʸʶʥʮʬ ʤʤʥʡʢ ʺʥʩʨʰʥʥʬʸ 
 ʭʩʲʶʮʥʺʥʡʢʮʸʷʩʲʡ ʳʥʢʤʭʲʲʢʮʡʭʩʠʡʤʺʩʡʬʭʩʬʩʨʱʷʨʤʥ  

ʩʡʩʱʬʪʴʥʤʥʴʥʱʡʸʹʠʩʮʩʫʪʩʬʤʺʸʡʥʲʧʮʶʤʷʥʡʮʡʤʤʰʷʺʥʸʲʹʮʸʶʥʩʮʷʥʡʮʡʤʡʩʱ 

ʡʩʱʮ ʤʡʸʤʡ ʭʩʧʥʨʹ ʤʦʥʬʥʬʶ ʩʡʩʱ  ʤʦʥʷʱʩʥ ʡʩʱʬ ʤʮʥʣʡ  ʭʩʨʥʧʬ ʭʩʥʥʨʰʤ ʤʦʥʬʥʬʶ 

ʭʢʥʤʸʥʤʬʭʢʠʹʰʮʡʡʥʹʧʭʩʲʰʤʲʢʮʤʺʩʱʧʩʪʸʲʢʮʬʲʡʣʡʬʡʷʺʮʪʫʩʴʬʥʤʰʺʥʫʤ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʬ  

ʡʩʱʤʪʺʧʬʹʥʩʴʥʠʩʴʬʲʺʲʡʷʰʭʩʡʩʱʡʺʥʧʬʺʫʬʥʤʺʥʧʬʺʫʬʥʤʺʥʰʥʫʺʷʥʡʮʡʤʡʩʱʬ 
ʺʧʩʴʱʬʹʤʤʥʡʢʺʬʥʫʩʥʬʹʩʯʫʬʲʥʭʩʡʸʭʩʸʩʲʦʭʩʸʥʧʥʭʩʧʥʥʸʬʲʡʪʺʧʷʥʡʮʡʤʡʩʱʬ 
ʺʧʩʴʱ ʸʹʴʠʮʤ ʤʰʥʹ ʪʺʧ ʬʲʡ ʠʥʤ ʺʠʦ ʺʮʥʲʬ ʤʰʺʥʫʤ ʡʩʱ ʤʬʹ ʸʩʤʮ ʳʥʣʩʰʥ ʺʥʧʬ 
ʡʩʱʡ ʹʥʮʩʹ ʺʩʱʧʩ ʡʸ ʯʮʦ ʸʧʠʬ ʷʸ ʺʸʸʧʺʹʮʥ ʭʩʡʩʱʡ ʺʠʬʫʰ ʺʥʧʬʤ ʩʫ ʭʠ ʺʥʧʬ 
ʧʥʴʱʬ ʬʥʫʩ ʡʩʱʤ ʹʮʺʹʮʬ ʤʹʡʩ ʤʹʥʧʺʥ ʸʺʥʩ ʯʥʫʰ ʺʥʧʬ ʺʲʥʰʺ ʬʥʤʩʰ ʸʹʴʠʮ ʷʥʡʮʡ 

ʺʥʷʩʣʡʭʩʮʧʵʩʷʩʮʩʡʭʢʹʡʥʩʥʺʥʧʥʰʺʹʥʧʺʸʹʴʠʮʠʥʤʪʫʡʥʺʥʬʷʡʤʺʥʠʳʣʰʬʥʤʲʩʦ 
ʡ ʥʺʡʩʡʱʡ ʳʥʢʤ ʺʸʥʨʸʴʮʨ ʺʠ ʣʩʸʥʤ ʷʥʡʮʡʤ ʡʩʱʡ ʹʥʮʩʹ ʩʫ ʥʬʲʤ ʯʸʶʩʤ ʲʶʩʡʹ 

 www.bambrotex.com/index/htmhttp ʱʥʩʱʬʶʺʥʬʲʮ  

ʺʥʩʸʨʴʺʥʸʶʥʥʩʤʥʲʸʧʩʸʬʹʺʥʲʴʥʺʲʰʥʮʩʲʡʨʯʴʥʠʡʩʬʠʩʸʨʷʡʩʨʰʠʠʥʤʷʥʡʮʡʤʡʩʱ 
ʭʩʩʨʨʱʥʩʸʨʷʡ ʭʩʡʩʫʸ ʬʩʫʮ ʷʥʡʮʡʤ ʧʮʶ ʳʥʢʤ ʭʲ ʣʡʤ ʬʹ ʪʥʫʩʧʤ ʺʥʣʥʷʰʡ ʭʩʮʥʤʩʦʥ 

ʬʹ ʺʥʥʮ ʥʬʲʤ ʭʩʰʸʶʩʤ ʥʲʶʩʡʹ ʺʥʷʩʣʡ ʡʩʱ ʺʸʥʶʬ ʥʣʥʡʩʲʡ ʭʩʮʬʲʰ ʭʰʩʠ ʸʹʠ 
ʷʥʡʮʡʩʡʩʱʮʣʡʪʥʺʡʥʬʣʥʢʹʺʥʩʸʨʷʡʤʮ 

ʭʩʺʩʲʬʸʹʠʭʩʬʷʩʮʩʫʺʴʱʥʺʩʣʩʬʲ ʬʬʫʪʸʣʡʭʩʣʡʬʺʥʰʷʥʮʺʥʩʬʠʩʸʨʷʡʩʨʰʠʺʥʰʥʫʺ 

ʺʥʴʱʥʺʬʩʫʤʬʬʥʫʩʠʬʪʸʷʥʰʩʺʭʲʲʢʮʡʠʡʸʹʠʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʺʥʩʢʸʬʠʬʭʥʸʢʬʭʩʬʥʬʲ 
ʡʩʱ ʬʹ ʺʥʩʲʡʨʤ ʺʥʩʬʠʩʸʨʷʡʩʨʰʠʤ ʺʥʰʥʫʺʤʮ ʺʥʰʤʩʬ ʬʫʥʩ ʪʠ ʤʦ ʢʥʱʮ ʭʩʬʷʩʮʩʫ ʬʹ 

