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Chapter 4

Flow in Pipe
Objectives
1. Have a deeper understanding of laminar and
turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of
fully developed flow

2. Calculate the major and minor losses
associated with pipe flow in piping networks
and determine the pumping power
requirements

3. Understand the different velocity and flow
rate measurement techniques and learn their
Introduction
Flows completely bounded by solid surfaces are called
INTERNAL FLOWS which include flows through pipes
(Round cross section), ducts (NOT Round cross section),
nozzles, diffusers, sudden contractions and expansions,
valves, and fittings.

The basic principles involved are independent of the cross-
sectional shape, although the details of the flow may be
dependent on it.

The flow regime (laminar or turbulent) of internal flows is
primarily a function of the Reynolds number.
Laminar flow: Can be solved analytically.
Turbulent flow: Rely Heavily on semi-empirical
theories and experimental data.

General Characteristics of
Pipe Flow
Pipe System
A pipe system include the pipes themselves
(perhaps of more than one diameter), the various
fittings, the flowrate control devices valves) , and
the pumps or turbines.
For pipes of constant diameter and
incompressible flow

V
avg
stays the same down the pipe, even if the
velocity profile changes
Why? Conservation of Mass
V
avg
V
avg

same
same
same
For pipes with variable diameter, m is still the
same due to conservation of mass, but V
1
V
2

D
2

V
2

2
1
V
1

D
1

m
m
Pipe Flow vs. Open Channel Flow
Pipe flow: Flows completely filling the pipe. (a)
The pressure gradient along the pipe is main driving
force.
Open channel flow: Flows without completely filling
the pipe. (b)
The gravity alone is the driving force.
Laminar or Turbulent Flow

The flow of a fluid in a pipe may be Laminar ?
Turbulent ?

Osborne Reynolds, a British scientist and
mathematician, was the first to distinguish the
difference between these classification of flow by
using a simple apparatus as shown.
Laminar or Turbulent Flow

For small enough flowrate the dye streak will
remain as a well-defined line as it flows along, with only
slight blurring due to molecular diffusion of the dye into
the surrounding water.

For a somewhat larger intermediate flowrate
the dye fluctuates in time and space, and intermittent
bursts of irregular behavior appear along the streak.

For large enough flowrate the dye streak almost
immediately become blurred and spreads across the
entire pipe in a random fashion.
Indication of Laminar or Turbulent Flow
The term flowrate should be replaced by Reynolds
number, ,where V is the average velocity in
the pipe.

It is not only the fluid velocity that determines the
character of the flow its density, viscosity, and the pipe
size are of equal importance.

For general engineering purpose, the flow in a round pipe

Laminar
Transitional
Turbulent
= / VD R
e
2100 R
e
<
4000 >
e
R
Laminar and Turbulent Flows
Laminar and Turbulent Flows
Critical Reynolds number (Re
cr
) for
flow in a round pipe
Re < 2300 laminar
2300 Re 4000 transitional
Re > 4000 turbulent

Note that these values are approximate.

For a given application, Recr depends upon

Pipe roughness
Vibrations
Upstream fluctuations, disturbances (valves,
elbows, etc. that may disturb the flow)
Comparison of laminar and turbulent flow
There are some major differences between laminar and
turbulent fully developed pipe flows
Laminar
Can solve exactly
Velocity profile is parabolic
Pipe roughness not important

Turbulent
Cannot solve exactly (too complex)
in the mean
Mean velocity profile is fuller (shape more like a top-
hat profile, with very sharp slope at the wall)
Pipe roughness is very important

Instantaneous
profiles
Turbulent Flow

Turbulent pipe flow is actually more likely to occur
than laminar flow in practical situations.
Turbulent flow is a very complex process.
Numerous persons have devoted considerable effort
in an attempting to understand the variety of baffling
aspects of turbulence. Although a considerable
amount if knowledge about the topics has been
developed, the field of turbulent flow still remains the
least understood area of fluid mechanics.
Much remains to be learned about the nature of turbulent
flow.
Due to the macroscopic scale of the randomness in
turbulent flow, mixing processes and heat transfer
processes are considerably enhanced in turbulent
flow compared to laminar flow.

Such finite-sized random mixing is very effective in
transporting energy and mass throughout the flow
field.

[Laminar flow can be thought of as very small but
finite-sized fluid particles flowing smoothly in layer,
one over another. The only randomness and mixing
take place on the molecular scale and result in
relatively small heat, mass, and momentum transfer
rates.]
In some situations, turbulent flow characteristics are
advantages. In other situations, laminar flow is
desirable.

Turbulence: mixing of fluids.

Laminar: pressure drop in pipe, aerodynamic drag
on airplane.

Time Dependence of
Fluid Velocity at a Point
Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow
Any fluid flowing in a pipe had to enter the
pipe at some location.
The region of flow near where the fluid enters
the pipe is termed the entrance region.
The fluid typically enters the pipe with a nearly
uniform velocity profile at section (1).

The region of flow near where the fluid enters
the pipe is termed the entrance region.

As the fluid moves through the pipe, viscous
effects cause it to stick to the pipe wall (the no
slip boundary condition).

A boundary layer in which viscous effects are
important is produced along the pipe wall
such that the initial velocity profile changes
with distance along the pipe,x , until the fluid
reaches the end of the entrance length,
section (2), beyond which the velocity
profile does not vary with x.

The boundary layer has grown in thickness to
completely fill the pipe.

e
R 06 . 0
D
=

Viscous effects are of considerable importance

within the boundary layer. Outside the
boundary layer, the viscous effects are negligible.

The shape of the velocity profile in the pipe
depends on whether the flow is laminar or
turbulent, as does the length of the entrance
region,

.
6 / 1
e
R 4 . 4
D
=

For laminar flow For turbulent flow

Dimensionless entrance length
Once the fluid reaches the end of the entrance
region, section (2), the flow is simpler to
describe because the velocity is a function of only
the distance from the pipe centerline, r, and
independent of x.

