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Special Issue on Biological Engineering & Natural Science, June 2014

ISSN: 2347-6818 2014 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ) 1

AbstractThis research describes the principles of surface treatments, electroplating, and to shorten the time
span for finding the optimum parameter combination, the Taguchi quality engineering method is adopted and
the final validation experiment demonstrates that the PVD technology, and the designed parameter
combination can not only achieve plating thickness to meet customers specifications, but also fulfill the
European environmental protection laws by tremendously reducing the hazardous waste. Zinc alloy is often
used in hardware through die-casting. Due to large amount of surface pinholes left by this manufacturing
method, a copper film is usually applied by electroplating method, one of the surface treatment methods, to fill
up pinholes and further induce the conduct electricity. Furthermore, to obtain some more desired mechanical
characteristics, electric arc Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technique is utilized to deposit a Titanium
Nitride (TiN) film on the product surface. This research uses Taguchi engineering method to find out the
influential parameters affecting the quality of deposited TiN film using PVD technique. The final validation
experiment demonstrates that the PVD technique and the designed parameter combination can not only achieve
plating hardness to meet customers specifications, but also fulfill the European environmental protection laws
by tremendously reducing the hazardous waste.
KeywordsANOVA; PVD Technology; SEM; Surface Treatment; Taguchi Engineering Method; TiN film;
XRD; Zinc Alloy.
AbbreviationsAnalysis Of Variance (ANOVA); Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD); Scanning Electron
Microscopy (SEM); Titanium Nitride (TiN); X-ray Diffraction Instrument (XRD).

ATHROOM hardware most made with zinc and
copper metal or its alloy, by plated film processing
system became products, and the coating material is
normally copper, nickel, chromium and zinc mainly, in
plating easy to derivative out as cyanide and hexavalent
chromium (Cr
) of harmful substances, which had highly
irritating and toxic causing serious pollution of groundwater.
The motivation of this research are to reduce the impact on
the environmental of coating process, and then change the
coating process of bathroom hardware.
However, EU environmental regulations prohibited to
use of Cr
harmful substances, therefore, this study intends
to Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) [Lugscheider et al.,
1999] of the cathodic arc deposition technique, zinc alloy
deposited on the surface of the Titanium Nitride film (TiN)
[Hu Shubing et al., 1990]. Period of this trial can be reached,
we must compare the impact of individual changes in the
process parameters on the coating surface, and then analyzes
the coating conditions, therefore, the objectives of this
research is try to improve the coating quality problems.
In this paper, Taguchi engineering method [Yang &
Tarng, 1998] are supplemented by analysis of variance
method to identify factors affecting coating quality control,
process analysis hope by designing experiments to
understand the relationship between design and process
characteristics, and to obtain the best combination of design
parameters of the controllable factors, then again confirms
the confidence limits confidence in the credibility of the
results of the study, and then get the best portfolio of process