ʷʥʡʮʡʤ   

ʭʩʸʶʥʩʮ ʭʩʡʩʱʤ ʤʡʩʡʱʬ ʷʩʦʮ ʥʰʩʠ ʥʬʹ ʣʥʡʩʲʤ ʪʩʬʤʺ ʸʹʠ ʩʲʡʨʡʩʱ ʠʥʤ ʷʥʡʮʡʤ ʡʩʱ 

ʺʠ ʭʤʦʮ ʥʰʩʠ ʸʹʠ ʪʩʬʤʺʡʥ ʭʩʬʷʩʮʩʫ ʺʴʱʥʺ ʠʬʬ ʭʩʰʹ  ʩʰʡ ʷʥʡʮʡ ʩʬʥʲʡʢʮ 

ʨʥʹʴʯʴʥʠʡʷʸʴʺʮʭʢʡʩʱʤ ʤʡʩʡʱʤʺʥʫʩʠʬ ISO 14000ʯʷʺʡʷʩʦʧʮʯʸʶʩʤʤʡʩʡʱʤ 
ʤʡʩʡʱʬʩʺʥʣʩʣʩʡʩʱʬʡʹʧʰʥʥʡʹʥʮʩʹʤʭʥʩʱʸʧʠʬʭʢʤʡʩʡʱʤʺʠʭʤʦʮʥʰʩʠʪʫʡʥ  

ʭʩʸʮʩʬʥʴ 

ʺʥʩʸʷʩʲʺʥʸʥʶʺʩʺʹʡʠʹʰʮʡʭʩʲʩʴʥʮʭʩʸʮʩʬʥʴ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹʡʢʤʺʫʩʮʺʪʸʲʮ±ʧʩʹʷʸʮʥʧ  
ʯʢʠʤʺʸʥʢʧʩʥʬʩʮ±ʹʩʮʢʸʮʥʧ   

ʥʤʦ ʳʶʷʥʮ ʯʺʩʸʥʠʩʬʥʴ ʥʰʩʤ ʭʩʬʩʮʸʺʤ ʺʩʩʹʲʺʡ ʡʧʸʰ ʹʥʮʩʹ ʤʹʲʰ ʥʡ ʩʸʷʩʲʤ ʸʮʩʬʥʴʤ 
ʺʥʰʥʹʺʥʧʩʹʷʺʥʮʸʡʬʡʷʬʯʺʩʰʥʺʥʠʺʩʱʧʩʯʩʮʦʥʬʥʦʸʮʥʧ 

ʸʡʲʮ ʭʩʸʹʴʠʮ ʸʹʠ ʭʩʧʥʺʴ ʭʩʠʺ ʬʲʡ ʳʶʷʥʮ ʯʺʩʸʥʠʩʬʥʴ ʠʥʤ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʲʩʴʥʮʤ ʸʮʥʧʤ 
ʸʩʥʠʬʹ 

ʭʩʮʦʡʠ

Side Release ʩʣʩʶ ʸʥʸʧʹ ʩʮʦʡʠ ʭʤ ʲʶʥʮʤ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʥʮʩʹ ʤʹʲʰ ʭʤʡ ʭʩʮʦʡʠʤ 

ʬʹʱʮʥʲʡ ʺʠʹʬ ʭʩʬʥʫʩʥ ʭʩʬʥʩʨʬ ʣʥʩʶʥʭʩʬʩʮʸʺ  ʭʩʠʹʰʮ ʺʩʩʹʲʺʡ ʭʩʩʥʶʮʤ Buckles 
ʢʷʣʲ 

ʪʫʡ  ʤʮʶʲʮ ʲʶʡʺʤʬ ʤʬʥʫʩ ʤʰʩʠʥ ʣʥʠʮ ʤʬʷ ʤʰʩʠ ʪʠ ʤʧʥʰ ʭʦʡʠʤ ʺʧʩʺʴʥ ʤʸʩʢʱ 

ʬʲʩʣʩʩʮʩʥʥʩʧʤʥʥʤʮʤʷʩʬʷʺʲʩʮʹʬʺʮʸʥʢʭʦʡʠʤʺʸʩʢʱʺʥʧʩʨʡʪʸʥʶʬʲʤʰʲʮʭʩʩʷʺʮ 
ʭʦʡʠʤʡʶʮ 

ʤʲʥʶʸ ʺʥʲʶʮʠʡ ʩʰʹʤ ʥʣʶʡʥ ʤʲʥʡʷ ʤʲʥʶʸ ʺʠʬʥʬ ʺʥʲʶʮʠʡ ʣʧʠ ʣʶʡ ʸʡʧʺʮ ʭʦʡʠʤ 

ʯʥʰʥʥʫʺʸʹʴʠʮʤʤʧʥʺʴ  

ʡʧʥʸʡʠʥʤʯʢʠʤʺʸʥʢʧʬʹʭʦʡʠʤʺʥʰʥʹʺʥʣʩʮʡʭʦʡʠʥʺʥʠʡʹʥʮʩʹʤʹʲʰʠʹʰʮʡ 

± ʸʺʥʩ ʭʩʰʩʣʲ ʹʠʸʤ ʧʺʴʥ ʭʩʩʬʢʸʤ ʧʺʴ ʬʲʮ ʹʥʮʩʹ ʤʹʲʰ ʭʤʡ ʭʩʮʦʡʠʤ ʣʥʲʡ ʮʮ 
ʮʮʡʧʥʸʡ    

ʩʣʩʶʸʥʸʧʹʭʦʡʠʭʩʹʸʺ

Figure : Side Release Buckle        

ʤʲʥʶʸʭʲʣʶʨʡʮ±ʩʣʩʶʸʥʸʧʹʭʦʡʠʭʩʹʸʺ

Figure : Side Release Buckle–Side View with Strap    

ʺʥʧʩʨʡʺʥʹʩʸʣʡʤʣʩʮʲ 

ʩʠʴʥʸʩʠʤ ʺʥʧʩʨʡʤ ʯʷʺ ʺʥʹʩʸʣ ʬʥʮ ʬʠ ʲʶʥʮʤ ʸʶʥʮʤ ʨʴʱʰʥʷ ʬʹ ʺʩʰʥʸʷʲ ʤʰʩʧʡ 
  

ʺʥʫʺʮʭʩʬʩʫʮʤʭʩʸʮʥʧʠʹʰʮʡʯʩʠʭʬʢʤʸʮʥʧʡʺʫʺʮʩʦʥʧʠ  

ʳʶʷʥʮʯʺʩʸʥʠʩʬʥʴʥʭʩʣʡ ʠʹʰʮʤʩʥʰʡʭʤʮʭʩʩʸʷʩʲʤʭʩʸʮʥʧʤ±ʭʩʸʮʥʧʤʺʥʷʩʬʣ  
ʯʷʺʡʺʹʸʣʰʤʤʮʸʡʹʠʺʥʰʩʱʧʬʬʥʴʩʨʥʸʡʲʩ 