The flow between (2) and (3) is termed fully
developed.
The Entrance Region
Consider a round pipe of diameter D. The flow can
be laminar or turbulent. In either case, the profile
develops downstream over several diameters called
the entry length L
h
. L
h
/D is a function of Re.
L
h

Pressure Distribution along Pipe

In the entrance region of a pipe, the fluid
accelerates or decelerates as it flows. There is a
balance between pressure, viscous, and inertia
(acceleration) force.
The magnitude of the pressure
The magnitude of the pressure gradient is larger than that
in the fully developed region.
0
p
x
p
<
A
=
c
c

Shear Stress for Laminar Flow

Laminar flow is modeled as fluid particles that flow
smoothly along in layers, gliding past the slightly slower
or faster ones on either side.

The fluid actually consists of numerous molecules
darting about in an almost random fashion. The motion
is not entirely random a slight bias in one direction.

The momentum flux in the x direction across
plane A-A give rise to a drag of the lower fluid
on the upper fluid and an equal but opposite
effect of the upper fluid on the lower fluid.

dy
du
yx
= t
Shear stress is present only if there is a
Shear Stress for Turbulent Flow

The turbulent flow is thought as a series of
random, three-dimensional eddy type motions.
These eddies range in size from very small
diameter to fairly large diameter.
This eddy structure greatly promotes mixing
within the fluid.
The flow is represented by (time-mean velocity )
plus u and v (time randomly fluctuating velocity
components in the x and y direction).

The shear stress on the plane A-A
u
turbulent ar min la
' v ' u
dy
u d
t + t = = t
The shear stress is not merely proportional to the
gradient of the time-averaged velocity, .
) y ( u
Structure of Flow in a Pipe

Near the wall (the viscous sublayer), the laminar shear
stress t
lam
is dominant.
Away from the wall (in the outer layer) , the turbulent
shear stress t
turb
is dominant.
The transition between these two regions occurs in the
overlap layer.
The relative magnitude of t
lam
compared to
t
turb
is a complex function dependent on the
specific flow involved.

Typically the value of t
turb
is 100 to 1000
times greater than t
lam
in the outer region.
Analysis of Pipe Flow
Energy Considerations

L
, is regarded as the sum
of major losses, h
L major
, due to frictional
effects in fully developed flow in constant
area tubes, and minor losses, h
L minor
,
resulting from entrance, fitting, area
changes, and so on.
or min maj or
L L L
h h h + =
Major Losses: Friction Factor
L 2
2
2 2 2
1
2
1 1 1
h gz
2
V p
gz
2
V p
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
o
+

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
o
+

L 1 2
2 1
h ) z z ( g
p p
+ =

>>>
For fully developed flow through a constant area
pipe
For horizontal pipe, z2=z1
L
2 1
h
p p p
=

A
=

>>>
The energy equation for steady and
incompressible flow with zero shaft work

Consider a pipe with radius of R, length of AL and angle
of u is flowing a fluid as shown in figure below

Flow is steady and incompressible fluid. Control volume in
between 1 to 2.
Continuity equation between point 1 and point 2 :

Q
1
= Q
2

or

From Bernoullis equation

When the flow is fully developed
g
P
z
g
P
z
g
P
z
g
P
z h
f

A
+ A =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ A =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
A
Q
v
A
Q
v = = =
f
h z
g
v
g
P
z
g
v
g
P
+ + + = + +
2
2
2 2
1
2
1 1
2
1
2
1

Momentum concept in control volume
Resultant Force = Rate of Momentum
Change

Divide by gtR
2
, becomes

Therefore

0 ) ( ) 2 ( sin ) (
2 1
2 2
= = A H A H + H A

v v m L R L R g R P
w
t u
z L but
R g
L
L
g
P
w
A = A =
A
A +
A
u

t
u

sin 0
2
sin
R g
L
z
g
P
h
w
f

A
= A +
A
=
2
Due to pressure
Due to weight
Due to shear
But
and from analysis dimensional

where f (dimensionless) is call Darcy friction factor

By combination of the above equation

or

The above equation is called Darcy Weisbach equation. It used
for both flow regime i.e. laminar and turbulence
roughness pipe is
d v F
w
c
c t ) , , , , ( =
|
.
|

\
|
= =
d
F f
v
w
c

t
Re,
8
2
R g
v L f
h
f
8
2
2
=
d g
v L f
h
f
2
2
=
1. Major Losses: Laminar Flow

There are numerous ways to derive important
results pertaining to laminar flow:

From F=ma applied directly to a fluid element.

From the Navier-Stokes equations of motion

From dimensional analysis methods : Selected

Based on Dimensional Analysis

Assume that the pressure drop in the horizontal
pie, p, is a function of the average velocity of the
fluid in the pipe, V, the length of the pipe, , the pipe
diameter, D, and the viscosity of the fluid, .
) , D , , V ( F p = A
Dimensional analysis
|
.
|

\
|
| =

A
D V
p D
an unknown function of the
length to diameter ratio of the
pipe.
D
C
V
p D
=

A
where C is a constant.
2
D
V C p
=
A

A t
= =
4
pD ) C 4 / (
AV Q
The value of C must be determined by theory or
experiment. For a round pipe, C=32. For duct of
other cross-sectional shapes, the value of C is
different.
2
D
V 32
p

= A
For a round pipe
f is termed the friction factor, or
sometimes the Darcy friction factor.
For a round pipe
D Re
64
D VD
64
V
D / V 32
V
p
2
2
1
2
2
2
1

=

A
2
V
D
f p
2

= A

2
V
D
p
f
2

A
=

2
w
V
8
Re
64
f

t
= =
For laminar flow
d v v
d v
v
f
w

t 64 ) / 8 ( 8 8
2 2
= = =
Then,
Losses due to friction becomes

or based on Hagen Poiseuille equation
g d
v L
g d
v L
h
f
Re
32
2 Re
64
2 2
= =
4
128
d g
Q L
h
f
H
=

2. Major Losses: Turbulent Flow

2
V
D
f p
2

= A

Applying dimensional analysis, the result were a correlation
of the form

Experiments show that the nondimensional head loss is
directly proportional to /D. Hence we can write
|
|
.
|

\
| c

| =

A
D
,
D
,
VD
V
p
2
2
1

|
.
|

\
|
=
A
D D V
p c
|

Re,
2
2
1

|
.
|

\
|
c
|
D
Re, f
g 2
V
D
f h
2
L
major

Darcy-Weisbach
equation

Value of friction factor f is dependent to Reynolds's number R
e
and
pipe roughness c or relative roughness c/d

For laminar flow, f=64/Re, which is independent of the relative
roughness.