parameters to produce a high-quality coating system finished.
The contributions of this manuscript are in the hope of PVD
coating method by means of high-tech test results, on the one
hand be improved at this stage is still the industry's
widespread practice of traditional shortcomings of the
electroplating method, on the other hand want to reduce
waste to a minimum or even zero-waste.
2.1. Experimental Equipment and Materials
This study is based on EU demands for the removal of
environmental protection industry accustomed to using
*Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, TAIWAN R.O.C.
E-Mail: tomio.liu{at}msa{dot}hinet{dot}net
Yun-Fu Liu*
Using PVD in Improving the Surface
Coating Quality of Bathroom Hardware
Special Issue on Biological Engineering & Natural Science, June 2014
ISSN: 2347-6818 2014 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ) 2
electroplating and gaseous coating method of regulating PVD
to demonstrate how the gaseous film material deposited on
the substrate surface, to form a high hardness of wear-
resistant and corrosion-resistant coating, thereby improving
electroplating method is missing. Coating equipment used in
this experiment was STA-12 series cathodic arc coating
machine consists of six parts: (1) vacuum chamber, (2) the
power supply system, (3) vacuum pumping system, (4) the
control system mode, (5) the gas flow control system, (6)
related resources. For some of the experimental materials as
follows: (1) the experimental gases: high-purity (99.99%)
Argon. high purity (99.99%) Nitrogen, and purity (99%)
Oxygen. (2) the experimental material: zinc alloy pipe valve
handle, an elliptical shape, a hollow, thickness 0.9 mm,
weight 13 g. (3) the experimental target: with a diameter of
7.62 mm thickness of 0.635 mm, with a purity 99.96% of
the Titanium. Before the experiment, the preparation of the
substrate is very important, first, the zinc alloy handle tens of
castings crude embryo, into the vibrating bowl to remove
burrs and to increase the surface smoothness, and then
rubbing treatment to clean after drying, view embryo pieces
and then look inside the hollow part of the tooth is strange.
Then take the 25 its better quality as the first stage of the test
liquid copper.
2.2. Experimental Methods and Testing
Generally, zinc alloy castings [Watanabe et al., 1988]
because the surface pinholes more plated copper film layer
can fill pores a little, but also have the effect of conductive
layer to facilitate the PVD [Wisbey et al., 1987] process
operations, and therefore, according to the German
manufacturers about zinc bath Die-cast copper alloy plating
thickness product inspection standards (as shown in table 1),
should be up to 15 m or more is better. This will not only
meet the needs of customers, and can increase the adhesion of
Table 1: Testing Standard of Plating Thickness for Zinc Alloy
Materials Cu (m) Ni (m) Cr (m)
EU Standard 20 30 10 15 0.3 0.6
SC1 standard 7.6 10 0.130.2
SC2 Standard 10 15.2 0.25
After the liquid copper zinc alloy handle test, according
to testing standards of table 2. Coating test items were
selected 20 better quality as experimental substrates subjected
to drying the substrate surface cleaning service clean and
pollution free period, then the substrate is placed on the
middle of the rotation of the workpiece cavity plate, the
distance between the target and the substrate is generally
considered about 15-30cm. As for the use of the experimental
parameters coating process, when the analysis is completed
after coating tests to acquire the optimal combination of
process parameters.

