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First section of this unit explain objectives behind the

setting up of WOU, the academic services and the academic


structure at WOU.
In second section, recall how you learn under traditional
schooling system & review some of its strength &
weaknesses.
Make a comparison between ODL & traditional system
The mental attitude you must have to succeed at WOU.
The last section explains the modes of learning in ODL.
One maj or char ac t er i st i c of WOU st udent s
wor k i ng adul t s.
Pur sue t er t i ar y educ at i on on a par t -t i me
basi s.
I t i s i mpor t ant you equi p your sel f w i t h t he
sk i l l s t o be suc c essf ul i n st udi es.
Thi s c our se i s t o pr ovi de t he sk i l l s.
OBJ ECTI VES:
By t he end of t hi s uni t , you shoul d be abl e
To:-
1. Ex pl ai n t he obj ec t i ves of set t i ng up WOU, i t s
ac ademi c ser vi c es and st r uc t ur e.
2. Compar e and c ont r ast t he char ac t er i st i c s of open
di st anc e l ear ner s and t r adi t i onal l ear ner s.
3. Desc r i be t he benef i t s of open di st anc e l ear ni ng.
4. Make c ompar i son bet ween di st anc e and t r adi t i onal
l ear ni ng.
5. Ex pl ai n t he ment al at t i t udes w hi ch an ODL st udent
shoul d have.
6. Appl y t he var i ous modes of l ear ni ng f or open
di st anc e l ear ner s.
Obj ec t i ve:
By t he end of t hi s sec t i on, you shoul d be
abl e t o:
1. Ex pl ai n t he obj ec t i ves of set i ng up of
WOU, i t s ac ademi c ser vi c es and
st r uc t ur e.
Why was WOU set up ?
How di f f er ent i s WOU ?
How i s i t r el evant t o wor k i ng adul t s?
Why di dnt you dec i de t o f ur t her your st udi es as
soon as you l ef t school ?
Many f or go hi gher educ at i on due t o :-
1. Lac k of money
2. l ac k of mot i vat i on
3. f ami l y c ommi t ment s
4. Li mi t ed ac c ess t o i nst i t ut i on of hi gher l ear ni ng
at t hat t i me.
St at i st i c s onl y 29% possess t er t i ar y educ at i on.
Mal aysi an wor ker s w i t h SPM ex t r emel y
di f f i c ul t t o f i nd wor k .
Now empl oyer s l ook f or wor ker s w i t h t er t i ar y
educ at i on.
Wi t h ODL f ul l -t i me wor k i ng peopl e ( you al so)
have an addi t i onal avenue.
WOU pr ovi des you t he sec ond chanc e t o pur sue
your goal of t er t i ar y educ at i on w i t hout l eavi ng
your j ob.
WOU was set up w i t h t he obj ec t i ve of pr ovi di ng at
r easonabl e c ost , t er t i ar y educ at i on f or wor k i ng
adul t s l i ke you.
Mor e i mpor t ant l y you c an now st udy w hi l e
wor k i ng.
Most of t he c our se mat er i al s ar e pr i nt -based.
Pr i nt ed Cour se Mat er i al s
WOU has made gr eat ef f or t s t o pr oduc e pr i nt ed
c our se mat er i al s t o sui t your needs.
1. Cour se mat er i al s al l t he uni t s spec i al l y desi gned.
Al l t he i nf o i s c ont ai ned i n t he set of mat er i al s.
2. Nor mal l y 5 uni t s.
3. These mat er i al s ar e sl ow l y phasi ng out as WOU
pr epar es ow n mat er i al s.
4. WOU mat er i al s ar e si mpl e and di r ec t w r i t i ng st yl e;
most sent enc es shor t and c ommuni c at e onl y one
c onc ept ; use c onver sat i onal t one; t he wor d you
i s f r equent l y used t o addr ess st udent .
WOU c our se ar e qui t e i nf or mal i n t hi s st yl e.
The mat er i al s ar e ver y i nt er ac t i ve.
You w i l l be gi ven oppor t uni t i es t o be i nvol ved i n
t he l ear ni ng pr oc ess vi a ac t i vi t i es, exer c i ses,
quest i ons andsel f -t est s t hat appear r egul ar l y i n
t he t ex t .
Addi t i onal r esour c es ar e added t o
wawasanLear n.
Li nk s t o r el evant audi os, vi deo and websi t es ar e
pr ovi ded.
Do you st i l l r emember t he l ear ni ng mat er i al s t hat
you used i n school ?
How di f f er ent ar e t hey f r om t he mat er i al s i n WOU ?
1. Most of t hem wer e t ex t book s.
2. Ver y l i t t l e exer c i ses or ac t i vi t i es i n t hem,
c ont ai ned a l ot of f ac t s.