For very large Reynolds numbers, f=(/D), which is independent
of the Reynolds numbers.

For flows with very large value of Re, commonly termed
completely turbulent flow (or wholly turbulent flow or full
developed turbulent), the laminar sublayer is so thin (its thickness
decrease with increasing Re) that the surface roughness completely
dominates the character of the flow near the wall.

For flows with moderate value of Re, the friction factor
f=(Re,/D).

Blausius (1913) was introduced an expression as below

Prandtl (1935) made a further improvement of Blausiuss
equation for 4000 < Re < 10
8
iaitu

Nikuradse was introduced the effect of pipe roughness onto
friction factor

Colebrooke (1939) was combined the Prantl and Nikuradse
and become

Moody (1944) was simplified the above equation into a
graphic but the accuracy is about 15%
pipe smooth and for f
5
4 / 1
10 Re 4000
Re
316 . 0
< < =
pipe smooth f
f
8 . 0 ) (Re log 2
1
=
roughness relative d where
d
f
= = /
7 . 3
/
log 2
1
c
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
f
d
f Re
51 . 2
7 . 3
/
log 2
1 c
Depending on the
specific circumstances
involved.
Friction Factor by L. F. Moody
Roughness for Pipes
Example
Oil with specific gravity of 0.85 and kinematics
viscosity is 6 x 10
-4
m
2
/s is flowing in a pipe of 15 cm
diameter at flowrate of 0.020 m
3
/s. Determine the
head loss of 100 m pipe distance.

Find type of flow regime
Re < 2100: Laminar flow, then
f
=

Example

Determine head loss due to friction in a horizontal
pipe of 40 mm diameter and 750 m long when a flow
is 67.6 x 10
-6
m
3
/s. Given a pipe roughness and
kinematics viscosity is 0.0008 m and 1.14 x 10
-6
m
2
/s,
respectively

Re < 2100: Laminar flow, then
Example

Water at 20
o
C is flowing at 0.05 m
3
/s through a
asphalted cast iron pipe of 20 cm diameter. What is a
head loss for 1 kilometer pipe length.
From table, kinematics viscosity at 20
o
C is
Turbulent flow
Roughness of asphalted cast iron,
From Moody Chart
Minor Losses

Most pipe systems consist of considerably more
components (valves, bends, tees, and the like)

Such losses are termed MINOR LOSS.
The flow pattern through a valve
The theoretical analysis to predict the
details of flow pattern (through these
additional components) is not, as yet,
possible.

The head loss information for essentially all
components is given in dimensionless form
and based on experimental data.

The most common method used to
determine these head losses or pressure
drops is to specify the loss coefficient, K
L
2
L
2
2
L
L
V
2
1
K p
V
2
1
p
g 2 / V
h
K
or min
= A

A
= =
Re) , geometry ( K
L
| =
f
D
K
g 2
V
D
f
g 2
V
K h
L eq
2
eq
2
L L
or min
=
= =

Minor losses are

sometimes given in terms
of an equivalent length

eq
The actual value of K
L
is strongly dependent on the
geometry of the component considered. It may also
dependent on the fluid properties. That is
For many practical applications the Reynolds
number is large enough so that the flow through
the component is dominated by inertial effects,
with viscous effects being of secondary
importance.

In a flow that is dominated by inertia effects
rather than viscous effects, it is usually found that
pressure drops and head losses correlate directly
with the dynamic pressure.

This is the reason why the friction factor for very
large Reynolds number, fully developed pipe flow
is independent of the Reynolds number.

This is true for flow through pipe components.

Thus, in most cases of practical interest the loss coefficients
for components are a function of geometry only,

Therefore minor losses can be calculated in a head loss as

g
V
K h
L m
2
2
=
) geometry ( K
L
| =
Minor Losses Coefficient
Entrance
flow
Entrance flow condition
and loss coefficient

(a) Reentrant, K
L
= 0.8
(b) sharp-edged, K
L
= 0.5
(c) slightly rounded, K
L
= 0.2
(d) well-rounded, K
L
= 0.04
K
L
= function of
rounding of the
inlet edge.
A vena contracta region may result because the fluid
cannot turn a sharp right-angle corner. The flow is said
to separate from the sharp corner.

The maximum velocity at section (2) is greater than
that in the pipe section (3), and the pressure there is
lower.

If this high speed fluid could slow down efficiently, the
kinetic energy could be converted into pressure.

Such is not the case. Although the fluid may be accelerated
very efficiently, it is very difficult to slow down (decelerate)
the fluid efficiently.
(2)(3) The extra kinetic energy of the fluid is partially lost
because of viscous dissipation, so that the pressure does

Flow pattern
and pressure
distribution for
a sharp-edged
entrance
Minor Losses Coefficient
Exit flow
Exit flow condition and loss coefficient

(a) Reentrant, KL = 1.0
(b) sharp-edged, KL = 1.0
(c) slightly rounded, KL = 1.0
(d) well-rounded, KL = 1.0
Minor Losses Coefficient
varied
diameter
Loss coefficient for
sudden contraction,
expansion,typical
conical diffuser.

2
2
1
L
A
A
1 K
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Minor Losses Coefficient - Bend

Carefully designed guide vanes help direct the flow with less
unwanted swirl and disturbances.
Character of the flow in bend and the associated loss
coefficient.
Internal Structure of Valves
(a) globe valve
(b) gate valve
(c) swing check valve
(d) stop check valve
Loss Coefficients for Pipe Components
Losses due to Sudden Enlargement

A sudden expansion is one of the component for which the
loss coefficient can be obtained by means of simple analysis

Let consider a control volume of ABCDEF as shown in figure
below. Pressure P1 and P2 at point 1 and Point 2 respectively.

Based on continuity equation
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
1
2
1 2 2 1 1
A
A
V V A V A
(a)
Momentum equation in the control volume

Resultant Force in flow direction = Rate of momentum change in flow
direction

where P is pressure acts on annulus that represent by AB and CD
which is at area of A
2
A
1
.

