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Basic Knowledge Petroleum

Industry Reservoir Engineer


Vivi Tanuwidjaja SLB Reservoir Engineer
SPE SC UI 30 April 2011
Personal Background
Name: Vivi Indrayanti Tanuwidjaja
Petroleum Engineering, Trisakti University
Join SLB since 2006 as a reservoir engineer
Mainly support Formation Tester. Borehole
reservoir study
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Outline
Introduction
Petroleum Geology
Reservoir Rock properties
Reservoir Fluid properties
Reservoir fluid types
Drive Mechanism
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Introduction
Definition of Reservoir Engineering
Application of scientific principles to the drainage
problems arising during the development and
production of oil and gas reservoirs
The art of developing and producing oil and gas
fluids in such a manner as to obtain a high
economic recovery.
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Petroleum Geology
Reservoir Accumulation
There must be a source rock containing organic
matter and it must be buried deeply enough so
that temperature and time can cause the organic
matter to mature into petroleum
Not all the organic matter to mature can becomes
petroleum.
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Reservoir accumulation
There are five factors that comprise the critical risks to petroleum
accumulation; 1) a mature source rock, (2) a migration path connecting
source rock to reservoir rock, (3) a reservoir rock that is both porous and
permeable, (4) a trap, and (5) an impermeable seal.
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Traps
A trap is a geometric configuration of
structures and/or strata, in which permeable
rock types (the reservoir) are surrounded and
confined by impermeable rock types (the seal)
Most traps fall into three categories: structural
traps, stratigraphic traps or combination traps
(both structural and stratigraphic traps)
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Traps Cont
Structural traps are the most
common exploration target. It covers
over 75% of the worlds discovered
reserves
Stratigraphic traps are formed due
to lateral and vertical changes in rock
type. It covers around 13% of the
worlds reserves
Combination traps contain about 9%
of the worlds petroleum reserves.
These traps are often found in areas
where faults and folds were actively
growing during deposition
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Seals
Traps must be sealed by
impermeable barriers in
order to stop the continued
upward migration of
petroleum
Shale is the dominant
caprock or worldwide
reserves. Evaporites are the
most efficient caprock and
commonly in carbonate-rich
basins
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Crude Oil Classifications
Crude oil is a natural mixture of
hydrocarbons that is liquid in
underground reservoirs and
remains liquid at the surface after
passing through separating
facilities.
Most normal crude oils falls into:
Rich paraffins
Paraffins &naphthenes
Aromatic intermediate oil
The chemistry of petroleum
determines the types and amounts
of refined hydrocarbon produced
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Reservoir Rock Properties
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Porosity
Definition
Percentage of the formation volume available to
store fluid
Three Main Types of Porosity
1. Inter Connected
multiple pore throat passages
2. Connected
single pore throat passages
3. Isolated
no connection between pores
1 + 2 = Effective Porosity
General Rule: Porosity decreases with depth
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Porosity