Table 2: Coating Test Projects List
According to Swiss std.: SN1, SN2Din : G7, G11
Match colourful degree standard LabvalueL :
82 3, a : -1.2 0.6, b : 32 2
Chemistry method or the X-Ray method, thickness
0.1~20 m
Heat to 150 can't have the crack or spall.
Be bad with the stress and coefficient of expansion of
the film relevant
Salt spray examine 6~72 hrs, in oven 24 hrs, disallow
to appear rust eclipse.
Hardness Measure with the hardness tester its value > Hv800
Wear The abrasion test must meet the ASTM standard.
Scrape The scratch test must meet the ASTM standard.
Coating according to figure 1 experimental procedure is
shown below:

Figure 1: PVD Plating Process of Zinc Alloy
3.1. Taguchi each Coating Parameters and Engineering
The test method is based on cathodic arc coating the surface
of the plating method at a low temperature (300) process
under high purity (99.96%) as a Titanium metal target,
Nitrogen gas to generate plasma [Guharaja et al., 2006], the
zinc alloy is deposited on the surface of the handle good
adhesion of the TiN layer. Then analyze TiN film deposition
conditions, the surface coating after impact film properties,
the proceeds from the film to the preparation of Vickers
hardness tester (Hv) film hardness measurements to measure
the surface profile gauge surface roughness [Takadoum &
Houmid, 1997] using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
observations of type film surface, using X-ray Diffraction
Instrument (XRD) analysis film layer of structure, in order to
carry out 120 hours salt spray test machine, salt spray test to
evaluate corrosion resistant films and the use of scratch tester,
high temperature ovens, etc. analysis of TiN film
characteristics [Sirvio et al., 1992].
The temperature of the substrate by the test 200-300,
a TiN film deposition rate was about 0.01 m/min, the
deposition rate is not affected by visible substrate temperature
when the temperature of the substrate at 250 above, a
robust test for the mechanical characterization of hard PVD
coatings at high temperature [Jaume Pujante et al., 2014], the
resistance coefficient of decline has slowed, due to the
reasons were based high-temperature diffusion capacity to
promote the film material particles move low enough to push
Handle Grind Treatment Q.C. Plate copper
Testing Cleanning P V D. arc. ion plate
Cleanning Examine by specification
Anneal Product
Special Issue on Biological Engineering & Natural Science, June 2014
ISSN: 2347-6818 2014 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ) 3
the free energy of the lattice in order to enhance the quality of
films. The results show: zinc alloy plated hardness of the TiN
film between 800-1200 Hv, show sufficient mechanical
strength. So after analysis found no transverse magnetic field,
sorting out the parameters affecting the TiN [Yu et al., 1993]
film structure has arc current, working pressure and substrate
bias and other three. Although the substrate bias resulted in
the deposition rate drops too large, but if able to choose the
right amount of bias values will strengthen the structure of
the film.
Taguchi engineering theory [Syrcos, 2002] emphasized
to identify the impact of changes in the level factors and
processes should strike an appropriate level of impact factor
and the best combination of movements by means of
experiment. Taguchi parameter design usually has three
steps: First, in order to signal to noise ratio as a quality
decision parameters, the greater ratio, the product quality is
less susceptible to the impact of variance, which means that
the better nature. Second, use orthogonal array design
parameters into distribution characteristics to simulate the
entire process. Third, analysis of variance (ANOVA), the
orthogonal array to obtain the data for the analysis, find the
main factors affecting the process, the percentage of the total
number of the variability of the parameters of variance (ie,
the percentage of contribution) is obtained, while using F test
method to Taguchi judged unable to make up for the impact
of experimental parameters on the quality characteristics
degree of uncertainty, and with the factor effect of changes in
the standard of the best sort, in order to discover the extent of
the variability of the impact factor of the objective function.
In this experiment, the control factor of eight sets,
containing one set of 2 levels and seven sets of 3 levels,
according to the formula rectifiable obtaining the value of the
degree of freedom DoF = M (n-1) = 16; therefore chosen
orthogonal array of not less than 16, so the use of L
orthogonal experiment table configuration parameters, as
discussed 18 times the experiment and after the test. But the
quality of the coating thickness and hardness required to take
two terms as expectations are high standards, the objective
function is Larger-the Better Response. Based on the above
discussion for the sake of the experiment smoothly, all
designed in accordance with the parameters listed in figure 2.
As mentioned above, the impact of cathodic arc coating
quality design parameters number, according to the rule of
thumb to find the Arc current, Nitrogen flow Argon flow rate,
Working pressure, Substrate bias, Substrate temperature,
Turntable speed and Deposition time the most influential sets
of eight quality parameters number, as the control factor
Taguchi engineering. Control factors and default parameter
configuration for each level as shown in table 3.

Figure 2: Flow Chart of Parameter Design in Taguchi Method
Table 3: Control Factors and Level Value
Sym. Control Factors Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
A Turntable V (rpm) 30 50
B Arc.current I (A) 60 70 80
C N flow (sccm) 50 55 60
D Ar flow (sccm) 30 35 40
E Work pressure (Torr) 310

F Substrate bias. (V) -50 -100 -150
G Substrate temp. () 200 250 300
Deposition time
50 60 70
Then again according to table 3 for each level of the
post-coating experiments, measure its thickness and hardness
of the film, by Larger-the Better Response formula to find
S/N ratio of thickness, such as table 4. And so on, can strike
Turntable speed, Arc current, flow of Nitrogen, Argon, Work
pressure, Substrate bias voltage, Substrate temperature,
Deposition time, Factors controlling unit S/N ratio of the sum
of the department, and then by S/N ratio calculation and
analysis, according to the means of each level of each factor
and finishing of the S/N ratio of the sum, then the sum of
values fill in the S/N ratio response table spaces, and draws
its response figures, so will be able to find the best results
from the factor levels combinations. As table 5 shows the
factor level S/N ratio response table.