We assume the flow is uniform and pressure is constant across the
left-hand side of CV (P
AB
=P
BC
=P
CD
=P
1
=P) then

Based on Bernoullis equation from 1 to 2.
) ( ) ( '
1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1
V V Q A P A A P A P = +
) (
) ( ) (
1 2 2 2 1
1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1
V V V P P
V V A V V V Q A P A P
=
= =

(b)
) (
2
1
2
1
2 1 2
2
2 2
1
2
1 1
horizontal Z Z h z
g
v
g
P
z
g
v
g
P
m
= + + + = + +

Then

Substitute (b) into the above equation becomes

But, from (a)

Then

or

g
V V
g
P P
g
V
g
V
g
P
g
P
h
m
2
2 2
2
2
2
1 2 1
2
2
2
1 2 1

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

g
V V
g
V V
g
V V V
g
V V
g
V V V
h
m
2
) (
2 2
) (
2
2 1
2
2
2
1 2 1
2
2
2
2
2
1 1 2

2
2 1 2 2
2
) / (
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
g
V A A V
h
m
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
A
A
g
V
A
A
g
V
h
m
) / (
1 2 2 1
A A V V =
Therefore

or

Losses due to Sudden Contraction
The mechanism by which energy is lost due to sudden contraction is
quite complex. Momentum concept cannot be used since the distribution
of pressure along ABCD is unknown.

2
1
2
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
A
A
k
2
2
1
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
A
A
k
For this case, however, there is a vena contracta section that
possible to use sudden enlargement method. Then,

where C
c
contraction coefficient between A
c
and A
2
.

Generally

where K is losses coefficient and it depend to A
2
/A
1
ratio. Table
below is the guideline of some K values.
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
c
c
m
C
I
g
V
A
A
g
V
h
g
V
k h
m
2
2
2
=
A
2
/A
1

0.1

0.3

0.5

0.7

1.0

C
c

0.61

0.632

0.673

0.73

1.0

k

0.41

0.34

0.24

0.14

0

Example

Water pipe has changes it diameter from 140 mm to 250 mm. If a flow of
water from smaller diameter to bigger diameter experienced of a head loss
is 0.6 m higher than the opposite direction, calculate a velocity in the pipe.
V
1
V
2
V
1

V
2

V
1
= flow in small pipe
V
2
= flow in small pipe
Interpolation method
From table
Therefore
and
Flow from big to small pipe : Sudden Contraction
Flow from small to big pipe : Sudden Enlargement

Example

Water of 1.94 slugs/ft
3
density and 0.000011 ka
2
/s kinematics viscosity was
pumped between two tanks at 0.2 ka
3
/s flowrate through a pipe of 2 inch
diameter and 400 ft length as shown in figure below. Given a relative
roughness of pipe is 0.01. Determine a horsepower required by the pump.
Sharp
entrance
Globe
Valve: Open
90
o
Elbow
Bend of 12 inch
diemater
Gate valve:
Half open
Sharp
Exist
Pump

Energy Equation
From Moody chart
For minor losses
Sharp entrance
Globe valve: Fully open
Pipe bend 12 inch diameter
90o Elbow
Gate valve: Half open
Sharp exist
Power of Pump
But
Equivalent Length

Minor losses are also expressed in terms of equivalent length L
e
,
defined as

where f
T
is friction factor and D is the diameter of the pipe that
contains the component.

f
T
is the friction factor in the pipe to which the valve of fitting is
connected, taken to be in the zone of fully developed turbulence

L
e
is the length of straight pipe of the same nominal diameter as the
valve that would have the same resistance as the valve

L
e
can be one unit of component or total of components in pipe
system
g
V
k
gd
V L f
h
e T
f
2 2
2 2
= =
T
e
f
d
k L =
Both approaches are used in practice, but the use of loss coefficients is
more common

Therefore, the total head loss in a piping system is determines from (if
f =f
T
)

Example

A pipe of 0.2 m diameter and 50 m length is consists of 2 unit of 90
o

elbows, gate valve, sharp entrance and sharp exist. Calculate the pipe
equivalent length and a total head loss whenever a flowrate is 0.2 m
3
/s
and valve is fully open. Assume a friction factor is 0.005.

d g
V L L f
h
e
f
2
) (
2
+
=
90
o
Elbow
Gate valve of fully open
Sharp entrance
Sharp exist
Total losses
2 units of 90
o
Elbows
Gate valve
Sharp Entrance
Sharp exist
Minor losses
Loss due to friction
Alternative Method
Application of Pipe Flow

g
V
D
f h
major
L
2
2

The energy equation, relating the conditions at

any two points 1 and 2 for a single-path pipe
system

by judicious choice of points 1 and 2 we can
analyze not only the entire pipe system, but also
just a certain section of it that we may be
interested in.

g 2
V
K h
2
L L
or min
=

+ = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
o
+

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
o
+

or min major L L L 2
2
2 2 2
1
2
1 1 1
h h h z
g 2
V
g
p
z
g 2
V
g
p
Major loss
Minor loss
Single pipe whose length may be interrupted by
various components.

Multiple pipes in different configuration
Parallel
Series
Network

Pipe flow problems can be categorized by what
parameters are given and what is to be calculated.

Multiple-Path Systems
Series and Parallel Pipe System
3 2 1 L L L 3 2 1
h h h Q Q Q Q = = + + =
3 2 1 B A L L L L 3 2 1
h h h h Q Q Q + + = = =

Multiple-Path Systems
Multiple Pipe Loop System
( )
( )
3 L 2 L
3 L 1 L B
2
B B
A
2
A A
2 L 1 L B
2
B B
A
2
A A
3 2 1
h h
3 1 h h z
g 2
V p
z
g 2
V p
2 1 h h z
g 2
V p
z
g 2
V p
Q Q Q
=
+ + + +

= + +

+ + + +

= + +

+ =
Multiple-Path Systems
Three-Reservoir System
( )
( ) C B h h z
g 2
V p
z
g 2
V p
B A h h z
g 2
V p
z
g 2
V p
Q Q Q
3 L 2 L C
2
C C
B
2
B B
2 L 1 L B
2
B B
A
2
A A
3 2 1
+ + + +

= + +

+ + + +

= + +

+ =
If valve (1) was closed, reservoir B reservoir C
If valve (2) was closed, reservoir A reservoir C
If valve (3) was closed, reservoir A reservoir B
With all valves open
Serial Pipe

The diameter may be the same or different

Total of head loss is a summation of all losses encounter throughout the
system.