Intra-granular Porosity
(Limestones)
Inter-granular Porosity
(Sandstones)
Primary
formed during
deposition
Fenestral (Shrinkage)
Intercrystalline
(Between Crystals)
Solution
(Leaching of Solution)
Moldy or Vuggy
Fracture
Secondary
Formed after
deposition
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Idealized Packed Spheres
CUBIC PACKING
HEXAGONAL
PACKING
RHOMBOHEDRAL
PACKING
= 47.6%
= 39.5%
= 25.9%
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Porosity Types
Sandstones
Primary Inter-granular
Dissolution or Vug
Micro-pores
Fractures
Carbonates
Inter-particle/inter-particle
Inter-crystal
Moldic / Fenestral / Vug
Fracture
Porosity of rocks varies between ~1% to over 40%
Mediocre if: < 5 %
Low if: 5% < < 10 %
Average if: 10% < < 20 %
Good if: 20% < < 30 %
Excellent if: > 30 % 15
Permeability
Ability with which a fluid can flow through a
formation is a measure of how permeable the
rock is.
As a rule of thumb, horizontal permeability is 10 times
greater than vertical permeability. (non fractured systems)
Aerially, permeabilities can also vary considerably and
trends are usually identified as the direction of flow and
the best reservoir quality
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Permeability
There must be some continuity between pores to
have permeability.
Unit of Permeability is the Darcy.
It is defined as that permeability which will allow a fluid of one
centipoise viscosity to flow at a velocity of one centimeter per
second for a pressure drop of one atmosphere per centimeter.
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Permeability grain size
Porosity is independent
of grain size, however
permeability is different.
The finer the grain size,
the narrower the throat
passages between pore
spaces and it makes
harder for fluids to move
through a rock
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Permeability grain sorting
The better sorted the
sand, the higher are both
porosity and permeability.
This is because the pore
spaces are being plugged
up by the finer particles
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Absolute Effective Permeability
Absolute permeability occurs when only one
fluid present in the rock. Absolute
permeability is calculated by darcys law using
laboratory-measured data
Effective permeability occurs when more than
one fluid is present. It is a function of the fluid
saturation
The ratio of effective to absolute permeability
is termed relative permeability
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Permeability Range
Range is very wide: 0.1mD to > 10 D
< 1 mD :Mediocre
1 to 10 mD :Very Low
10 to 50 mD:Low
50 to 200 mD:Average
200 to 500 mD:Good
> 500 mD :Excellent
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Saturation
Saturation of a phase is the fraction of
the pore volume occupied by the phase
So + Sg + Sw = 1
Connate water saturation (Swc) is
primarily reduces the amount of space
available betweeen oil and gas
(irreducible water)
Soc (Critical oil saturation) is the most
exceeded value where the oil remains
in pores (will not flow)
Sgc (Critical gas saturation) is the most
exceeded saturation value where the
gas immobile
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Wettability
Is defined as the tendency of one fluid to spread or adhere to
a solid surface in the presence of other immiscible fluids
for a rock-water-oil system, it is the rocks preference for either water
or oil
when two immiscible fluids such as oil and water are together
in contact, the angle measured in water is called the contact
angle .
This is a quantitative measure of Wettability

