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By ALICE PUSTER

Pomona, California
Overlooking golden hills
Stand crumbling walls of sun baked clay.
The timeless blast of torrid winds
Has worn them to a grim decay.
Here man and beast alike once toiled
Sweating to make the desert pay;
While the boiling sun looked down and
laughed,
Knowing it would have its way.
Time marches on, and the desert trails
That once filled men's hearts with dread.
Now lined with relics of the past,
Echo the beat of the tourist's tread.

OCOTILLO
On Highway 80
By FRANK RAMSDELL
Ocotillo, California
I am sitting outside in the patio
Just listening to the fall of the rain,
Enjoying the odor of soaked greasewood,
A perfume too delicate to name.
In a few days the purple verbenas
Will cover the mesa and dune
Phacelia will bloom 'neath the ironwood
All the desert with color will be strewn.
When the sun drops behind the high
mountains
And its bright red reflects in the sky
One forgets the sand and the cactus
Just beauty alone meets the eye.
We've had cloudy days and cool weather,
A mixture of summer and fall,
But this makes one feel it's good to be
Death Valley through the ruins of the old Harmony Borax Works. here
And we love the lone place after all.
Photo by Alice Puster.
• • •
TWILIGHT ON THE MESA A DESERT DAY
ENCHANTED HOMESTEAD
By HORACE W. BROWNE
By JAMES F. CONWAY By PAUL WILHELM
San Francisco, California Redding, California
Thousand Palms, California
The aging day is tiring and longs for night's When I look upon the vastness of the
My house—a shack under the stars and sun, desert,
sweet sleep, My hope, clear water flowing past the door,
As softly o'er the sandhills mild evening Its sands rose-hued at the break of day,
That seeps in sand and stirs, when day is The sun stealing o'er the distant ranges,
zephyrs creep; done,
A segment of the crimson sun still tops the Seems to brush the shades of night
mountain rim Cool blood of plants upon the desert floor. away—
Then—lo, retreats, and out of hiding steal 1 hold the gold of date and grapefruit trees, The magic of it enthralls me.
Two cows in pasture, green alfalfa rows,
the shadows dim. Farm tools, and hives of desert honeybees; The sun reaching the zenith of the skies,
But better still, I have the light that flows Turning glitt'ring sands to blinding glare,
Hills exchange their purple robes for gowns Across the sand through curtained window Makes me forget the petty things in life;
of darker hue. panes, Makes me realize that God is there—
And skies forsake cerulean tints for deeper The sound of Little Jeff within the shack The glory of it inspires me.
turquoise blue. As happy as the flowers when it rains—
The gentle haze of twilight smooths con- Now Dell says, "There is nothing to take Yet, when the day has faded into night
tours of the vale back— And the fragrance of verbena fills the air,
And look! The moon climbs in the east— This heaven of a home, this land, our son—" I lift mine eyes to star-jewelled heavens;
sober, pure and pale. And David, scanning from book in the rock, And from my humble heart there goes a
Says, "Homesteading—God knows, it's hon- prayer—
Majestic hills, long centuries old, white est won, For its silence rests me.
monuments of sand Our daily bread, a son, this little shack—"
Watch nights — with convict s'ealth they • • •
come—advance upon the land.
They see the days like painted maidens
dance in endless line
Some ashen gray and somber, some gay
THE DESERT CALLING
By BLANCHE HOUSTON GRAY 1*
with youth's red wine. Garden Grove, California By TANYA SOUTH
The sand of the desert is golden, Safely my life course I pursue,
O silent ramparts of hard rock, what The sage has a silvery sheen; Safely I wend my way.
strangers have passed by Many and varied the colors, Whatever comes, what I may do,
Since first you were volcano born and Waiting there to be seen. Or haste, or make delay,
thrust up to the sky. I dwell in spiritual power
What travelers yet will pause here, as day Go in the early Springtime, And know all Fate as just.
begins to fade, Go when the day is fair, God holds my soul each shining hour,
To wonder just as I do—by whom was all Go when the flowers are blooming, And in Him is my trust.
this made? Beauty awaits you there.

DESERT MAGAZINE
DESERT CALENDAR
July 1-31—"Moonlight in the Indian
Country." Exhibit of 20 oil paint-
ings of Navajo and Pueblo country
by H. Arden Edwards. Southwest
Museum, Highland Park, Los An-
geles, California.
July 3-5 — American Legion Rodeo,
Cedar City, Utah.
July 3-5 — La Mesilla Fiesta, Old
Town section of Las Vegas, New
Mexico. Number 7
Volume 15 JULY, 1952
July 3-6—Hopi Craftsman Exhibit.
Museum, Flagstaff, Arizona.
COVER Oak Creek Canyon, Arizona. By Hubert A. Lowman
July 3-6—Ropers Club Rodeo, Cloud- of Covina, California
croft, New Mexico.
POETRY Death Valley Ruins and other poems . . . . 2
July 4 — Cimarron Rodeo, Cimar-
ron, New Mexico. CALENDAR July events on the desert 3
July 4—Fourth of July celebration EXPERIENCE Life on the Desert, by CHARLES BATTYE . . . 4
at White Sands National Monu-
ment, New Mexico. EXPLORATION Tribesmen of Santa Catarina
July 4-5 — Round Valley Rodeo, By RANDALL HENDERSON 5
Springerville, Arizona. ART Hoke Denetsosie—Navaio Artist
July 4-5—Rabbit Ear Roundup Ro- By EDGAR ELLINGER, JR 12
deo, Clayton, New Mexico. PAGEANTRY Death Valley Encampment announcement . 14
July 4-6—Reno Rodeo and Livestock The Story cf Flowers, by JERRY LAUDERMILK
Show, Reno, Nevada. NATURE 16
July 4-6—Prescott Frontier Days and FIELD TRIP Agate Hunting Along the Gila
Rodeo. Prescott, Arizona. By FENTON TAYLOR 20
July 4-6 — Desert Peaks Section, BOTANY They Like a Rocky Terrain, b y MARY BEAL 22
Southern California and San Diego
Chapters, Sierra Club, hike to PHOTOGRAPHY Pictures of the Month 23
White Mountain Peak, California.
MINING Current n e w s of desert mines 24
July 4-6 — All-Indian Pow-Wow,
Flagstaff, Arizona. LOST MINE Lost Mine with the Iron Door
July 4-14 — Sons of Utah Pioneers
trek over old Donner and Oregon By JOHN D. MITCHELL 25
trails. From Salt Lake City, Utah. DESERT QUIZ
A test of your desert k n o w l e d g e 26
July 7-8—Spanish and Indian Fiesta, LETTERS
Espanola, New Mexico. Comment from Desert's r e a d e r s 27
FICTION
July 10-12 — Ute Stampede, Nephi, Hard Rock Shorty of Death Valley 28
Utah. NEWS
From h e r e a n d there on the desert 29
July 10-13 — Rodeo de Santa Fe,
Santa Fe, New Mexico. CONTEST
Prize a n n o u n c e m e n t for p h o t o g r a p h e r s . . . 29
July 11—Dedication of Nevills Mem- CLOSE-UPS
orial Plaque at Navajo Bridge. About those w h o write for Desert 35
Marble Canyon, Arizona. LAPIDARY
A m a t e u r G e m Cutter, b y LELANDE QUICK . . 36
July 13-August 9—Exhibition of In- HOBBY
dian Paintings, Arizona State G e m s a n d Minerals 37
Teachers College, Flagstaff, Ari- COMMENT
zona. Just Between You a n d Me, b y the Editor . . . 42
July 14—Annual Fiesta and Corn BOOKS Reviews of Southwestern literature 43
Dance, Cochiti Indian Pueblo,
New Mexico. The Desert Magazine is published monthly by the Desert Press, Inc., Palm Desert,
California. Re-entered as second class matter July 17, 1948, at the post office at Palm Desert,
California, under the Act of March 3, 1S79. Title registered No. 358865 in U. S. Patent Office,
July 22-25 — Spanish Fork Annual and contents copyrighted 1952 by the Desert Press, Inc. Permission to reproduce contents
Rodeo, Spanish Fork, Utah. must be secured from the editor in writing.
July 25 — Santiago Day at Taos RANDALL HENDERSON, Editor MARGARET GERKE, Associate Editor
Pueblo, Taos, New Mexico. Corn BESS STACY, Business Manager MARTIN MORAN, Circulation Manager
Dance. Unsolicited manuscripts and photographs submitted cannot be returned or acknowledged
unless full return postage is enclosed. Desert Magazine assumes no responsibility for
July 25-26—Spanish Colonial Fiesta, damage or loss of manuscripts or photographs although due care will be exercised. Sub-
scribers should send notice of change of address by the first of the month preceding issue.
Taos, New Mexico.
SUBSCRIPTION RATES
July 26—Santa Ana Day at Taos One Year $3.50 Two Years $8.00
Pueblo. Corn Dance. Taos, New Canadian Subscriptions 25c Extra, Foreign 50e Kxtra
Mexico. Subscriptions to Army Personnel Outside U. S. A. Must Be Mailed in Conformity With
P. O. D. Order No. 19687
Address Correspondence to Desert Magazine, Paint Desert, California

JULY, 1952
Here is a story of Indian gratitude, told by a man

Life on the Desert


By CHARLES BATTYE
who spent many years in the lower valleys of the
Colorado River. This story is one of the winning
entries in Desert Magazine's Life-on-the-Desert con-
test in 1951. It originally appeared in the Needles
Nugget in 1940.

02/jlLLIAM HUTT and I were on the Colorado When all was over we turned silently away. Evening
£/(/ River at a locality known as Chemehuevi Val- was now approaching, but the sun shone as brightly as
ley which now lies beneath the waters of Lake ever. There was no diminution in the song of a mocking
Havasu, behind Parker Dam. That river valley was the bird perched atop the tallest cane of a scarlet-flowered
home of the Chemehuevi Indians. We knew a good ocotillo; the little wrens still flitted in and out of the
many of those Indians, and when, on this occasion, we clumps of cholla cactus wherein they nested; and our
were invited to go with a party of them on a desert trip burro, browsing contentedly on some bunches of galleta
we gladly accepted. Two were old friends, Hikorum grass had, obviously, forgotten his recent unwelcome
and Pah-Tsaou, and they could speak fair English. The load. Five humans alone were subdued and depressed.
third Indian was an old man named Wee-Uss. He was One day during our return journey eastward to
a kind of witch doctor and had great influence in the Chemehuevi Valley, Wee-Uss surprised us by telling his
tribe. The fourth was a young fellow named Pah-gin-eo. two companions to remain in camp, meanwhile beckon-
Neither of the latter knew any English. ing Hutt and me to follow him. Mystified, we did so.
The Indians traveled light but we took a burro along, Silently he led us over the hills for several miles. Coming
with some grub and a bit of bedding. to a halt in a shallow gulch he said, in halting Spanish,
We were well out on the desert in a few days. The just three words: "Poco oro aqui."
Indians hunted mountain sheep and picked up turtles We knew what that meant, all right. Oro was the
for the pot. Hutt and I prospected. one thing we were always looking for.
There were no signs in that vicinity of solid forma-
One morning we two were delayed in getting off
and the Indians were quite a distance ahead of us. When tion, such as would be capable of carrying mineral veins.
we caught up with them they were standing helplessly It was a region of wash gravel, so we knew he must be
around Pah-gin-eo who seemed to be in grave trouble. referring to placer gold. Somehow we never for a
Our friends said he had been bitten by a rattlesnake moment doubted his word. On a high point we built a
and none of them seemed to know what to do about it. monument for a landmark. This, together with our
Well, neither did we, and Pah-gin-eo died within a few general knowledge of the country would, we knew, en-
hours. able us to return to that spot. Then all three returned
to camp.
This was a tragic ending to our pleasure trip, and At an appropriate time we asked the two others why
we wondered greatly what would happen next. the old man had shown us that place. They told us it
The three Indians were having a long talk and it was because he felt kindly toward us for our actions and
seemed to us there was not full agreement among them. help during the emergency.
We asked Hikorum for information and he gave us So, after all, that old reactionary, steeped in super-
plenty. We now learned that the dead youth was the stition and prejudice, hard as nails where the ethics of
son of Wee-Uss, which was news to us. Also we learned his tribal beliefs were concerned, felt the same human
that the old man was determined to cremate his son, emotions within his breast as are common to all man-
which was against all the beliefs and traditions of the kind. His natural affection for his son prompted him to
Chemehuevis, who believed in burial. Hikorum said respond, to the best of his ability, to what he considered
Wee-Uss argued like this: It was not possible to take a kind act.
the body back to the river; it was too long a distance. He Later we invited Hikorum and Pah-Tsaou to join us
objected strenuously to placing his boy in a shallow in working that placer deposit, share and share alike.
grave subject to future desecration by coyotes. Rather, But would they? Not under any consideration. They
he would violate all tribal customs and place his son on said the old man had given us that place for ourselves
a funeral pyre, the body to be disseminated in the pure alone and for them to participate in any way in the
desert air. And his decision prevailed. proceeds thereof would mean their incurring his grave
Well, a cremation meant lots of wood and there was displeasure. In fact, they put it much stronger than that.
no wood in sight. Did the Indians know of any, we So in the course of time we worked out the ground our-
asked? They did. So we unpacked our burro, covering selves with our gold pans and a home-made drywasher.
our possessions with a piece of canvas weighted down We cleaned up a good many ounces of gold but nothing
with rocks. Then we lashed the body on the protesting spectacular, and then ate up a substantial bill of grub
burro. Wee-Uss looked on impassively, saying not a searching for more, but there was no more. So Wee-Uss
word. Then our little procession struck out with our knew whereof he spoke when he said, "There is a
burro and its gruesome load. little gold here."
After considerable travel we dropped into a good- Before me, as I write, lies a man's tie stickpin, the
sized wash where scattered mesquite and palo verde trees head of which is a gold nugget. It is only a small nugget,
of fair size were available. The old man was silent and and its intrinsic value is negligible, but it is the only
immobile. We four went to work gathering wood and material reminder of that eventful trip when six went
it took us some time. out and only five returned, a trip of which I am now
When the funeral pyre was complete the Indians laid sole survivor.
the body on it and lit the fire. After that Wee-Uss The nugget was among the gold William Hutt and
motioned all of us aside. Then he began a slow, monot- I recovered, the gold shown us by old Wee-Uss.
onous chant, oft repeated. None of the rest of us said On our return to our home base at Needles I had a
a word. We stood there and watched the flames con- pin soldered to it, and it has been in my possession ever
sume all that was mortal of our late companion. since.

DESERT MAGAZINE
Eugene Albdnes, a Diegueno Indian who married into Aries Adams, left, with Chief Juan Arvallo of the Santa
the Pai-Pai tribe and has lived for many years at Santa Catarina Indians. Juan is a friendly, intelligent Pai-Pai.
Catarina.

Tribesmen of Santa Catarina


After many revolts, the Indian tribesmen of Santa Catarina de los
Yumas, in 1840 drove off the last of the padres and burned the mission As part of its new road building
which had been established by the Dominican fathers in 1797. For more program, the territory of the Northern
than a century these Indians have been referred to by historians as malo District of Baja California—to become
hombres—bad men. But when a Desert Magazine party visited the Indian a state as soon as general elections are
villages in April this year they found the natives friendly and honest. Here held — is constructing a fine paved
is a story revealing many interesting glimpses of one of the most primitive highway parallel to the border, and
Indian tribes in North America. extending from Tijuana near the Pa-
By RANDALL HENDERSON cific coast through Mexicali to the
Map by Norton Allen Colorado River. This road has all been
completed except the 4000-foot grade
NE LATE afternoon in April this The chief of the tribe was away, the that climbs to the top of the Sierra
year I stopped my jeep in front old man told us, but we could camp Juarez on the desert side.
of a thatched hut in a little vil- over by the rocks at the edge of the We followed this new paving west-
lage near the lower end of the Sierra village and await his return. We ac- ward to the base of the range where
Juarez range in Baja California 115 cepted the invitation—and during the there was a road-block, forcing us to
miles south of the California border. next two days I became acquainted detour to the old Cantu grade, built
An aged Indian in rags and patches with one of the most primitive Indian by a former governor of the territory
came out of the low doorway. He tribes in North America—the Santa 40 years ago. The old Cantu roadway
spoke a little English, but it was not Catarina de los Yumas. zigzags up the rocky wall with a
necessary, for my companions, Aries We had left the Mexicali port of series of hairpin turns. During the two
Adams, Bill Sherrill and Malcolm entry before sun-up that morning, and years the new grade has been under
Huey all are rather fluent with Span- had spent most of the day following construction no maintenance work has
ish. a tortuous road down the peninsula. been done on the old road and the

JULY, 1952
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DESERT MAGAZINE
12-mile climb is a nerve-racking ex-
perience, even in a jeep.
At the top of the grade we passed
through the little settlement of Alaska,
built in the '20s by Gen. Abelardo
Rodriquez, then governor of the dis-
trict, as a summer capitol. Two miles
west of Alaska we left the Mexicali-
Tijuana highway and followed the un-
improved road which winds to the
south across the plateau which is the
top of the Sierra Juarez.
Most of the way it is a 15-mile-an-
hour road, but despite its crooks and
sand and rocks it passes through a
lovely mountain terrain covered with
pinyon, Rhus ovata, manzanita and
•mpppppp
juniper. We passed through an old
placer field near La Milla and stopped
1
briefly at a tungsten mine where the
Tecate Mining and Milling company
is working three shifts a day.
We were gaining elevation as we
traveled south and the pinyon timber
changed to Ponderosa pine. At noon
we came to Laguna Hanson, now full
of water and one of the prettiest moun-
tain lakes in the California sierra.
Fringed with pines and great white
granite boulders this idyllic lake, at an
elevation of 5000 feet, is little known
except to hunters who go in occasion-
ally for ducks. In recent years the
lake has been nearly dry, but this
season's rains have filled it to over-
flowing.
Five miles beyond Laguna Hanson
we passed through an old saw mill
camp, now abandoned. Scores of
buildings bore evidence of great activ-
ity here at one time. It is surrounded
by a fine stand of pines, but we were
told that the Baja California market
for lumber is too limited and trans-
portation costs too high to make it
a profitable operation.
Beyond the lumber camp we began
to lose elevation and within a few
miles had passed out of the big timber
and were rolling over hills covered
with a dense growth of red shank—
which also has an equally descriptive
and prettier name—ribbonwood.
At 115 miles from Mexicali the
winding dirt road we were following
joined the Ensenada-San Felipe road.
There has been much talk in recent
years that this road was to be paved
—but it showed no evidence of im-
provement. It is just a winding trail
through the brush—a road that could
be traveled with a conventional car,
but it would be slow going, and dam-
aging to a new paint job.
Fourteen miles along this road Top—All the Santa Catarina men have horses, but there are no wheeled
brought us to a conspicuous landmark vehicles in the village.
—Pino Solo. This is a great lone Pon- Center—Most of the 90-odd tribesmen in the Santa Catarina villages live
derosa pine tree standing out alone in in tulle-thatched huts.
the bush country, many miles from Bottom—This cemetery, still used by the Indians, was established by the
any other tree of its species. On one padres near their mission 155 years ago.

JULY, 1952
Santa Catarina Indian village to ped-
dle his wares.
From Alamo we headed across a
rolling mesa to the old Santa Catarina
mission, which was the goal of our
trip. Aries visited the Indian village
over a year ago. When he arrived in
camp he found only women there, and
was told the chief was away. While
awaiting the jefe's return he drove up
the hill to the old mission cemetery to
take some pictures. He had been there
only a short time when he heard a
shout and turned to find four angry
Indians coming toward him. They told
him in no uncertain terms that picture-
taking in the cemetery was taboo—at
least not without the consent of the
chief.
Thanks to his fluent Spanish and
a generous distribution of cigarets
Aries was able to appease the Indians
—after he had put his camera away.
Later he met Juan Arvallo, the chief,
and found him a highly intelligent and
very courteous Indian. Before their
visit ended Aries was invited to re-
turn and bring his friends. It was in
the acceptance of this invitation that
the four of us made the journey to
Santa Catarina.
Aries Adams was not the first white
man to clash with these Indians. Dur-
ing much of the 155 years since the
mission was built here, the natives in
this area have been regarded as ladro-
nes — robbers. There are less than
100 of them in the vicinity today, but
in 1797 when the Dominican Frailes,
Tomas Caldellon and Jose Llorente,
established this last mission in the
Dominican chain in Baja California,
1500 Santa Catarina tribesmen are re-
ported to have lived in the area.
Again and again the Indians re-
volted against the control of the mis-
sionaries. Finally, in 1840, they killed
or drove away the last of them and
burned what they could of the mis-
Above—Children of the Santa Catarina tribe. The low adobe hut behind sion. It was never rebuilt, and today
them is the tribal chicken house. its site is marked only by mounds of
Below—Laguna Hanson is a lovely mountain lake surrounded by pines and earth and rocks.
great white granite boulders. James O. Pattie, trapper and moun-
tain man, came this way in 1827 on
of the maps it is named Pino Grande. lode on the side of a nearby mountain a trek from the mouth of the Colorado
There are no maps which show all and a mill was erected. The mill is River where his horses had been stolen
the roads we followed. The Auto now closed, but some of the old-time by Cocopah Indians, to San Diego.
Club of Southern California has the miners still work the claims for ore— Pattie was carried into the Indian camp
best available map for travel purposes and bring out enough to buy their on a litter, due to a foot injury. The
—but it does not show the Santa frijoles. priests were away at the time and the
Catarina mission. The Arey-Jones During the boom days there were little detachment of Spanish soldiers
map is best for historical place names between 300 and 400 Chinese labor- on duty there put him and his com-
—but it is not an up-to-date road map. ers here,, and about 300 Mexicans. panions in the guard house for a week
Aries in his big-tired Chevrolet ja- One of the two surviving stores is before permitting them to go on their
lopy was leading the way. He had been way.
over this route before. Just beyond owned by an aged Chinese who was
Pino Solo he took the right fork, and here during the gold rush. When I More recently Arthur W. North,
12 miles later we arrived in the old asked his name he answered "Mike." explorer and author of Camp and
mining camp of Alamo. Placer gold Mike Wah Kee has a little stock of Camino in Lower California, and The
was found here in the 1880s, and in groceries and work clothes, and once Mother of California—both now out
1924 a prospector located the mother a month he drives 16 miles to the of print—visited the Santa Catarina
DESERT MAGAZINE
village in December, 1905. He and of the prehistoric Indians of Southern The men at Santa Catarina braid
his companions were suspicious of the California. very fine cowhide riatas. The women
Indians, and camped a few miles down Some of my friends who have been make carrying bags, woven like a
the trail. During the night the Indians scrambling over the desert mountains small hammock, of agave fiber. These
stampeded their stock and concealed for years seeking caves with old In- are slung over their backs and serve
North's buckskin riding mule in a dian pottery, could save shoe leather many purposes in a community where
thicket, with an armed guard. But the by going down to Santa Catarina where there are no wheels for transportation.
North party had better arms than the they can buy all the ollas they want, I also discovered a utensil that was
natives, and by brandishing their weap- of identical make, at from 10 to 20 new to me. It is a small netting bag,
ons were able to recover the mule pesos each. A peso is now worth about gallon size, which the Indians
without bloodshed. about 11 cents in U. S. coin. said they used to get the spines off of
Despite the bad reputation which
historians have given these Indians we
had only the most friendly dealings Above—Aries Adams, Malcolm Huey and Bill Sherrill of the Santa Cata-
with them. From three or four to a rina expedition. The ollas are being made by the Indians, as their ancestors
dozen of the men and women were made them for many generations. The Yucca fiber net is a carrying bag—
in our camp all the time we were at a useful tool in a remote village where there are no wheels.
Santa Catarina. They had every op-
portunity to pilfer small items of equip- Below—Ghost remains of the old mining camp at Alamo, where millions
ment—but nothing was missing. in gold have been recovered in the last 75 years.
At Aries' suggestion we had taken
along some used clothing and extra
groceries, and we did considerable
trading with them—both barter and
cash purchases—and in every instance
they left it to us to place a value on
the things they had to sell. «#. * «*•