ʭʤʡ ʱʴʺʩʤʬ ʤʬʥʫʩ ʸʹʠ ʭʩʩʥʬʢ ʭʩʸʥʧ ʥʠ ʭʩʰʨʷ ʭʩʧʥʥʸ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʯʩʠ ± ʭʩʸʥʧʥ ʭʩʧʥʥʸ  
ʷʥʰʩʺʬʹʲʡʶʠ 

ʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʠʲʥʶʴʬʭʩʬʥʬʲʤʺʥʰʩʴʥʺʥʥʶʷʥʡʯʩʠʥʣʡʤʴʥʶʮʥʬʥʫʠʹʰʮʤ±ʺʥʰʩʴʥʺʥʥʶʷ  
ʤʸʥʤʤʥʠ 

ʺʥʲʥʶʸʬʭʩʸʡʥʧʮʸʹʠʭʩʮʦʡʠʤʭʤʠʹʰʮʡʸʺʥʩʡʭʩʰʨʷʤʭʩʷʬʧʤ ±ʭʩʰʨʷʭʩʷʬʧ  
ʥʠʤʲʩʬʡʬʹʤʰʫʱʸʶʥʥʩʺʠʬʹʩʣʫʡʷʩʴʱʮʬʥʣʢʭʩʮʦʡʠʤʬʣʥʢʷʥʺʩʰʬʭʩʰʺʩʰʭʰʩʠʥ 

ʤʴʩʠʹ 

ʷʩʴʱʮʤʤʥʡʢʥʺʥʫʩʠʥʣʡʤʺʥʴʩʴʶʭʩʷʺʩʰʭʩʷʬʧʬʩʫʮʥʰʩʠʠʹʰʮʤ ±ʭʩʷʺʩʰʭʩʷʬʧ  
ʥʰʮʮʭʩʷʬʧʺʥʷʺʰʩʤʲʥʰʮʬʥʯʮʦʪʸʥʠʬʥʺʥʮʬʹʬʲʸʥʮʹʬʺʰʮʬʲ 

ʯʰʫʥʺʮʤ ʸʶʥʮʡ ʤʬʩʲʰ ʩʰʥʰʢʰʮ ʩʰʹ ʭʩʮʩʩʷʺʮ ʥʡ ʡʶʮ ʸʹʠʮ ʯʷʺʤ ± ʤʬʩʲʰ ʩʰʥʰʢʰʮ  

ʭʩʮʦʡʠ ʪʸʲʮ ʬʹ ʩʰʹ ʤʬʩʲʰ ʯʥʰʢʰʮʥ Velcro ʪʸʲʮ ʬʹ ʣʧʠ ʤʬʩʲʰ ʯʥʰʢʰʮ ʭʩʩʷʺʩ 

ʯʥʹʠʸʤʯʥʰʢʰʮʤʺʠʧʨʡʠʮʤ 

ʢʥʴʱ ʩʩʥʬʩʮ ʥʩʤʩ ʠʬ ʲʶʥʮʤ ʸʶʥʮʡ ʯʷʺʤ ʺʥʹʩʸʣʬ ʭʠʺʤʡ ± ʢʥʴʱ ʩʩʥʬʩʮ ʺʥʹʩʢʰ  

ʪʥʹʰʩʣʬʩʹʤʰʫʱʯʩʠʹʪʫʭʩʣʡʩʰʹʯʩʡʺʩʮʩʰʴʤʡʫʹʡʭʩʠʶʮʰʭʩʩʥʬʩʮʤʬʫʭʩʴʥʹʧ 

ʢʥʴʱʺʥʱʩʴʥʩʴʬʠʸʸʥʴʩʥʠ 

ʯʷʺʤʸʩʣʢʮʹʩʴʫʤʫʩʹʰʤʺʥʷʩʣʡʪʸʲʮʡʣʥʮʲʬʡʩʩʧʸʶʥʮʤ±ʤʫʩʹʰʺʥʷʩʣʡ  

ʺʥʸʣʢʥʮʤ ʩʮʰʩʣʤ ʧʥʫʤ ʺʥʷʩʣʡʡ ʣʥʮʲʬ ʡʩʩʧ ʸʶʥʮʤ ± ʠʹʰʮʤ ʬʹ ʸʥʡʩʧʤ ʺʥʫʸʲʮ 
ʥʺʥʣʩʮʲʺʠʠʣʥʥʬʩʣʫʡʸʩʣʢʮʯʷʺʡ 

ʯʷʺʡʺʥʸʣʢʥʮʤʺʥʲʥʶʸʤʺʥʣʩʮʲʺʥʷʩʣʡʡʣʥʮʲʬʡʩʩʧʸʶʥʮʤ±ʺʥʮʺʸʤʺʥʬʩʲʩ 

ʥʰʩʠʥ ʸʶʥʮʤ ʬʹ ʭʩʩʬʸʢʨʰʩʠ ʭʩʷʬʧʮ ʡʫʸʥʮ ʹʠʸʤ ʪʮʥʺ ʯʷʺʤ ʩʴ ʬʲ   ʹʠʸ ʪʮʥʺ 
ʤʸʱʤʬʯʺʩʰ    

ʭʩʩʸʨʮʥʴʥʸʺʰʠʭʩʰʥʺʰʬʭʠʺʤʡʸʶʥʮʤʯʥʰʫʺ 

ʺʰʫʥʺʡ ʹʥʮʩʹ ʤʹʲʰ ʭʩʩʸʨʮʥʴʥʸʺʰʠ ʭʩʰʥʺʰʡ ʺʥʡʹʧʺʤ ʪʥʺ ʸʶʥʮ ʯʰʫʺʬ ʩʣʫʡ 

ʥʩʡʬ ʩʠʷʩʸʮʠʤ ʣʥʢʩʠʤ ʩʲ  ʤ ʺʥʰʹ ʺʬʩʧʺʡ ʤʧʺʥʴ ʥʦ ʤʰʫʥʺ Mannequin .Pro 

ʩʰʥʹʠʸ ʯʥʰʫʺ ʪʸʥʶʬ ʺʥʩʱʥʬʫʥʠ ʸʴʱʮ ʬʹ ʩʸʨʮʥʴʥʸʺʰʠ ʭʩʰʥʺʰ ʱʩʱʡ ʺʬʬʥʫ ʠʩʤʥ ʤʷʩʰʫʮ 
ʡʤʸʠʠʡʶʬʹʭʩʰʥʺʰʤʸʢʠʮʩʴʬʲʤʯʥʦʥʧʠʤʮʤʹʠʺʥʮʣʤʧʷʬʰʸʶʥʮʤʬʹ  

ʬʣʥʮʤ ʪʫʩʴʬ ʭʩʸʡʢ ʸʹʠʮ ʸʺʥʩ ʷʥʰʩʺ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʺʥʹʮʺʹʮ ʭʩʹʰ ʩʫ ʤʬʲ ʤʦ ʸʷʧʮʡ 