Make selection S/N ratio
Factor and variation level effect
Orthogonal Arrays
Complete Factorial Experiment
Compare the performance analysis
Respond form and
response chart
Select the best parameter assembly
ANOVA & Contribute
degree with factor
Experiment matches Taiguchi method or not
Special Issue on Biological Engineering & Natural Science, June 2014
ISSN: 2347-6818 2014 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ) 4
Table 4: Plating Thickness, Hardness, and S/N Ratio of Zinc Alloy Hardware
Sym. A B C D E F G H Thickness Hardness
S/N of
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.71 0.72 913 925 -2.91
2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.56 0.57 870 874 -4.96
3 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 0.54 0.56 867 870 -5.20
4 1 2 1 1 2 2 3 3 0.23 0.25 765 770 -12.4
5 1 2 2 2 3 3 1 1 0.28 0.27 780 778 -11.2
6 1 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 0.45 0.45 848 848 -6.94
7 1 3 1 2 1 3 2 3 0.2 0.17 756 732 -14.7
8 1 3 2 3 2 1 3 1 0.25 0.25 770 770 -12.0
9 1 3 3 1 3 2 1 2 0.33 0.34 830 834 -9.50
10 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 1 0.59 0.61 879 882 -4.44
11 2 1 2 1 1 3 3 2 0.34 0.36 834 837 -9.13
12 2 1 3 2 2 1 1 3 0.74 0.77 943 951 -2.45
13 2 2 1 2 3 1 3 2 0.55 0.57 868 874 -5.04
14 2 2 2 3 1 2 1 3 0.42 0.40 842 841 -7.75
15 2 2 3 1 2 3 2 1 0.36 0.34 837 834 -9.13
16 2 3 1 3 2 3 1 2 0.82 0.84 982 985 -1.62
17 2 3 2 1 3 1 2 3 0.45 0.46 848 850 -6.84
18 2 3 3 2 1 2 3 1 0.41 0.39 841 839 -7.97
Table 5: Response Table of Control Factors S/N Ratio
Symbol A B C D E F G H
Level 1 -79.81 -29.09 -41.11 -49.91 -49.40 -36.18 -35.43 -47.65
Level 2 -54.37 -52.46 -51.88 -46.32 -42.56 -47.02 -47.01 -37.19
Level 3 -52.63 -41.19 -37.95 -42.22 -50.98 -51.74 -49.34
Effe. of factor 25.44 23.54 10.77 11.96 7.18 14.80 16.31 12.15

From table 4 zinc alloy handles the PVD coating
thickness, hardness and S/N ratio of the list, and table 5 factor
level S/N ratio response table, it can be seen in 18 different
sets of parameters under design conditions, as long as the
means of each combination of several factor that control the
level of number, and thus was able to coating thickness and
hardness test value, although the value of the considerable
differences between them, but the thickness of the proceeds
after these 18 times experiments, as the analysis of S/N Ratio
reference base, easily find the best conditions. The
relationship hereby eight control factor and several S/N ratio,
the effect factor is calculated value. The calculated error
value of the control factor plotted figure 3, S/N ratio response
figure, then the value of the thickness of the coating into table
5, S/N ratio to be sorted in the grant table, you can directly
find the first four main effect factors A, B, F, G, which is
represented in the design of large differences can start with
these standards were to be adjusted.

Figure 3: Response Plots of Control Factors S/N Ratio
Table 6: The Ideal Parameter Combination for Zinc Alloy Hardware
Symbol Factor Level Parament
A Turntable speed 2 50 rpm
B Arc. current 1 60 A
C N flows 1 50 sccm
D Ar flows 3 40 sccm
E Work pressure 3 410
F Substrate bias. 1 -50 V
G Substrate temp 1 200
H Deposition time 2 60 min