I asked Juan about their tribal


names, and learned that their com-
munity included Cocopahs, Dieguenos,
Kaliwas and Pai-Pais—mostly the lat-
ter.
North and other writers refer to all
the Indians grouped about the old mis-
sion site as Santa Catarinas. But when
I asked Juan if there were some In-
dians of this name he did not seem
to understand what I was talking
about. My impression was that Santa
Catarina was the name given by the
padres to all the tribesmen in the area
surrounding the Mission Santa Cata-
rina de los Yumas—but that the In-
dians themselves preferred to be known
by their tribal names. All the Indians
in the northern part of Baja California
are believed to have belonged to the
Yuman linguistic group, although the
Indians we met at Santa Catarina do
not in any sense regard themselves as
Yumas. At the time Pattie passed
through this region there was bitter
enmity between the Cocopahs and the
Pai-Pais. Today they pick cotton to-
gether in the fields of the Colorado
delta.
There are two villages, the one
where we camped near the old mis-
sion site, and another known as San
Miguel two miles away. Over the
ridge 12 miles to the northeast in Agua
Caliente Canyon is another little seg-
ment of the tribe with Ramon Arvallo,
brother of Juan, as chief. (Desert Mag-
azine, July '51.)
The Indians live in crude but well-
kept thatched tulle and adobe huts.
They are making and using the same
kind of earthen pottery that archeolo-
gists and pot-hunters find in the caves
on the Colorado desert—the pottery

JULY, 1 952
tunas, or prickly pear cactus fruit, be- greatly simplified the problem of secur- destroyed section with a stone and
fore eating them. (May Desert Maga- ing what pictures we wanted the next cement wall. A more recent storm cut
zine cover.) day. The taboos were all forgotten— through the rebuilt dam, where the
This fruit is very palatable, but the and we took several camera shots of old earth and stone wall joins the new
tiny spines which grow on the skin their sacred cemetery. And it is a construction—and today the dam is
make it difficult to handle. Ap- sacred place to these Indians. They useless. We made up a little fund with
parently the Indians have solved this have built a strong barbed-wire fence which they could buy more cement.
problem. The tunas were not ripe at around it, and the graves are well kept While we were inspecting the dam
the time of our visit to Santa Catarina, and decorated with flowers and tinsel. one of the Indians asked us very seri-
and I did not have the opportunity to Where they got the barbed wire and ously if we could tell them the name
see how the bag serves as, a spine- tinsel I do not know. of a water monster which according to
remover. I want to learn more about Next morning with Chief Juan and tribal legend came in periodically and
this utensil and its use. three of the tribesmen we walked up devoured their ancestors. They even
The Santa Catarinas have only a the hill to where the mission had been. showed us the great boulder where
meager income — but they are fine Recently, the Indians, in searching for one of the tribesmen at some time in
healthy-looking Indians. The men all clay for their pottery, had unearthed the prehistoric past had slain the
have riding horses. They run a few a little kiln which they said had been dragon with a spear.
cattle on the range, and do a little used for baking the bricks in the con- It was with genuine regret that we
farming in the arroyos where there is struction of the mission. Also, they bade goodbye to these people. Their
moisture. They roast mescal buds and thought it had been used for smelting ancestors may have been ladrones —
gather seeds from some of the native ore from a legendary gold and lead but today they have virtues which we
shrubs. Occasionally the men are mine a few miles away. like to find in our neighbors. There
given work by Mexican cattle ranchers Judging from the dim outlines of are not many places in the civilized
in that area, and in the fall many of the walls, marked today only by low world where the buyer sets the price
the Indians ride 100 miles to the Colo- ridges of earth and scattered stones, on the merchandise he wants.
rado delta and pick cotton for Mexican the mission quadrangle must have From Santa Catarina we continued
farmers. been about 180 by 225 feet, with three south 11 miles to the Viejo ranch,
The Mexican government estab- entrances and a belfry tower in one which as the name indicates, is one of
lished a reservation about three miles corner. the early-day cattle camps in this re-
square for these Indians — but they At the time North visited the site gion. It is operated by Mexicans, who
range over the desert area for miles in 1905 the old mission bell was still share their range with the Indians. At
without much regard for reservation there—housed in a little brush shack. Rancho Viejo we returned again to
lines. At the San Miguel camp is a The Indians told us that a few years the Ensenada-San Felipe road. For
school house—the only building on ago one of their members got drunk 30 miles we wound through pinyon,
the reservation made with saw-mill and sold it to a man in Ensenada. juniper and shrubs of the Upper So-
lumber. But there is no teacher. And A considerable part of the cemetery noran zone. Then through a narrow
that is the only grievance we heard enclosure is unoccupied, the recent pass we looked down a thousand feet
expressed while we were with these burials all being in one end. Time and on a lovely valley carpeted with green
Indians. They want a teacher for their rain have levelled the remainder of — Valle Trinidad. At one time an
children. The Navajo Indians in the the cemetery to a smooth sandy floor. American cattleman, Newt House, op-
United States have a similar complaint. The Indians say that beneath the sand erated this ranch but it has now been
When I asked Juan about their re- are the graves of the neophytes buried taken over by Mexican ranchers. The
ligion he answered, "Maybe little bit here by the padres. Also, they believe floor of the valley, perhaps ten miles
Catholic." The priests seldom visit there is an underground tomb in which long and four miles wide, was covered
this remote village—the last time hav- are the remains of the priests who met with a lush growth of filaree, and we
ing been two years ago. Whatever death here. saw a well-kept ranch house. It had
may have been the faults of their an- the appearance of a prosperous outfit,
cestors, I had the feeling that these But whatever lies beneath the sand and with such a range it should be,
unschooled primitives, far removed and rocks in that little cemetery is despite the long rough road necessary
from church and law, have worked well guarded—these Indians will tol- to get livestock out to market.
out for themselves a code of religion erate no intrusion. We did not ask
to go inside the enclosure, but with We dropped down a steep grade
and of social and economic intercourse over a rock road to the floor of the
which is serving them well. the consent of the chief took several
pictures from an outcropping of huge valley and headed eastward toward
Aries had a big treat for these In- granite boulders on one side. On this the Gulf of California, now about 50
dians. He had loaded a portable gen- outcrop I counted 48 grinding holes miles away. To reach the coastal plain
erator in the back of his jalopy, and in one slab, and 19 in another. These the road goes through San Matias
taken along a collapsible screen. After Indians still use stone on stone for Pass—between the southern end of the
dinner he gave the Indians an outdoor grinding their meal, but they now have Sierra Juarez and the northern end of
picture show—probably the first that portable metates in their huts. the San Pedro Martyrs, highest range
had ever been presented at Santa Cata- on the peninsula of Baja California.
rina. Many of the pictures shown were Below the cemetery is the little Somewhere up in the timbered country
the 35 mm. Kodachromes taken on creek from which the padres got their above Valle Trinidad is the San Jose
his previous visit to Santa Catarina. water. The creek runs dry during the ranch of Mr. and Mrs. Salvador Mel-
It was a strange experience for these summer months, and the missionaries ing. {Desert Magazine, March '51.)
Indians — to see the faces of their with the help of their neophytes built San Matias Pass provides a natural
tribesmen on the picture screen. The an earth and stone dam to create a trade route through the great mountain
men smiled and whispered among little reservoir. Part of the old dam barrier which forms the backbone of
themselves. The women were less re- is still standing. A portion of it washed the upper peninsula — giving access
strained. They laughed and chattered away in a cloudburst storm a few between the Pacific and the Gulf of
in wonder and delight. years ago and the Indians obtained California. From the days of the pad-
This picture program in the evening nine sacks of cement and replaced the res, travelers in this region all have

10 DESERT MAGAZINE
S»* *",. *"*
Entrance to the cemetery established by the Dominican A low ridge of adobe and a few scattered rocks are all
frailes at Santa Catarina mission about 1797. No pho- that remain today to show where the Santa Catarina
tographers are permitted to pass beyond this gate. mission in Baja California once stood.

mentioned San Matias — and I was ued through the pass and out onto the comfortable lodging at $4.00 for one
eager to see this historic pass. great dry lake which covers the floor person, $6.00 for two.
Actually, it is a wide arroyo drain- of San Felipe Valley. Above us Three hours of easy driving brought
ing Valle Trinidad — a luxurious towered the white granite peaks of the us back to our starting point at Mexi-
botanical garden in which the plants San Pedro Martyr range—topped by cali—133 miles from San Felipe. Our
of the Upper Sonoran zone meet those Picacho del Diablo, elevation 10,163 total distance for the round trip was
of the Lower Sonoran. We camped feet. Desert lilies were in full bloom 445 miles, and that included between
that night mid-way through the pass on the bajada approaching the lakebed. 30 and 40 miles of side trips.
—a dry camp for there are no water- We rode across the lake at 40 miles We had traveled some good roads,
holes along the arroyo. an hour — the fastest pace we had and some very bad roads, but the
The elevation was 1800 feet, and driven since leaving the Mexicali-Ti- highlight of our trip were those hours
the plants of the Upper Sonoran were juana road near Alaska. We stopped we spent with the Indians at Santa
still with us—agave, Mojave yucca, for an hour and filled our canteens at Catarina. I have a great admiration
jojoba, ephedra and bisnaga. But there the Rancho Santa Clara on the edge for the hardihood of those padres who
were also shrubs of the Lower Sonoran of the lakebed, and then drove through went out into that wild country 155
— Palo Verde, Ironwood, creosote, a pass in the low coastal range that years ago and founded a mission there
ocotillo — the two zones were over- parallels the Sea of Cortez—Gulf of to save the souls of the heathen abo-
lapping at this point. Also, two of California. Just as we reached the lit- rigines of that region.
Lower California's most striking bo- tle fishing village of San Felipe our During the 43 years the mission
tanical specimens were here—Senita road joined the new paved highway was open it did not appear that the
cactus and Elephant tree. that comes down from Mexicali. Dominican frailes made much prog-
We cooked dinner that night on a American sportsmen have been go- ress in converting their savage neo-
fire of dead Ironwood—the best of all ing to San Felipe in increasing num- phytes to the virtues of Christianity.
desert woods for campfire purposes in bers since the paving was completed But perhaps the seed they sowed in
my opinion. At least it is the easiest two years ago. The primitive village the hearts of those primitive natives
to obtain when one is in the life zone of thatch and adobe huts is giving are just now bearing fruit. Sooner or
where it grows. way to many modern improvements. later I want to go back to Santa Cata-
Early the next morning we contin- Augie's Riviera Hotel now provides rina. I liked those people.

JULY, 1952 11
Ever since he was a small boy, Hoke Denetsosie has wanted to paint pictures de-
picting the colorful way of life of his people, the Navajo. Now Hoke's work is
gaining wide recognition, and he looks forward to the time when he can spend all
working hours at his drawing board.

HokeDenetsosie...NavajoArtist By EDGAR ELLINGER, JR.


Photographs by the author
Many travelers to the South-
west have bought cartoon post- 7 HE INTRIGUING s i g n a t u r e ,
Hoke Denetsosie (Hoak Din-
et-so'-sey), appears at the bot-
tom of many cartoon postcards sold
him if he knew where I might reach
the artist. Two days later a reply came
from the postmaster: Hoke was in
town and an interview could be ar-
cards signed "Hoke Denetsosie."
throughout the Southwest. The car- ranged. The fact that he was available
The name, as well as the draw- toons, skilfully drawn, illustrate gag was all that was necessary. I packed
ing style, intrigued Edgar Ellin- situations relating to the West. Seeing the jeep and headed for Utah with the
one, my curiosity was aroused, both feeling that there must be something
ger, Jr., and he resolved to learn by the fascinating name of the artist more behind the artist than his facile
and his interesting style—I wanted to ability to knock out cartoons.
more about this Navajo cartoon- learn more about the man behind this I finally located Hoke not far from
ist. Here is the story of an Indian pen. Kanab in the small town of Fredonia,
Hearing that Hoke was living in Arizona. He was plastering a house
artist whose serious paintings Kanab, Utah, I wrote to him asking for a friend and was living there while
are among the best examples oi for an interview. Some time elapsed the work was in progress. He was
without an answer, so I sent a letter frankly surprised at my desire to write
native American art. to the Kanab postmaster and asked a story about him, although he was

12 DESERT MAGAZINE
NAVAJO WEAVER, by Hoke Denetsosie, Indian artist.

JULY, 1 9 5 2
13
very friendly and modestly willing to many wonderful things about the Na- are kept very secret, and yet there is a
discuss his life. vajo. I want to do pictures about the prevalent feeling that some of the
Hoke is a Navajo Indian 30 years Squaw and Fire Dances and really omens do not augur for the best."
old. He is of average height, of slight portray the Yeibichai Dances in a way Hoke and I talked of many things
wiry build. His eyes, a soft brown, that all may understand their true as he gradually unfolded the story of
reveal a tolerant and understanding at- beauty and significance. his life. He was born in the Navajo
titude toward his fellow man. One "My father is a medicine man, and country just east of the Grand Canyon.
feels he possesses the cheerful yet sto- he is well informed about the religion His family's ranch lies in the wind-
ical outlook on life characteristic of the and beliefs of the Indian. He often swept upland country of Northern Ari-
Indian. asks me to tell him about the Bible, zona where the struggle for existence
Hoke stopped plastering and invited for he feels that Christianity is very has always been hard. The energies
me into the living room of the tiny close to the beliefs of the Indian, and of the entire family were concentrated
house. that brotherly love and understanding in keeping body and soul together.
"You know," he said, "ever since are the only hope for civilization. He They lived in a small hogan surrounded
I was a small boy I have had the feel- also knows that all the devastating wars by sheep, cattle and horses. Hoke said
ing that I wanted to paint and to ex- of our generation have been predicted that it seemed natural for him to sketch
press to the outside world all of the by the Indians. The current predictions the animals he knew so well. Their
movements were so familiar it was
easy to put them on paper. When I
asked if he had any of his work with
him, he brought out a beautiful paint-
Ptoynam in ing done in tempera — a technique
which combines certain qualities of
Following a meeting at Stove Pipe wood available for camps at the 4-day both water color and pastel. He was
Wells hotel May 3 and 4, directors of program in November, and since ac- modest about it, in spite of a blue rib-
the Death Valley 49ers announced commodations in Death Valley are bon indicating that the painting had
that the dates of the annual encamp- limited, visitors will be urged to bring been awarded a first prize at the Ari-
ment next fall will be November 8, 9, their bedrolls and camp out on the zona State Fair in Phoenix.
10 and 11. floor of the valley. Hoke has led the life of a nomad
The fixing of these dates was in Ardis Walker, president of the and has pursued his career as an artist
accordance with a general policy for 49ers, who presided at the Stove Pipe in any direction fate indicated. He has
the future—the holding of the encamp- Wells meeting, said that after staging great patience and is philosophically
ment annually in November on the three encampments, including the Cen- content with the knowledge that event-
weekend nearest to Armistice Day tennial historical pageant staged in ually he will be able to devote most of
which is always on November 11. It 1949, the organization has now "come his time to the perfection of his art.
was felt that the December days on closer to the earth" and will seek in "I am more than willing to do any
which the three previous encampments future years to encourage folk activities kind of work that is available for me,"
were held were too late in the season, which will have both a cultural and a he said earnestly. "I try to be artistic
and that the November dates would recreational appeal to visitors. He and in every job I do, and if I am asked to
provide more favorable weather for other leaders in the organization feel paint a sign or a billboard I do it to
the campers who will be encouraged that this is the pattern for future en- the best of my ability with the idea of
to attend the encampment. campments, and that they will be in- making it as attractive as possible."
With four days available for the creasingly popular in the years ahead. This willingness to work hard and
program this year, plans are being The group is planning for an estimated conscientiously is characteristic of the
made for a more elaborate entertain- attendance of 10,000 at the 1952 en- young artist. His art reveals the careful
ment than was held last year. campment program. workmanship of the technician. I re-
Paul Palmer, chairman of the pro- • • • member well the murals which he
gram committee, suggested that three CANYON'S NORTH MM painted in the Arizona Craftsman
campfire programs be held, on Satur- OFFERS INTERESTING VIEWS building in Scottsdale. Unfortunately
day, Sunday and Monday nights, and Most travelers to Arizona view the this building burned to the ground a
that a breakfast be arranged for South- Grand Canyon from the South Rim; few months ago, and his work was de-
western authors on Sunday morning, comparatively few visit the opposite stroyed with it.
and for artists on Monday morning. side. Hoke had his first chance to show
It was also proposed that the art ex- One of the most scenic viewpoints his artistic talents when he was sent
hibit to be arranged by John Hilton of the North Rim is Toroweap Point, to a non-reservation school in Phoenix
at Furnace Creek Inn be continued perched on the brink of the canyon after four years of preparatory work
for a month. overlooking the Inner Gorge. The two at Tuba City. The natural aptitude
One of the features planned for the walls come closer together here than which so many Indians possess came
1952 encampment will be motor tours at any other place in the entire canyon to the surface and was soon recognized.
conducted by the Park Service on Sun- system. Hoke was asked to illustrate the "Little
day and Monday to enable visitors to Toroweap Point is the end of a long Herder" series put out for the U. S.
see the most interesting scenic and plateau which slopes southward from Government. The drawings portrayed
historical places in the Death Valley Utah. Called Toroweap Valley, it actu- the Indian concept of Spring, Summer,
Monument. ally is a level mesa formed by volcanic Fall and Winter and have been made
Floyd Evans, in charge of the pho- debris spilling over from the North available to third and fourth grade
tographic exhibit again this year, stated Rim. At the foot of the valley, west children throughout the country.
that he planned to arrange for a com- of the point, is Toroweap Lava Cas- The interesting thing about Hoke's
petitive showing of 35 mm. color cade, the incline where the molten lava work is that he has had no formal
slides, and that two projectors will be from the erupting volcanoes poured training. His talents developed with a
provided for this exhibition. over the rim to the Colorado River maximum of freedom, and his paintings
The 49ers plan to have plenty of 3000 feet below.—Pick and Dop Stick. have none of the tightness which often

14 DESERT MAGAZINE
NAVAJO TRAVELERS, by Hoke Denetsosie. Hoke's home, in the vast expanses
of Navajoland, provides a perfect background for the bright coloring of Navajo
costumes.
is apparent in the work of art school and turquoise. Hoke worked hard and exhibited in Flagstaff at the Museum
graduates. painted hard, and when the war was of Northern Arizoaa, and in Las Ve-
With his determination to continue over he sought new scenes and fresh gas, Nevada. The U. S. Government
in the art field, Hoke left Phoenix and experiences. selected him as one of five Indian
went to Windowrock, Arizona, seat of Bright Angel Lodge at the Grand artists to tour the country as part of a
the Navajo Tribal Council. He worked Canyon was his next stop. Here a job progressive educational program de-
for the Navajo Central Agency and as bell boy provided livelihood and signed to acquaint the American people
did process printing and silk screening also time in which to paint. He spent with the art work of the native Indian.
for the Department of Education and all leisure hours improving his tech- Jonreed Lauritzen, author of Ar-
the U. S. Government. He stayed nique. People began to notice his work. rows Into The Sun, and Song Before
there until the start of the last war and He met Hamilton Warren, head of the Sunrise, is an admirer of Hoke's work.
then returned to his family ranch to Verde Valley School near Sedona, Ari- In fact Lauritzen has asked the
help with the chores. His brother had zona, and Warren commissioned him Navajo artist to illustrate a series of
been drafted, but Hoke was unable to to illustrate the school catalogue. books he is preparing for juveniles.
pass the physical examination. He de- Hoke then became a lumber-jack in Much of the writing and illustrating
cided he could best serve his country the Kaibab forest. Next he moved up has already been completed, and sev-
by helping with the sheep and cattle. into the Salt Lake City area where he eral samples of the art work have been
The ranch is located in the desert worked in the Kennecott Copper Mines approved by the publishers.
plains which stretch as far as the eye in Brigham Canyon. Later he settled Hoke possesses the wanderlust of a
can see, interrupted only by flat topped in Kanab and became acquainted with typical Navajo and has traveled to
outcroppings of rock and an occasional "Dude" Larson who gave him a com- many parts of the country. He has
patch of stunted cedar. The forlorn mission to turn out 200 post card car- never married or settled down for long
aspect of the setting is a perfect back- toons for the tourist market. in one spot. Someday this may change,
ground against which to paint the During his many changes of work but at the moment he sees fit to use his
Navajo, colorful in their dress, resplen- and locale Hoke never neglected his artistic talents in any place where they
dent in hand-fashioned silver jewelry classic art. His paintings have been are wanted and appreciated.

JULY, 1952 15
In my home section of the
P A R T S OF A PEACH BLOSSOM middle west they called you "pe-
culiar" if they caught you sketch-
ing. This was a touchy point
since with me drawing was
simply doing what came natur-
ally. It was a problem, but I had
a solution. I could disguise my
sketch book with a magazine
cover. Later, I found that such
trickery was not necessary in the
far West. I had a special knack
for drawing plants and like most
folks I enjoyed flowers, but only
4-ANTHEK
from across a sort of mental
2-STYLE 9-FILAMENT
Grand Canyon. That is, I didn't
3-OVARY know them personally. To make
Figure 1—An elementary lesson in botany. How to read a peach blossom; a closer acquaintance with flow-
A—outside parts with names; B—cross-section; C—pistil; D—one of ers, their private lives, family
stamens. histories etc., I had to come to
Arizona.