ʸʡʢʸʥʡʲʭʢʬʣʥʮʯʰʫʺʬʤʩʤʩʯʥʫʰʤʹʩʠʬʹʳʥʢʬʯʰʫʥʺʩʰʥʹʠʸʤ  

ʺʥʩʥʮʣ ʬʲ ʹʣʥʧʮ ʯʥʰʫʺ ʲʶʡʬ ʪʸʥʶ ʹʩ ʤʶʷ ʺʥʣʩʮʡ ʭʩʹʰʬ ʸʶʥʮʤ ʺʠ ʭʩʠʺʤʬ ʩʣʫʡ 
ʸʥʦʢʬʤʩʤʩʯʺʩʰʭʩʩʰʩʡʤʺʣʩʮʥʤʶʷʤʺʥʣʩʮʩʺʹʯʥʰʫʺʸʧʠʬ ʤʥ ʤʭʩʰʥʦʥʧʠʤʮ 
ʸʶʥʮʬʩʸʧʱʮʺʥʣʩʮʧʥʥʨ  

ʤʲʶʤʤʥ ʣʥʠʮ ʭʩʬʥʣʢ ʭʤ ʭʩʰʥʹʤ ʭʣʠʤ ʩʰʡ ʯʩʡ ʭʩʬʣʡʤʤ ʸʶʥʮʡʹ ʯʥʰʥʥʫʤ ʺʬʥʫʩ ʺʥʸʮʬ 
ʺʥʣʩʮʸʴʱʮʡʤʦʸʶʥʮʸʥʫʮʬʠʩʤ  

ʭʩʩʣʩʺʲʭʩʸʷʧʮʬʺʥʲʶʤ 

ʭʸʨʷʥʰʩʺʩʠʹʰʮʭʥʧʺʺʥʡʩʹʧʬʲʡʸʶʥʮʫʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʬʭʩʸʥʤʩʰʩʲʡʱʴʺʰʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮ 

ʯʺʩʰʹʩʣʫʡʬʬʫʡʸʷʧʰʠʬʥʨʲʮʫʤʹʲʮʬʥʭʩʩʣʴʥʨʸʥʠʥʭʩʩʰʫʮʥʩʡʭʩʨʡʩʤʡʸʡʲʡʸʷʧʰ 
ʭʩʠʡʤʭʩʨʡʩʤʡʠʹʥʰʤʺʠʸʥʷʧʬʥʪʩʹʮʤʬʯʺʩʰʭʥʧʺʤʺʠʧʺʴʬʪʩʹʮʤʬʤʩʤʩ  

ʤʸʥʤʤʳʥʢʺʩʦʧʡʷʥʰʩʺʬʷʹʮʺʠʩʹʰʬʹʺʩʰʠʫʮʥʩʡʤʤʲʴʹʤʤʺʷʩʣʡ  

ʺʥʧʥʫʤ ʡʥʹʩʧʬ ʩʨʮʺʮ ʬʣʥʮ ʺʩʩʰʡ ± ʥʱʸʥʨʤ ʩʶʮʠʮ ʬʲ ʩʮʣʷ ʠʹʮ ʺʲʴʹʤ ʡʥʹʩʧ  
ʬʣʥʮʤʺʥʮʩʠʭʩʩʴʥʱʭʩʨʰʮʬʠʬʹʤʦʩʬʰʠʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʥʱʸʥʨʤʬʲʭʩʬʲʥʴʤʭʩʨʰʮʥʮʤʥ 

ʩʥʱʩʰʩʣʩʬʲ 

ʭʩʩʣʴʥʨʸʥʠ ʭʩʨʡʩʤ  ʭʩʰʥʹ ʭʩʠʬʩʢʡ ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʬ ʺʥʰʥʫʰʤ ʤʠʩʹʰʤ ʺʥʧʥʰʺ ʺʷʩʣʡ  
 ʭʩʸʧʠʥ 

ʣʬʹʤʬʲʱʮʥʲʺʠʩʹʰʬʹʡʶʮʺʩʩʮʣʤʬʭʩʬʫʺʸʩʶʩ     

ʭʩʧʴʱʰ  

ʯʥʬʠʹʬʠʮʢʥʣ     

ʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʠʹʥʰʡʯʥʬʠʹ  

ʸʷʩʤʸʥʤ 
ʲʣʩʤʹʺʰʮʬʲʵʮʠʮʬʫʤʹʲʰʹʭʩʧʩʨʡʮʥʸʷʱʡʳʺʺʹʤʬʪʺʮʫʱʤʬʲʪʬʭʩʣʥʮʥʰʠ 
ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʤʥʭʩʸʥʤʤʬʹʭʩʩʧʤʺʥʫʩʠʺʠʸʴʹʩʥʭʥʸʺʩʭʥʧʺʡʸʡʨʶʮʤ 
ʭʩʰʥʹʠʸʤʭʩʩʧʤʩʹʣʥʧʬʭʩʣʲʥʩʮʤʭʩʠʹʰʮʬʺʥʲʢʥʰʤʦʸʷʱʡʺʥʬʠʹʤʬʫ 
ʷʸʥʪʠʥʹʮʹʩʥʺʨʬʧʥʮʺʥʩʣʥʱʡʥʸʮʹʩʤʦʯʥʬʠʹʺʥʲʶʮʠʡʭʩʴʱʠʰʤʭʩʰʥʺʰʤʬʫ 
ʭʩʩʮʣʷʠʭʩʹʥʮʩʹʬ  

ʤʨʬʥʷʴʤ±ʩʺʩʩʹʲʺʡʥʶʩʲʡʤʦʺʨʷʩʩʥʸʴʺʸʢʱʮʡʱʷʩʰʸʮʺʩʲʵʴʥʮʯʥʬʠʹʤ 
ʸʹʷʺʤʬʯʺʩʰʸʷʱʬʲʢʥʰʡʺʥʡʹʧʮʥʺʥʬʠʹʺʥʸʸʥʲʺʮʥʤʣʩʮʡʯʥʩʰʫʨʡʤʸʥʨʷʨʩʫʸʠʬ 

