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Punta Princesa, Cebu City


Submitted By:
Luis Mikael L. Arzadon

Submitted To:
Engr. Carlo Pilapil

1. Lorentz Force
In physics, particularly electromagnetism, the Lorentz force is the
combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic
fields. If a particle of charge q moves with velocity v in the presence of an electric
field E and a magnetic field B, then it will experience a force. For any produced
force there will be an opposite reactive force. In the case of the magnetic field, the
reactive force may be obscure, but it must be accounted for.

The Lorentz force is usually described abstractly without reference to the
physical mechanism by which the force acts in space. Consider for example and
diagram of the Lorentz force using the right hand rule.
The right hand rule:

A charge moving upwards in the drawing (in the direction of the thumb)
experiences a force outward from the palm, when the outstretched fingers point in
the direction of the B field.
The Lorentz force visualized as an interaction between magnetic tubes.

The positive charge moving vertically through the magnetic lines of force
generates a magnetic field around itself by the right hand rule. The lines of this field
are horizontal, in the same place as the field lines of the magnet. The lines of the
charge and the lines of the magnet are co-rotating on the far side, and thus repel
one another (leading to a pressure on the far side). The lines on the near side are
counter-rotating, and thus attract one another. As a consequence, the particle
experiences a force to the near side, with the dark arrow shown.
This is called the Lorentz force law, after the Dutch physicist Hendrik Antoon
Lorentz who first formulated it. The electric force on a charged particle is parallel to
the local electric field. The magnetic force, however, is perpendicular to both the
local magnetic field and the particle's direction of motion. No magnetic force is
exerted on a stationary charged particle.
The equation of motion of a free particle of charge q and mass moving in
electric and magnetic fields is
2. Faradays Law
While Oersted's surprising discovery of electromagnetism paved the way for
more practical applications of electricity, it was Michael Faraday who gave us the
key to the practical generation of electricity: electromagnetic induction.
Faraday discovered that when he moved a magnet near a wire a voltage was
generated across it. If the magnet was held stationary no voltage was generated,
the voltage only existed while the magnet was moving. We call this voltage the
induced emf ( ).
A circuit loop connected to a sensitive ammeter will register a current if it is
set up as in this figure and the magnet is moved up and down:

Before we move onto the definition of Faraday's law of electromagnetic
induction and examples, we first need to spend some time looking at the magnetic
flux. For a loop of area in the presence of a uniform magnetic field, , the
magnetic flux ( ) is defined as:


The S.I. unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb).
You might ask yourself why the angle is included. The flux depends on the
magnetic field that passes through surface. We know that a field parallel to the
surface can't induce a current because it doesn't pass through the surface. If the
magnetic field is not perpendicular to the surface then there is a component which
is perpendicular and a component which is parallel to the surface. The parallel
component can't contribute to the flux, only the vertical component can.
In this diagram we show that a magnetic field at an angle other than perpendicular
can be broken into components. The component perpendicular to the surface has
the magnitude where is the angle between the normal and the magnetic
Faraday's Law of electromagnetic induction
The emf, , produced around a loop of conductor is proportional to the rate
of change of the magnetic flux, , through the area, A, of the loop. This can be
stated mathematically as:

where and B is the strength of the magnetic field. is the
number of circuit loops. A magnetic field is measured in units of teslas (T). The
minus sign indicates direction and that the induced emf tends to oppose the change
in the magnetic flux. The minus sign can be ignored when calculating magnitudes.
Faraday's Law relates induced emf to the rate of change of flux, which is the
product of the magnetic field and the cross-sectional area through which the field
lines pass.
It is not the area of the wire itself but the area that the wire encloses. This
means that if you bend the wire into a circle, the area we would use in a flux
calculation is the surface area of the circle, not the wire.
3. Maxwell Equations
The Maxwell equations are the set of four fundamental equations governing
electromagnetism (i.e., the behavior of electric and magnetic fields). They were
first written down in complete form by physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who
added the so-called displacement current term to the final equation, although
steady-state forms were known earlier.
Maxwell's equations describe electricity, magnetism, space, time and the
relationships among them. They are simple and fundamental. Their simplicity,
symmetry and beauty persuaded Einsten to develop a theory of relativity in which
Maxwell's equations were invariant.
For time-varying fields, the differential form of these equations in cgs is





where is the divergence, is the curl, is the constant pi,
E is the electric field, B is the magnetic field, is the charge density, c is
the speed of light, and J is the vector current density.