The StoryofFlowers
By JERRY LAUDERMILK
Sketches by the author records of dramatic moments in the Like most folks my idea of a flower
career of a yucca, his expression was something showy with a complete
showed that I had an appreciative set of sepals, petals, stamens etc., like
T WAS late spring in Wickenburg critic. We became acquainted and the a peach blossom. Here, if you read
and Nature's annual flower show result was that we overhauled the his- your flower from outside inward you'll
along the Hassayampa was su- tory of the plant world until Bob closed notice first five little greenish or red-
perb. An army of cactus, yucca, oco- up for the night. dish leaf-like objects, the sepals. These
tillo and dozens of other plants whose form the calyx, a base for the five pink
names I don't know seemed about to This man knew plants from the
petals. Inside the cup made by the
take the town. In fact, a yucca that ground up. He traced their ascent petals are several pink objects about
grew back of Bob Coolidge's quick- from the first green scum of the Ar- half an inch long that look something
lunch restaurant became one of the cheozoic seas to the present. It was like tiny golf clubs. These are the
main actors in this story. a panorama that made me groggy. I
saw certain plants rise to power and stamens, their club-shaped tips are the
How this yucca came to be there in dominate the scene for millions of anthers — the organs that make the
the first place was anybody's guess— years and then resign in favor of more pollen. Push the stamens aside and
maybe someone planted it years before. up-to-date types. First the marine al- right in the center you notice a single,
Anyway, Bob and I waited with im- gae tip-toed out of the sea and staked pale green, thread-like object with an
patience while the plant prepared to their claims in the swampy line be- expanded tip. This is the pistil, the
celebrate the high point of its career tween high and low water. Ages later, green tip is the stigma. The pistil is
with a grand demonstration. Some- some settled down to a life farther the heart of the blossom. At its base,
thing great was about to happen in ashore but they had not forgotten their down inside, is the ovary with the egg-
the cluster of dagger-pointed leaves. sea-going ancestors. These were little cell which, when fertilized by the pol-
Then one morning the flower stalk plants less than two feet high but with len will produce an embryonic peach
began to shoot up like some sort of big names, Rhynia Gwinne-Vaughani tree.
slowed-down green fireworks. With a and Hornea Lignieri. Ages later came But flowers don't have to be as elab-
rush came the buds and then the mir- the ferns and fern-like trees and plants
acle. It was majestic. orate as this. Flower architecture fol-
with no living descendants, the Sphe- lows many styles. Some like the wind-
I did everything I could to make nophylls. Giant rushes and clubmosses flower or Anemone have no petals.
the show a success. I raked up the appeared and as geologic time plodded Others like the flowers of Yerba
litter of rusty cans and chopped out slowly on, curious seed-bearing ferns
Mansa show practically nothing but
some frowzy tree-tobacco that struck opened up a new age, the age of trees
a false note, like hoboes in an art with cones like our pines and firs, the bare stamens and pistils. The female
gallery. I sketched the blossoms from Gymnosperms had arrived. flower of the castor bean is stream-
every angle including close-ups of the lined down to a simple three-sided
flowers and buds. I was proud of my All the plants of that fantastic past capsule tufted by three tiny red plumes
drawings. made up an organization where the —you could hardly eliminate anything
Then one evening my sketch book lower forms perpetuated their species more and still call it a flower. This
fell into the hands of an individual by means of spores, tiny dust-like par- variety of floral design includes every-
with the look of weather-beaten intel- ticles capable of reproduction. Among thing from such bold and simple com-
ligence you see on the faces of engi- the higher brackets continuity was by positions as those in the yucca flower
neers and other outdoor workers who way of seeds, but seeds still in the ex- to complicated gadgets with trapdoors,
follow a hard but interesting line. perimental stage. For millions of years trick platforms that suddenly let go
While the U. S, Forest Service man— there was not a flower on the face of and spill off unwanted visitors—and,
since that's what he was—scanned my the earth. believe it or not a set of handlebars.

16 DESERT MAGAZINE
You can find all this in the flower of
the common white sage, Salvia apiana.
Well, after you have once become
acquainted with flowers and some of
their secrets, it's only natural to want
to know how they came to be here
in the first place. Most botanists in-
cline toward the classic theory that a
flower is a modified branch with whorls
of specialized leaves crowded together
in a definite order at the end of par-
ticular stems. Several facts go to sup-
port this view. For instance, the petals
of the common prickly pear grade
smoothly into sepals and it is practic-
ally impossible to tell where petals
leave off and sepals begin. Others like
Indian Paintbrush, Castelleja, show
continuous grading from sepals to
green leaves like the foliage of the
stem. The fact that stamens in their
turn can grade into petals is shown
by Blazing Star, Mentzelia, where the
inner set of stamens are honest,
straight-forward stamens, but with
progression outward they become flat-
ter and flatter, lose their anthers and
finally become actual petals.
This evidence for continuous tran-
sition of stamens to petals, petals to
sepals and from sepals to ordinary
leaves looks so critic-proof that it's
no shock when it is suggested that the
modern flower evolved from the spore
bearing leaves of some remote ancestor.
It is assumed that the leaves of this
flower-primeval grew like overlapping
scales around a central stalk and
formed a structure something like a
pine cone. Some scales are supposed
to have produced the pollen and some
the egg-cells.
According to this theory, the stalk
of this cone or strobile grew shorter
and shorter. The lower scales became
sterile and turned to petals while some Fig. 2—Present-day blossom showing steps toward complete flower. No. 1
of the inner ones became elongated —catkin of the male willow; A—single staminate flower. No. 2—catkin
and changed to stamens. The center of female willow; B—single pistillate flower. In willows the sexes occur in
circle of scales grew together at the different plants. No. 3—flowers of alder, sexes are on adjoining stems; C—
edges to complete the rough sketch male flowers; D—female. No. 4—flower shoot of castor bean, both sexes
of a modern flower with seeds enclosed on same shoot; E—male flowers; F—female; G—single male flower en-
in a special capsule. larged; H—anthers; I—female flower, simply a capsule; J—style. No. 5—
single perfect but incomplete flower of Lizard's tail, a plant closely related
So far, the most that fossil plants to Yerba Mansa; K—pistil; L—stamens. No. 6—perfect and complete
have shown to uphold this view is that flower of geranium with all floral parts.
the extinct Lepidodendron tree of Car-
boniferous time had cones that bore
egg-cells in the upper scales and pollen From a study of a long series of cases were simply the swollen ends of
in the lower. Unfortunately, this tree fossil plants including the more recent the stems. Still later, some plants de-
is not an ancestor of any of our pres- discoveries, Dr. Thomas suggests a veloped special spore cases grown to-
ent day flowering plants. new possible lineage for our flowering gether in pairs and the whole arrange-
plants or angiosperms. ment supported by the flattened end of
This classic theory of flower origin
the stem. These types had now reached
from a strobile or conelet stood up The first land plants were simple a point where they bear comparison
well for a long time. But in recent types like Rhynia and a more recent with male flowers of some modern
years it has been pawed over by paleo- discovery from Australia called Barag- species.
botanists loaded with new information. wanathia. These reproduced by means These early plants may have favored
A rigorous cross-examiner is Dr. Ham- of spores and were so simple in con- the "two household" or dioecious way
shaw Thomas of Cambridge Univer- struction you might call them unfin- of life, pollen being produced on one
sity who points out some flaws in the ished. The spores were not developed set of plants and seeds on another, an
old theory that need explanation. in any special organ since the spore- arrangement still favored by the wil-
JULY, 1952 17
Fig. 3—Early Devonian landscape with first land plants. Fig. 4—Later Devonian plants. From left to right: Ale-
From left to right: Rhynia, Psilophyton, Baragwa- thopteris, Calamophyton, young frond of a seed-fern,
nathia, Asteroxylon, and Hornea. These were all Eospermatopteris an early seed-fern the size of a
small, less than two feet high, reproduction was by small tree. Archaeosigillaria a giant clubmoss grows
way of spores, all bore stamp of their marine ances- on land spit in middle distance, the trunk with scars
tors. They lived in marshy inlets near the sea. Climate at right is the same tree after it has shed its lower
was warm all over the earth. About 375 million leaf-scales. Climate appears to have been warm and
years ago. semi-arid. 345 million years ago.

lows and poplars, where some trees the bottom and the female flowers at 360 million years ago. These seeds,
are male and some female. Some of the top. The next step is still shorter about the size of hazel nuts, grew at
the extinct types called Cordaites modi- and results in the so-called perfect the ends of special branches. Since
fied this system so that pollen and flower. This can be a very simple set- seeds are developed from ovules this
ovules were produced on the same up with bare stamens and pistils close means that ovules also grew at the
plant but on separate branches, a sys- together like the flowers of Yerba branch tips. Now, some later species
tem still popular with the oaks and Mansa. of seed-ferns show a modification of
alders. It is only a short step from this The rough idea of the modern the branch tip with the ovules partly
scheme to one found among members flowering plant seed was illustrated by enveloped by a cup-shaped outgrowth
of the spurge family, castor beans for the seed-ferns. These were plants with from the stalk, this is called a cupule.
instance, where both male and female fern-like habits but which reproduced Still later, some millions of years later,
flowers occur close together on the by means of seeds. This was far back other plants improved upon the cupule
same shoot with the male flowers at in the Carboniferous period, around so that it enclosed the ovules entirely

Fig. 6—Scene in Texas during the Permian period. Co-


Fig. 5—A Carboniferous swamp. Left to right: Cala- niferous trees are Ullmannia with cones at left,
mites or horsetail rushes of tree-size grow on low Auricarioxylon in foreground; other conifers related
ground, fern-like plant is Lyginopteris, trees with to star-pines and monkey-puzzle grow in a thin stand
tufts like gigantic bottle brushes are Sigillaria. Large on the bare soil in the middle distance, small plants
tree at right foreground with rows of scars is Lepido- are Sphenophyllum and ferns. The lizard-like rep-
dendron. Tree with smooth trunk and yucca-like tile with crest is Dimetrodon, beyond are Diasparac-
leaves is a Cordaite. Fronds of an early fern hang tus zenos and Limnoscelis paludis. The background
into picture at lower right. Climate seems to have of bad-lands and dust-filled sky were typical of the
been mild to warm and moist. 270 million years ago. period. Climate was dry-temperate to cold. 225
million years ago.

18 DESERT MAGAZINE
Fig. 7 — Somewhere in Arizona during the Triassic Fig. 8—A quiet bay somewhere in Kansas during the
period. In middle distance grow conifers related to Jurassic period. Upper left, a branch of Ginkgo or
redwood and sequoias; slender tree with yucca-like maidenhair tree dangles into the picture. Cycad-like
leaves is a later Cordaite. Fern-like plant is Neurop- plants including the curiously branched Williamsoni-
teridium. In middle foreground are palmate leaves of ella fill the foreground. In the middle distance lizard-
Clathopteris and Laccopteris types related to the like water reptiles Plesiosaurs bask on a rocky land-
ferns, others are two cycads and a giant, broad-leaved spit near a stand of conifers. Climate was cool-tem-
fern Macrotaeniopteris. Reptile is an early pre-dino- perate to warm and seasons had begun. 150 million
saur. Climate was warm, dry and temperate. 180 years ago.
million years ago.

and the only contact between the ovule numbers. The great success and sud- rise may be due to the fact that we
and the outside world was by way of den rise to power of the flowering lack important information since en-
the pore left at the tip of the fused plants is one of the most remarkable tire chapters are still missing from the
cupules. So here we see plants with a events in historical geology. These flower story, and living flowers fail to
good many of the essentials for quali- early flowers are all related to families reveal information on this point. So,
fications as flowering plants already in still living, mostly the buttercups, water all our flower acquaintances from the
development as far back as the Car- lilies and magnolias. This suggests that most unassuming violet to the regal
the buttercup plan is probably the yucca blossom are what your intuition
boniferous period. antique flower pattern. In any case, may have whispered to you all along
The first true flowering plants are flower fossils so far discovered seem — mysterious characters with many
found in the lower Cretaceous period, to throw no new light on flower an- dark and unsolved secrets in their
or 140 million years ago in rough cestory. What looks like their abrupt background.

Fig. 9—Landscape of Cretaceous period with earliest Fig. 10—Eocene landscape in Utah. Plants are familiar
true flowers (angiosperms): Upper right Lirioden- types. Upper left, Liquidambar (sweet gum), Lygo-
dron, (tulip tree), Alnus (alder); Lower left, Salix dium (climbing fern); Lower left Hibiscus; Middle
(willow), a modern type of Cycad (sago palm), Nym- foreground, Aralia (ginseng) and Syringa (lilac). In
phaea (water lily), Laurus (laurel); Upper right, lower right hand corner is an early prickly pear
Magnolia. In middle distance two herbivorous dino- Eopuntia douglassii (1944). Frond of a cycad at
saurs browse on leaves of a cycamore, a third in right. Upper right corner, Cassia. In middle dis-
midstream, feeds on water plants from the bottom. tance three early horses, Eohippi pass beneath a
Climate was warm-temperate to sub tropical. 120 palmetto. Climate about like that of Louisiana.
million years ago. About 60 million years ago.

JULY, 1952 19
GLOBE, 26 MILES

SAFFORD
63 MILES

Not to Scah

Agate Hunting "A rock collector's paradise,"


Fenton Taylor calls this agate
location just below Coolidge
Dam on Arizona's Gila River.
Hunting in the lovely canyon

Along the Gila dell beside a river abounding in


bass, carp, perch and catfish,
members of three Arizona miner-
alogical societies collected gem
quality material on a joint field
By FENTON TAYLOR day last March. Here is one of
Photographs by the Author those rare collecting sites — a
Map by Norton Allen mineral-rich area easily acces-
sible by paved highway.
ESCRIBING THE canyon dell Last March this secluded but easily-
immediately below Coolidge dam accessible valley of the Gila River was
on the Gila River in Arizona, a selected for a joint field trip for mem- proximately 120,000 acres of fertile
rock collector said, "It is the only bers of the Mineralogical Society of land in the Casa Grande Valley.
place I know in the Southwest desert Arizona, Maricopa Lapidary Society Beneath the waters of the lake is
where you can pick up gem quality and the Gila Valley Gem and Mineral the location from which the Apache
agate with one hand and catch fish Society. Eighty-nine members of the renegade Geronimo once led many of
with the other." three groups spent the day picnicking his raids. The place later became the
This description sounded like a and collecting specimens. headquarters of the San Carlos Indian
corner of paradise reserved for the Protected by steep canyon walls, the agency. Here too, is the ancient In-
rockhounds. Being a zealous collector area is reached from Highway 70, the dian burial ground which became a
of quartz family minerals, I visited the paved trans-Arizona route which highly controversial topic during the
location without delay and was con- days when the project was being
crosses the Coolidge dam 105 miles
vinced that except for obvious exag- planned.
west of the Arizona-New Mexico line.
geration my friend was right. Good The highway generally follows the The Indians contended that the cre-
agate can be found in nearly every ation of the lake would inundate the
course of the historical Gila River,
direction, and bass, perch, catfish and graves, and thus would be a violation
which was an international boundary of their treaty rights. They refused
carp abound in the river. after the Mexican war until the Gads-
Saguaro, cholla, pear and other to consider a proposal that the bodies
den Purchase in 1853 placed it en- be removed to a new cemetery.
cactus species are scattered over the
tirely in the United States. After much discussion the tribal
encircling hills. It is truly a desert
land—where you must bring your own Above the dam, San Carlos lake council approved a proposal that a
drinking water unless you are one of this year contains more water than it concrete blanket be poured over the
the few who find the brackish river has for many seasons. From this entire cemetery, a project which the
water palatable. reservoir irrigation canals serve ap- Reclamation Bureau carried out at a

20 DESERT MAGAZINE
cost of $11,000. Occasionally, in
drouth years, the water level in the
lake lowers to the point where the
great concrete slab is visible.
Before the reservoir began filling,
buildings, pipes, water tanks—anything
worth salvaging in the old San Carlos
settlement—were sold and removed.
Retaining its name, the Indian agency
was moved to the site of the Indian
school at Rice, where the new town
of San Carlos was built.
Completed in October, 1928, the
dam was not dedicated until March
4, 1930, when former President Cool-
idge visited the irrigation monument
to his name and delivered the dedica-
tion address.
Will Rogers was on the dedication
program. Noting the heavy growth
of algae on the newly created lake
and the thick grass at the water's edge,
he joked, "If this were my lake I'd
mow it. I'd like to have the first cut-
ting of hay here." Triple-domed Coolidge Dam, first and largest of this type of structure, im-
There was no hay to harvest the pounds water of the Gila River for irrigation in the Casa Grande Valley.
day of our field trip, and by the time Immediately below the dam and on the hills in the background is the agate
we completed our study of the dam location described in the story.
and lake, Charles E. Van Hook of
Mesa, field trip chairman of the min- as is often the case, we found some els, specimens that were distinctly
eralogical society, was placing his acceptable specimens. characteristic of the Stanley Butte dis-
stake-and-arrow markers to designate Climbing to the top of the ridge, we trict about 12 miles southeast of the
the turnoff. Rex Layton, head of the could see the river looping eastward dam.
Gila Valley club, was issuing direc- around a small butte, flowing between When we returned to the camp we
tions to parking and hunting areas. steep bluffs and returning westward were deligkted to see Arthur L. Flagg,
The arrows pointed to the dugway until it almost completed a circle. Five outstanding Arizona mineralogist. Au-
road turning south from the highway wild ducks flew over us in search of thor of the book, Arizona Rockhounds
at the west end of the dam. Blasted a private swimming place. and Arizona Minerals, Flagg fostered
into precipitous walls, the road is nar- This region along the bend, we the Arizona Mineralogical Society,
row but in good repair, and the descent learned when we talked with others first of its kind in the state, and served
into the canyon takes only a few min- at lunchtime, is one of the best. Some- as its president for many years. He
utes. one had pried out a large chunk of also was instrumental in the organiza-
red moss agate on which was a yellow tion of the Rocky Mountain Federa-
We drove down into the dell. Green tion of Mineralogical Societies and
grass softened the dark brown tones plate of native copper the size of a
nickel. Much of the Coolidge Dam served as president of this group.
of the hills, and wildflowers were just
beginning their spring display. Water agate contains free copper. One lapi- Through his efforts, the mineral ex-
roared down the river on its way to dary cut some cabochons in which hibit at the annual Arizona State Fair
the farming regions around Casa the native metal gave design and has become an outstanding part of the
Grande and Coolidge. beauty to the polished stones. program. Now working for the State
In the same general area another Department of Mineral Resources, he
We crossed the narrow, wooden collector discovered some excellent counsels small mine operators, touring
bridge, went through the gate and con- quartz crystals, some with pale ame- the state to give generously of his
tinued to the old gravel works by the thyst points, others showing tiny dark friendly advice. He also spends much
east canyon wall. Here was the only inclusions. time working for the organization of
parking area with room for all our junior mineral clubs for school chil-
On my first trip here, I concentrated
cars. dren of the state.
on the steep slopes and gullies west of
Everyone was anxious to begin the river. Widely scattered among the To climax the day, the fossil hun-
hunting. Shouldering specimen sacks heaps of boulders were many big ters reported great success. From the
and gripping rock hammers, the rock- blocks of red and white agate—just limestone strata southeast of our loca-
hounds soon were crawling over or the thing for fine bookends—awaiting tion, they returned with gray rock
under the barbed wire that enclosed the collector who can devise a way to slabs bearing plant, animal and marine
the area. Up the hill they went, search- pack them out. fossils. Plant remains included stems,
ing, scratching the earth, picking up Lines of vein agate can be found leaves and seed pods and made very
rocks, weighing, digging, hammering on the surface, but it usually takes interesting specimens.
and test-licking specimens. digging to obtain good material. Gray After viewing the lake, the dam,
We all walked to the south, but my fortification agates weather out of the the agate specimens, the mineral speci-
group stayed closer to the river than brown rhyolite rock in this vicinity, mens and the fossil remains, I remem-
the others. Broken pieces of crystal- and other collectors have found plume bered the first description I'd heard of
line quartz and occasional fragments agate occasionally. the dell. And I agreed—this Coolidge
of agate told us we were following a I noted a few scattered pieces of Dam area was indeed a rockhound's
previous collector's route. Even so, andradite garnet among the river grav- paradise.

JULY, 1952 21
juicy leaves retain moisture for a long
time and keep the plant alive under
adverse conditions. Dr. Frederick Co-
ville in his Botany of the Death Valley
Expedition, issued in 1893, reported
that specimens of this Echeveria col-
lected in the Panamint Mountains,
when examined 15 months after the
dates of collection, still bore fresh
leaves that had formed while the plant
was drying. Two of my own specimens
displayed that remarkable tenacity of
life by developing new leaves after
months in my flower press and longer
yet in the herbarium boxes.
The Desert Savior grows in delight-
ful abundance at altitudes of 3000 to
6000 feet in the Old Dad and Provi-
dence Mountains of the eastern Mojave
Desert, the Panamints and the desert
ranges of the northern border of the
Colorado Desert. Some botanists also
list the Desert Savior for Arizona,
which could refer to a closely-related
species common in central Arizona,
Live-Forever (Echeveria saxosa) growing from a rock crevice in the Provi- Echeveria collomae. This is usually a
dence Mountains. larger plant, both in flowers and ros-
ettes. The bright red calyx and clear
yellow corolla make it a very decora-
botany trips up the canyons and slopes tive plant and a desirable addition to

They Like of the Providence Mountains, I have cultivated gardens.


pulled a leaf or two from an Echeveria
rosette to chew and hold on my tongue
to relieve the dryness in my thirsty
Echeveria Arizonica is found in
western
feet.
Arizona on cliffs up to 2500
Its ovate-lanceolate leaves are
mouth.

a Rocky countered is generally known by the


common name, Desert Savior. Botan-
abruptly pointed and the corollas deep-
The desert species most often en- red to apricot-yellow.
Echeveria lanceolata is rather rare
on the desert in general but fairly com-
ically it bears the label Echeveria sax-

Terrain osa (Echeveria lanceolata var. saxosa),


and is classed also by some botanists
as Cotyledon or Dudleya. But what-
mon in a few chosen localities of the
western Colorado Desert. The leaves
are lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate up
to 4 inches long, veiled with a notice-
ever the scientific nomenclature of the
able bloom. The stout flower stems
By MARY BEAL genus, Live-Forever is the name agreed
are 6 to 15 inches high, the corolla
upon for everyday usage.
reddish-orange and calyx greenish. I
GARDENS are the delight The Desert Savior has a conspicu- once found an alluring natural garden
of many home gardeners, and ous pale gray-green rosette of thick, of it in Whitewater Wash.
most such hobbyists choose to fleshy, erect leaves, 2 to 4 inches long, • • •
plant succulents among their rock usually lanceolate in outline and taper- AMATEUR BOTANIST FINDS
specimens. These plants grow well in ing to a long point. The young inner NAME SYSTEM CONFUSING
coarse, rocky soil, and the coloring of leaves are veiled with a pronounced To most wildflower enthusiasts, the
their fleshy leaves and stems pleasantly bloom, which wears off with age. loose application of common names is
harmonizes with natural rock forms. From this tufted cluster the flower a confusing annoyance. Most of the
The Orpine or Stonecrop family sup- stems rise, 6 to 15 inches high, branch- more familiar plants have more than
plies a good number of these garden ing above into a flat-topped cyme. The one common name; in the South-
treasures. Most species are foreign to small widely-spaced stem leaves are west many single varieties are desig-
the United States, many of them or- bract-like, sharply pointed, with a nated in English, Spanish and one or
iginating in South Africa, but rock broad clasping base. The yellow tubu- more Indian languages.
gardeners are learning that several at- lar corolla, emerging from the red ca- In an effort to avoid confusion and
tractive succulents are native to the lyx, and the pale herbage form an to establish a uniform method of nom-
American southwest. Of these, the exquisite color pattern against the enclature, botanists have developed a
desert fosters some of the most orna- rocks. I know several rocky slopes and system using descriptive Latin names.
mental varieties; others are found on canyons in the Providence Mountains But these are usually too technical for
bluffs along the seacoast and in foot- adorned by a bountiful array of these the layman.
hill and mountain areas. eye-catching succulents. On one easily Natt N. Dodge, in Flowers of the
Several species have a record of accessible steep slope the Desert Savior Southwest Deserts urges flower lovers:
utility as well as beauty. The Indians dominates as fascinating a rock gar- "Be serious about plant names—but
used the young leaves as food and for den as any landscape architect could not too serious. The visitor to the
soothing poultices. Those same fleshy design. desert who has a normal pleasure in
leaves allay thirst, as I can verify by Even when rain has been scanty nature is interested in flowers because
experience. More than once on all-day you'll find these Live-Forevers. The of their beauty, not their names."

22 DESERT MAGAZINE
M M

Pictures of
The Month

This quizzical little fellow is a varie-


gated ground gecko or banded gecko
lizard. Richard Randall of Tucson, Ari-
zona, was awarded first prize in the
Desert Magazine photo contest for this
portrait study, taken with a 4x5 Graphic
View camera, Super XX film, 1/10,000
second at f32.