control factors
Special Issue on Biological Engineering & Natural Science, June 2014
ISSN: 2347-6818 2014 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ) 5
In this study, select each S/N ratio greater level of
optimum parameters from table 5 found that the thickness of
the zinc coating the surface of the handle as table 6 shows the
best combination of parameters (A
). Of the
foregoing, to confirm table 5, S/N ratio of the error allowance
before the table can identify four main effect factor A, B, F,
G of reliability, Taguchi engineering parameters in design,
using ANOVA [Yang & Tarng, 1998] and use of statistical
test method to distinguish the effects of individual factors, as
well as improving the timeliness and cost considerations
problem, you can count calculate the overall change in the
contribution rate changes in various factors during the
experiment, to determine priorities for improvement.
Table 5 by the factor levels in the S/N ratio response
values calculated for each factor of the square and the
changes variation below, the total change in the experimental
= 228.4, while the total change variations S
is 185.37,
during which the error variance is 228.4-185.37 = 43.03.
Because both parties and variation V value equal Sum of
square (S) divided by the degrees of freedom (F) the proceeds
of, it can be obtained from the above values each factor of
variation V. Before solving the contribution rate should first
determine changes in each factor (S) value is large compared
to the error variance, this factor from the change in value of
each found greater changes have S
=35.95, S
=19.57, S
=23.47, so the effect of these factors is
considered the primary factor.
Comprehensive error Se changes among the rest fall, the
value of Se = 45.25. Comprehensive error but the degrees of
freedom (Fe) is equal to F
+ F
+ F
+ F
= 10, it will
be integrated into the error variance, in the formula, that was
Ve = 4.53. About F test value of each factor by Fi = Vi/Ve
formula to strike, as if the F value of each parameter is
greater than the value assigned by each F obtained from the
look-up table, it certainly can be presumed that the parameter
has a significant. Critical after F (1,10,0.05) look-up table is
4.96, less than the 7.94 F
, apparently refused to comply with
the laws of the significance level, ie FA> F reject the null
Similarly, the factor B F (2,10,0.05) are the values of
the look-up table 4.10, significantly less than the 6.75 F
, as
the F value of the distribution C, D, E, F, G, H and other
factors, then the all 4.10. Contribution rate is calculated each
A, B, F, G factor of four main effect factor contribution rate
based on a formula obtained after cumulative contribution
rate of 58.45%. Experimental point, the special will perform a
series of configuration parameters obtained through
orthogonal, finishing in table 7.
Table 7: Analysis of Variance of Zinc Alloy Hardware Plating
S / N : dB Degrees of Freedom
Sum of
Sum of Mean
f (var.S) (var.V) (%)
A -79.81 -54.37 1 35.95 35.95 7.94 16.95
B -29.09 -52.46 -52.63 2 61.13 30.57 6.75 28.09
C -41.11 -51.88 -41.19 2 12.79 6.40 1.41
D -49.91 -46.32 -37.95 2 12.55 6.28 1.39
E -49.40 -42.56 -42.22 2 5.47 2.74 0.60
F -36.18 -47.02 -50.98 2 19.57 9.79 2.16 5.67
G -35.43 -47.01 -51.74 2 23.47 11.74 2.59 7.74
H -47.65 -37.19 -49.34 2 14.44 7.22 1.59
Total e 10 45.25 4.53
Total Te 17 185.37 10.09 100

By the Larger-the Better Response formula to explore
characteristics of the signal noise ratio, the results show:
A.Turntable speed (50rpm), B.Arc current (60A), F.
Substracte Bias (-50V), G. Substracte temperature (200),
can be controlling factor parameters and setting are the most
important factor in improving production conditions and the
best quality of coating thickness [Flores, 1998], the use of
this condition will enable the production of quality zinc alloy
coating yields improved significantly.
3.2. Analysis and Improvement of Coating Properties
According to ANOVA finishing the previous section that
affect the quality characteristics of the coating thickness,
depending on the value and contribution of F allocation size
in the order of: Arc current (F value of 6.75, the contribution
rate of 28.09%), Turntable speed (F value 7.94, the
contribution rate of 16.95%), the Substrate temperature (F
value of 2.59, the contribution rate of 7.74%), Substrate bias
(F value of 2.16, the contribution rate of 5.67%). However, if
the thickness [Takadoum & Houmid, 1997] of the coating to
the purpose, the results obtained from this experiment is that
the parameter value should be controlled by the composition
of A
factor, i.e. collection "rotary disk
speed 50 rpm, the arc current is 60A, the Nitrogen flow rate
50 sccm, Ar gas flow rate 40 sccm, Working pressure 4 10