Consider on the figure below.

By applying of Bernoullis equation and B is taken as a datum, then

h
L
= Entrance loss + Friction loss in pipe 1 +
Valve loss + Sudden enlargement loss +
Friction loss at pipe 2 + Exist loss
Pipe 1
Pipe 2
Valve

Other equation required to solve the related problem is continuity
equation

Q
1
= Q
2
or A
1
V
1
= A
2
V
2

Example

Satu paip tersambung di antara 2 takungan yang mempunyai
perbezaan aras 6 m. Panjang paip 720 m dan menaik kepada
ketinggian 3 m di atas takungan atas pada jarak 240 m daripada
masukan sebelum menurun ke takungan bawah. Jika paip
berdiameter 1.2 m dan pekali geseran 0.01, apakah kadaralir dan
tekanan pada titik tertinggi paip tersebut. Abaikan kehilangan
masukan dan keluaran.

g 2
V
gd 2
V L f
g 2
) V V (
g 2
V
k
gd 2
V L f
g 2
V
5 . 0
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 1
2
1
1
2
1 1
2
1
+ +

+ + + =
Parallel Pipe

Purpose:
1. Stable supply without interruption
2. To increase flow without changing the existing pipe system.

Consider a system as shown in figure below

Based on continuity equation

Q
1
= Q
A
+ Q
B
+ Q
C
= Q
2

Based on Bernoullis equation between point 1 and 2

L 2
2
2 2
1
2
1 1
h z
g
v
2
1
g
P
z
g
v
2
1
g
P
+ + + = + +

where h
L
is losses between point 1 and 2

Therefore, the losses generated in this two point is constant and
independent to the direction of flow.

Then

Contoh

Two pipes with a sharp edge of diameter d
1
= 50 mm and d
2
= 100
mm and both have a 100 m length is connected in parallel to two
tanks with a difference of elevation h of h = 10 m as shown in figure
below. If a friction factor for both pipes f is 0.008 , determine

a) Flowrate in each pipe
b) Diameter D of single pipe of 100 m length to provide the same
total of flow
LC LB LA
h h h = =
Example

Two pipes connect two reservoirs A and B (figure below), which have a length
difference of 20 m. Pipe 1 has 50 mm diameter and 100 m length. Pipe 2 has 100
mm diameter and 100 m length. Both have entry loss, K
L
= 0.5 and exist loss, K
L
=
1.0, and friction factor f = 0.032, calculate

a) rate of flow for each pipe
b) the diameter D of a pipe 100 m length that could replace the two pipes and
provide the same flow
Solution
Branch Pipe

Figure below shows a branch pipe system is connecting three water
reservoirs

Based on figure

Water from reservoir A flow to reservoir C through pipe 1 and pipe 3.

Head losses is generated at exist A, junction C and friction in pipe 1 and
pipe 3.

Based on Bernoullis equation between reservoir A and reservoir C
P
A
= P
C
= P
atm
= 0
V
A
= V
C
= 0,
Then

Similar for reservoir B to reservoir C

(
(

+ + + + + + + = + +
g 2
2
3
V
3
gd 2
2
3
V
3
L
3
f
g 2
2
3
V
k
1
gd 2
2
1
V
1
L
1
f
g 2
2
1
V
5 . 0
C
z
g
2
C
v
2
1
g
C
P
A
z
g
2
A
v
2
1
g
A
P

g 2
V
d
1 L f k
g 2
V
d
L f
5 . 0 Z Z
2
3
3
3 3
2
1
1
1 1
C A
|
|
.
|

\
| + +
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
g 2
V
d
1 L f k
g 2
V
d
L f
5 . 0 Z Z
2
3
3
3 3
2
2
2
2 2
C B
|
|
.
|

\
| + +
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
Example

Water is flowing from reservoir A through diameter pipe d
1
= 120 mm
and distance L
1
= 120 m to a junction D. From D the pipe is branched out
into two which diameter d
2
= 75 mm and distance L
2
= 60 m to reservoir
B that 16 m below reservoir A and diameter d
3
= 60 mm and distance L
3

= 40 m to reservoir C that 24 m below reservoir A. If a friction factor of
all pipes is 0.01 and minor losses is negligible, calculate flowrate of each
pipe.

Example

A closed tank was filled up by a fluid and connected with a polyethylene pipe of 5
cm diameter as shown in figure below. If,

a) Fluid is water and required to distribute at 60 m
3
/hr of flowrate, what is a
pressure P
1
required. Assume water density is 998 kg/m
3
and neglect the
minor losses
b) Fluid with a specific gravity of 0.68, pressure P
1
is 700 kPa and flowrate is 27
m
3
/jam, what is a viscosity of the fluid. Neglect a minor losses.
Bendalir
60m
P
1

Bendalir

10 m
Q
(terbuka ke atmosfera)
80m
Solution
( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )
Pa x
x
P
gd
flV
g
V
g
P
h Z
g
V
g
P
Z
g
V
g
P
f
Pipe Smooth Chart Moody From
Vd
s m
A
Q
V
f
6
2
1
2 2
2 1
2
2
2 2
1
2
1 1
2
10 38 . 2
05 . 0
170
0136 . 0 1
81 . 9 2
49 . 8
10 80 81 . 9 998
2
80
2
0 0 10
2 2
0136 . 0
:
424000
001 . 0
05 . 0 49 . 8 998
Re
/ 49 . 8
05 . 0
4
3600
60
=
(

)
`

|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
+ + + = + +
+ + + = + +
=
= = =
=
|
.
|

\
|
H
= =

a)
( )
( )
( )
s m kg
x x
Vd
Pipe Smooth Chart Moody From
f
f
x g
P
gd
flV
g
V
Z
g
P
h Z
g
V
g
P
Z
g
V
g
P
s m
A
Q
V
m kg
f
. / 00031 . 0
05 . 0 82 . 3 679
416000
Re
416000 Re
:
0136 . 0
05 . 0
170
1
81 . 9 2
82 . 3
70
2 2
2 2
/ 82 . 3
05 . 0
4
3600
27
/ 679 998 68 . 0
2
1
2 2
2 1
2
2
2 2
1
2
1 1
2
3
=
=
=
=
=
(