Along Highway 395, three miles east


of Ridgecrest, California, E. Graham
Westmorland of China Lake spotted a
beavertail cactus in bloom. Using a
Speed Graphic camera, Super XX film,
1/25 second at f32, Westmorland took
this picture and with it won second
prize in the May photo contest.

JULY, 1952
Battle Mountain, Nevada . . .
Early development of the Nubian
turquoise mine in Klondike, Nye
county, is planned by Norman L.
Heikes of San Francisco and Burton
Riggs. The Nubian is said to contain
a rare occurrence of gem-quality tur-
quoise in which the deep blue of the
Goldfield, Nevada . . . Trona, California . . . stone lies in a black matrix of silver
Goldfield Consolidated Mining Com- While serving with the Marine Corps ore. The property was discovered in
pany has disposed of all its shares in in the Barstow, California, area, Ge- 1924 and has been worked intermit-
the Goldfield Deep Mines Company, ologist Eugene Lawrence spent spare tently since that time.—Battle Moun-
it was disclosed in the firm's annual hours prospecting on the desert. Now tain Scout.
report to stockholders. At one time his exploration has paid off with a • • •
Consolidated held well over a million tungsten mine 26 miles southeast of Indio, California . . .
shares of Deep Mines. The company Trona. He has three men assisting in As part of the $65,000,000 expan-
never played an active role in the the operation of the mine, which he sion program that will increase Kaiser
Goldfield Deep Mines operation, al- has named the White Dollar.—Mining Steel Corporation's pig iron output by
though some of its ground was ex- Record. 50 percent and raise steel ingot pro-
plored as part of a Deep Mines pro- • • • duction by more than 11 percent, ore
gram.—Tonopah Times-Bonanzja. Tonopah, Nevada . . . mining at Eagle Mountain, 75 miles
• • • Historic Smoky Valley, adjacent to east of Indio, will be stepped up.
Pioche, Nevada . . . the Round Mountain gold district and After major additions to the mining,
Ferro manganese will be produced 70 miles north of Tonopah, is the housing, ore crushing and separation
from the Combined Metals Company scene of active tungsten exploration. facilities at the mine, it is expected
mines at Pioche for use by the Pioche Warfield, Inc., is developing a schee- production will increase 50 percent.—
Manganese Company in its operation lite deposit on the Tungsten View Date Palm.
at the Basic Magnesium plant in Hen- claim of the Meyers-Thomas property; • • •
derson, Nevada. Furnaces for smelt- Newmont Mining Corporation has Benson, Arizona . . .
ing the ore are being installed, and started exploration work on a group A new mill for the processing of
future plans call for construction of of claims in Ophir Canyon, and num- fluorspar ore will be constructed at
a smelter, possibly of lead and zinc erous prospectors and small operators Benson "in the very near future," ac-
ores. Whether the establishment of are active in the region.—Pioche Rec- cording to Morris Albertoli of Owens
the processing unit at Henderson will ord. Valley, California, representative of
have capacity to accept and treat man- • • • the Lone Star Mining Company. Flu-
ganese ores from the northern part of Reno, Nevada . . . orspar ore is being stockpiled at the
the state has not yet been deter- Although selection of a site has not company's Lone Star Mine, in the
mined. It is believed that the Pioche yet been made, Kaiser Corporation has foothills of the Whetstone Mountain
mines will be able to supply enough announced it will build a new Nevada range six miles west of the Apache
ores to reach capacity.—Caliente Her- mill to process fluorspar, a critical powder plant, for processing at the
ald. mineral in the production of alumi- contemplated mill.—San Pedro Valley
• • • num metal. Some of the fluorspar will News.
Wendeii, Arizona . . . come from the recently-acquired Bax- • • •
General Services Administration will ter Mine near Gabbs, the announce- Shiprock, New Mexico . . .
establish a manganese ore collection ment said, but the mill will be of suffi- Purchase of uranium mining rights
depot at Wenden, to be used for the cient capacity to handle additional ore on the Navajo Indian reservation in
purchase and collection of the vital purchased from other Nevada deposits. the four-corners area of Arizona, New
defense metal of which there are large —Pioche Record. Mexico, Colorado and Utah has been
reserves in the Wenden area. Con- • • • announced by business partners of
struction of the depot is expected to Lackawanna, Nevada . . . Senator Robert A. Kerr, Democratic
begin almost immediately. The gov- The Baltimore Camas Mine's tung- presidential aspirant. Properties and
ernment agency also is considering the sten mill at Lackawanna is installing equipment of the Navajo Uranium
establishment of a beneficiation plant machinery preparatory to beginning Company, including an ore sampling
in the same area.—Wickenburg Sun. processing operations. The mill has plant at Shiprock, have been acquired
• • • been set up principally for tungsten by the Kerr-McGee Oil Industries of
Winnemucca, Nevada . . . but with additional equipment will be Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. — New
Virgin Valley district of northern able to handle other ores, probably Mexican.
Humboldt county, which has produced lead and zinc. It will serve mines • • •
some of the best gem opal in the within a radius of approximately 400 Silver Peak, Nevada . . .
United States, was found in 1950 to miles.—Ely Record. Daily development at Mohawk
contain uranium minerals. ''But," the • • • Mine in the Argentite district 10 miles
U. S. Geological Survey now reports, Yerington, Nevada . . . west of Silver Peak in Esmerelda
"the uranium content ranges from .002 Stripping operations have been county gives rise to speculation that
to .12 percent, insufficient to warrant started at Anaconda Copper Com- the silver-lead mine eventually will
economic development at present pany's development at Yerington. It become one of the biggest producers
prices. The possibilities of finding is estimated that between seven and in that part of the state. Seven men
economically minable material by ad- 10 million yards of overburden will be presently are employed at the mine,
ditional exploration of known urani- removed before production of the cop- and timber is being hauled in to build
ferous layers are not considered good." per ore gets under way.—Battle Moun- a camp for 20 more workers.—Pioche
—Humboldt Star. tain Scout. Record.

24 DESERT MAGAZINE
Apaches swooped down on the Papago miners, killing many men, women and
children and leaving the mission settlement a smouldering ruin.

When two employes of Mon-

Lost Mine With ton Air Base near Tucson, Ari-


zona, found the rusty remnants
of an ancient Spanish forge high

the Iron Door


on a ridge of the Santa Catalina
Mountains, they considered it
only an interesting reminder of
Conquistadore d a y s in the
Southwest. But John D. Mitchell,
an authority on lost mines and
By JOHN D. MITCHELL buried treasure of the West,
Illustration by thinks it is a clue to one of the
most fabulous of lost treasures—
Charles Keetsie Shirley The Mine with the Iron Door.
Navajo artist

N A RECENT outing in the Santa priest who at one time was assistant the expulsion decree for a number of
Catalina Mountains near Tucson, to Father Eusebio Kino at Mission months, meanwhile continuing to re-
Arizona, two employes of nearby San Xavier del Bac near Tucson. Al- cover gold from the fabulous mine
Monton Air Base discovered the rusty though the principal occupation of the high in the Santa Catalina hills and
parts of a blacksmith forge made in Jesuits was to store up treasures in from placer operations along the Ca-
Madrid, Spain, and carrying the date, Heaven by spreading the gospel among nada del Oro. But they were not per-
1757. the plains Indians and the wild pagan mitted to take any of their treasure
The two men knew little about min- tribes of the northern hills, the good out of the country.
ing and had heard nothing about the fathers were not averse to storing up The Jesuits undoubtedly had fore-
Lost Escalante Mine made famous by treasures on earth against the prover- seen the possibility of their being un-
Harold Bell Wright in his novel, The bial rainy day. In doing so, their treat- able to remove any of the treasure
Mine with the Iron Door. But their ment of the neophytes under their from the country, and they decided to
find may be the clue which someday charge occasionally caused the Indians hide it in some secret place until they
will lead to the rediscovery of lost to rise in revolt. could return for it in safety. Old Span-
Spanish treasure. According to old church records, ish records in possession of Tucson
The Mine with the Iron Door, as the Escalante Mine was in full opera- citizens, and Papago legends handed
the Escalante has come to be called, tion in 1767 when Spanish King down by word of mouth from father
is believed to have been found and Charles III issued the edict expelling to son, indicate that a large number of
worked for many years by Father Sil- the Jesuit Order from Spain and all Indians were employed in building a
vestre Velez de Escalante, a Jesuit her possessions. The Jesuits fought hiding place for the treasure. Accord-

JULY, 1952 25
ing to reports, the treasure vault was In June, 1769, while most of the mission and most of the houses were
near the south bank of the Canada Indian miners and their families were almost completely destroyed and were
del Oro. The ruins of the old camp celebrating San Juan's Day, a large never rebuilt. The mines were aban-
and the foundations of the little chapel band of Apache Indians swooped doned after the raid, and many priests
where the priests said mass may still down from the surrounding hills and of other outlying missions were killed
be seen. killed great numbers of Papagos. The before they reached the ships waiting
to carry them away.
An old Mexican merchant who ran
Wk m A • aHere's
cncil therclax
July test for the
an cas Quiz
chair fans.
ant1 nn So get a little grocery store on North Sixth
If fiSGrt U U Z P '
WVWVI 1 T H I "
'" >' '
how much or how little you know about the
d out Avenue in Tucson, just north of the
present underpass, many years ago
Great American Desert. Even if you get a low score it will not be time had in his possession a faded waybill
wasted for you will have learned something about the most fascinating that purportedly gave directions for
region in the United States. Twelve to 14 correct answers is good, 15 to finding the Escalante Mine. Accord-
17 is excellent, 18 or over is superior. The answers are on page 34. ing to this document, the mine was
1—Bitten by a tarantula, an old-timer on the desert would: Get a doctor located about one league northwest
as quickly as possible Apply a tourniquet and try to draw of the Ventana—a natural hole in the
poison from the wound . Go to bed and put cold packs on the rock resembling a window. When the
wound Address a few uncomplimentary remarks at the insect Indian miners stood at the mouth of
and forget about it the tunnel, they could look to the
2—One of the following ghost towns is not in California: Ballarat southeast and see through this window.
Rhyolite Calico .__ . Tumco Old Steve, an Indian vaquero who
3—The legendary god Tahquitz of the Cahuilla Indians lived in a cave for many years rode the Santa Catalina
on: San Gorgonio Mountain Santa Rosa Mountains San range, was jogging along on his pinto
Jacinto Mountains San Ysidro Mountains one windy day when he was startled
4—Pipe Springs National Monument is in: Arizona Utah by a moaning sound coming from a
Nevada Californ ia patch of brush near the trail. Investi-
5—Correct spelling of the name of one of the most common plants on gation proved that the wailing was
the desert is: Ocotillo Ocotilla Ocatillo Ocatilla caused by the wind blowing across a
6—When you hear a botanist talking about Larrea, he is referring to small hole on the side of the high ridge
what you and I call: Smoke tree Ironwood Creosote he had been following. The hole
bush Arrowweed turned out to be the entrance to a large
7—Deglet Noor is the name of: An Indian village on the Hopi Mesa tunnel, in places stoped almost to the
A famous chieftain of the Navajo Indians A species of date surface. On the floor were piles of
grown in the California desert A peak in the Wasatch range ore that had been broken up and made
of mountains ready for the pack trip down to the
8—If the man at the service station informed you that you were in the arrastres, evidences of which still stand
Escalante Desert you would know you were in: Nevada Ari- on the south bank of the Canada del
zona New Mexico Utah Oro near the ruins of the mission.
9—Galena is an ore of: Gold Lead Silver Copper
Great clusters of bats were hanging
10—Lieut. Ives is remembered for his: Famous camel train . Ex-
ploration of the Lower Colorado River Campaign against the upside down from the walls and ceil-
Apaches Discovery of Death Valley ing. Although the old cowpoke talked
11—Hohokam is the name given: One of Arizona's highest peaks freely to his Indian and Mexican
A county in Nevada A prehistoric tribe of Indians A friends about his find, he refused to
dialect spoken by the Mojave Indians take anyone to the site.
12—Headwaters of the Little Colorado River are in the: Wasatch Moun-
tains Rocky Mountains of Wyoming Sangre de Cristo Lost mine and buried treasure hun-
Range in New Mexico White Mountains of Arizona ters throughout the Southwest believe
13—A packrat's nest generally is made of: Sticks and twigs Gal- that much of the gold found in the
leta grass Rocks Feathers Canada del Oro by the Spanish Con-
14—If the famous Bird Cage theater was still operating you could witness quistadores came from the Escalante
its theatricals by going to: Virginia City Tombstone Mine. The heavy rains that fall in the
Carson City Searchlight Catalinas every year still wash grains
15—Phainopepla is the name of a desert: Bird Lizard of bright yellow gold down from the
Plant Rodent hillsides into the Canada del Oro,
16—If you came to a sign which read "Tinajas Altas" you would know where it finally settles to bedrock.
you were on the old: Butterfield Stage road Mormon Trail to The millions of bats that emerge
Utah__. Bradshaw road Camino del Diablo
17—If you were to prepare a tender mescal bud for food, Indian style, from forgotten mountain tunnels and
you would: Roast it in a pit Barbecue it on an open fire stopes each evening from April to
Boil it in water Eat it raw late October to search for food in the
18—Indians who refer to themselves as Dine, meaning "The People" are; Catalinas, and the accidental discov-
Hopis Apaches Navajos Pimas ery of the old Spanish forge high on
19—Coolidge dam is on the: Salt River San Pedro River Gila a windswept ridge may be the clues
River Virgin River that eventually will lead someone to
20—Death Valley Scotty's partner in the building of Scotty's Castle in the fabulously rich Mine with the
Death Valley was: James Scrugham Albert M. Johnson Iron Door and to the Jesuits' lost
Borax Smith Shorty Harris treasure house on the banks of the
Canada del Oro.

26 DESERT MAGAZINE
dary machinery and work benches. greasewood bushes, about 30 feet from
Our refrigerator was moved from the the highway.
service porch to accommodate a slab- I first saw it in 1937 or '38. At that
bing saw set-up, and the sitting room time the slab was old and weather-
now is used for picture and slide equip- beaten, but the lettering—apparently
ment, a microscope and micromounts. burned in with a hot iron—was fairly
Piles of rocks occupy the porch floor new. At the foot of the plank, with
How Many Rattles? . . . and a shed which had to be built in about an inch of the neck showing,
the back yard. was buried an empty quart whiskey
El Monte, California
Desert: We hope Mrs. Forsberg can look bottle. In 1941, some wag buried a
You may know your stories, but into the future and prepare for similar pair of weatherworn leather boots
you don't know your rattlesnakes. expansion before the hobby moves her with the toes sticking out of the ground
family out onto the street! just six feet in front of the slab. The
On page 34 of the May Desert ap- effect was ghastly.
pears an item which states "such phe- MISS MARIE ALMAND
nomenal rattles (with a dozen and a MISS ORA D. ORME I haven't noticed this grave for sev-
half or two dozen segments) are never • • • eral years now. Some souvenir hunter
seen in Nature." The "Unknown" Graves . . . probably has grabbed it.
I have killed rattlers with 19 and Red Mountain, California E. S. KIRKLAND
20 rattles, and Charles Mitchell of Desert:
Salt Lake City, Utah, has a string In the photographic feature, "In
with 52 rattles. I have seen it and Information W a n t e d . . .
Memory," on facing pages 22 and 23
counted them. The snake came from of May Desert Magazine, I notice two Redondo Beach, California
Texas. photos taken in this district. One is Desert:
The button on a rattle indicates two captioned, "Photo taken near Rands- How about giving us more informa-
years of age, and each rattle segment burg," the other "An unknown grave tion about the Jackrabbit Homestead-
thereafter signifies one year. on the California desert." ers? I understand the group in one
C. S. JUDD Sorry, but there is no one buried section is drilling a cooperative well,
at either place. and others have organized and adopted
They grow things big in Texas,
but Mr. Mitchell's 52-rattle snake About four years ago, I was talking by-laws, etc.
still is phenomenal. According to to a San Bernardino County deputy JOHN R. WARNER
Karl P. Schmidt and D. Dwight sheriff about those same two places. Desert's staff would like to have
Davis of the Field Museum of Nat- In his opinion, if such graves had once the addresses of all organized Jack-
ural History, authors of "Field Book existed, the county coroner would have rabbit Homesteader groups. We
of Snakes," a rattler with a string of removed the remains to Potter's Field, agree with JRW, their doings will
more than 20 rattles is extremely as neither was in a designated burial be interesting to many readers. —
rare "although they are sometimes ground. R.H.
faked by slipping parts of several Be that as it may, here is the story:
rattles together." Not only is a long In May or June of 1941, two Mexi-
rattle cumbersome and easily broken, cans, driving an ancient model Ford Inyo Mountain Pine . . .
but it does not rattle properly and innocent of top, brakes and lights, left Independence, California
hence would be much less useful Red Mountain for Trona, where they Desert:
than a shorter one. Snake Experts were employed. After an evening of
Schmidt and Davis say a rattlesnake rather unwise and much too thorough As a resident of Owens Valley, I
adds a "joint" to its rattle each time celebrating, they started north down appreciate the letter of William Dye
it loses its skin "which it does three the Trona road. About half way down in your May issue, regarding trees in
or four times a year or oftener—not the hill, three miles or so from Trona the Inyos. Anyone who knows the
just once." So, even if an adult snake and at the place where one cross was Inyos would resent having them called
did retain all its rattles, it would located, they smashed into a large and barren.
seem its age still would be its own heavy Auburn sedan. However, Mr. Dye seems to be con-
secret.—R.H. The Auburn and one of the Mexi- fused on the kinds of trees found there.
cans weren't badly damaged. The We have white bark pine and foxtail
other Mexican promptly left this earth, pine as timberline trees on the Sierra
The Hobby that Grows . . . and the Ford was a total loss. side, but I never have seen them in
Santa Fe, New Mexico About a week later, the small black the Inyos. There are many pinyon and
Desert: cross shown on the left in your photo juniper trees in upper elevations
appeared at the spot. The following throughout the range, and good stands
We certainly know what Mrs. Ona
spring the larger one with the wreath of hickory pine are found on the higher
Forsberg was talking about when she
joined it. peaks and ridges. The latter (pinus
described her rapid conversion to rock-
aristata) may easily be confused with
hounding! (Letters, May Desert.) Made of boards, chicken wire and foxtail pine (pinus balfouriana), but
And we warn her, as time goes on stucco and painted white, it was a there is no tree in the Inyos resem-
she might expect anything in the way right nice looking monument for sev- bling white bark pine.
of expansion—at least judging from eral years. Lately it has been on the
our experience. ground most of the time. A new Mountain mahogany also grows
Just two years ago, we bought the wreath regularly appears about the here, often reaching the size of small
first glass case to display a few choice same time each year. trees; and I have seen good sized wil-
mineral specimens. Today there is a The "unknown grave" was located lows in certain locations.
room full of cases, shelves, tables, on the east side of the Trona road be- Yes, the Inyos are a desert range,
rock cupboards and one fluorescent tween the start of Nine Mile Grade but they are true mountains and do
cabinet devoted to our hobby. One and the entrance to Poison Canyon. not reveal themselves too readily.
bedroom is given over entirely to lapi- It stood in a small clearing in the MRS. MARY DE DECKER

JULY, 1952 27
Answers, Please . . . problem of land tenure under desert opposed and obstructed for a time by
Burbank, California conditions and their communal method politicians in Washington and else-
Desert: of farming. where.
In the May Desert Quiz, the answer When the federal census of these It was not until the fallacy of indi-
to number 6 was omitted. The same desert Papagos was completed in May, vidual Indian allotments was discussed
misfortune befell question 16 in the 1910, and it was learned that there by correspondence and orally with
June issue. were upwards of 4500 Papagos in Commissioner Sells during his trip
I only missed one so far in the June Pima County instead of the less than through the Papago country, with the
test, and hope I guessed right on that 2000 that was previously estimated, precious and profitable help of good
San Ildefonso puzzler. Why not pub- the advisability of establishing and Father Ventura, that these efforts for
lish these two answers in July? creating a separate reservation was the creation of a reservation finally
WILLIAM H. REEVES justified in my opinion. attained success.
For Mr. Reeves and other quiz The first suggestions made to Wash- I opposed the removal of the agency
fans frustrated by Desert's oversight, ington for the creation of a reservation headquarters from San Xavier to Sells
here are the answers: The stream were made when Inspector Carl Gun- as a waste of money, and said person-
which Major Powell called the Dirty derson, later governor of South Da- ally I would refuse to move there.
Devil River is now known as Fre- kota, and I made the trip through the District farmers could be deputized to
mont Creek, Utah; True, the Indian desert and recommended by wire in settle most problems, and furthermore
craftsmen of San Ildefonso in New 1910 that the allotment work be they could all be connected by tele-
Mexico are best known for their pot- stopped immediately and a reservation phone to San Xavier.
tery making.—R.H. be created. This recommendation was HENRY J. McQUIGG
• • •
A Reservation for the Papagos . . .
Following the publication in
the February issue of Harold
Weight's biographical sketch of
Father Bonaventura, some inter-
esting sidelights on the history of
Scanty
the Papago Indians were furn-
ished in a letter written to Harold OF;DEATH VALLEY
by Henry J. McQuigg, first super-
intendent of the Papago reserva-
tion. McQuigg wrote in part as
follows: Members of the Coast Camera Sat all day on the bench out un-
club were in Death Valley on der the front porch. Boys in the
Santa Ana, California their annual field trip. They had store figgered he hadn't had any-
Dear Mr. Weight: been out during the early morn- thing to eat since he finished off
We read with pleased interest your ing exposing their films to the that box o'crackers, so they gave
excellent story of Father Bonaventura Valley's scenic wonders, and had him a hunk o' cheese.
in the February issue of Desert. I have returned to the Inferno store to
pleasant memories of my work with "After that Flatfoot wuz a
loiter around the cold drink stand regular visitor. He'd show up
the good Father in the development during the middle of the day.
of the Papagos. jest after sun-up and sit all day
"Takes shadows to make good on that bench. Generally some-
I was appointed by President Wm. pictures" one of the camera en- body bought 'im something to
H. Taft as first superintendent of the thusiasts explained to the clerk eat. And do yuh know, that ol'
Papagos in Pima County and the San behind the counter. "Pictures Indian sat there every day fer
Xavier reservation in 1910, remain- are too flat when the sun is di- 40 years. When the late after-
ing there until 1916. rectly overhead. We'll be going noon sun hit the porch Flatfoot
Before December 1909 the desert out again late this afternoon."
Papagos and the small reservation at jest stayed there anyway—him
Hard Rock Shorty was seated an his shadder on the wall.
San Xavier del Bac were under the on a counter, corncob pipe in
superintendent at Sacaton, but Com- one hand and a fly-swatter in the "One day he didn't show up,
missioner of Indian Affairs Valentine other. an' that afternoon down in the
felt that the time had come to give dunes where the Indians had
"Too bad you-all didn't come their camp they wuz havin' a
more autonomy and attention to the down here a coupla months ago," burnin' ceremony. Lot o' wailin'
Papagos so an Agency with headquar- he remarked. "If yuh like to an' singin'. One of the Indian
ters at San Xavier was founded. take pictures o' shadders we boys told us ol' Flatfoot had
Shortly afterwards good Father Ven- really had a good one fer yuh. gone to the Happy Hunting
tura arrived to renew the missionary Was a perfect likeness o' 01' Ground.
work of the Franciscans that had been Chief Flatfoot, the Paiute Indian.
interrupted by politics in old Mexico; "Flatfoot wuz in Death Valley "Ol' Flatfoot wuz gone—but
and I gave him all the assistance pos- when the first white man cum not his shadder. That shadder'd
sible in developing his school system here. No one knew where he been on that wall every afternoon
and missionary work. At the same cum from, but the day after this fer 40 years—and I guess it did-
time I started the construction of seven here store wuz opened back in n't know the ol' chief wuz dead.
government day schools. 1906 he showed up. He looked Yep, that shadder stayed there
When I arrived at San Xavier in hungry and Pisgah Bill bought on the wall fer six months afore
January, 1910, Carl Aspaas was en- 'im a box o' crackers. The next it went to the Happy Hunting
gaged in allotting the desert Papagos day Flatfoot cum back again. Ground too."
a quarter section each, which obviously
was an unrealistic approach to their

28 DESERT MAGAZINE
memories
ARIZONA
Project Completion. Near . . .
YUMA—Construction of the Well-
Cattle in Kaibab . . .
GRAND CANYON —The United
States Forest Service has decided to you'll
treasure
ton-Mohawk division of the Gila River give cattle a permanent place on the
Project may be completed by 1957, Kaibab National Game Refuge, which
according to the Bureau of Reclama- was set aside by President Theodore
tion's current timetable of construc- Roosevelt in 1906 for the famous
tion. The project, opened May 1, is Kaibab deer herd. The action was
expected to bring an additional 10,000 taken because cattlemen agreed to re-
acres under irrigation this year. Al-
most 17,000 acres of the government-
duce livestock use 38 percent through
fall calf sales that would remove the
...allthe rest of
owned land will be divided into 116
farms and offered for sale to qualified
veterans over a five-year period begin-
annual increase. It is expected the ad-
mission of cattle to range lands will
necessitate a larger deer hunt this fall.
your life
ning later this year.—Yuma Daily Sun. —A rizona Republic. the sights you'll see and the
• • • . . .
Arizona First in Cotton Yield . . . Papagos Best Adjusted . . . comforts you'll enjoy on any
CASA GRANDE—Despite the fact WASHINGTON—The Papagos of one of Santa Fe's
that adverse water conditions brought Arizona seem to be adjusting best to
last year's yield down 150 pounds per the demands of a complex white world. 5 great trains
acre, Arizona farmers still hold the This is the opinion of Dr. John M.
No. 1 position in the country in aver- Roberts of H a r v a r d University,
age yield of lint cotton per acre. Al- speaker at a three-day meeting of the
though complete figures are not yet Institute on American Indian Assimila-
available, Arizona's 1951 yield is ex- tion. The Papagos are absorbing
pected to reach 750 pounds per acre, gradually into the national economic
compared to the United States average and social structure while still retain-
of 268 pounds. — Casa Grande Dis- ing their ancient tribal identity, said
patch. Dr. Roberts.—Arizona Republic.