ʬʨʡʸʮʺʬ  

ʣʧʠʫʭʩʸʡʢʬʥʭʩʹʰʬʺʥʣʲʥʩʮʪʠʸʫʦʯʥʹʬʡʺʥʧʱʥʰʮʺʥʬʠʹʤʺʩʡʸʮ  

ʸʴʱʮʤʺʠʬʥʢʩʲʡʩʰʮʱ "ʺʥʠʡʤʺʥʰʲʨʬʺʣʢʰʺʮʥʠʤʮʩʫʱʮʤʺʠʤʣʩʮʥʦʩʠʡ 
ʭʩʠʺʮʤ 

ʬʬʫʡ 
ʬʫʠʬ 
ʠʬ 
ʪʫ 
ʭʩʫʱʮ  ʭʩʫʱʮ      

ʠʬ 
ʩʣ 
ʭʩʫʱʮ 
ʤʰʹʮ  ʭʩʫʱʮ  ʨʬʧʤʡ 
ʩʬ                                                                                  

ʤʬʢʲʬʤʡʥʨʤʡʩʨʰʸʨʬʠʠʥʤʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮ  
ʸʺʥʩʹʤʮʫʸʹʴʠʩʠʹʰʮʤʹʩʬʡʥʹʧ  
ʤʠʩʹʰʺʥʧʥʰʺ 
ʬʷʹʮʤʺʠʷʬʧʮʹʠʹʰʮʠʥʤʧʥʰʠʹʰʮ  
ʯʥʫʰ 
ʠʥʤʭʠʭʢʠʹʰʮʡʹʮʺʹʤʬʯʫʥʮʩʰʠ  
ʩʬʹʤʲʥʰʺʤʺʬʥʫʩʺʠʬʩʡʢʮ 
ʡʢʩʡʠʫʬʩʬʭʸʥʢʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʡʹʥʮʩʹ  
ʬʷʹʮʬʷʤʩʤʩʥʮʶʲʠʹʰʮʤʹʩʬʡʥʹʧ  
ʺʥʧʩʨʡʤ ʯʷʺʡ ʣʥʮʲʩ ʠʹʰʮʤʹ ʩʬ ʡʥʹʧ  
ʩʬʠʸʹʩʯʷʺʯʩʠ ʩʠʴʥʸʩʠʤ 
ʺʫʩʮʺʬʭʩʣʥʴʩʸʥʩʤʩʠʹʰʮʡʹʳʩʣʲʮʩʰʠ  
ʤʸʥʤʤ 
ʤʲʩʦʳʥʣʩʰʥʸʥʸʥʥʠʸʹʴʠʩʠʹʰʮʤʹʡʥʹʧ  
ʵʩʷʡ 
ʳʸʥʧʡʡʨʩʤʣʣʥʡʩʠʹʰʮʤʹʡʥʹʧ 
ʯʩʡʬʩʰʩʡʩʱʩʴʲʢʮʤʩʤʩʹʳʩʣʲʮʩʰʠ 
ʠʹʰʮʡʠʥʤʹʯʮʦʡʷʥʰʩʺʤ 
ʭʩʩʲʡʨʭʩʸʮʥʧʮʠʹʰʮʳʩʣʲʮʩʰʠ 
ʹʥʮʩʹʤʺʠʣʥʮʬʬʬʷʤʩʤʩʹʩʬʡʥʹʧ 
ʥʩʬʠʬʢʺʱʤʬʥʠʹʰʮʡ 
ʺʠʸʩʱʤʬʥʹʥʡʬʬʬʷʤʩʤʩʹʩʬʡʥʹʧ 
ʠʹʰʮʤ 
ʺʠʠʩʶʥʤʬʥʱʩʰʫʤʬʬʷʤʩʤʩʹʩʬʡʥʹʧ 
ʠʹʰʮʤʮʷʥʰʩʺʤ 
ʭʩʫʱʩʷʥʰʩʺʤʹʠʹʰʮʠʥʤʡʥʨʠʹʰʮ 
ʪʹʥʮʮʯʮʦʷʸʴʥʡʺʥʬʡʬ 
ʸʹʠʫʷʥʰʩʺʬʤʧʥʰʤʹʩʢʤʩʤʺʹʩʬʡʥʹʧ 
ʠʹʰʮʡʠʥʤ   

ʬʬʫʡ 
ʬʫʠʬ 
ʠʬ 
ʪʫ 
ʭʩʫʱʮ  ʭʩʫʱʮ    

ʠʬ 
ʩʣ 
ʭʩʫʱʮ 
ʤʰʹʮ  ʭʩʫʱʮ  ʨʬʧʤʡ 
ʩʬ                                                           

ʺʥʸʹʴʠʠʹʰʮʬʤʩʤʺʹʳʩʣʲʮʩʰʠ 
ʳʱʥʰʣʥʩʶʺʠʩʹʰʬ 
ʤʲʥʰʺʹʴʥʧʸʺʥʩʹʤʮʫʤʩʤʩʹʩʬʡʥʹʧ 
ʠʹʰʮʤʭʲ 
ʯʷʺʡʣʥʮʲʬʪʩʸʶʥʰʩʠʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮʩʺʲʣʬ 
ʭʩʥʱʮ 
ʩʲʬʥʲʴʺʬʯʺʩʰʤʩʤʩʠʹʰʮʤʹʩʬʡʥʹʧ 
ʤʸʦʲʠʬʬʣʧʠʭʣʠ 
ʬʢʸʺʤʬʥ ʣʥʮʬʬ ʡʸ ʯʮʦ ʹʩʣʷʤʬ ʯʫʥʮ ʩʰʠ 
ʹʣʧʠʹʰʮʬ 
ʺʥʬʷʡʤʷʰʺʩʠʹʰʮʤʹʩʬʡʥʹʧ 
ʠʹʰʮʤʸʥʡʩʧʬʺʥʸʹʴʠʤʩʤʺʹʩʬʡʥʹʧ 
ʡʫʸʡʺʥʧʩʨʡʤʡʹʥʮʬ 
ʭʥʮʩʰʩʮʬʣʥʢʬʬʴʷʺʩʠʹʰʮʤʹʳʩʣʲʮʩʰʠ 
ʹʥʮʩʹʡʥʰʩʠʸʹʠʫ 
ʩʺʰʴʥʠʥʩʨʺʱʠʤʩʤʩʠʹʰʮʤʹʩʬʡʥʹʧ 
ʩʣʬʩʺʠʺʠʹʬʣʥʠʮʩʬʡʥʹʧʩʬʬʫʯʴʥʠʡ 
ʠʹʰʮʡ 
ʺʥʧʥʰʺʩʺʹʥʠʺʧʠʭʲʠʹʰʮʳʩʣʲʮʩʰʠ 
ʣʡʬʡʤʠʩʹʰ 
ʩʷʥʰʩʺ ʭʲ ʯʩʲ ʸʹʷ ʬʲ ʸʥʮʹʬ ʩʬ ʡʥʹʧ 
ʠʹʰʮʡʠʥʤʹʫ  