+ + =
+ + A =
+ + + = + +
=
|
.
|

\
|
H
= =
= =

b)
Example
Air dialirkan daripada reserbor A menerusi satu talian paip sepanjang 4 km dan
berdiameter 50 cm kepada reserbor B yang mempunyai perbezaan aras sebanyak
12.5 meter. Jika air perlu dialirkan kepada reserbor C yang mana mempunyai
perbezaan aras sebanyak 15 meter di bawah reserbor A menerusi talian paip
keluarannya seperti ditunjukkan dalam rajah di bawah. Jika diabaikan kehilangan
kecil kecuali kehilangan geseran yang ditentukan melalui dan dipertimbangkan nilai
pekali geseran sebagai 0.006, tentukan
c) Diameter paip baru supaya aliran ke dalam ke dua-dua reserbor iaitu B dan C

C
B
A
12.5 m
15 m
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
5
5
2
5
2
2 2
5 5
2
5
2
5
2
2 2
5
2
15 . 0
3
5 . 12
3 3
5 . 12 0 0 0 0 0
2 2
15 . 0
)
/ 2209 . 0
4000 006 . 0
5 . 12 5 . 0 3 5 . 12 3
5 . 12
3
3
5 . 12 0 0 0 0 0
2 2
)
3
006 . 0 15
1500 5 . 12
3000 5 . 0
1000 4000 4
+ =
= =
+ + + = + +
+ + + + = + +
=
=
= =
=
+ + = + +
+ + + = + +
= =
=
= =
= =
= =
= = =
DB
DB DB DB
B B
A
A A
fAB B
B B
A
A A
f
AC
DC AB
DB AB
Q L Q L
d
f
d d f f
Diberi
d
Q l f
d
Q l f
h h Z
g
V
g
P
Z
g
V
g
P
Q Q
B ke A Aliran b
s m Q
fl
d
Q
d
flQ
d
flQ
h Z
g
V
g
P
Z
g
V
g
P
Q Q Q
B ke A Aliran a
d
flQ
h
f m Z
m L m Z
m L m D
m L m km L

( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
s m
Q Q
s m
x
x x
Q
a
ac b b
Q
Q Q
Q Q Q
Q Q Q
Q Q
/ 174 . 0
15 . 0 324 . 0
15 . 0
/ 324 . 0
4000 2
8125 . 127 4000 4 900 900
2
4
0 8125 . 127 900 4000
5 . 67 900 3000 1000 3125 . 195
0225 . 0 3 . 0 3000 1000
5 . 0 3
006 . 0
5 . 12
15 . 0 3000 1000
5 . 0 3
006 . 0
5 . 12
3
3
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
5
2
2
5
=
=
=
=

=

=
=
+ + =
+ + =
+ =
( )
( )
cm m d
d
x x
x
x x
d
Q l f
d
Q l f
Z Z
C ke A Aliran
s m Q Q
Maka
s m Q
Q
l l
d
fQ
d
Q l f
d
Q l f
Z
g
V
g
P
Z
g
V
g
P
B ke A Aliran
Q
Q Q
Tetapi
Q Q Q
c
DC
DC
DC
DC DC
C A
DC DB
DB
DB DB
B
B B
A
A A
DC DB
34 . 40 4034 . 0
3
167 . 0 1500 006 . 0
5 . 0 3
334 . 0 1000 006 . 0
15
3 3
/ 167 . 0
2
334 . 0
/ 334 . 0
4
3000
1000
5 . 0 3
006 . 0
5 . 12
2
1
3
5 . 12
3 3 2 2
2
)
5
2
5
2
5
2
5
2
3
3
5
2
2
5
5
2
5
2
2 2
= =
+ =
+ =
= = =
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ + + + = + +
= =
+ =

Example

Rajah menunjukkan suatu sistem paip berdiameter 50 mm
dilengkapkan dengan sebuah pam empar bagi mengepam air dari
sebuah tasik ke sebuah tangki air yang terletak di atas Bukit Kijal.
Pam tersebut dapat meningkatkan tenaga per unit berat air yang
melaluinya sebanyak 80 Nm/N. Ketinggian paras air bebas di
dalam tangki dari pam ialah 70m. Dalam sistem paip tersebut,
sama tetapi paip C sehingga paip D terpaksa membentuk
separuh bulatan bagi mengelak sebuah kolam ikan bulat yang
berdiameter 50m. Jika faktor geseran ialah 0.08, kira kadar alir
jisim air bagi sistem paip tersebut. Seterusnya tentukan jenis
aliran di dalam paip penghantaran, berdasarkan nombor Reynold.
Diberi kelikatan air ialah 1.14 x 10
-6
m
2
/s. Gunakan persamaan
h
f
=flv
2
/(2gd) jika perlu.
( )
( )( )
( )( )
2
2 2
f
m f
m f
p
2
p m f 2
p m f 2
p m f 2
2
2 2
1
2
1 1
V 1 . 58
05 . 0 81 . 9 2
V 5 . 712 08 . 0
gd 2
flV
h
m 5 . 712
5 40 5 30 5 25 30
50 50 100 5 . 78 100 150 40 4 l
m 5 . 78 25 r
separuh Panjang
08 . 0 f
Diberi
6 h h
80 h h 74 0
Maka
m 80 E
m 74 4 70 Z
E h h Z 0
E h h Z 0 0 0 0 0
E h h Z
g 2
V
g
P
Z
g 2
V
g
P
gki tan dalam air Permukaan : 2 Titik
tasik Permukaan : 1 Titik
= = =
=
+ + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + =
= H = H =
=
+ =
+ + =
=
= + =
+ + =
+ + + + = + +
+ + + +