Prize Photograph Announcement...


Yes, it is hot out here on the desert as this is written, early in
June, and the photographers who do their own dark room work have
to put ice in their fluids. But they don't mind that—and so Desert
Magazine's Picture-of-the-Month contest will be carried on through the
summer.
This contest is intended to secure for publication the best of the
pictures taken in the desert country each month by both amateur and
professional photographers. All Desert readers are invited to enter
their best work in this contest.
Entries for the July contest must be in the Desert Magazine
office. Palm Desert, California, by July 20. and the winning prints between California
will appear in the September issue. Pictures which arrive too late for and Chicago,
one contest are held over for the next month. First prize is $10; second
prize $5.00. For non-winning pictures accepted for publication $3.00 through the
each will be paid.
colorful Southwest
HERE ARE THE RULES
1—Prints for monthly contests must be black and white. 5x7 or larger, printed Indian Country
on glossy paper.
2—Each photograph submitted should be fully labeled as to subject, time and
place. Also technical data: camera, shutter speed, hour of day, etc.
3—PRINTS WILL BE RETURNED WHEN RETURN POSTAGE IS ENCLOSED.
Super Chief • Chief • El Capitan
4—All entries must be in the Desert Magazine office by the 20th of the contest
month.
Grand Canyon • California Ltd.
5—Contests are open to both amateur and professional photographers. Desert
Magazine requires first publication rights only of prize winning pictures.
6—Time and place of photograph are immaterial, except that it must be from the
desert Southwest. 'A K
7—Judges will be selected from Desert's editorial staff, and awards will be made
immediately after the close of the contest each month. Santa Fe
*De&ent
Address All Entries to Photo Editor
PALM DESERT, CALIFORNIA
•a K
C. C. T H O M P S O N , PASSENGER TRAFFIC MGR.
LOS ANGELES 14, CALIFORNIA

JULY, 1 9 5 2 29
Test Indian Welfare Laws . . .
PHOENIX—Are Indians living on
THE DESERT TRflDMG POST reservations entitled to the same treat-
ment as anyone else in the matter of
Classified Advertising in Thin Section Costs 8c a Word, $1.00 Minimum Per Issue public assistance? This long-disputed
question will be decided by the federal
courts when they deliver a ruling on
TWO BEAUTIFUL lots; approximately 300 ft. a petition the State of Arizona has
INDIAN GOODS frontage Kuffel Canyon Road, Sky Forest,
California, near Arrowhead and Rim of World filed for declaratory judgment. The
FOUR PERFECT AND FINE Indian Arrowheads Highway. Can be divided into 4 or 5 lots.
$1.00. 2 large arrowheads $1.00; extra fine Water shares. $4500. M. Contreras, 1845 N. stage was set for the litigation when
stone tomahawk $2.00; 4 beautiful bird ar- Raymond, Pasadena, California.
rowheads $1.00; 2 flint knives $1.00; fine Oscar Ewing, federal security admin-
effigy peace pipe $8.00; bone fish hook $2.00. istrator, ruled a new Arizona law out
6" or over spearhead $5.00, thin and perfect. MISCELLANEOUS
List Free. Lear's, Glenwood, Arkansas. LEATHERCRAFT SUPPLIES: Make your own of conformity with federal regulations.
FOR SALE: Antique Indian collections. Many bags, wallets, belts, etc. Free instructions at The act created a new category of aid
ollas, metates, baskets, artifacts, etc. Box store. Mail orders promptly filled. Bill
180, Julian, California. White's, 102 W. State St., Redlands, California. to the totally and permanently disabled
INDIAN MATERIAL—enough for a roadside DESERT TEA. One pound one dollar postpaid. and specifically barred reservation In-
museum or wall decorations for bar or Greasewood Greenhouses. Lenwood, Barstow, dians from its benefits. Its passage
restaurant or lodge. Used costumes, flint California.
tipped arrows, flint tipped lance, powder and Ewing's action both were part of
horns, peace pipes, hundred items too num- PANNING GOLD — Another hobby for Rock
erous to mention. Price $265.00 cash. Come Hounds and Desert Roamers. A new booklet, a plan to clear up the whole question
see this vanishing material. Any time ex- "What the Beginner Needs to Know," 36 pages of Indian welfare responsibility and at
cept Friday night and Saturday. Joe Dalbey, of instructions; also catalogue of mining books
2524 W. Colorado Blvd., Eagle Rock. Phone and prospectors' supplies, maps of where to go
and blue prints of hand machines you can
the same time not jeopardize federal
CLeveland 7-1504. build. Mailed postpaid 25c, coin or stamps. matching funds for other phases of the
WE SEARCH UNCEASINGLY for old and rare Old Prospector, Box 729, Desk 5, Lodi, Calif. state's welfare program.—Arizona Re-
Indian Artifacts, but seldom accumulate a LADY GODIVA "The World's Finest Beautifier." public.
large assortment. Collectors seem as eager to For women who wish to become beautiful, for
possess them as their original owners. To women who wish to remain beautiful. An e e •
those who like real Indian things, a hearty outstanding desert cream. For information,
welcome. You too may find here something write or call Lola Barnes, 963 N. Oakland, To Study River Border . . .
you have long desired. We are continually Pasadena 6, Calif., or phone SYcamore 4-2378.
increasing our stock with the finest in Navajo PHOENIX —The Colorado River
rugs, Indian baskets, and hand-made jewelry. NATIVE HUT, Novelty Lamp. Hut designed
Daniels Trading Post, 401 W. Foothill Blvd., parchment shade. When lighted, shows na-
has created a number of boundary dis-
Fontana, California. tive dancer and drummer silhouette. Raft putes by its meandering since the Ari-
type base, 5"x5"x2". Lamp 11" high, $5.95 zona state line was declared to be the
BOOKS — MAGAZINES postpaid. Television style, 12", $7.95 postpaid.
Send 10c in coin for snapshot, credited on center of the river. Because California
order. Lynn Lamp Shop, Route 1, Box 128A,
BOOKS FOUND: Any subject, any author. Fast Yuma, Arizona. is surveying the lands along its side
service. Send wants—no obligation. Interna-
tional Bookfinders. Box 3003-D, Beverly Hills, PHOTOGRAPHIC GEMS made from your own of the river, and since the state legis-
California. favorite negatives. 5x7 inch enlargements lature has authorized a survey on the
sealed in glass-clear plastic and mounted in
DESERT MAGAZINES FOR SALE: 86 issues
from 1938 to 1947 $20.00 postpaid. L. Roe,
handsome display mounts, 75c each, three Arizona side, Governor Howard Pyle
for $2.00. W. C. Minor, Box 62, Fruita, Colo-
1501 Vilas Ave., Madison, Wisconsin. rado. announced he will reactivate the Ari-
COMPLETE SET of Desert Magazine. Nov. 1937 SILVERY DESERT HOLLY PLANTS: One dollar
zona Boundary Commission. The
to Jan. 1951, in binders, $50.00. P. J. White, each postpaid. Greasewood Greenhouses, Len- three-member group was first ap-
10248 So. Valley View, Whittier, California. wood, Barstow, California.
pointed in 1941 to meet with a group
WE WILL PAY 50 cents each for good copies TO TRADE for desert property, a small busi- from California to discuss boundary
of the Desert Magazine issues of January, ness preferred, on main highway, with good
February, October 1946, and January, Febru- water supply, of equal value to my property problems.—Arizona Republic.
ary, March, April, May, July, November 1947, in Port Orford, Oregon. Have 5 room house
and January, March, April, May, October, center of town and situated one block from e e e
November 1948. Desert Magazine, Palm Des- my crab and sea food market with beer
ert. California. license on property with 96 foot frontage on Apaches Adopt Game Plan . . .
Highway 101 in seaport town. Doing a good WHITERIVER—A comprehensive
business. Home and furniture valued at $6000
BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES and going business and business property game and fish management and recre-
valued at $7000. Will trade one or both.
R. E. SALESMAN: Take charge established Further details, write V. H. Kohl, Box 773, ational program has been adopted by
office. Sell desert Homes, Ranches, Acreage. Port Orford, Oregon. the Fort Apache Tribal Council. The
Good location. Box 252, Big Bear Lake,
California. PLAN YOUR TRIPS to the mountains, sea-
shore or desert with Topographic Maps. We
council has budgeted $22,600 of ac-
have a complete stock of maps of all areas cumulated fishing-permit fees for the
REAL ESTATE in California and fourteen other western first year of the program and author-
states. Many new ones recently issued. A
postal card with your name and address will ized increases in the fishing permits
WILL SELL 5-acre patented Jackrabbit Home- put you on our FREE mailing list. If it's
stead 15 miles from Palm Springs, 4 miles maps, see or write Westwide Maps Co., 114% effective July 1 to finance future de-
from Palm Desert, 2 miles from Palms-to- W. 3d St., Los Angeles 13. MI 5339.
Pines Highway in Section 36. Elevation about velopments. Improvement of camp-
1000 feet. Has good 22-foot house trailer on PROSPECTORS AND ROCKHOUNDS WANTED. sites, picnic grounds, trails, fish shel-
cement block foundation. Two double beds. To join the newly incorporated United Pros-
On hillside overlooking lower Cat canyon. No pectors Organization. If you are experienced ters and game facilities are planned.
electricity, necessary to haul water. $1600 or beginners the articles in our magazine are
terms. Discount for cash. Address Owner, bound to help you enjoy your hobby and the —Arizona Republic.
Box HR, c/o Desert Magazine, Palm Desert, outdoors. Send your name for our new bro-
California chure and literature. United Prospectors, Box e e e
729, Lodi, California. Norman Nevills Memorial . . .
LARGE BUILDING LOTS for winter homes.
Close to highway 60-70. Excellent soft water FIND YOUR OWN beautiful Gold nuggets! It's MARBLE CANYON — Norman
available. L. C. Hockett, Box 2T6, Salome, fun! Beginners illustrated instruction book
Arizona. $1.00. Gold pan, $2.00. Where to go? Gold Nevills, veteran Colorado Riverman,
placer maps, Southern California, Nevada, and his wife Doris were killed in 1949
OCOTILLO: On limited access Highway 80, 26 Arizona, $1.00 each state. All three maps
miles west of El Centro, two junctions. Agua $2.00. Desert Jim, Box 604 Stockton, Calif. when their airplane crashed during a
Caliente Hot Springs near by and in a des-
ert resort. Motel location on Highway 80, BEAUTIFUL CACTUS raised from seed. Packed take-off from the desert runway near
$1500. Trailer Courts location, 2 acres, $1600. dry in attractive gift box. Grow indoors or their home at Mexican Hat, Utah.
John C. Chalupnik, Alpine, California. out. Mailed anywhere in the U. S. for $1.00.
Victor Valley Gem Shop, Box 158, Phelan, Now, almost three years later, a Nor-
CAMP WILLIAMS — Approximately 12 acres. California.
Beautiful trees; log slab buildings 8 years old; man Nevills Memorial Plaque will be
INVESTORS WANTED: Build rentals for all
restrooms, sleeping quarters; trout stream year income. This is fast growing health dedicated July 11 at Navajo Bridge in
and camp grounds; beer and cafe licenses; area. Write Chamber of Commerce, New-
plenty room for trailer park and cabins; berry, California. Marble Canyon. Many of Nevills'
privately owned land in forest reserve; ele- friends, who made the Colorado trip
vation approximately 1600 ft.; 15 miles from SAVE 50% on New Binoculars! Free catalog.
Azusa, California, in East Fork, San Gabriel
Canyon. $24,000. Terms. $12,500 down. M.
Free book, "How to Select Binoculars." Write
today! Bushnell's 43-D 37 43 E. Green Street,
with him, will gather for the cere-
Contreras, 1845 N. Raymond, Pasadena, Calif. Pasadena 1, California. mony.

30 DESERT MAGAZINE
CALIFORNIA
Search for Greasewood . . .
PALM DESERT —The possibility
that leaves of the creosote bush—com-
monly known as greasewood — have
commercial potentiality is being in-
vestigated by a large spice processing
company. Creosote leaves can be con-
verted by a lengthy process of extrac-
tion and re-extraction into a fine
powder that prevents or retards ran-
cidity in fats, oils and fatty foods. H.
S. Warren, chemical engineer and pro-
duction supervisor for the William J.
Strange Company, makers of the crys-
talline end-product, has been exploring
the Coachella Valley for thick con-
centrations of greasewood. The chem-
ist reassured nature lovers that creo-
sote bushes will not be destroyed by
the leaf-picking. "It is as beneficial
as tip-pruning," he said.—Palm Desert
Progress.
• • •
Would Abandon Historic Road . . .
MECCA—Declaring that the pres-
ent bridge over the Ail-American canal
east of here is inadequate, the Cali-
fornia State Highway Division has
asked that the historic road through
Box Canyon be abandoned unless the
Coachella County Water District will
install a new bridge, estimated to cost
$260,000. The Box Canyon road was
in use for nearly 50 years before the
Indio-Blythe cut-off was completed a
few years ago. It goes through one of
the desert's most scenic canyons, and
residents of Coachella Valley are pre-
paring protests against its abandon-
ment.—The Date Palm.

Franciscans to Leave . . .
BANNING—Franciscan monks, in
California since 1770, are about to
THE AMAZING PURPLE MOTOR OIL
leave four Southern California coun-
ties—Riverside, San Bernardino, San
Diego and Imperial—after 182 years
ROYAL TRITON !
of continuous service to Roman Cath- Royal Triton-the amazing purple motor oil-was developed to
olic parishioners throughout California. give the greatest possible lubricant protection for today's precision-
The Franciscans first were assigned to
the Southwest after Spanish King built cars.
Charles III banished the Jesuits in Royal Triton got its distinctive purple color from the unique
1767. On exploratory expeditions from combination of fortifying compounds it contains. These compounds,
Mexico, Franciscan Father Junipero combined with its high quality, make Royal Triton America's finest
Serra established locations of the Cali- heavy-duty motor oil.
fornia missions.—Banning Record.
• • • HOW TO GET TOP PERFORMANCE FROM YOUR CAR
Plan "Shady" Myrick Shrine . . . To get 100% performance you need follow just two
RANDSBURG — In memory of itOl, simple rules: (1.) Take your car to your car dealer's
Francis Marion "Shady" Myrick, Mo- for frequent checkups—at least every 2,000 miles.
jave Desert's most famous gemstone (2.) Use the finest motor oil money can buy—Royal
prospector, the Desert Lions Club of Triton-45?! per quart.
Johannesburg and a group of Shady's
A variable at leading car dealers' in most areas of the U. S.
desert friends erected a monument of
Mojave Desert gemrock over his grave. UNION OILCOMPANY OF CALIFORNIA
The monument and plaque were dedi- Los Angeles, Union Oil Bldg. . New York, 4904 RCA Bldg. • Chicago,
cated in Memorial Day ceremonies.— LOOK FOR
1612 Bankers Bldg. - New Orleans, 917 National Bank of Commerce Bldg.
Cincinnati, 2111 Carew Tower Bldg.
Randsburg Times-Herald. THIS SIGN

JULY, 1952 31
May Develop Mesa Land . . . mile-long All-American Canal. The by Lucius Beebe and Charles Clegg,
BLYTHE—After nearly 40 years event, which took place without cere- western historians and authors. Al-
of planning, progress finally is being mony, was staged in the main control though the population of Virginia City
made toward the development of irri- house of Imperial Dam, 18 miles up- has dropped from 20,000 during its
gation facilities on approximately 16,- stream from Yuma where the diversion heyday to a mere 400 today, the new
000 acres on the first Palo Verde mesa. works and desilting basins of the canal publishers expect a profitable return
Negotiations now are directed toward are located.—Los Angeles Times. by combining the Enterprise with the
including the mesa in the Palo Verde • • • Virginia City News.—Pioche Record.
irrigation district.—Palo Verde Valley To Revive Mecca Pageant . . . • • •
Times. MECCA — The Mecca Easter Pa- Plan Cave Exploration . . .
geant, given annually since World War WHITE PINE—Exploration of the
II in Box Canyon but suspended this caves of east central Nevada is planned
Canal Transfer Official . . . year, will be produced again in 1953, late in July by Stanford Grotto of the
EL CENTRO—At one minute af- members of the Mecca Civic Council National Speleological Society. Ray-
ter midnight on May 1, U. S. Recla- have decided. Financial difficulties mond de Saussure of San Francisco
mation Bureau officials turned over and production worries caused aban- reports the Stanford University group
to representatives of Imperial Irriga- donment of the 1952 presentation. A from Palo Alto, California, hopes to
tion District the $25,000,000, 80- campaign will be conducted in ad- publish the results of its study both in
vance to underwrite next year's show. the club bulletin and in a special vol-
—Ri verside En terprise. ume devoted entirely to material ob-
'EVERYTHING FOR THE HIKER' • • • tained on the trip.—Ely Record.
Recommend Canyon Sites . . . • • •
SLEEPING BAGS
INDIO—Painted, Box and Hidden Famous Ghost Town Sold . . .
AIR MATTRESSES Springs canyons and all palm oases LIDA—The ghost town of Lida,
SMALL TENTS on the northeast rim of Coachella Val- Esmerelda county, Nevada, passed
ley have been recommended by Super- into private ownership when Harold
and many other items intendent William Kenyon of the state V. Smith, prominent cattleman of the
parks division for inclusion in the Cali- Hawthorne area, purchased the town-
V A N DEGRIFT'S HIKE HUT fornia park system. Kenyon envisioned site during a public auction held by
717 West Seventh Street a park system that would include all the Bureau of Land Management.
LOS ANGELES 14. CALIFORNIA of the palm oases along the northern Lida first came into prominence even
edge of the desert; he said he believed before the days of Tonopah and Gold-
the state would have little trouble ac- field and was one of the indirect rea-
quiring the lands.—Desert Sun. sons for the discovery of the two big
HOTEL • • • camps in Nye and Esmerelda counties.
Prospectors fanned out from Lida to
NEVADA roam the hills, and shortly after, in
Pioneer Paper Returns . . . the dawn of the 20th century, Jim
VIRGINIA CITY —After an ab- Butler and his mule brought in the
sence of 36 years, the Territorial En- bonanza at Tonopah. Goldfield was
terprise, famed newspaper of pioneer discovered four years later. — Las
A splendid location in the heart of days, has reappeared on the streets of Vegas Review-Journal.
Downtown Los Angeles. 555 delight- Virginia City, a tumbledown mining
ful rooms, all with all • • •
modern hotel facilities.
town astride the once fabulous Corn- 20-Mule Team to Las Vegas . . .
FROM • ' J ^ stock Lode. The publication—literary LAS VEGAS — A 20-mule team
Outstanding Food — birthplace of Mark Twain, who served and wagons arrived for the Helldorado
Ye Old Oak Tavern; on its staff as reporter during the celebration in Las Vegas after an eight-
also popular Sub •Marine mining boom days—was resurrected day drive across the desert from Death
Cocktail Lounge . . .
Valley. California. Before leaving Fur-
Garage Adjoining. *?a
nace Creek Lodge in Death Valley,
.COMFORT
5 minutes from Union
R. R. Terminal SMALL PRIC, n* I the wagons were loaded with borax,
iust as the original wagons were loaded
AT THE CENTE in the early days. Skinner was Bruce
OF EVERYTHING Morgan, operator of the stables at
Furnace Creek for the Pacific Coast
Borax Company, sponsor of the team.
—Inyo Independent.
• • •
Reveille Approaches 90 . . .
DOWNTOWN AUSTIN—The oldest paper in Ne-
AT PERSHING SQUARE vada and one of the oldest in the
j W O R L D S F I N E S T SLEEPING BAG
3 2 QUILTS of 100% NEW DOWN-removable.f' United States, the Reese River Reveille
5 8 oz. ARMY POPLIN COVER-ARMY BALOON^ entered its 90th year of publication in
|CLOTH SHEET. USE I QUILT IN M I L D - !•" May. Born in the days when the West
fiWEATHER.2 QUILTS IN COLO-WEATHER./; was still comparatively little known,
I WRITE FOR FREE FOLDER-CORRECT
P INFORMATION ON HOW TO SELECT YOUR; the Reveille reaches back in an un-
JOHN T. U3CHHEAD-M.E.MAITBY- I SLEEPING BAG. BAGS FROM $815 up. I broken line to the territorial days be-
MANAGINC OWNIRS HJBMQ 1 U EVBCLJBlf SAN BERNAR1)IN0
447 THIRD fore Nevada was admitted as a state
SPECIAL RATES TO SERVICEMEN ^ ^ D l l A l r H i b l flbTliFbln£ FRESNO III5VANNESS
WEST'S LAMEST IN CAMPINJ OOOOS SA_LES ""•*"" »
R|VERS10E
and when Austin was a mining boom
MAIN OFFICE-99 E.COLORADO PASADENA I.CALIF.
l4 023MAIN town.—Reese River Reveille.