ʪʩʰʩʲʡʯʺʥʡʩʹʧʸʣʱʩʴʬʲʺʥʠʡʤʺʥʰʥʫʺʤʺʠʢʸʣʠʰʠ 
ʤʡʥʹʧʺʥʧʴʩʫʤʥʸʺʥʩʡʤʡʥʹʧʤʤʰʥʫʺʤʠʩʤʸʹʠʫʺʶʡʹʮʡʸʴʱʮʯʮʱ 
ʺʥʧʩʨʡ 
ʤʬʲʴʤʤʺʥʬʷ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʥʧʥʰ 
ʤʸʥʤʤʺʥʧʥʰ      

ʪʸʥʡʲʸʺʥʩʡʺʥʰʥʫʰʤʺʥʡʥʹʺʤʩʺʹʥʠʤʡʥʹʺʤʺʠʤʬʠʹʬʫʡʩʰʮʱʠʰʠʤʦʷʬʧʡ 
ʤʸʥʤʬʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʷʥʰʩʺʤ  ʠʹʰʮʡ ʩʬʲ ʺʴʣʲʥʮ ʩʫʤ ʤʧʥʰʺʤ 
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ʤʶʥʧʤʭʩʰʴʤʭʲʷʥʰʩʺʤ  
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ʤʸʥʤʤʬʹʡʢʤʬʲʡʹʥʩʷʥʰʩʺʤ  
ʺʫʹʥʮʮʤʫʩʬʤʬʥʩʨ  ʠʹʰʮʡ ʩʺʹʮʺʹʤʹʮʺʹʮ ʩʰʠ 
ʬʸʷʩʲʡ 
ʺʥʩʰʷʥʭʩʸʥʣʩʱ  
ʺʩʡʡʺʥʣʥʡʲʲʥʶʩʡ  
ʤʫʥʡʷʥʰʩʺʺʲʢʸʤ  
ʺʩʸʥʡʩʶʤʸʥʡʧʺʡʤʲʩʱʰ  
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ʯʥʩʬʲʤʡʢʡʭʩʡʠʫ  
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ʩʬʹʯʥʺʧʺʤʡʢʤ 
ʩʬʹʯʢʠʤ 
ʩʬʹʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʤ 
ʩʬʹʭʩʩʴʺʫʤ 
ʯʥʺʧʺʤʡʢʡ 
ʭʩʩʰʺʥʮʡ 
ʭʩʩʴʺʫʡ 
ʯʥʩʬʲʤʡʢʡ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤʡʢʡ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤʹʠʸʡ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤʬʹʭʩʩʫʸʩʤʷʥʱʩʴʡ 
ʠʹʰʮʤʭʲʠʱʫʬʲʤʡʩʹʩ 
ʠʹʰʮʤʭʲʺʥʢʸʣʮʡʤʣʩʸʩʥʤʩʬʲ 
ʠʹʰʮʤʪʥʺʮʯʹʩʷʥʰʩʺʺʠʶʥʤ 
ʤʠʩʹʰʪʥʺʷʥʰʩʺʤʺʬʫʠʤʥʠʤʷʰʤ 
ʡʫʸʬʠʹʰʮʤʮʷʥʰʩʺʺʸʡʲʤ 
BBBBBBBBBBBBʨʸʴʸʧʠ 
ʭʩʮʦʡʠʺʸʩʢʱ  
ʺʥʲʥʶʸʥʠʣʡʬʹʤʸʩʹʷ  
ʬʫʬʹʺʥʣʩʮʤʬʫʬʯʰʥʥʫʺʮ  
ʭʩʸʥʤʤ 
ʩʬʹʩʺʣʩʮʬʺʩʹʩʠʭʠʺʥʮ  
XLLMSʣʢʡʡʥʮʫ

















 

ʤʶʥʸ ʩʺʩʩʤ ʸʥʧʡʬ ʬʥʫʩ ʩʺʩʩʤ ʭʠ 
ʷʥʰʩʺʤ ʬʹ ʬʷʹʮʤ ʸʷʩʲ ʺʠʹ 
ʠʹʩ 
ʩʺʩʩʤ ʠʹʰʮʡ ʹʮʺʹʮ ʩʰʠʹʫ 
ʤʡʥʨʤʫʩʮʺʩʬʤʩʤʺʹʤʶʥʸ  

ʡʨʩʤʪʥʮʺʬʪʩʸʶʷʥʰʩʺʠʹʰʮ 
ʠʹʰʮʤ ʣʥʷʴʺ ʩʬ ʡʥʹʧ ʩʫʤ 
ʤʠʡʤʤʩʶʠʥʨʩʱʡ 

ʸʢʱʰʹ

ʠʹʰʮ

ʳʩʣʲʮ ʩʰʠ 
ʺʥʲʶʮʠʡ 
ʹʠʹʰʮʳʩʣʲʮʩʰʠʯʥʰʥʥʫʺʰʩʧʡʮ  

ʭʩʠʹʰʮʬʭʩʸʥʹʷʤʭʩʴʱʥʰʺʥʰʥʩʲʸʥʠʺʥʴʱʥʰʺʥʣʮʲ ʺʡʩʺʫʬʺʥʣʲʥʩʮʺʥʠʡʤʺʥʸʥʹʤ 
ʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʬ
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ʭʩʹʩʠʭʩʨʸʴ   

ʮʱ 
ʢʷ  

ʡʧʸ 
ʭʩʣʬʩʤʹʥʬʹ 
ʸʺʥʩʥʭʩʣʬʩʤʹʩʹ 

ʣʡʬʡʺʥʩʨʱʩʨʨʱʺʥʸʨʮʬʥʹʮʹʩʭʩʰʥʺʰʤʲʷʸʩʰʥʺʰʸʴʱʮ±ʭʥʩʱʬ 
ʤʡʷʰ 
ʸʫʦ 
ʯʩʮ 
 
 
ʬʩʢ 
ʬʲʮ 
 
ʮʱ 
ʮʱʣʲ 
ʤʡʥʢ 
ʮʱʬʲʮ 
ʮʱ 
ʢʷ 
ʢʷʮʺʥʧʴ 
ʬʷʹʮ 
ʢʷʬʲʮ 
ʢʷ 
ʩʰʥʰʩʡ 
ʸʶ  ʳʥʢʤʰʡʮ 
ʭʩʣʬʩʩʰʹ 
ʣʧʠʣʬʩ  ʭʩʣʬʩʸʴʱʮ 
ʭʩʣʬʩʤʹʩʮʧ 
ʭʩʣʬʩʤʲʡʸʠ 
ʡʥʹʩʩʸʩʲʡʸʸʥʢʺʮ   

ʤʬʥʲʴʤʳʥʺʩʹʬʲʤʣʥʺ  

ʺʥʸʥʷʮʺʮʩʹʸ
Anisfeld, Elizabeth, Casper, Virginia, Nozyce, Molly, Cunningham, Nicholas,
1990, Does Infant Carrying Promote Attachment? An Experimental Study of
Effects of Increased Physical Contact on the Development of Attachment,
Child Development, 61: 1617-1627
CEN,1998, Child care – articles – Baby carriers – Safety requirements and
test methods, European Standard, European Committee for Standardization,
Brussels. 