Oil
Water
If < 90 then Rock is water wet
If > 90 then Rock is oil wet
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Effect of Wettability
0.4
0
0.2
40 0 100 60 20 80
Water Saturation (% PV)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

P
e
r
m
e
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

F
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
1.0
0.6
0.8
Water
Oil
Strongly Water-Wet Rock
0.4
0
0.2
40 0 100 60 20 80
Water Saturation (% PV)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

P
e
r
m
e
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

F
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
1.0
0.6
0.8
Water Oil
Strongly Oil-Wet Rock
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Reservoir Fluid Properties
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Hydrocarbon Phase Behaviour
Thermodynamics is the branch of science that
studies fluid Phase behavior.
A Phase is the status in which a fluid exists
and is separated by a physical boundary.
Only three phases exists:
Vapour
Liquid
Solid
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Hydrocarbon Phase Behavior
PVT, WHAT DOES IT MEAN?
PVT ( Pressure-Volume-Temperature) is the term used to
describe the study of fluids. In Petroleum engineering, it is the
study of hydrocarbon fluids and formation waters.
Understanding the behaviour of reservoir fluids as pressure
and temperature varies, is crucial in determining the future
performance of the reservoir and its impact on wells and
surface facilities.
PVT data is usually derived from laboratory experiments
carried out on representative samples of reservoir fluids.
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Hydrocarbon Phase behaviour
Single component system
Critical Temperature =
Temperature above which 2
phases cannot co-exist in
equilibrium regardless of the
pressure.
Critical Pressure = Point
above which 2 phases
cannot co-exist in
equilibrium.
Critical Point = Point above
which no phase transition is
clear
Critica
l Point
T
C
P
C
Liquid
Gas
Temperature
Pressure Temperature Plot
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Hydrocarbon Phase behaviour
Multi component system
At all pressures and temperatures within the phase diagram,
two phases exist. All points outside the phase envelope show
only one phase.
Critical Point = all intensive properties of the gas and liquid
phases are equal (density, viscosity, surface tension,
composition)
Cricondentherm = maximum temperature at which two
phases can exist at equilibrium right most extremity of
the phase envelope
Cricondenbar = maximum pressure at which two phases
can exist at equilibrium - uppermost extremity of the
phase envelope
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Multi component system cont
Bubble Point
As one decreases the pressure (increasing T
o
not
usually an option) within the reservoir, it is the
point (pressure) at which the first bubble of gas
starts to break out of solution for a given
temperature.
Dew Point
As one decreases (gas) or increases (liquid) the
pressure within the reservoir, it is the point
(pressure) at which the first droplet of liquid is
formed . (used for gas systems)
Hydrocarbon Phase behaviour
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P-T phase diagram of a Reservoir Fluid
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Reservoir Fluid Properties
B
o
= formation volume factor (rm
3
/stm
3
)
Volume occupied by one stock-tank unit volume
of oil and its associated gas in the reservoir at the
given pressure P and temperature T.
B
oi
= initial formation volume factor (rm
3
/stm
3
)
Volume occupied by one stock-tank unit volume
of oil and its associated gas at virgin reservoir
conditions (P
i
, T
i
, Cum Prod = 0)
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Reservoir Fluid Properties
B
g
= formation volume factor (rm
3
/stm
3
)
Volume occupied by one stock-tank unit volume of gas
in the reservoir at the given pressure P and
temperature T.
B
gi
= initial formation volume factor (rm
3
/stm
3
)
Volume occupied by one stock-tank unit volume of
gas at virgin reservoir conditions (P
i
, T
i
, Cum Prod = 0)
R
s
= Solution Gas Oil Ratio (GOR).
Volume of gas measured at standard conditions,
which will dissolve in a unit volume of stock tank oil at
the given pressure and temperature conditions.
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Reservoir Fluid Types
Two Types = Hydrocarbon & Water
Hydrocarbon Classification
Dry gas
Wet gas
Retrograde Condensate
Volatile Oil
Black oil
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Black Volatile Retrograde Wet Dry
Oil Oil Condensate Gas Gas
GOR < 300 300-600 > 600 > 2500 no
liquid
API gravity < 45 >40 > 40 up to 70 no
liquid
liquid color dark Light
color
light water no
color white liquid
C7+ mol%
> 20 12.5-20 4-12.5 0.7-4 <0.7
(m
3
/m
3
)
Properties of Reservoir Fluid Systems
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Drive Mechanisms
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Oil Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
Each reservoir is composed of a unique combination of geometric form,
geological rock properties, fluid characteristics, and primary drive
mechanism
Each of primary drive mechanism has certain typical performance
characteristics in terms of
Ultimate recovery factor
Pressure decline rate
Gas-Oil ratio
Water production
There are 5 basic drive mechanisms for primary recovery:
Gravity-drainage drive
Solution-gas drive
Gas-cap drive
Water drive
Combination drive 37
What drives recovery???