32 DESERT MAGAZINE
NEW MEXICO
Man-Made Rain Travels . . .
ALBUQUERQUE — Reporting on
a 21-month rainmaking experiment in
New Mexico, Dr. Irving Langmuir,
Nobel prize winning scientist, an-
nounced he had created a nationwide
weekly rainfall pattern by seeding
clouds with silver iodide. Dr. Lang-
muir and a group of scientists seeded
the atmosphere above central New
Mexico for a period of 21 months.
Seeding days were shifted periodically,
iodide amounts were changed, and
careful records were kept. The scien-
tists found they could control the na-
tion's weather pattern. When they yes, MA'AM/
seeded New Mexico air on Monday,
Tuesday and Wednesday, it rained in
the East on Friday, Saturday and Sun-
day—the lapse being the time it took
for the seeded air to move across the
country. "Each and every week there
was a phenomenal rise and fall," said
Dr. Langmuir.
A check was started of weather
bureau reports for as long as they have
existed. Dr. Langmuir said in all the
recorded history of weather, no sim-
ilar pattern could be found.—Arizona
Republic.
• • •
Bandelier Sets Record . . .
LOS ALAMOS — Bandelier Na-
tional Monument has set a new single
day attendance record, attracting 1132
visitors May 11. "An especially nice
day for picnicking, horseback riding
and hiking," was the only explanation
Superintendent Fred Binnewies could LITTLE LADIES BIG
give for the record crowd and earlier- APPRECIATE THE ''FA/VMIY-CI-EAN" REST-
than-usual heavy park use. Previous
ROOMS THAT ARE SO WOUDLy MAINTAINED
record for the monument since its
founding in 1916 was May 27, 1951, BY MO8IU5AS PEALER.S THROUGHOUT
when 1129 people were counted. — THE COUNTRY. MAKE VOUP. TOURING"
New Mexican.
MORE PLEASANT .FOR THE WHOLE FAMILY
• • •
THIS YEAR, STOP AT THE SIGN OF THE
Not Fancy Schools—Just Schools . . .
WASHINGTON—"We will do any- FLYING REP HORSE FOR. CLEAN REST-
thing to get teachers, school books ROOMS, FOR HIGH-MILEAGE MOBILGAS,
and classrooms for our 28,000 school
FOR MO8/LOIL THAT'S IMPROVED FOR
children," said Sam Akeah, chairman
of the Navaio Tribal Council, in en- RFAL HEAVV-DUT/.
dorsement of a less costly program for
Navaio education. Several witnesses
attacked the Indian Bureau's present Mobilgas
school construction program before
the Senate appropriations committee.
Thev claimed the Indian Bureau is
building "fancy show-place" schools
for the Navaios and said four times
LOOK FOR THE BLUB
the number of students could be ac-
ft WHITE SIGNS-
commodated for the same monev if
ANOTHER EXTRA
barracks-type buildings were substi-
FRIENDLY SERVICE
tuted.—Arizona Republic.
• • •
TAOS — Oscar E. Berninghaus,
Taos artist famed for his interpreta-
tion of Indian life and the Southwest,
died April 27 in Taos of a heart attack.
He was 77 years old.—El Crepesculo.

JULY, 1952 33
Teaching Standards Too High . . . summer, studying conditions for the Reservoir Loan Okayed . . .
WASHINGTON — I n the reserva- state of New Mexico. — Arizona Re- PANGUITCH — F.H.A. approval
tion areas of New Mexico and Arizona public. has been stamped upon $100,000 loan
there are 15,000 Navajo children now • • • to the New Escalante Irrigation Com-
without schooling. One of the rea- State Suggests Water Split . . . pany for construction of a $111,000
sons an education is denied them, SANTA FE—The state has sug- dam across Wide Hollow, three miles
maintains Dr. M. W. Royce, a George- gested that 575,000 acre-feet of San northwest of Escalante. The proposed
town University professor, is that the Juan River water be earmarked for dam will be 42 feet high and 1600
Indian Bureau's standards for teachers two irrigation projects in the San Juan feet long and will have a storage ca-
are too high. "One must almost pass Basin of northwest New Mexico. John pacity of 2300 acre-feet. When com-
a regular college board examination R. Erickson, interstate streams engi- pleted, the dam is expected to double
to get a teaching job on the reserva- neer, said this should be enough water available irrigation water and to bring
tion," he said. Dr. Royce spent three to irrigate 130,000 acres of land and an additional 2000 acres of valley
months on the Navajo reservation last suggested that amount be reserved for lands under cultivation. — Garfield
the Navajo (Shiprock) and South San County News.
Juan projects. New Mexico is allotted • • •
iSAVE 50Z 838,000 acre-feet of water under the
Upper Colorado River Basin Compact,
and this must come from the San Juan.
Traffic School for Indians . . .
BLANDING — To teach Indians
—New Mexican. the rules of driving and traffic, an
• • • educational program is being con-
BINOCULAR ducted in San Juan county. Two-hour
See moes 100 Years of Service . . .
BUSHNEU-S MMottah TAOS—Centennial ceremonies were classes are held once a week for Utes
NEW FREE $1>|95
held in May to commemorate the in Blanding and for Navajos at Bluff.
CATAIOOI I f UP i It* Ui The tests are given orally, and inter-
hue nfik 100th year of service in New Mexico
Guoronteed l o g i v a y o u m o n and
by the Sisters of Loretto. The Sisters preters are present to insure the stu-
sov» you money on every popular model
Don't overpay! Compare BUSHNEU'S before
were brought to New Mexico by Arch- dents' understanding of problems.
you buy Send for FREE CATALOG and
bishop Lamy in 1851 to establish a Many of the Utes are buying cars
Free Book"HowToSehct\ Binoculars' with money from tribal oil royalties.
school for girls in Santa Fe. In 1863
the first branch of the Santa Fe school —San Juan Record.
was established in Taos and named St. • • •
study PHdfOGRflPHV Joseph's. A modern school building Drouth, Floods Plague Farmers . . .
was erected last year.—El Crepesculo. SALT LAKE CITY—Like the An-
in scenic RRIZOIIfl • 9 •
cient Mariner who was surrounded by
Modern techniques—documentary, UTAH water but had not a drop to drink,
commercial, portrait, fashion, field
trips. Small groups, personal atten- May Import 500 Sheepmen . . . some Utah farmers have been har-
tion. Fully equipped school; compe- VERNAL—Wool producers in the rassed by too much and too little water
tent, thorough instruction. Full
course Oct. 20 to June 19; also inten- Western United States are conducting at the same time. With thousands of
sive short sessions. Located in sunny an intensive area by area survey of acres — mostly low pasture lands —
desert and mountain wonderland.
Co-educational. Booklet 1* on request. labor needs with the intention of im- inundated by record spring floods,
ALFRED A. COHX director.
porting 500 skilled sheepherders from nearby and sometimes adjoining acres
flRizonn SCHOOL of Europe. Public Law 307 was passed were damaged by an unusual spring
recently by Congress as a special im- drouth. The drouth arose from two
PHOTOGRRPHY migration act to relieve the labor factors: washed out canals which pre-
shortage in the industry. Basque herd- vented irrigation, and lack of rain to
Route 5, Box 5 5 8
- Tucson, Arizona ers from the Pyranees mountain region supply top soil moisture for seed ger-
of Spain and France, Scotch sheepmen mination.—Salt Lake Tribune.
and herders from other European
sheep growing areas have been re-
quested by ranchers interviewed dur- ANSWERS TO DESERT QUIZ
ing the survey. Congress, in passing Questions are on page 26
the special immigration act, noted that 1—Address a few uncomplimentary
wool production in the United States remarks at the insect and forget
has declined nearly 50 percent during it.
the past 10 years and blamed the de- 2—Rhyolite is in Nevada.
CALIFORNIA CAR BED—Front; seat folds 3—San Jacinto Mountains.
to level double bed. creasing supply of skilled herders for 4—Arizona.
CUSTOM CRUISING SEAT—Luxurious twin the lowered production.—Vernal Ex-
front seats. Reclining; automatic bed level- 5—Ocotillo.
ing features. Transferable to next car. press. 6—Creosote bush.
Come in for Demonstration by • • • 7—A species of date grown in the
Tourist Figures Given . . . California desert.
O. R. REUTER 8—Utah.
2801 W. SLAUSON AX. 0 8 8 8 SALT LAKE CITY — California 9—Lead.
LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA leads all states in numbers of tourists 10—Exploration of the Lower Colo-
who visit Utah, indicates the National rado River.
Parks Service 1951 report on cars and 11—A prehistoric tribe of Indians.
12—White Mountains of Arizona.
1000 TRAVEL SCENES passengers registering at Bryce and 13—Sticks and twigs.
Zion canyon stations. Zion attracted 14—Tombstone.
331,676 visitors, more than any other 15—Bird.
national park or monument in the 16—Camino del Diablo.
17—Roast it in a pit.
state. Temple Square in Sa't Lake 18—Navajos.
]SAMPLES 30c WRITE TODAY
City was the only single attraction to 19—Gila River.
KELLY D. CHODA register more than a million visitors. 20—Albert M. Johnson.
BOX 5 LOS A L A M O S , NEW MEX.
S Lake Tribune.

34 DESERT MAGAZINE
America when just a lad and worked trail to the desert naturalist, was un-
his way west to Needles, where he veiled by Jack Mitchell at ceremonies
THE fllRGAZtnE
obtained employment with the Atlantic June 15.
and Pacific Railroad.
CLOSE-UPS His job with the A & P, now the
Santa Fe, and occasional prospecting
trips such as the one described in his
story of Indian gratitude and gold,
tinklinq
A Dartmouth graduate who spent i Cowbeir
ten years in the "canyons" of Wall kept him in Needles for a number of
Street, Edgar Ellinger, Jr., now oper- years. But the cry of gold soon called Earrings
ates a small handicraft and Indian Battye and his prospecting side-kick, In Sterling Silver. Choice of pierced or
trading post in Sedona, Arizona, at William Hutt, to Forty-Mile Creek in screw-back. Please specify. Mail check,
Alaska. They arrived there in 1889, money order, or will ship C.O.D. charges
the entrance to Oak Creek Canyon. collect. (No C.O.D. to Canada).
"I have traveled much and have visited too early for the big Klondike rush. $ 0 0 0 FED TAX INC MONEY BACK GUARANTEE
almost every nook and cranny in the After Alaska, Battye returned to 0 (Colo, residents add 5c state tax)

world," writes Ellinger, "but never


have I found a place with more to
Needles, then journeyed on to Arizona
mining camps. He was married in Ari-
eeTRAPERS
104 EAST PLATTE AVE., DEPT. BC
offer than the American Southwest in zona in 1897 and brought his bride COLORADO SPRINGS, COLORADO
general and Arizona in particular." back to Needles to live. The Battyes
Bachelor Ellinger lives alone at his now make their home in San Bernar-
Saddle Rock shop. He loves horses, dino, California, where they moved in A must on the Desert Lover's Book Shelf
and riding, music and writing are his 1924.
favorite hobbies. In the future, he
hopes to spend more time at his type-
Old-timer Battye has many mem-
ories of the desert and early railroad-
LOAFING ALONG
writer, producing stories like the one
on Hoke Denetsosie which appears in
ing in the West. His true tales have
appeared frequently in the Needles
DEATH VALLEY TRAILS
this issue. Before you visit the Big Sink at the
and Barstow newspapers. Bottom of America, by all means read this
• • • book.
Drawing and painting are hobbies Honoring Mary Beal of Daggett, IT'S A MAN'S BOOK
with Charles Keetsie Shirley, Navajo California, desert botanist and nature BUT WOMEN BUY MORE COPIES
artist who illustrated John Mitchell's lover and frequent contributor to Des- Authentic, factual, human interest stories
"Lost Mine with the Iron Door" for ert Magazine, a Nature Trail was dedi- of colorful characters who lived, loved and
this issue of Desert Magazine. They lied one day at a time.
cated in June at Mitchell's Caverns, Stories of fortunes made or lost over-
have been profitable hobbies, and 23 miles northwest of Essex, Califor- night. Daring men. Girls "beautiful but
many of this talented Indian artist's nia. Miss Beal's story, "They Like a damned." Romance and revelry. Ghost
water color paintings have been sold Rocky Terrain," appears in this issue. towns. Lost mines. Delightful rascals and
throughout the Southwest. the tall tales of far horizons.
The caverns, situated at an eleva-
Keetsie is an engineering draftsman
tion of more than 4000 feet on the AN OUTSTANDING GIFT BOOK
with the Indian Service Irrigation Di- At better book stores everywhere. $3.85.
east face of the Providence Mountains,
vision in Phoenix, Arizona. He and California buyers add 11 cents sales tax.
present a wide variety of desert flora
his family live in the small town of Published by
in an attractive and easily accessible
Goodyear, 18 miles west of Phoenix. THE DESERT MAGAZINE PRESS
setting.
Keetsie spends much of his free Palm Desert, California
time painting, drawing and clay model- A plaque and cairn, dedicating the
ing with his three children. Two still
are in elementary school, and the old- ASK YOUR CONTRACTOR ABOUT "PRECISION BUILT"
est boy, 16, attends Litchfield High
School. "The baby of the family, my
nine-year-old daughter, takes great de-
light in drawing with her left hand,"
RED CINDER BLOCKS
reports her father. With three active
youngsters in the family, Mrs. Shirley You'll have year
has plenty to do keeping house. around comfort
The Shirleys have lived for the past with
10 years in communities composed of
two or more races of people, generally "Precision Built"
with a white majority. They do not RED CINDER OR
miss the Indian reservation, and all of
them have become adjusted to the PUMICE BLOCKS
cultural patterns and accustomed to
the conveniences and comforts of mod-
Homes of Distinction
ern living.
• • • PLANS AVAILABLE
Eighty-five-year-old Charles Battye, More DESERT CINDER BLOCKS FOR
pioneer resident of Needles, California, House DESERT HOMES
is a true desert old-timer.
Battye, author of this month's Life- For TRANSIT MIXED CONCRETE CO.
on-the-Desert contest story, was born Your 3464 E. Foothill Blvd., Pasadena 8
December 15, 1867, in the West Rid-
ing of Yorkshire, England. He came to
M RYAN 1-6329 or Corona Phone 1340

JULY, 1952 35
NEW LOW PRUDES!

By LELANDE QUICK, Editor of The Lapidary Journal

In a new application of the old adage the deep winter. These are usually financed
that "it's an ill wind that blows nobody by a hard working group, raising money by
good," it will come as news to many that raffles when they could finance it much
ABOVE ILLUSTRATION SHOWS the rockhound hobby in California is being better with legal race track funds.
1—Poly D-12 Arbor $19.95 helped by the gambling interests. Each We often wonder why societies have to
2—Cast Splash Shields 15.00 year there are new county fairs being es- struggle along financially at all. The chief
tablished and the old fairs get bigger and reason is that almost all of them charge
I—100 Grit Wheel 7.25 better. They get bigger, better and more
1—220 Grit Wheel 8.25 the ridiculous sum of $2.00 a year for dues
numerous because the state has a lot of just because the first societies, born in the
1—Dresser Rest 2.25 money to hand over to the counties for depression, charged that much. No society
1—Jig Block Diamond Dresser 9.50 fairs and that money comes from the state's can offer much over the period of a whole
share of the race track proceeds, amounting year in programs and coffee for a little
2—Galvanized Splash Pans 5.50 to millions each year. sum like $2.00. Back in the '30s coffee was
$67.70 Much of the state money is given as a quarter a pound and now it's up to nearly
premiums for displays of things made by a dollar. Dues in societies should be at
ALL ABOVE ITEMS—$59.95 least $10.00 a year and then the treasury
the local citizenry. These prizes range all
the way from a first prize of $2.00 for the would have ample funds to offer speakers,
VISIT OUR STORE enough money for gasoline, dinner and
TO SEE AND BUY best fudge to $55.00 for the best faceted shelter when they travel long miles with a
HIGHLAND PARK E-10. E-12. E-20 stones (in San Diego County). That there message, instead of an unsubstantial "thank
GEM CUTTING UNITS
are not more mineral and gem displays at you for coming tonight."
county fairs is probably the fault of the
ALL MINERALITE FLUORESCENT LAMPS societies and individuals within the county. To come back to the fairs—there has
GEMMASTER UNITS The Los Angeles County fair is reported been a tremendous awakening of interest
BY LAP. EQUIPMENT CO. to be the largest in America and its at- among the citizens of the counties where
tendance tops any mark set by any state their fairs feature mineral and gem exhibits
Heavy 18" Rhodium Plated Sterling Silver fair. The investment in buildings and of man's oldest art and America's fastest
Neck Chains—2 for $1.00. $4.50 per dozen equipment runs into millions. We under- growing hobby. And it is good to know
plus 20% Federal Tax and Postage. stand that a separate building is being that much of the expense in fostering this
planned for gem and mineral exhibits alone. idea comes from the money bet at the race
FLUORESCENT BONANZA —Four pounds But the best organized gem and mineral track. So next time you bet $10 to win on
of brilliant fluorescent specimens of Ca- section of any fair is the one sponsored by Hobby the Second and he doesn't even
the county of San Diego. This is one of show, gather a little comfort from the
nadian Wernerite, Texas Phosphorescent thought that hobby horses and hobby crafts
Calcite. Franklin Willemite. Atolia Schee- the neatest and most educational fairs we are nearer than you think.
have ever attended. Their premium list
lite Spud, and small slab rare Calcium- this year for gems and minerals is $1200.
Larsenite. All for only $2.00. Add post- A cursory examination of the premium
Much of this is offered for displays of San lists of several fairs indicates that the pres-
age for 6 lbs. Diego county minerals and gems only and ent set-up has many weaknesses. Without
all of it is offered to county residents solely having any individual in mind at all it be-
Faceted Round Gems —as it should be. comes apparent that the man with the big-
of Synthetic Several years ago the San Diego Mineral gest pocketbook in the county can easily
and Gem Society set the pattern for the assemble the best mineral exhibit and cop
TITANIA display and brought much of the equip- the first cash prize every year by showing
have five times more ability than the ment from the famous Kipp shop to show the same bunch of rocks, while the lapi-
the public how it was done. When the San dary has to earn his money by his skill.
Diamond to break light into its component He too can show the same prize-winning
colors producing a magnificent rainbow
Diego Lapidary Society was organized they
too greatly helped to develop the lapidary faceted stones every year until he comes
effect. display to its present high standard so that to have a monopoly on first prize money
now the San Diego County Fair (opening because his collection gets bigger and bigger
SEND FOR FREE PRICE LIST describing through the years. The San Diego Fair has
this year on June 27 and extending through
TITANIA RAINBOW JEWELRY July 6 at Del Mar) has the best working given thought to this problem by having a
lapidary exhibit of any show in the coun- special class for exhibitors who have never
OTHER SERVICES OFFERED try; better by far than any we have seen before had an exhibit of their work at any
JEWELRY REPAIR SERVICE at any society or Federation affair. The previous fair. Another feature we like
GEM STONE CUTTING result is that probably the citizenry of no about the San Diego deal is that any San
other county is as well informed about what Diego County citizen may exhibit his col-
GEM CUTTING EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS lection without entering any class or enter-
rockhounding is all about as are the citi-
AND SUPPLIES zens of San Diego County. ing in competition with anyone.
JEWELRY MAKING TOOLS AND MATERIALS
MINERAL SPECIMENS It seems to us then that any little society We are not familiar with the fair program
FLUORESCENT LAMPS, GEIGER COUNTERS
anywhere in California, usually without in other states but rockhounds everywhere
funds and usually bankrupted by even a should find out just what provision is made
URANIUM SAMPLES, FLUORESCENT little show, should immediately approach for the display of their collections to the
MINERALS their own county authorities and see that public at the fairs in their particular state.
FIELD TRIP GUIDE BOOKS they are allowed to have their annual show In Arizona there is a fine provision for the
in a place provided with free rent and dis- youngsters. A highly mineralized state has
Send for Free 32 Page play cases and adequate protection, where made its students gem and mineral con-
Complete Price List the greatest number of people can come to scious by offering high schools prizes for
see what they are doing. As the gravy train the best collections of Arizona materials.
rolls by all the California rockhounds ought The result of this is that the present gen-
GRIEGER'S to swing aboard.
There are so many gem and mineral
shows now that hardly a week end passes
eration of Arizona young people is probably
the best informed group of young people
about mineral resources of any state group
1633 East Walnut Street
Pasadena 4. Calif.—Phone Sycamore 6-6423
that one is not scheduled somewhere in in the country for every high school every
California except in the deep summer and year enters a mineral exhibit.

36 DESERT MAGAZINE
A geological or mineralogical book will
be reviewed at each meeting of Dona Ana
County, New Mexico, Rockhounds, Mrs.
Sara Swartz, chairman of the library com-
mittee, announced in May. Bulletins cf
other clubs will be placed in the club li-
brary and will be available to members
at any time, said Mrs. Swartz.
• • •
BULLETIN OFFERS TIPS JULY 26, 27 DATES FOR Senior rockhounds of Coachella Valley
FOB FLUORESCENT DISPLAY LONG BEACH MINERAL SHOW Mineral Society, California, traveled to
"Experimentation has shown that the Long Beach Mineral and Gem Society Arizona to search for green petrified wood
'tubelight' black lights made to illuminate will hold its first show in two years July in the Dome Plain area. Excellent speci-
colored sign boards will cause rocks which 26 and 27 at Sciots Hall, Sixth and Alamitos, mens were found by Dorothy Faulhaber
react to a long wave cold light to fluoresce," Long Beach, California. Plans were made and Jane Walker.
reports the Rear Trunk, monthly bulletin at the May meeting, after a program dis-
of Nebraska Mineral and Gem Club. "Most cussion of telluride minerals.
of the calcites and fluorites will give good
results." GEMS THE WORLD *OVER Does Everything.
The Nebraska club's editors suggest that SPECIAL SHOW FEATURE i9 j. > *
mineral collectors anxious to have fluores- Four famous collections of gems, show-
cent displays obtain one of these lights, ing "Gems the World Over," will be on
then test its effect on various rocks to select exhibit at Whittier Gem and Mineral So-
specimens for exhibit. ciety's Rockhound Show September 6 to 7
Among minerals which react to long at Smith Memorial Hall, College and Pick-
wave light are: calcite from New Jersey, ering Avenues, Whittier, California. Dis-
California, Texas, Arizona and Wyoming; play sections will be devoted to the ele-
fluorite from California and Ohio; cole- ments, lapidary arts, junior collections and
manite from Death Valley; argenite from dealers' equipment.
Pennsylvania; adamite from Mexico; au-
tunite from New Hampshire; wernerite MIDWEST FEDERATION
from Canada; semi-opal from Nevada; READY FOR JULY SHOW
sweetwater agate from Wyoming; petrified Minnesota Mineral Club and Minnesota
wood from Nebraska, South Dakota, Wy- Geological Society are completing arrange-
oming and Utah. ments for the 1952 convention and exhibi-
"Rocks of any variety from the Black
Hills and eastern Wyoming region that have
a white coating on them will react favor-
ably with a brown-to-orange color," the
tion of the Midwest Federation of Minera-
logical Societies. The show will be held
July 1 to 3 at Macalester College, St. Paul,
Minnesota.
w
bulletin concludes. • • •
Mineral Minutes, edited by Fern and
YOUNGEST FEDERATION Olin Brown, describes a project carried on
PLANS CONVENTION, SHOW by the Colorado Mineral Society in con-
Eastern Federation of Mineralogical and
Lapidary Societies, youngest of the regional
junction with the Denver Y.W.C.A. At
the youth organization's One World Fiesta,
HILLQUIST' 'without motor.
federations, will hold its second annual con- the mineral society arranged a display of COMPARE!
vention and gem and mineral show October 20 minerals selected by the society as being • Put the Hillquist Gemmaster beside any lapidary
9 to 11 at the Essex House in Newark, New most representative of the state of Colorado. machine — cheaper, flimsy "gadgets" or units that
Jersey. Co-hosts will be the Newark Min- Another collection presented specimens sell at twice the price. Compare construction! Com-
eralogical Society, the Newark Lapidary from noted mineral locations the world over. pare ease of operation! Compare how much you
Society and the North Jersey Mineralogical • • • get for your money and you'll say, "I'll take the
Society. Arizona travel slides, picturing Tomb- Gemmaster!"
• • • stone, Salt River Canyon, the Grand Can- Here is a worthy companion for our larger and
Detailing the gem cutting process from yon, Jerome, Cottonwood, Oak Creek Can- more expensive Hillquist Compact Lapidary Unit.
initial sawing to faceting and final polish- yon, Sedona, Painted Desert and Monte- Tho smaller in size, the Hillquist Gemmaster has
ing. Scott Cook addressed a Los Angeles zuma Well, were projected by Photographer many of the same features. It's all-metal with spun
Mineralogical Society audience on "Dia- Joe Noggle for the Yavapai Gem and Min- aluminum tub. You get a rugged, double-action rock
mond and Gem Cutting." Differences be- clamp, not a puny little pebble pincher. You get a
eral Society, Prescott, Arizona. Noggle full 3" babbitt sleeve bearing and ball thrust bear-
tween popular cuts—round, emerald, ba- also showed close-ups of various cactus ing. You get a big 7 Super Speed diamond saw
guette and marquise—were explained. blossoms. and all the equipment you need to go right to work.