Cohen, Jacob, Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, New 
York, Academic Press, 1977
Cook, T.M., Neumann, D.A., 1987, The effect of load placement on the
activity of the low back muscles during load carrying by men and women;
Ergonomics, 30:1413-1423.

Datta S.R., Ramanathan N.L., 1971, Ergonomic comparison of seven modes
of carrying loads on the horizontal plane; Ergonomics, 14: 269-278.

Dempsey Patrick G., Ayoub M. M., Bernard Tracey M., Endsley Mica R.,
Karwowski Waldemar, Joe Lin C. and Smith James L., October 1996
Ergonomic investigation of letter-carrier satchels: Part I ,Applied Ergonomics,
27:303-313

Joe Lin C., Dempsey Patrick G., Smith James L., Ayoub M. M. and Bernard
Tracey M., October 1996, Ergonomic investigation of letter-carrier satchels:
Part II ,Applied Ergonomics, 27:315-320

Hansson, T., Magnusson, M., Pope, M.H., 1996, Does a back support have a
positive biomechanical effect?, Applied Ergonomics, 27: 201-205 

Harman, Everett, Knapik Joseph, Reynolds, Katy; 1996; Load carriage using
packs: A review of physiological, biomechanical and medical aspects; Applied
Ergonomics, 27: 207-216.

Holewijn, M., Lotens, W.A., 1992, The influence of backpack design on
physical performance, Ergonomics, 35: 149-157.

Ivancic, P. C., Cholewicki, J., Radebold, A., 2002, Effects of the abdominal
belt on muscle-generated spinal stability and L4/L5 joint compression force,
Ergonomics, 45: 501-513

Legg, S.J., Mahanty, A.,1985, Comparison of five modes of carrying a load
close to the trunk, Ergonomics, 28: 1653-1660.

Satty, Thomas, The analytic Hierarchy Process, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1980

United States Patent and Trademark Office http://www.uspto.gov/patft/ 
http://www.bambrotex.com/index.htm 
ʥʩʺʥʰʥʰʢʱʥ ʸʷʧʮʤ ʺʥʰʥʸʷʲ ʤʸʡʧʤ ʩʲʣʮʡ ʸʷʧʮ ʺʥʨʩʹ ʤʰʩʮ ʧʮʶ ʺʥʸ ʭʥʸʮʨʩʩʡ 
ʡʩʡʠʬʺʤʧʥʺʴʤʤʨʩʱʸʡʩʰʥʠʤʸʷʱʤ±ʤʣʩʧʩ  

±  ʤʣʩʧʩ ʥʩʺʥʰʥʰʢʱʥ ʸʷʧʮʤ ʺʥʰʥʸʷʲ ʤʸʡʧʤ ʩʲʣʮʡ ʸʷʧʮ ʺʥʨʩʹ ʺʥʸ ʭʥʸʮʨʩʩʡ 

ʡʩʡʠʬʺʤʧʥʺʴʤʤʨʩʱʸʡʩʰʥʠʤʤʣʩʣʮʤʺʥʰʥʸʷʲ 

ʺʥʡʩʨʰʸʨʬʠʬʠʸʹʩʺʩʸʥʠʠʰʤʫʳʶʸʤʯʥʸʷʲʯʩ
ʢʳʥʬʣʩʬ  

ʭʩʣʥʬʩʩʥʭʩʣʬʩʬʹʺʥʩʣʴʥʨʸʥʠʺʥʬʧʮʯʥʸʯʣʮʬ 

 // http://www.doctors.co.il/m/Doctors/a/Article/xID/360/xCT/50  

ʡʩʸʲʮʺʩʸʴʱʬʠʸʹʩʩʥʬʤʡʠʥʩʭʩʹʰʠʥʺʥʷʥʰʩʺʬʲʣʰʥʮʱʣʱʩʸʥʮ 

There exists a slight preference for natural materials in the
making of a baby carrier.

The baby carrier should provide maximal protection in a warm
climate.

This paper’s conclusions include proposals to solve the bio-mechanical,
functional, material and safety requirements. The discussion and conclusions
of this research could provide a basis for the design of a novel product in the
market of baby carriers, using different guidelines than those that characterize
the current products. 

III 

 Safety – full support of the European standard of baby carrier safety.
The research methodology is divided into two procedures: objective and
subjective.
The purpose of the subjective procedure is to understand the needs of the
target market. By understanding these needs an optimal product can be
designed. This part of the research consists of a survey of the opinions of
baby carrier users.
The purposes of the objective procedure are to build a standard set of
measurement utilities to evaluate the quality of different baby carriers, and to
define a prioritized set of parameters that affect the design of the product. The
objective procedure consists of testing the compliance of existing products to
a set of basic requirements, and ordering these requirements according to
relative significance.

Results:
 Most parents acknowledge the importance of handling their baby in a
carrier, and prefer physical contact with the carried baby.
 A future carrier should be ergonomically structured to have a minimal
impact on the parent’s posture. The carrier’s structure should allow
long periods of carrying while the parent is in motion. It is also
recommended to allow easy wearing, dismantling and easy loading
and removal of the baby. A future design should employ pockets,
storage solutions, and harnesses that allow carrying additional
equipment.
 The weight should be distributed in such a way that most of the baby’s
weight is carried on the parent’s pelvis.
 The preferred carrying methods by parents are those that maintain a
symmetrical posture.
 The most complaints of postural pains are related to the lower back,
shoulders and upper back. Parents prefer a support in the lower back
and shoulders.
 The preferred fastening method by parents is the buckle. 

II 

Abstract
This paper studies the topic of carrying babies, in their first months after birth,
in soft baby carriers. As new approaches in parenting methods develop the
baby accessory market searches for novel products to address the changing
needs. This study deals with defining a solution to the need of a soft baby
carrier with ergonomic features, based on a research of the carrying aspect,
as experienced by the parent, and by verifying the design to the requirements
of the baby’s physique.

The literature survey examined different aspects that deal with carrying
babies, and arrived at the following conclusions:

Distributing the carried weight evenly around the center of mass, such
that most of the weight is supported by the pelvis, appears to be the
recommended method of carrying.