Torr, Substrate bias the best combination of -50V, the
Substrate temperature [Navinsek & Panjan, 1997] of 200
and Deposition time 60 min "and other standard parameters.
Then take advantage of the best conditions for the
combination of parameter values, twice a confirmatory test,
calculated in accordance with the experimental results S/N
ratio and fill in table 8 in value, and then determine the best
conditions can trust boundaries close to the target, the
relevant confirm the experimental parameters such as coating
thickness, these test sample use a Hitachi S-3500H Japan
scanning electron microscope to measure its coating
Special Issue on Biological Engineering & Natural Science, June 2014
ISSN: 2347-6818 2014 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ) 6
thickness data are shown in table 8. As the data in table 8
with a thickness of 2 is still looking into the equation to
obtain a large S/N ratio.
Table 8: Validation Experiment Result about Thickness of Zinc Alloy Hardware Plating
Factors A B C D E F G H
Thickness(m) S/N ratio
1 2 dB
50 rpm
60 A
50 sccm
40 sccm

60 min
0.88 0.89 -1.06

Under the 95% credibility of the trust boundaries are:

F 05 . 0

10 18 / 18
53 . 4
10 . 4

Where the numerator is 2 degrees of freedom,
denominator is 10 degrees of freedom, set right tail area of
0.05, the F0.05 (2, 10) after the look-up value is 4.10. By the
conditions of table 7 of the best combination of parameters,
confirmed experiments obtained S/N ratio, the ratio of the
entire orthogonal array S/N, the difference between them just
fall within the confidence limits of acceptable range, ie.,
(134.18132.72 )=1.46 2.87. This means that the thickness
of the coating parameters designed as a robust and credible
optimized combination of conditions [Noorul Haq et al.,
2009]. In 20 samples in liquid copper, retained two
experiments confirmed as the final test parameters, and the
rest on the nature of the coating thickness according to the
aforementioned design parameters and standards of conduct
engineering experiments Taguchi, after zinc alloy valve
handle made from the proceeds of the finished product, as
shown in figure 4.

Figure 4: Product of Zinc Alloy Hardware
The experimental system adopted by the Japanese
company Hitachi Vickers hardness tester hardness testing.
After finished measurement, the value taken populate table 9
obtaining zinc alloy plated hardness recognized optimal
experimental parameters, the average hardness of 994.5HV,
and find the S/N ratio of -59.95 dB.
Table 9: Validation Experiment Result about Hardness of Zinc Alloy Hardware Plating
Factors A B C D E F G H
Hardness (Hv) S/N ratio
1 2 dB
50 rpm
60 A
50 sccm
40 sccm
-50 V
60 min
992 997 -59.95