USES ALL ACCESSORIES


You can use all the regular Hillquist accessories
with the Gemmaster: The Hillquist Facetor, Sphere
Went /it* Cutters, Laps, Drum and Disc Sanders, etc.

WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG


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Turquoise, Jade and Jasper Jewelry
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Bracelets, Rings, Necklaces, Earrings BIG 7" Diamond Saw . 6" x 1 " Gi
Wheel • 6' Fell Buff • 6" Backing Wheel
and Brooches 6" Disc Sander • Double-action Rock
| Clamp • Oil Feed Cup • Water Feed
SPECIALLY SELECTED STONES WITH Hose & Clamp • Dop Sticks & Dop W a x *
CHOICE COLORS AND PICTURES Polish, Compound, Etc.

Write for Folder With Prices BUILT FOR LONG SERVICE!


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gives you full 3" sleeve

ELLIOTT'S GEfll SHOP bearing, ball thrust bearing


and pressure lubrication.

235 East Seaside Blvd. LONG BEACH 2. CALIF.


. Across from West End of Municipal / #A
Auditorium Grounds
Hours 10 A. M. to 9 P. M. Daily Except Monday

JULY, 1 9 5 2 37
AMONG THE
G E 111 m A R T A D V E R T I S I N G
8c a W o r d . .
R A T E
. Minimum $1.00
ROCK HUNTERS
VERMICULITE: The rock that pops like pop- CABINET SPECIMENS size (4x3x2y2 or larger) Last meeting of the season for Colorado
corn when heated. Educational and enter- minerals sent postpaid for $2.00 each. Molyb- Mineral Society was a banquet and "fun
taining for the Kiddies. Generous sample denite (N. J. rare); Allanite in Pegmatite
$1.00 postpaid. Large specimens of Asbestos (N. Y.); Montville Serpentine (N. J.); Fluor- night." Movies and slides of society field
and Vermiculite for collectors $1.00 each escent Calcite-Willemite (N. J.); Emery (N. trips were shown, and members were in-
postpaid. All three of above offers $2.50 post- Y.); Graphite (N. Y.); Arsenopyrite (N. Y.). vited to display rock cutting gadgets and
paid. Box 907, Libby, Montana. Rare Metals Co., 43-32 Elbertson St., Elm-
hurst 73, New York. lapidary tricks. Highlight of the evening's
105 DIFFERENT MINERAL SPECIMENS $4.50. entertainment was a hat parade, in which
Carefully selected. Makes a valuable aid in HEXAGONITE: Crystalline brilliant lavender, members modeled homemade millinery
helping identify and classify your findings Smaragdite, deep green. Golden Asbestos,
or makes a wonderful gift. Boxed and labeled. trimmed with favorite rock specimens.
70 different $3.00, 35 different $1.50. Add Piedmontite, Tourmaline, one inch, each 25c,
postage. Coast Gems and Minerals, 11669 5 for $1.00, 2 inch each 50c, 5 for $2.00, post- • • •
Ferris Road, El Monte, California. paid. When in Reno phone 20231. Frey, Box Gem Collector's Club of Seattle met
0350. Reno, Nevada.
ATTENTION ROCK COLLECTORS. It will pay recently to hear Speaker Sheldon L. Glover
you to visit the Ken-Dor Rock Roost. We buy, HAVE FEW CRYSTALS or Fairy Crosses (Sta- tell about the mineral industry of Wash-
sell, or exchange mineral specimens. Visitors molites). Very interesting. Sizes from V2 ington.
are always fcwelcome. Ken-Dor Rock Roost, inch to 2 inch. Crossed at 60 and 90 degree
419 Sutter, Modesto, California. angles, some twinned. Crystalized in octa- • • •
hedrons. Single crystals, no crosses, 50c each. Indian axes, arrowheads, hammers, pot-
MINERAL SETS: 24 Colorful Minerals (identi- Single with small twinned crystal $1.50 to tery and other artifacts from his private
fied) in lxl compartments, $3.25 postpaid. $2.00 each. Crosses of 60 degrees $5.00, if
PROSPECTOR'S SET — 50 minerals (identi- twinned $7.00. Good crosses 90 degrees (rare) collection were shown by Herbert R. Rol-
fied) in lxl compartments in cloth reinforced, $10.00 to SI 2.00 each. Paul Broderick, Pray, lins to members of the Yavapai County
sturdy cartons, So.50 postpaid. Elliott Gem Montana. Archeological Society, Prescott, Arizona.
Shop, 235 East Seaside Blvd. LOUR Beach 2,
California. HONEY ONYX: Beautifully banded. Mine run Rollins first became interested in Indian
or cut as desired. Special prices to dealers. cultures while a boy in Buffalo, New York.
PEANUT PITCHSTONE (Alamasitei — Mexico's Cubes from select material cut for making • • •
oddest semi-precious stone, for polishing or spheres, 4" cube, wt. 6V2 lbs. at $4.00 each.
collecting, 3-lb. chunk $5 postpaid. Or, Rock- 5" cube wt. 12 V2 lbs. at $6.00 each. 6" cube Clear Creek, 129 miles from Palo Alto,
hound special, 1-lb. fragments $1. Also Flor wt. 21 '/2 lbs. at $9.00 each. You pay shipping California, was the destination of a field
de Amapa (pink crystallized edidote) rare. cost. Onyx Ranch, Box 184, Murray, Utah. trip group from the Gem and Mineral
Same prices. Alberto E. Maas, Alamos So-
nora, Mexico. Send checks only. Society of San Mateo County. The route
STOP—LOOK—BUY—Specimens, slabs — rough, was mapped by Field Trip Director Lloyd
ROCKHOUNDS, ARCHEOLOGISTS and collec- from A. L. Jarvis, 1051 Salinas Road, Watson-
tors of Indian relics are discovering that ville, California. On Salinas Highway, State Underwood.
Southern Utah is a rewarding section to visit. No. 1, 3 miles South of Watsonville. • • •
Write for free folder. Ranch Lodge Motel George Green, home from a three-month
Kanab, Utah. FOR SALE: Beautiful purple Petrified Wood
with Uranium, Pyrolusite, Manganite. Nice trip to Mexico, told Tacoma Agate Club
SELENITE SPECIMENS: 6 Selenite XLS, 1 sample $1.00. Postage. Maggie Baker, Wen- members of his vacation experience. He
specimen Selenite cleavage, pearl white, 1 den, Arizona.
satin lustre Selenite, black, 1 specimen satin displayed Mexican and Arizona crystals
luster gray, all 4 for $3.50. Beautiful speci- BERYL CRYSTALS. Columbite, Tantalite, Pur- and several fluorescent rocks found on col-
mens. Jack The Rock Hound, P. O. Box 86, purite, Andalusite Crystals, Rose Quartz, lecting side trips.
Carbondale, Colorado. Hell's Canyon Agates. Mac-Mich Minerals Co.,
Custer, So. Dakota. • • •
AUSTRALIAN OPAL CABS: $5.00 and $10.00 Larry Cassingham spoke on "Radioactive
each. Small but beautiful, every stone a gem. "TUNGSTEN PROSPECTORS," Fluorescent Col- Ores" when he appeared before San Fer-
A beautiful cultured pearl for your collection lectors. Mineralights at Superior Gems & nando Valley Mineral and Gem Society,
$5.00. Ace Lapidary, Box 67D, Jamaica, N. Y. Minerals, 4665 Park Blvd., San Diego 16,
California. Write for free literature. North Hollywood, California. The stones
20 ASSORTED COLORFUL 2x3 cabinet speci- of the month, synthetic ruby and sapphire,
mens. Good for a beginner or to add to your
present collection. This beautiful selection "DON'T MISS" Fine rough gems, Minerals, Sil- were discussed by Samuel Sklarew.
only $8.00 postpaid. L. M. Jones. Box 56, ver and Lapidary supplies at Superior Gems • • •
Bell Gardens, California. & Minerals, 4665 Park Blvd. San Diego 16,
California. (Sorry, no lists.) E. V. Van Amringe, head of the depart-
AZURITE NODULES: Various sizes 15 to 30 ment of physical science at Pasadena City
stones $5.00 lb. Sawed open make beautiful RADIOACTIVE ORE COLLECTION: 6 wonder- College, Pasadena, California, annually
specimens, also used in earrings. Specimen ful different specimens in neat Redwood chest, leads a group of his geology students on a
grade Chrysocolla $2.50 lb., part cabochon $2.00. Pretty Gold nugget, $1.00, four nug-
material. All stones sent postpaid. Money gets, $2.00, choice collection 12 nuggets, $5.00. week-long field trip. This year the party
refunded if not pleased. Nolan D. Terrill, Uranium Prospectors, Box 604, Stockton, Calif. visited Southern California and parts of
Box 1856, Globe, Arizona.
Arizona. Van Amringe told about the trek
FIFTY MINERAL SPECIMENS, %-in. or over,
ARIZONA PERIDOTS: Gathered by Apache In-
dians on San Carlos reservation. Finest yel- boxed, identified, described, mounted. Post- at a recent meeting of the Mineralogical
low, green, cutting up to 3 carats. Facet paid $4.00. Old Prospector, Box 729 Lodi, Society of Southern California. On display
grade. 2 oz. for $5.00. Postpaid and tax in- California. were various specimens collected enroute.
cluded. Money refunded if not pleased. Also • • •
cut stones. Luther L. Martin, Box 1922, Globe, BRAZILIAN AGATE MARBLES $1.00 each. Harold H. Hagen was installed president
Arizona. Onyx blanks, unpolished, black 25c each, red,
green, blue, 35c each. Perfect cut Titanium. of Santa Monica Gemological Society at
MINERAL SPECIMENS and cutting material of Fine cutting and polishing at reasonable the twelfth annual dinner meeting in May.
all kinds. Gold and Silver jewelry made to prices. Prompt attention to mail orders. Speaker for the evening's program was Dr.
order. Your stones or ours. 5 lbs. good cut- Juchem Bros., 315 West 5th St., Los Angeles
ting material $4.00 or $1.00 per lb. J. L. 13, California. William Easton of the University of South-
James, Battle Mountain, Nevada. ern California. Dr. Easton's subject was
LARGE STOCK of rocks, relics, antiques, re- "A Geologist Looks at Death Valley."
WANT RAW OPALITE? Send me uncut fire leased for sale. 5 miles east of Banning, Cali-
Agates in trade for a sizeable piece or so. fornia on highway 93, Cabazon, California. • • •
Alfred Cadwalader, Corbin, Kansas. First field trip of the new season for
SELLING OUT—fine large rock and mineral Minnesota Mineral Club was scheduled in
NEW STOCK OF MONTANA SAPPHIRES: My collection. Located one mile from Jamestown, May to the Louise Mine at Crosby-Ironton.
Indian Sapphire miner just came in with a California, on Hwys 49 and 108 at the Wig- Members hoped to pick up a supply of vein
supply of beautiful Montana Sapphires. If wam. Forced to sell out as the highway left
you have not ordered your supply from my me. Twin Pines Trailer Court, Box 78, James- Binghamite and some cutting agate.
previous ads, I advise you to do so now. As town, California. • • •
you all know this Montana Sapphire is com-
pletely off the market, dealers are continu- SEE THEM GLOW: Enjoy your black light, flash Simple tests to identify ores and minerals
ally writing to me asking for Sapphires, any it over Langtry fluorescent Calcite stones. were described by Dr. H. A. Quinn of
kind, size, color or quality, price means noth- Really beautiful and unique. Just mail $1.00 Texas Western College when he returned
ing now (they want Sapphires). But there to Charlie Schmaubert, Box 58, Langtry,
are none to be had at any price. I have some Texas and receive our special one pound to the El Paso Mineral and Gem Society
3000 stones in this last haul. Better hurry specimen assortment. Shipped to you post- as guest speaker.
and send in your order for a vial of at least paid.
40 stones for only $2.00. They won't last • • •
long. Also have several pounds of the famous FIRE AGATES: In "Desert Roses" $1.50 post- John L. Flocken explained different
Idaho Star Garnets. Sizes run from about 10 paid. (See April issue of Lapidary Journal). methods of making costume jewelry when
grams to 150 carats. Prices from $1.50 each Arlene Dimick, Box 1795, Clifton, Arizona.
to $15.00 for the largest ones and a large he appeared as guest speaker at a gem and
one will cut several very large stones, are McSHAN'S GEM SHOP—open part time, or find lapidary division meeting of San Diego
about the size of a walnut. Address all orders us by directions on door. Cholla Cactus Wood
to K. O. Otoupalik, Sr., 640 River St., Missoula, a specialty, write for prices. 1 mile west on Mineral and Gem Society. Flocken dis-
Montana. U. S. 66. Needles, California, Box 22. cussed both stones and mountings.

38 DESERT MAGAZINE
METHODS OF ARCHEOLOGY A new charter recently was granted by Members of Sacramento Mineral Society
DESCRIBED FOR AMATEURS the State of California to Orange Coast hunted for quartz Xls on a field trip to
Mineral and Lapidary Society, organized Placerville, California.
Archeological methods were outlined by five years ago in Costa Mesa, California. • • •
David Wenner when he spoke at an archeo- Officers of the group are Ralph Best of
logical section meeting of the Earth Science Caravan Chairman Ray Erickson of Ev-
Costa Mesa, president; Rev. Andrews of erett Rock and Gem Club, Washington,
Club of Northern Illinois. "First, one Anaheim, vice-president; Floyd Owings of
should describe the location of his site as planned a May field trip to the Columbia
Orange, treasurer, and Jennie Silkwood of River near Vantage. Members would hunt
definitely as possible — with maps, land- Orange, secretary. Directors are Anna
marks, natural features and a rough esti- for arrowheads and other Indian artifacts.
Holditch and Roy Silkwood of Orange, • • •
mate of size and distance relationships," Harold St. John and Carl Cowles of Santa
said Wenner. "Material found should be Natural color slides of mineral specimens
Ana, Anne Ford and Don Woods of Costa were shown by Scott Lewis at a general
cleaned, marked, described and listed. Pot- Mesa, Perry Huddle of Huntington Beach
sherds should be washed with brush and meeting of Whittier Gem and Mineral So-
and Carl Englund of Fullerton. ciety, Whittier, California.
water, but they should not be allowed to • • •
dry in the sun. India ink, soluble in alco- Bruce Kramer demonstrated his method
hol, is the best medium for numbering of polishing cabochons at a meeting of the
specimens."
• • •
Gem Cutters Guild, Los Angeles. Kramer
prefers slightly worn No. 220 and No. 320
Agate Jewelry
Patrick's Point and Big Lagoon, Cali-
fornia, were explored by Humboldt Gem
sandpaper for grinding, and cerium oxide
as polishing agent on a leather or felt buff.
Wholesale
and Mineral Society on a recent rockhunt- • • • Rings — Pendants — Tie Chains
ing expedition. Forty-two members already are registered Brooches — Ear Rings
• • • in the newly-organized Modoc Gem and Bracelets — Matched Sets
Orin J. Bell, vice-president of East Bay Mineral Society of Alturas, California. —Send stamp for price list No. 1—
Mineral Society and former president of President A. R. Close reports the young
the California Federation of Mineralogical
Societies, discussed the "Rise and Fall of
club is sponsoring weekly adult classes in Blank Mountings
mineral studies at Modoc High School. Rings — Ear Wires—Tie Chains
the Sierras" for Northern California Min- • • • Cufi Links — Ne=k Chains
eral Society members at a meeting in San At a recent meeting, after telling mem- Bezel — devices — Shanks
Francisco. bers of the Western Nebraska Mineral So- Solder — Findings
• • • ciety about quartz family minerals, Gordon —Send stamp for price list No. 2—
At the annual May banquet of Washoe Brooks demonstrated use of his field min-
Gem and Mineral Society, plans were made eralight. O. R. JUNKINS & SON
for a field trip to the Pyramid Lake Indian • • • 440 N.W. Beach St.
reservation. Members would hunt geodes, L. H. Murrell entertained the San Diego Newport, Oregon
vesuvianite and calcite. Mineral and Gem Society with remarks
• • • and colored slide pictures of Death Valley,
San Diego Lapidary society traveled to the Calico Mountains and Arizona's Castle
Laguna Dam. north of Yuma, Arizona, for Dome. Murrell has taken several rock trips ALTA INDUSTRIES
geode hunting on a two-day field excursion. into these areas. New Address:
Box 19, Laveen Stage, Phoenix, Arizona
Looking for cutting material, members were • • • New Location:
disappointed until someone remembered the After election returns were in. Captain South 19th Ave., Vi Mile North of Base Line
location was known not for cutting quality Harry A. Reed was congratulated as new LAPIDARY EQUIPMENT
Lapidary Equipment Manufacture & Design
but for fluorescence. On later side-trips, President of Santa Cruz Mineral and Gem 16-18 inch Power Feed Slabbing Saw
the San Diegans found petrified Ironwood, Society. Jack Moore is vice-president; Dora Belt Sanders & Trim Saws
lead specimens, agates, small geodes and Anderson, secretary, and Hugh Baird, treas- (Send Postal for free literature)
tluorite crystals. urer.
• • •
At a recent meeting of the Gem Cutters
Guild of Los Angeles, C. A. Terry gave
an illustrated lecture on "Inclusions in Crys-
tals of Gem Materials."
MINERALIGHT
SL2537 it
• • • FIND STRATEGIC MINERALS, HIDDEN WEALTH
Participants in a Chicago Rocks and
Minerals Society field excursion to the Lake WITH'ULTRA-VIOLET
Geneva region of Wisconsin learned funda-
mentals of geology from Dr. William E.
Powers, professor of geology at Northwest-
All purpose lamp, operates on
110V AC, weighs only 1 lb., $39.50 MINERALIGHT!
MINERALIGHT instantly locates, identifies vital
ern University. Lake Geneva is an old
valley scoured deeper by the last glacial FIELD CASE minerals, saves hours of fruitless search.
advance and blocked at each end with NO. 404 Invaluable for prospectors, miners, engineers and
glacial drift. It presents an excellent text- hobbyists, MINERALIGHT helps you find tungsten,
book for the study of the effect of glaciers uranium, mercury, zirconium—many other minerals
on the earth's development. Contains now being sought for use in vital preparedness work.
special battery
• • • circuit lor LEARN TO RECOGNIZE VALUABLE MINERALS!
MINERALIGHT
Members of Compton Gem and Mineral SL 2537. Mineral sets, packaged in varied assortments, help you. Ultra-
Club hoped to find jasper and jasp-agate Case holds violet MINERALIGHT rays show them in all their exciting colors.
on a field trip to Lavic, California. Al Cook lamp, ^
batteries, Only $2.50 per set of 10 specimens, carefully packaged in
was leader. built-in daylight viewer. $19.50 foam plastic.
(Plus Bats. $4.50i Special MINERALIGHT models for crime detec-
Complete: SL 2537, 404 CASE,
BATS. $63.50 tion, entertainment, mineralogy and mining, and
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ultra-violet MINERALIGHT use in many fields and
New Illustrated Catalog \ telling you how you can make extra money, enjoy
20c in stamps or coin MODEL
M-12 an exciting hobby at the same time. See Your
The superb finish and fine craftsmanship
of Conley's Elkhead Lifetime Pattern in 3- Mineralight Dealer or Write Dept. SL 2-21
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THE CONLEY CO. radio-active but guaranteed harmless. Terrific collector's item at 25c. See your dealer.
W. 715 Riverside Ave., Spokane, Wash. Ultra-Violet Products, Inc., South Pasadena, California

JULY, 1 9 5 2 39
Unusual specimens of fluorescent barite SHADOW MOUNTAIN SOCIETY
r>.i/nnton. DIAMOND BLADES were found recently near Glenwood Springs, ELECTS DON BUTTERWORTH
L*' —/ """ "Treat yourself Lottie best" Colorado. Under long wave lamps, the
specimens fluoresce a rich canary yellow Don Butterworth was elected president
Itoy-Onty Super- SMlrt somewhat similar to the familiar wernerite. of Shadow Mountain Gem and Mineral
SChd CbaiBtd tinned Society at a recent meeting in Palm Des-
$ 8.60 $ 7.bO
• • •
10.95 9.95 Bev Morant of Monrovia, California ert, California. Also named to the new
14.50 13.35 demonstrated to members of Pasadena board are Byron Phillips, vice-president;
21.20 17.65 Lapidary Society how they might save Mrs. Elizabeth Hollenbeck, recording sec-
27.95 24.45 retary; Mrs. Sam Cowling, corresponding
31.20 27.70 money in their hobby. His topic was,
62.50 41.25 34.40 "Economy in the Lapidary Shop." secretary, and Mrs. Vera Lockwood, treas-
74.25 49.50 37.95 • • • urer. Board advisors include Randall Hen-
88.80 62.60 48.95 derson and Lelande Quick, and directors
142.50 119.75 State Mrs. Otto Sahn told of her father's min-
215.30 179.10 Arbor eral and lapidary hobbies at a meeting of are Margaret Ward, Omar Kerschner,
tax in California. Size
Nebraska Mineral and Gem Club. She Joseph Hughes, Ray Purvis, Jack Lizer,
Allow for Postage and Insurance showed choice specimens from his collec- Esther Edixon, C. Grier Darlington, Mary
tion. Ann Waher and James Carpenter.
Covington Ball Bearing Grinder • • • • • •
and shields are A 24-car field trip caravan bore members Seven cars carried collectors from Del-
furnished in 4 of Kern County Mineral Society to an agate vers Gem and Mineral Society, Downey,
sizes and price location near California's Sheep Springs. California, to the Kramer Hills for a day
r a n g e s to suit The rockhounds came home with quantities of rockhunting. Petrified palm and some
your r e q u i r e - of gem-quality cutting material. colorful jasper were found in gravel beds
ments. Water and • • • of flat washes.
grit proof. Colored slides illustrated Dr. Owen D. • • •
. Dwight's talk before members of Pasadena At a recent election, the Mineralogical
COVINGTON 8" TRIM SAW Lapidary Society, Pasadena, California. Dr. Society of Arizona chose the following
Dwight, a dentist, spoke on gold and silver slate of new officers: Floyd R. Getsinger,
and motor are com- president; Charles E. Vanhook, vice-presi-
pact and do not jewelry casting.
splash. Save blades • • • dent; Carroll Mills, Jackson L. Clark, E.
and clothing with
Thirty-nine members and guests of Holly- R. Blakeley and C. Fred Burr, governors.
this saw. A secretary-treasurer will be appointed by
wood Lapidary Society enjoyed a field ex-
cursion to Last Chance Canyon, California. the board.
BUILD YOUR OWN LAP Petrified wood was found in abundance, • • •
and SAVE with a COV- and a few lucky searchers came home with Although still in their first year, Pueblo
INGTON 12" or 16" Lap jasper as well. Rockhounds already have outgrown their
Kit. We furnish every- • • • former meeting place and now gather in
thing you need. Send In the vast, 200-foot high Cathedral the Pueblo Woman's Clubhouse. Member-
for free catalog. Room of Marvel Cave in Illinois, stands a ship has reached 46, and a junior depart-
53-foot stalagmite named the Liberty Bell. ment has been established.
This and other features of the cave were • • •
COVINGTON shown to Chicago Rocks and Minerals So- Are things a little dull and static around
Multi-Feature ciety members by Owner Hugo Herschend your society lately? Get your program chair-
16" Lap Unit
Doe9 and his son, Jack, who had taken colored man to get a local teacher of geology to
everything slides of cave attractions. present a talk to you about the basic rocks
for you. and you'll have an interesting and useful
JASPER JUNCTION LAPIDARY evening I am sure. A representative display
490'JVi Eagle Rock Blvd. — CL. fi-2021 of common rocks could be arranged to
COVINGTON illustrate points.
12" 14" 4 Los Angeles 41, California
or 16" W • • •
Power Feed WORK SHOP
Diamond Installation of officers was scheduled to
Saws 1112 Neola St. — CL. 6-7197 take place at the June dinner meeting of
Los Angeles 41, California East Bay Mineral Society, Oakland, Cali-
SAVE fornia. New president is Ivan W. Root. On
WE SPECIALIZE IN CUTTING BOOKENDS
BLADES Custom sawingfjtfifl polishing—24" saw his executive board are Ernest M. Stone,
Slabs, bulk stone.JMineral Specimens vice-president; Mrs. Cassie Mae James, sec-
Send for New Catalog, IT'S FREE Polished Specimens & Cabochons retary; Mrs. Sidney H. Smyth, treasurer,
Machinery & Supplies
and R. O. Wiechmann, director. President
COVINGTON LAPIDARY SUPPLY We rent polishing machinery by the hour Root announces the first meeting of the
INSTRUCTION AT NO EXTRA COST new club year will be held September 4.
Rediands, California Call CL. 6-7197 for Appointment He succeeds retiring executive Rex Hawkin-
son.