Primary Drive
Mechanisms
Gas Drive
Solution Gas Drive
Water Drive
No external pressure support Low Cost
First 5 35% Recovery
Secondary Drive
Mechanisms
Gas Injection
Water Injection
External pressure support medium cost
Next 10 25%
Recovery
e.g.
steam
polymer
surfactant
miscible gas
External pressure support High cost
Next 15 35%
Recovery
Tertiary Drive Mechanisms
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Gravity-Drainage Drive
Main characteristics:
Differential gravity is the main drive energy
Segregation of the gas occurs and because oil
compressibility is low, pressure drops rapidly until it
reaches the bubble point
Liberated gas has a tendency to move up structure to
form a secondary gas cap.
Unless assisted by artificial lift, pressure decline causes
the oil production to drop rapidly.
Slow steady production contributes to minimizing the
GOR as it allows the liberated gas to migrate up the
structure.
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Solution gas drive(Depletion drive)
Main characteristics:
oil compressibility is the main drive energy
because oil compressibility is low, pressure drops rapidly
until it reaches the bubble point
once bubble point is reached, solution gas is liberated.
since liberated gas has high compressibility, the rate of
pressure decline per unit of production reduces.
Once critical gas saturation is exceeded, produced GOR
increases unless the conditions are right for a Secondary
Gas cap to be formed
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Solution-Gas Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Oil
A. Original Conditions
B. 50% Depleted
Oil producing wells
Oil producing wells
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Solution gas drive(Depletion drive)
Performance:
Encourages formation of secondary gas cap
By location of wells away from the crest
By maintaining low p at the producing wells
Typical recovery factor of 5 - 30 %, is dependent on:
Initial reservoir pressure
Solution GOR
Reservoir dip
Works well with
Low density / low viscosity Oil
High bubble point pressure
Abandonment : high GOR, low res. Pressure
Supplement with Gas or Water injection
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Gas cap drive
Main characteristics:
initial condition: primary gas cap is present
high gas compressibility provides drive energy
the larger the gas cap the greater the energy
locate wells as far away from GOC as possible.
but Wells too near to OWC ------> Coning
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Gas-Cap Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Cross Section
Oil producing well
Oil
zone
Oil
zone
Gas cap
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Gas cap drive
Performance:
Slower decline in reservoir pressure
Longer production plateau
GOR increases as gas cap expands
Typical RF = 20 - 40%
Reservoir dip,
Size of gas cap
Prolong reservoir life by
GOR control
Re-completing wells
Gas re-injection into gas cap
Works well with
Relatively large ratio of gas cap to oil zone
High reservoir dip angle
Thick oil column
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Water Drive
Main characteristics:
Initial condition:
large underlying aquifer (at least 10 times oil volume)
aquifer should have good permeability and
communicates with the oil sand.
Wells position high up structure
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Bottom-water Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Oil producing well
Cross Section
Oil Zone
Water
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Water Drive
Performance:
Knowledge of size and permeability of aquifer not usually
available
hence prediction of aquifer behaviour uncertain
typically produce 5% of the STOIIP to measure aquifer
response
GOR remains at about solution GOR
increase in water prominent: up to 90% at end of field life.
Typical RF = 30-75% is dependent on aquifer strength or the
sweep efficiency of injected water.
Supplement with water injection
Works well with
Low oil viscosity
High relative oil permeability
Little reservoir heterogeneity and stratification
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Summary
Gas/oil
ratio
Reservoir
pressure
Oil production rate
Reservoir pressure
Gas/oil ratio
Oil
Gas/oil ratio
Reservoir pressure
Oil
Water
Solution Gas Drive
(Low rec.)
Gas Cap Gas Drive
(up to 40% rec.)
Water Drive
(up to 75% rec.)
Production Profiles
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Combination drive
Performance:
Slower decline in reservoir pressure
Longer production plateau
Gas expansion process slower keeping GOR under control
Typical RF = 30 - 75%
Reservoir dip,
Size of gas cap, size and strength of aquifer
Abandonment: high GOR or watering out
Prolong reservoir life by
Close monitoring or GOR and Wcut
Reducing drawdown through horizontal drain holes
Gas and water re-injection
Works well with
Large gas cap and aquifers with respect to the oil zone
High reservoir dip angle
Thick oil column
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Combination Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Water
Cross Section
Oil zone
Gas cap
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Average Recovery Factors
Average Oil Recovery
Factors,
% of OOIP

Drive Mechanism
Range Average
Solution-gas drive 5 - 30 15
Gas-cap drive 15 - 50 30
Water drive 30 - 60 40
Combination Drive 16 - 85 50

Oil Reservoirs
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Thanks for patient hearing
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