= + +

bulatan
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
x
Vd
s
kg
AV m
Diketahui
s
m
V
V V
demikian yang Oleh
V
V V V V V h
V
V
h u p Injap
V
V
h glob Injap
V
V
h Keluaran
V
V
h Masukan
V
V
h Sesiku
g
KV
h
h Kira
m
m
m
m
m
m
o
m
m
2100 Re
14035
10 14 . 1
05 . 0 32 . 0
Re
628 . 0 32 . 0 05 . 0
4
1000
32 . 0
96 . 59
6
6 86 . 1 1 . 58 0
86 . 1
01 . 0 27 . 1 05 . 0 03 . 0 50 . 0
01 . 0
81 . 9 2
19 . 0
: int
27 . 1
81 . 9 2
) 5 . 12 ( 2
:
05 . 0
81 . 9 2
0 . 1
:
03 . 0
81 . 9 2
5 . 0
:
50 . 0
81 . 9 2
75 . 0 13
: 90
2
6
2
2 2
2
2 2 2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
>
= = =
= |
.
|

\
| H
= =
= =
+ =
=
+ + + + =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
=

Example

Rajah di bawah menunjukkan sebuah sistem paip yang telah dibina bagi
menghubungkan tangki 1 yang terletak di kaki Bukit Awana dengan
tangki 2 di Kawasan Tinggi Awana. Paip bersaiz 50 mm itu diperbuat
daripada besi tuang (Cast Iron) dan ia digunakan untuk menghantar air
(graviti tentu 9810 N/m
3
) dan kelikatan kinematik 1 x 10
-6
m
2
/s ke
tangki 2. Titik A hingga titik D berada pada permukaan rata yang sama
dengan paip dari titik B dan titik C terpaksa dipasang dengan bentuk
separuh bulatan untuk mengelak kolam ikan bulat. Sesiku B hingga
o
. Sebuah injap globe dalam keadaan
terbuka penuh dan sebuah injap pintu juga dalam keadaan terbuka
penuh masing-masing telah dipasang pada kedudukan sebelum pam dan
selepas pam. Ar bebas di dalam tangki 2 ialah 20 m berbanding paras
air bebas di dalam tangki 1. Sebuah pam telah digunakan untuk
mengepam air dalam sistem sehingga kadaalir mencapai 0.05 m
3
/s. Jika
kecekapan pam adalah 80%, kirakan kuasa kuda yang diperlukan oleh
motor elektrik untuk memacu pam tersebut.
( )
( )( )
( )

= + + + + + + + =
=
H
=
=
H
=
=
=
= =
e
e=
>
= = =
=
H
= =
+ + =
+ + + + = + +
+ + + + = + +

m l
m BC Panjang
m d
d
maka m Ikan Kolam Keluasan
f
d
maka mm
Iron Cast Untuk
Darcy Persamaan guna maka gelora adalah aliran
x
x Vd
s
m
x
A
Q
V
h h Z E
E h h Z
E h h Z
g
V
g
P
Z
g
V
g
P
m f p
p m f
p m f
75 10 12 6 12 6 12 12 5
12
2
65 . 7
65 . 7
4
46
, 46
031 . 0
0052 . 0
50
26 . 0
26 . 0
, 2100 Re
1275000
10 1
10 50 5 . 25
Re
5 . 25
10 50
4
05 . 0
0 0 0 0 0
2 2
2
2
6
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2 2
1
2
1 1
v

( )( )( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )( )( )( )
hp HP
kecekapan Bila
hp
gQE
HP
m E
demikian yang Oleh
m
g
V
g
V
g
KV
h
m
x gd
flV
h
p
p
m
f
1724
8 . 0
1379
% 80
1379
746
2098 05 . 0 81 . 9 1000
746
2098 537 1541 20
537
2
19 . 16
1 19 . 0 75 . 0 6 10 5 . 0
2
2
1541
10 50 81 . 9 2
5 . 25 75 031 . 0
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
= =
=
= =
= + + =
=
=
+ + + + =
=
= = =

Example

G melalui suatu siri talian paip yang diperbuat daripada keluli
kemersial. Talian paip ini dilengkapkan dengan sebuah injap pintu
terbuka sepenuhnya. Talian paip B ke D berdiameter 140 mm dengan
talian paip seterusnya berdiameter 250 mm. Masukan dan keluaran
dalam paip berdiameter 140 mm ialah 8 m/s. Paras air bebas di dalam
tangki tadahan pula didapati 50 m di atas paras air bebas tangki
sedutan. Jika kelikatan air 1.06 x 10
-6
m
2
/s, tentukan tenaga per unit
berat yang perlu dibekalkan oleh pam supaya air dapat dialirkan
mengikut perancangan asal. Gunakan h
f
=flv
2
/(2gd).

Example

Rajah di bawah menunjukkan sistem talian paip plastik selari
mengandungi dua paip yang serba sama yang dipasangkan secara
3
/s dan
meninggalkannya dengan berpecah kepada dua bahagian untuk
membekalkan air kepada galas (bearing) yang akan memutarkan aci
turbin. Jika galas (bearing) untuk kedua-dua paip adalah sama dan nilai
pekali kehilangan K adalah 10, diameter paip 250 mm dan kelikatan
kinematik air 1.12 x 10
-6
m
2
/s, tentukan:
a) Halaju dalam setiap paip
b) Kejatuhan tekanan yang merentasi cabang (P
A
- P
B
)

( )
( )
( ) ( )
m
x x x
Le
f
maka licin paip paip Kekasaran
x
x
x VD
f
KD
f
KD
f
kD
Le Le Le Le
sama adalah simpang merentasi P P tekanan Kejatuhan b
s m
A
Q
V V
AV Q
s
m Q
Q Q
maka sama adalah paip Cabang a
elbow galas tee
T
elbow galas tee
elbow galas tee T
B A
T
203 . 383
0128 . 0
25 . 0 75 . 0
2
0128 . 0
25 . 0 10
0128 . 0
25 . 0 5 . 1
2 100
0128 . 0
,
10 08 . 9
10 12 . 1
25 . 0 07 . 4
Re
2 2 100
2 2 100
)
/ 07 . 4
25 . 0
4
2 . 0
2 . 0
2
4 . 0
2
)
5
6
2
2 1
3
2 1
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ =
=
=
= = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ + + =

=
H
= = =
=
= = = =

v
A
B
100
Le(2tee) Le(galas) Le(2elbow)
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
kPa 502 . 162
5649 . 16 81 . 9 1000
gh P P
h
g
P
g
P
Z Z
V V
h Z
g 2
V
g
P
Z
g 2
V
g
P
m 5649 . 16
25 . 0 81 . 9 2
07 . 4 203 . 383 0128 . 0
gd 2
flV
h
f B A
f
B A
B A
B A
f B
2
B B
A
2
A A
2
2
f
=
=
=
+

=
=
+ + +

= + +

=
= =
Example

Sebuah pam digunakan untuk mengepam air dari tangki bekalan A ke
tangki agihan B melalui dua batang paip jenis besi tuang terasfalt yang
disambungkan secara bersiri. Aras air di dalam tangki agihan ialah 10 m di
atas aras air di dalam tangki bekalan seperti ditunjukkan dalam rajah. Jika
3
/s, kelikatan kinematik ialah 1.004x10
-6
m
2
/s
dan kemasukan serta keluaran paip adalah tajam, kira tenaga yang
dibekalkan oleh pam bagi setiap unit berat.
10m
D=150mm
L=100m
D=200mm
L=100m
Pam A
B
( )
( )
( )( )
( )( )
m Z Z
V V
P P
h h h h Z
g
V
g
P
Z
g
V
g
P
f
f
Moody carta Dari
d
d
x
x
d V
x
x
d V
s m
A
Q
V
s m
A
Q
V
B A
B A
B A
p m f f B
B B
A
A A
10
0
0
2 2
0203 . 0
0199 . 0
0008 . 0
150
12 . 0
0006 . 0
200
12 . 0
10 0036 . 2
10 004 . 1
15 . 0 3411 . 1
Re
10 5028 . 1
10 004 . 1
2 . 0 7544 . 0
Re
/ 3411 . 1
15 . 0
4
0237 . 0
/ 7544 . 0
2 . 0
4
0237 . 0
2 1
2 2
2
1
2
1
5
6
2 2
2
5
6
1 1
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
=
= =
= =
+ + + + + = + +
=
=
= =
|
.
|

\
| e
= =
|
.
|

\
| e
= = =
= = =
=
H
= =
=
H
= =

v
v
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
m h
h
x x
K
d
d
Jadual melalui diperolehi tiba tiba pengecilan bagi K
h
g
V
g
V
K
g
V
gd
V l f
gd
V l f
p
p
p
6590 . 11
15 . 0
100 0203 . 0
2525 . 0 1
81 . 9 2
3411 . 1
2 . 0
100 0199 . 0
5 . 0
81 . 9 2
7544 . 0
10
2525 . 0 22 . 0 22 . 0 35 . 0
8 . 0 6 . 0
8 . 0 75 . 0
, 75 . 0
2 . 0
15 . 0
2 2 2
5 . 0
2 2
10
2 2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2 2 2
1
2
1 1 1
=

+ + +
(

+ =
= +
|
.
|

\
|

=
= =

+ + + + =
Example

Kirakan kejatuhan tekanan P
1
-P
2
yang menerusi talian paip yang
ditunjukkan dalam rajah. Jika kadaralir minyak yang mempunyai berat
spesifik 8900 N/m
2
dan kelikatan 1x 10
-6
m
2
/s ialah 0.05 m
3
/s dan diameter
paip ialah 100mm. Jika perbezaan ketinggian antara titik 1 dan 2 adalah 4 m
dan panjang keseluruhan paip besi tuang antara titik 1 dan 2 ialah 30 m.
P
1

P
2

4m
Globe Valve
(fully Open)
90
0
elbow
90
0
elbow
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )
( )
2
2 1
2
2 2
1 2
2 1
2 2
2
2
2 2
1
2
1 1
5
6
2
/ 1 . 314
8900 29 . 35
29 . 35
81 . 9 2
37 . 6
5 . 11
1 . 0 81 . 9 2
37 . 6 30 025 . 0
4
2 2
5 . 11 10 75 . 0 75 . 0
2 2 2 2
025 . 0
0026 . 0
100
26 . 0
10 37 . 6
10 0 . 1
1 . 0 37 . 6
Re
/ 37 . 6
1 . 0
4
057 . 0
m kN
x P P
g
V
K
gd
flV
Z Z
g
P P
K
g
V
K
gd
flV
Z
g
V
g
P
Z
g
V
g
P
f
Moody carta Dari
d
x
x
Vd
s m
A
Q
V
=
=
=
+ + =
+ + =

= + + =
+ + + + = + +
=
= =
|
.
|

\
|
e
= = =
=
H
= =

v
Example

Sebuah reservoir mengalirkan air melalui sebatang paip (paip 1) berdiameter
200 mm dan 300 m panjang yang dicabangkan kepada dua batang paip
berdiameter 150 mm dan 150 m panjang setiap satu (paip 2 dan paip 3). Paip 2
dan paip 3 terbuka penuh pada hujungnya. Paip 3 mempunyai lubang-lubang
keluaran di sepanjang panjangnya. Semua lubang keluaran ini disusun
sedemikian rupa supaya separuh daripada air yang masuk ke dalam paip ini
dialirkan keluar di hujungnya dengan baki air mengalir keluar secara sama rata
melalui semua lubang keluaran tersebut. Kedua-dua hujung paip 2 dan paip 3
berketinggian 15 m di bawah permukaan air bebas di reservoir. Abaikan semua
kehilangan kecil. Diberi f = 0.024 untuk semua paip dan ketumpatan air = 1000
kg/m3.

a) Dengan menggunakan Persamaan Darcy-Weisbach

buktikan

b) Kira kadaralir untuk setiap paip
gD
fLV
h
f
2
2
=
g
V
D
L
f H
L
2 12
7
2
3
3
3
3
=
Example

In figure below, kerosene at 25
o
C is flowing at 500 L/min from the lower tank to
the upper tank through 2 inch nominal size type K copper tubing and a valve. Tank
A is very large and tank B is opened to the atmosphere.
a) If the pressure above the fluid in tank A is 103.42 kPa, how much energy loss
occurs in the system
b) Assuming that the energy loss is proportional to the velocity head in the
tubing, compute the pressure in the tank required to cause a flow of 1000
L/min
Solution