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40 DESERT MAGAZINE
SEPTEMBER DATE SET SAN JOSE LAPIDARIES minerals occur in many places in Inyo
FOR S A N DIEGO SHOW SELECT YEAR'S OFFICERS County, but copper is recovered as a by-
Fifteenth Annual Mineral and Gem Show William Nunes was elected president at product only.
of San Diego Mineral and Gem Society will the May meeting of San Jose Lapidary So-
be held September 27 and 28 at the society's ciety, San Jose, California. Assisting him
permanent home in Spanish Village, Balboa with club duties next year will be Lester NEW-Sensational! GEIGER COUNTER
Park, San Diego, California, announced Ellis, vice-president; Herbert Wagner, sec-
Paul Brown, president, at a recent meeting. retary, and A. B. Strong, treasurer. William "The SNOOPER0
One of the features of the exhibition will Fuller will edit the Lap Bulletin, society LOW PRICE S O A QVC5
be working demonstrations by members of monthly. ONLY *24
COMPLETE
the club's lapidary classes. • • • Find a fortune in uranium with thil
The San Diego group had a full schedule One of the highlights of the club season new, super-sensitive Geiger Counter.
of activities for June. Colored movies of for Coachella Valley Mineral Society is the Get one for atom bomb defense. So small it fits in the palm of
the hand or in the hip pocket, and yet more sensitive than many
the harbor city were to be shown at the' annual barbecue at Salton Sea. Roast pig, large, expensive instruments. Weighs only 1 V4 lbs. Uses flash-
general meeting; Joe Stetson would talk corn, tomatoes, coffee and ice cream are on light battery. Low price includes earphone, radio active sample,
instructions. Sold with ironclad moneyback guarantee.
about stone cutting and mountings to the this year's menu. ORDER YOURS TODAY -Send $5.00 with order or payment in
gem and lapidary division; and lead was • • • full to save C.O.D. Write for fr«t catalog on treasure finders for
gold, silver, etc. and larger, more elaborate Geiger Counters.
up for study by the mineral resources di- CHALCOPYRITE IMPORTANT
vision. The mineralogy division planned to
tour the Alvarado Filteration Plant. CALIFORNIA COPPER ORE DEALER INQUIRIES PRECISION RADIATION INSTRUMENTS
Chalcopyrite, a mineral mixture of cop- INVITED 2235 D S. LA BREA, LOS ANGELES 1 6 , CAL.
per and iron sulfide, is the most important
Exhibits were arranged by two members ore mineral in California, reports the Min-
of the Yavapai County Archeological So- eral Information Service of the California
ciety to illustrate talks they gave at a recent Division of Mines.
meeting. Alva Sims showed the arrowheads
and spearpoints he had found near his
Chalcopyrite is brittle, brass-yellow in
color, of metallic luster and may be tar- Coast Gems and Minerals
home town of Lawrenceburg, Tennessee, nished and irridescent. Its hardness and
and Miss Emma Andres displayed examples specific gravity range from 3.5 to 4 and 4.1
of Indian baskets and pottery work.
• • •
to 4.3, respectively. Small amounts of gold
and silver are always associated with Cali-
fornia copper deposits.
SLABS
40 to 60 square inches—$2.00
The May program of Dona Ana County Copper in California is mined by under-
Rockhound Club, Las Cruces, New Mex- DON'T keep wondering what our slab as-
ground methods employing vertical and in- sortment is like—instead, send $2.00 at
ico, emphasized corundum. Alice Wollin clined shafts, drifts, crosscuts, and stopes. once and find out. You will receive a
described the mineral; Mildred Sanders The Sierra Nevada deposits are narrow and piece of jade, tigereye, lapis, sagenite,
listed locations; Mark Trumbo discussed palm, and at least 5 others, 40 to 60 sq.
steep dipping veins; in Shasta County de- in.—1 to l>/2 lbs.
formation, and Louise Trumbo outlined its posits are contained in veins and vein sys- CHUNK CUTTING MATERIAL—8 lbs. $2.00
commercial value. tems of variable dip or in massive replace- TITANIA
• • • ment bodies. Deposits containing copper (Top quality white boule) Guaranteed—
Twenty-one members of Humboldt Gem per carat—$8.00.
and Mineral Society traveled to Crescent MEXICAN OPAL
City, California where a new society was y4-lb. Honey & Cherry—No Fire $1.00
Vi-lb. Honey & Cherry—With Fire ... 4.00
organized. Guest speaker at the joint meet- 'A-lb. Specimen opal in matrix 1.00
ing was a representative from the Eureka Opal in matrix—for cabochons, ea 25
weather bureau. Clear opal for faceting, ea 50
• • • Precious Rough Facet Material
Building plans are being discussed by '/4-lb. Precious Topaz, mine run $1.50
Victor Valley Gem and Mineral Club which '/i-lb. Amethyst (for cabs. & small
facet) 1.00
recently purchased property on Highway y4-lb. Amethyst (for faceting), Mex... 5.00
66, one mile south of Victorville, California. Vi-lb. Peridot, mine run, Ariz 3.00
ALLEN 'A-lb. Kunzite, mine run, (Pala, Cal.) 1.50
With a frontage of 150 feet and a depth of Vi-lb. Sunstone 3.00
250 feet, the lot will accommodate a club JUNIOR GEM CUTTER 10-gram Garnet, (Mex.) 3.00
house as well as other future additions.
The club is planning a series of rummage A Complete Lapidary Shop Sale on Over-Stocked Minerals
and scrap sales and other fund-raising Only $43.50 $10.00 to $12.00 worth specimens for $5.00
Our choice. State price range you desire
events. • Ideal for apartment house dwellers. such as — 5c to 25c—25c to 50c—50c to $1
• Polish rocks into beautiful gems. $1 to $2 each, etc.
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JULY, 1952 41
Qu5t Uetu/een you andMet

By RANDALL HENDERSON

5 ARLY IN May, Cyria and I spent a week in Death


Valley. Thanks to the courtesy of Monument
Superintendent Ray Goodwin, we found comfort-
able lodging in a little cabin in Cow Creek Village where
Since his illness, Scotty has made his home in the
Castle where Mr. and Mrs. Ringe, the managers, take
good care of him. Before that, Scotty preferred the seclu-
sion of a little cabin over the hill a mile and half away.
our neighbors were the park rangers and other employes There were too many tourists—"damned emigrants" he
of the National Park Service who administer this 1,600,- calls them—around the Castle to suit him. Now he is
000-acre recreational area. available only by appointment—but he always welcomes
Death Valley is a fantastic place—rugged, colorful, old friends, and while his feet are a little unsteady, his
virile. And it seems to have attracted that kind of people. mind is keen and he takes an eager interest in all that
We are all familiar with many of the names—William goes on.
Lewis Manly, Jacob Breyfogle, Zabriskie, Borax Smith, * * *
Pete Aguereberry, Panamint Tom, Dennis Searles, Shorty
Harris—and many others. We stopped at the old Pete Aguereberry mine where
Ambroise Aguereberry, nephew of Pete, has carried on
But the pioneers of Death Valley are not all of the
since his uncle's death in 1945. Ambroise has leased the
past. Many of them are living today—men and women
old mine dump for re-working, and charges visitors a
who have been willing to forego the luxuries of urban
small fee for taking them through the old mine tunnels.
life for the freedoms, and the problems, of frontier living.
We met some of them on this trip. One of Pete's last requests was that his body be laid
* * * to rest on top the Panamint ridge where he had built a
trail for sight-seers—Aguereberry Point it is called. Since
One of them is Agnes Reid, a kindly, competent Pete had built the original trail at his own expense, Ray
woman whose Panamint Springs resort in upper Panamint Goodwin recommended that the request be granted. But
Valley along the Towne Pass entrance road to Death higher authorities in the Park Service ruled against it,
Valley is so clean and orderly it is a delight to stop there. with the explanation that "National Monuments are not
Her little wayside hostelry nestles among the trees of a to be used for cemetery purposes."
lovely oasis—and her nearest postoffice is Lone Pine, 55
In most instances, I am in accord with the policies
miles away.
of the Park Service. But in this instance 1 think they were
* * * wrong, for Pete Aguereberry was one of the finest of the
At Stove Pipe Wells we met another courageous old school of men who pioneered in Death Valley.
woman—Peg Putnam, who, since the death of her hus- * * *
band in 1949, has been carrying the responsibilities of
the Stove Pipe Wells hotel alone. She maintains a power The real pioneers of Death Valley, of course, were
plant for light and air-cooling, hauls spring water in tank the Shoshones. Just why any tribe of Indians would have
trucks for her guests—and despite the problems of main- selected this arid region as a home is an unanswered
taining guest cottages and a dining room in this remote question. The Hopis in northern Arizona did the same
place, is a gracious hostess to all who come. thing.
* # * Perhaps they came here for freedom and independ-
Motoring along the floor of Death Valley we met Ted ence, to avoid the competition and the warfare with other
Ogston, chief park ranger, with a pick-up truck gathering tribesmen in places where the natural food supply was
up the beer cans and debris which invariably mark the more bountiful.
trail of the litterbug. Fortunately, there are always human beings who will
Ray Goodwin, superintendent of the Monument, told do that—to whom peace and independence are more
me that the vandals and litterbugs are the cause of most important than lush living. Otherwise, the Southwest
of the headaches in the park service in Death Valley. desert would not be as densely populated as it is today.
The rangers have had to replace the "Badwater" sign The patriarch of the Death Valley Indians is Johnny
which marks the 279.6-foot below sea level point in Shoshone, now in his nineties. Johnny hobbles about
Death Valley six times—due to vandalism. with the help of two canes, and spends much of his time
* * * loitering around the Furnace Creek Ranch service sta-
At the Castle I found Death Valley Scotty—now 80 tion where there often are tourists who will pay him fifty
years of age—hobbling around with a cane but otherwise cents or a dollar for the privilege of taking his picture.
none the worse for the foot disorder which sent him to All of which is evidence that Johnny Shoshone has
the hospital in Las Vegas, Nevada, for nine weeks last adapted himself to the white man's civilization. And for
fall. that, more power to him.

42 DESERT MAGAZINE
"pickaback tadpoles," "the caterpil-
lar who wouldn't grow up," "the ob-
stetrical toad," "the caterpillar who
pretends he's been eaten"—these are
a few of the curious animals, birds,
fish and insects which inhabit the well-
illustrated text. Each has a "Believe
It or Not" fascination plus genuine
HE DISCOVERED TRANQUILITY Professor Cornelius S. Hurlbut, Jr., natural history value.
DURING SOJOURN ON DESERT of Harvard University has done an ex-
Several devices are employed by
Perhaps the finest thing the reader cellent job of revision, bringing the
nature to protect its creatures. The
can learn from Joseph Wood Krutch's material up to date with all the recent
The Desert Year is that the wonders of developments in mineralogy. In addi- Ceylonese walking leaf's amazing cam-
Nature are best savored when they tion to descriptions of additional min- ouflage fools its enemies from the time
seep into consciousness gradually. Mr. erals, a simpler nomenclature and a it is an egg in a shriveled seed-like
Krutch did not go to the desert armed revised chapter on chemical mineral- shell to its emergence as an adult in
with scientific tomes on its flora and ogy, Professor Hurlbut has added a a body shaped and veined in perfect
fauna nor obviously did he tour its new introductory chapter which will replica of a leaf. The rattlesnake's
vastness with guide book in hand. His be particularly useful to the beginner. warning signal and the porcupine's
first trips into the great Southwest des- In it, he outlines the scope, purposes spiny anatomy often save these ani-
ert aroused delighted interest and and practical applications of the sci- mals from battle. The Gila monster
growing appreciation of that bemused ence. stores food in its tail for emergency
"spell" which seems to grip many city Dana's Manual of Mineralogy be- use in a land where forage is scarce.
dwellers when they first roam its sun longs on every amateur collector's Speed, sight and smell are protective
drenched distances. bookshelf. 530 pages, numerous charts, endowments of the bald eagle, the liz-
During a 15-month stay he became diagrams and halftone illustrations of ard and the yucca moth, respectively.
acquainted one by one with the des- specimens, $6.00. Nature's Ways is a book with per-
ert plants and animals. His scientific • • • manent appeal for young and old. It
background led him to philosophize BOOK TELLS HOW NATURE is especially recommended for school
on the ways in which the desert dwel- TAKES CARE OF ITS OWN children interested in learning more
lers had adapted themselves to an "To me," writes Roy Chapman about the more unusual of the earth's
environment that would support only Andrews in the introduction to Na- inhabitants.
forms of life which could exist in heat ture's Ways, "one of the most fascin- Each of the 140 animals described
and sun and with little water. ating aspects of nature is the way it is illustrated by either a black-and-
However, Mr. Krutch does not like equipped every creature to withstand white photograph or a full-color paint-
to say that "this animal or even this enemies and to obtain the necessities ing by Nature Artist Andre Durenceau.
plant has become adapted to desert of life." In his new book, Dr. Andrews Published by Crown Publishers, New
conditions. Let us say rather that they gives nature lovers a comprehensive York; 206 pages; index. $3.75.
have all shown courage and ingenuity presentation of natural adaptation for
in making the best of the world as survival. • • •
they found it." Could human beings "The crab who uses hand grenades," Books reviewed on this page are available at
learn a more valuable lesson? "the fish with the built-in bifocals," Desert Crafts Shop, Palm Desert
That the "best" of the desert flora
and fauna is a very good best, Mr.
Krutch learned gently and gradually.
A true-to-life story of the Navajos . . .
He went to the desert with friendly
interest and curiosity and let each
plant, each animal, each superlative
sunset, the silent vastness, minister to
PEOPLE OF THE EARTH
his spirit. Possibly nothing is more By EDWIN CORLE
needed by harassed humanity today
than this very ministering to the spirit. A gripping novel of the Navajo people — and the problems
they face in seeking to adjust themselves to the white man's civilization.
Published by William Sloane Asso- Edwin Corle, long a student of Navajo life, has given a vivid revelation
ciates, Inc., 119 West 57th St., New of the conflict that goes on today in the heart of every Navajo who
York 19, New York. Pen and ink leaves the reservation to attend school—a conflict in which economic
sketches by Rudolf Freund. 270 pp. necessity has virtually forced every Indian to compromise between
$3.75. the traditional life and religion of his ancestors, and the social and
economic demands of the world that surrounds him.
COMPLETELY REVISED DANA The first edition of People on the Earth, published in 1937 has long
BOON TO MINERALOGISTS been out of print. In 1950 a second edition limited to 1500 copies in
For more than 100 years, students, an attractive format was printed — and only a few of these remain
collectors and geologists have used available.
James D. Dana's Manual of Mineral-
ogy to describe, classify and correlate
mineral species. First published in
1848, the book has traveled through $5.00 postpaid
15 printings. A new, completely re-
vised 16th edition was released April Palm Desert, California
1 by John D. Wiley and Sons, pub-
lishers.

JULY, 1952 43
INDIANS • ARCHEOLOGY • LOST TREASURE
Here is a selected list of Southwestern books which are recommended for
your vacation reading this summer—books which will give you a better
understanding of the great Desert Land of the Southwest.
Al ACOMA, Mrs. Wm. T. Sedgwick. Story of the A22 THE NAVAJO, Dorothea Leighton and Clyde
Indians in New Mexico's Sky City. Based on Kluckhohn. What are the Navajo today? How
diaries, archeological notes of Bandelier, Pewkes, do they live together and with other races? What
Parsons and Hodge, and legends and folklore. End- is their philosophy of life? A review of Navajo
maps, photos, biblio., index, 318 pp $2.50 history from archeological times to present.
A3 BLOOD BROTHER, Elliott Arnold. Vivid real- Photos, index, biblio, 247 pp $5.00
istic novel of Apaches in Arizona, 1856-72. A23 NAVAJOS, GODS, AND TOM TOMS. Where
Story of Cochise and Tom Jeffords, Indian agent and how do they live? What are the rites of
who worked with the Apache leader to end conflict Navajo Medicine men? Dr. S. H. Babington gives
and who became his blood brother. Also the tragic the answers. His first interest is that of a physi-
love story of Jeffords and his Indian bride. End- cian but a wealth of other information completes a
maps, 558 pp $3.50 picture of Navajoland. 41 photos, index, biblio, 346
A7 THE DELIGHT MAKERS, Adolf F. Bande- pp $3.50
lier. Unusual, fascinating novel based on sci- A24 SUN IN THE SKY. Daily life of the Hopi
entific discoveries and legends. Recreates life of Indians, their agriculture, construction of
prehistoric Indians of Frijoles canyon near Santa houses, cookery, dress, personal traits, native arts,
Fe, now part of Bandelier National Monument. weaving, basketry, making of pottery are graphic-
Photos by Chas. F. Lummis. 490 pp $3.00 ally described from personal observation by Walter
A12 INDIANS OF THE SOUTHWEST, Pliny C.'O'Kane. 90 illustrations, 248 pp $4.00
Earle Goddard. Useful, popular handbook, A25 COWBOY AND INDIAN TRADER, Joseph
covering the Ancient Peoples of the Southwest, the Schmedding. The author remained 23 years
Pueblo Dwellers, the Village Dwellers (Pima and in the Indian country—7 on the range and the
Papago) and the Camp Dwellers (Athapascan, Yu- next 16 as trader in Keams Canyon. One of the
man). Maps, photos, biblio., index, 205 pp $2.00 most readable books yet written about the Indian
A15 MARIA, Potter of San Ildcfonso, Alice Mar- country and life on the desert range. Photos,
riott. Deeply moving life story of a great 364 pp $5.00
artist and that of her husband Julian, whose sig- A26 GIRL FROM WILLIAMSBURG, Minnie Braith-
natures appear on some of the most beautiful waite Jenkins. Delightful and informative is
Indian pottery to come out of the Southwest—the this story about the life of a school teacher in the
San Ildefonso. Told largely in Maria's own words. Indian school in remote Blue Canyon in northern
Profuse illus $3.75 Arizona. 9 Illus, 343 pp $3.00
A16 NAVAJO SHEPHERD AND WEAVER,
Gladys A. Reichard. Comprehensive work on
Navajo weaving technique and symbolism based on
author's personal experience in the Indian Country.
LOST TREASURE
Materials, technique, patterns, symbolism, actual Tl APACHE GOLD AND YAQUI SILVER, J.
weaving lessons. How to buy Navajo rugs. For Frank Dobie. Fascinating lost mine and buried
artists, craftsmen, historians, collectors. Illus., treasure stories by a master story teller. Lost
glossary, index $5.00 Adams Diggings, the Sierra Madre, Lost Tayopa,
A17 SOUTHWESTERN ARCHEOLOGY, John G. Scalp Hunters' Ledge, El Naranjal—and others of
McGregor. Outline of archeological findings Arizona and Mexico. Beautiful color plates and
from 1880 to present day. Important summary and black-and-whites by Tom Lea $4.50
classification. Appen., biblio., index. Illus. 403 T2 CORONADO'S CHILDREN, J. Frank Dobie.
pp. 7x10 $6.00 Saga of lost mines and treasure of the South-
A18 SPIN A SILVER DOLLAR, Alberta Hannum. west—the Lost San Saba, Lost Nigger, Lost Padre,
Story of Wide Ruins trading post in Arizona. Breyfogle, Laffite and pirate booty, and many
Delightful account of life with Navajo, highlighted others. List of signs used by Spanish miners, glos-
by the Indian boy artist, Little No-Shirt (Beatien sary of Mexican and Southwest localisms... . $2.50
Yazz), and illustrated with 12 color reproductions T3 GOLDEN MIRAGES, Philip A. Bailey. New
of his work $3.75 limited printing of this favorite of lost mine
A20 HOPI KACHINA DOLLS. By Dr. Harold S. books. Pegleg Smith's gold, ghosts of Vallecito,
Colton, director of the Museum of Northern Lost Ship of the Desert, many lost treasures of
Arizona. Identifying 250 different Kachinas. In- the Southwest. Index, 353 pp., photos, maps,
cludes 55 pages of Kachina Doll heads and 8 pages biblio $4.50
of colored photos. Index. 144 pp $7.50 T5 LOST MINES OF THE OLD WEST, Howard
A21 CHILDREN OF THE PEOPLE, Dorothea D. Clark. Lost Pegleg, Lost Dutch Oven and
Leighton and Clyde Kluckhohn. Story of the 20 other lost mine legends of California, Nevada,
Navajo individual and his development—points of Arizona and Texas. Illus., 64 pp $ .75
view derived from medicine, psychology and an- T6 SUPERSTITION'S GOLD, Oren Arnold. Lost
thropology. Many photos, index, biblio, maps, 277 Dutchman mine and other Superstition Mt.
pp $5.00 treasure. Illus., gold paper $1.25

Books mailed postpaid California buyers add 3% tax

Palm Desert, California