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IS 456:2000

Properties of materials:
Maximum size of aggregates 1/4th of the thickness of member section
pH value of water -not less than 6
Modulus of elasticity of steel Es 200 KN/m
Modulus of elasticity of concrete Ec 5000f
Characteristic yield stress -minimum yield stress/0.2% proof stress
Flexural strength - 0.7f
Ordinary concrete -M10, M15, M20
Standard concrete -M25-M55
High strength concrete -M60-M80
Shrinkage strain -0.0003
Creep coefficient - 2.2, 1.6, 1.1(7days, 28days, 1year)
Unit weight of concrete -24KN/m3 (plain), 25KN/m3 (RCC)
Design -General
Overturning 0.9Mr/Mo >= 1.4 or 1.2Mr/Mo >= 1.4
Lateral sway <H/500
Effective span:
S.S beam - Clear + d or c/c between supports.
Continuous - c/c but maximum bearing is 600mm (< L/12)
Frames - always c/c
Span/depth ratio:
Cantilever -7
Simply Supported -20
Continuous -26
Simply Supported - 35
Continuous - 40
Minimum eccentricity in columns - 500+d/30
Maximum l/r ratio -60
Spacing of bars - not less than {dia of bar , dia of larger bar, 5mm more than nominal max.
Size of aggregates}
Spacing in slabs Main bars - 3 times d or 300mm (smaller of two)
Distribution bars - 5 times d or 450mm (smaller of two)
Nominal cover - 20,30,45,50,75(mild, moderate, severe, very severe, extreme)
Minimum tension reinforcement -As/bd =0.85/Fy
Column reinforcement - 0.8 to 6%(4% desirable)
4 num in rectangular and 6 num in circular
bar dia not less than 12mm
peripheral spacing less than 300mm
limit state design:
Crack width -less than 0.3mm, 0.1mm for severe
Charecteristic strength -more than 5% not expected to fall below
Charecteristic load -95% probability not exceeding
Flexure: max. Strain -Fy/1.15Es + 0.002
250 -0.53
415 -0.48
500 -0.46
Compression: maximum strain -0.002
= 0.4Fck Ac + 0.67Fy Asc
Helical reinforcement - 1.05P
Additional moment in slender colums = P
Working stress method
Modular ratio, m = 280/3
Vs =
1) c/c centre to centre
2) Fck charecteristic compressive strength of concrete
3) Asc Area of steel
4) SS Simply supported
For sea water the minimum grade of concrete used is M-20 for PCC and M-30 for
RCC. Use of Slag or Puzzolana cement is advantageous under such condition.
Target mean strength: f
+ 1.65 S.D.
Dosage of Retarders, Plasticizers, Super plasticizers are 0.5,1.0, 2.0 percent
respectively by weight of cementitious materials.
Frequency of test
Quantity of Concrete Number of Samples
1-5 1
6-15 2
16-30 3
31-50 4
51 & above 4 plus one additional sample
for each additional 50m
Minimum Deflection due to all loads including the effects of temperature, creep and
shrinkage and measured from the as-cast level of the supports of floors, roofs
and all other horizontal members, should not normally exceed span/250.
Maximum Deflection due to all loads including the effects of temperature, creep and
shrinkage occurring after erection of partitions and the application of finishes
should not normally exceed span/350 or 20mm whichever is less.