Therefore, to increase the carrying capacity of TiN film,
as well as enhanced abrasion resistance, it must strengthen
the binding force between the coating and the substrate.
Another deposition rate also affected quite huge, increasing
the number of atoms in the unit of time if the incident will
also lead to poor adhesion degrees. In short, if you want to
get more good coating adhesion, shall affect the text of the
above listed factors, Taguchi conduct comprehensive
engineering design parameters in order to parse out the best
The experiments were performed 120 hours of
continuous salt spray test, remove the test pitting
phenomenon is not found, then bake it into the baking
chamber 150, 24 consecutive hours, remove the wash
detect its membranous equally surface rust situation does not
appear, which can be described as having a corrosion
resistance.After coating the nature of the above tests,
summary, results of this study provide the experimental
confirmation parameters as confidence is high, not only can
be used as experimental design or actual production, bad
reasons of improving product coating, can also reduce NPL
ratio, so that the coating operation more perfect.
Physical vapor deposition coating a high hardness and
corrosion resistance and other characteristics film, so as long
as super hard film by PVD coating surface treatment products
can enhance the surface hardness of 3-5 times. If the metal
Nitride coating by means of PVD coating treatment works,
Special Issue on Biological Engineering & Natural Science, June 2014
ISSN: 2347-6818 2014 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ) 7
cast zinc alloy plating on the surface of the product, will be
able to greatly enhance life. The study was supported by the
Taguchi analysis of variance attributed to the following
1. This study abandon traditional liquid coating method,
PVD technology change mining method, which was
used in the surface coating of zinc alloy products
processing, the experiment proved feasible, and the
preparation of the test product yield more than 90%.
2. In this study, Taguchi method L
) orthogonal
array configuration parameters, experiments for coating
quality, after analysis of variance (ANOVA), in PVD
coating parameters, the greater impact on the film quality
factor, mainly are Turntable speed (A), Arc current (B),
Substrate bias voltage (F), and Substrate temperature
When Turntable speed, uniform and thicker coating,
there will be no spot phenomenon emulsion flow,
however, when slow, due to the rapid conversion of
titanium ions, resulting in uneven thickness of the film
deposited on the test, the resulting thickness of the test
taken 50 rpm moderate degree of adhesion is also
When the arc current is appropriate, evaporated out of
the number and size of the ion is just right, the
resulting film thickness as required. If the current is
increased to increase the thickness without anti-drop,
because the film thickness is too thick will cause
adhesion becomes weak. The resulting thickness of 1
m or less in the experiment, its excellent adhesion
degree, if this value is bound to reduce. However, if
the current is too low, then the titanium target is
evaporated and the degree of shock from the poor,
slow deposition relatively thin thickness. The
experiment used 60V standard parameters for the three
smallest, after detecting a mean of 0.885 m coating
thickness, EU customers for liquid coating above the
required standard 0.3 ~ 0.6 m, therefore, in order to
better the quality of PVD coating method.
When a bias is applied to the substrate, scattering of
high energy particles will fill the valley portion,
difficult to produce porosity problems, approaching
the densified structure, then grow into equiaxed crystal
structure. If the substrate bias is greater, easy to make
from the compression of the internal stress caused by
raw film, however, the value of the substrate bias
hours, will make the film structure becomes loose.
Similarly, if the larger substrate bias, so the film
particles attracted by the stronger electric field, also
due to a deposition rate of adsorption on the substrate
surface shortens the time quickly. In this study, the
value of mining -50V bias, enough to reach a local
heating effect ion particles in the substrate surface
after impact, prompting more grown titanium nitride
Ions strike the surface of the gas molecules are
adsorbed little or impurities substrate, has the effect of
cleaning the substrate surface, but keep hitting ions, it
may cause the substrate temperature rises too high,
which led to the occurrence of surface defects. As
such, need to appropriately control the ion
bombardment, avoid the substrate temperature is too
high. The experiment used a substrate temperature of
200, with the deposition time 60 min, dense coating
deposited film thickness appropriate.
3. The study of experimental parameters on the final
confirmation of the obtained TiN film, by the scratch
test, the coating peeling or cracking nor obvious,
experimental confirmation display coating having good
adhesion degree.
4. The biggest advantage of the present study uses the
Taguchi method, that thereafter no matter what kind of
coating material to study, just make sure the objective
function and the appropriate choice of parameters may
influence, then the planning table of orthogonal
experiment to find get the best combination of
parameters. Therefore, the design can be applied to
optimize the coating works on the other.
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PVD Tin Coating to Co-Cr-Mo based Surgical Implants,
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[2] Y. Watanabe, M. Shiratani & Y. Kubo (1988), Effects of Low
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Special Issue on Biological Engineering & Natural Science, June 2014
ISSN: 2347-6818 2014 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ) 8
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Yun-Fu Liu. He is currently in a listed
company as a technology and management
consultant, and study in department of Power
Mechanical Engineering doctorate of National
Tsing Hua University for a several years,
current research interests for PECVD coating
and ceramic characteristics, and number of 13
papers published, number of 47 times
conferences/seminars attended. He interest in
tennis, swimming, music listening, photographs, writing, about his
specialty are product development, management, training, ISO9001
quality assurance to push, the program for whole factory move, etc.,
had written two books, one is Parts principle and the other is
Machine engineering course practice model, In addition, with six
patents, there are : (1).Pen seating, (2).A socket to conceal, (3).The
hot glass beverage holder, (4).Fold type to pull the improvement of
the door, (5).Bottom pull move a blind in bead chain type, (6).Blind
changes direction the improvement of the device.