In order to prevent skeletal damage to the baby during carrying, there is
a need to support three distinct areas: the baby’s head, back, and
maintain some measure of spacing between the baby’s legs.

A high quality baby carrier must adopt the safety requirements of the
European Committee for Standardization.

The usage of a baby carrier has a positive effect on the baby’s mental
development, and bond with its parent.
The literature survey also noted the lack of academic studies in this topic.

This study’s objective is to define a set of characteristics for a baby carrier
that addresses the bio-mechanical, performance and safety requirements:

Bio-mechanical – minimal postural effort; examine the effects on the
carrying body; define the correct structure and support for the carried
baby.

Performance – high degree of freedom in performing a series of typical
chores; ergonomic structure and usage; positive application of the
carrier’s closures; compatible interfaces to the carrier, and to a
predefined functional environment; maintain usability in different
climates. 
I 

Figure 33: Distribution of Responders by Preference to a Natural Materials 



Carrier
Figure 34: Distribution of Responders by Preference to an Aesthetic and 



Fashionable Carrier 


Figure 35: Correlation between Parent Weight and his Preference to
Carrying the Baby Facing Outwards 



Figure 3: Correlation between Parent Weight and his Preference to
Carrying the Baby Facing Inwards 



Figure 3: Correlation between Parent Weight and his Preference to
Carrying the Baby Snuggled
Figure 38: Correlation between Using the Carrier for Household Chores and 



Parent’s Upper Back Pains
Figure 39: Correlation between Importance of Absorbance Ability and 



Preference of Natural Materials for the Carrier
Figure 40: Correlation between Preference of Adding Equipment to the 



Carrier and Using the Carrier Mainly for Walking/Traveling
Figure 41: Correlation between Preference of Placing Most of the Load on 



the Shoulders, and Using the Carrier Mainly for Arrangements & Shopping
Figure 42: Concept Solution for a Balanced Posture in Contrast With the 



Current Unbalanced Situation
Figure : Baby Back & Head Support Layout 

 


Figure 44: Fabric and Fastening Layout in the Optimal Carrier
Figure : Side Release Buckle 



Figure : Side Release Buckle–Side View with Strap 

 

List of Tables
Table 1 :Calculating Priority Hierarchy According to Carrying Posture
Table 2 :Calculating Priority Hierarchy According to Baby Support
Table 3 :Calculating Priority Hierarchy According to Parent Load Distribution
Table 4 :Calculating Priority Hierarchy According to Functioning Requests
Table 5 :Calculating Priority Hierarchy According to Safety Requirements 

 
 
 
 
  

List of Figures
Figure 1: Baby Bjorn - Active Baby Carrier
Figure 2: Snugli - City Sport Front & Back Pack Soft Carrier
Figure 3: Wilkinet - baby carrier
Figure 4: Baby Sling
Figure 5: Over the shoulder baby holder
Figure 6: Premaxx - Baby Bag
Figure 7: Salagozal
Figure 8: Patent no 4487346
Figure 9: Patent no D294,429
Figure 10: Patent no 
Figure 1: Patent no 
Figure 1: Patent no 
Figure 13: Patent no 
Figure 1: Patent no 
Figure 1: Patent no 
Figure 1: Patent no A1/
Figure 17: Main Figure Describing the Baby Carrier Objective Consideration                 

Layout
Figure 18: Bio-Mechanical Requirements Description Layout
LayoutFigure 19: Functioning Requirements Description
Distribution of Responders by AgeFigure 20:
Distribution of Responders by Child NumberFigure 21:
Distribution of Responders by Preferred Carrying PostureFigure 22:
Distribution of Responders by Main Usage of the CarrierFigure 23:
Distribution of Responders by Pain Areas Using baby CarrierFigure 24:
Distribution of Responders by Back Pain Using CarrierFigure 25:
Distribution of Responders by Preferred Main Load AreaFigure 26:
Distribution of Responders by Preferred Support AreasFigure 27:
Distribution of Responders by Consent to Limit Moving AbilityFigure 28:
Distribution of Responders by Preferred Carrier Closing SystemFigure 29:
Figure 30: Distribution of Responders by Position to Using a Baby Carrier as  

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Substitute for BabyTrolley
Figure 31: Distribution of Responders by Degree of Importance They Ascribe 



to Carrying a Baby in a Car
Figure 32: Distribution of Responders by Preference of Physical Contact with
the Carried Baby 

   

Table of Contents
Abstract
Introduction
Literature Survey
Carrying Methods
Usage of Abdominal Belts
Orthopedic Aspects of The Carried Baby
Carrier Safety
The Usage if a Carrier as A Promoting Factor in The Baby’s        

Development
Review of Leading Carriers in The Market
Review of Soft Carriers Patents
Literature Survey Summery
Research Objectives
Methodology
Subjective Research Methodology
A Set of Objective Considerations for Examining A Baby Carrier
1. Biomechanical Requirements
2. Performance Requirements
3. Safety Requirements
Building A Relative Prioritization of Parameters Using The AHP           

Method
Results
Survey Results
Statistical Correlations
Optimal Product Mapping Requirements using AHP Method
Discussion of Results
Conclusions
Suggested Solutions to Biomechanical Requirements
Suggested Solutions to Performance Requirements
Suggested Materials
Following Safety Requirements
Product Design According to Anthropometrical Guidelines
Proposed Future Research 
Appendix
Questionnaire Example 
Bibliography                

The Research Thesis Was Done in the Faculty of Architecture,
Industrial Design Program 
Under The Supervision of Prof. I. Gilad, the Faculty of Industrial Engineering 
Associate Supervisor Prof. R. Nabbaro, the Faculty of Architecture     

I am sincerely thankful for Prof. Issachar Gilad’s devoted supervision, endless
patience, and invaluable guidance in the conducting of academic study.
I am grateful for Prof. Nabbaro for accompanying the research from inception,
and assistance in directing its progress.
I thank my parents Rachel and Uri Yinon, and other family members, for their
encouragement over the years.
My son Omer deserves special thanks as a source of inspiration and practical
experience in the study’s field.

A special thanks to my husband Uri Nix for his practical help, support and
encouragement, which made this study possible.      

The Generous Financial Help of the Technion Is Gratefully Acknowledged 

Design of a Front Baby Carrier According to
Biomechanical, Performance, and Safety
Requirements

Project Thesis
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment to the Requirements for the Degree
of Master of Science in Industrial Design

Tamar Nix

Submitted to the Senate of
The Technion-Israel Institute of Technology
Shvat 5767

Haifa

February 2007 

Design of a Front Baby Carrier According to
Biomechanical, Performance, and Safety
Requirements

Tamar Nix