WOU has t aken ef f or t s t o hel p st udent s
you have t o f i nd ways of l oc at i ng r esour c es on your ow n
t hi s may make you f eel hel pl ess at t i mes.
WOU has t aken c onc er t ed ef f or t t o ef f or t s t o pr ovi de you
w i t h a var i et y of qual i t y suppor t ser vi c es t o hel p you i n your
st udi es.
Besi des hi gh qual i t y mat er i al s, t her e ar e c omput er l abs &
ac c ess t o l ear ni ng r esour c es at RC and DL.
Most i mpor t ant l y t her e ar e F2F t ut or i al s, t el ephone
c ounsel l i ng ser vi c es as wel l as I nt er net -based suppor t by
t r ai ned t ut or s & CCs.
Some t eachi ng-l ear ni ng ac t s have t o oc c ur vi a F2F c ont ac t s
at RCs.
Ar e st r at egi c al l y l oc at ed i n of f i c es or bui l di ngs t o pr ovi de
admi ni st r at i ve & ac ademi c suppor t you.
Ar e usual l y l oc at ed i n bi g c i t i es or t ow ns t hat ar e cl ose t o
your r esi denc e c onveni enc e.
Ref er t o St udent handbook f or addr ess t o t hese RCs.
3 of t hem i n Bandar Ut ama, Kl ang & Subang i n Sel angor.
At t he RCs you c an:
do you r egi st r at i on
pay your f ees
get advi c e & gui danc e f or c our se
get i nf o about f i nanc i al assi st anc e
c ol l ec t t he F2F t ut or i al t i met abl e.
Some ex ams may be c onduc t ed at RCs.
RCs ar e your f i r st poi nt of c ont ac t w i t h
your Uni ver si t y.
To f i nd out w her e your ex am venue w i l l
be, check your st udent por t al .
For ever y c our se you t ake WOU assi gns a t ut or t o hel p you.
The t ut or i s your mai n c ont ac t w i t h t he Uni ver si t y.
For each c our se t her e w i l l be 10 hour s of t ut or i al cl asses
w her e t he t ut or w i l l f ac i l i t at e your l ear ni ng pr oc ess.
The t ut or w i l l make t he l ear ni ng pr oc ess smoot her & l ess
l onel y f or you.
You may c ont ac t hi m by t el ephone, I nt er net or vi deo
c onf er enc i ng.
I t i s your t ut or w ho w i l l :
gi ve you advi c e & gui danc e on pr obl ems r el at ed t o your
st udi es.
hel p you bui l d-up your st udy sk i l l s.
hel ps you i nc r ease your sel f -c onf i denc e.
Cour ses of f er ed by Wou ar e c r edi t based.
Each c our se c ar r i es 5 c r edi t uni t s or poi nt s.
The t ot al st udy hour s f or one c r edi t w i l l be about 40 hour s-
i ncl udi ng st udyi ng c our se mat er i al s, t ut or i al at t endanc e &
t i me spent on TMAs & c ar r y out sel f -t est s.
You woul d need t o spend ar ound 200 hour s dur i ng t he 21
week s.
Al l t he ac c umul at ed uni t st o f ul f i l t he r equi r ement s of your
degr ee pr ogr amme.
WOU oper at es on 21-week semest er.
2 semest er s i n an ac ademi c year, w i t h a 5-week br eak i n
bet ween.
You w i l l t her ef or e spend 42 week s i n a year f or your st udy.
Thi s l eaves you about 10 week s of f r ee t i me or a br eak f r om
your st udy.
I s a 10-week br eak enough f or you?
The ac ademi c t er m st r uc t ur e at WOU :-
Semester Weeks
Study period 18
Revision 1
Examinations 2
Total 21
Semester break 5 weeks
Most of t he c our ses at WOU ar e f l ex i bl e.
You may opt t o r egi st er one or mor e
c our ses at t he same or at di f f er ent l evel s
i n any gi ven semest er.
The RC Manager w i l l be abl e t o pr ovi de
you c ounsel l i ng suppor t , advi c e &
gui danc e t o assi st you i n devel opi ng your
ow n pr ogr essi on pl an.
Wi t hout assessment , you w i l l not be abl e t o k now how much
you have l ear nt .
Somet i mes a l i t t l e t ensi on c r eat ed bef or e an assessment i s
good t o make you t ake your st udy mor e ser i ousl y.
An assessment i s under t aken f or sever al r easons:-
i t c an push you t o st udy har der.
i t i s a good mot i vat i on t ool .
i t i s anot her l ear ni ng oc c asi on.
i t pr ovi des f eedback t o bot h st udent & t he i nst i t ut i on.
i t c an be used t o det er mi ne t he achi evement of i nt ended
l ear ni ng out c omes.
i t c an ser ve as a qual i t y assur anc e mechani sm.
Your f i nal gr ade f or each c our se w i l l depend on your
per f or manc e i n 2 assessment s c omponent s; t he c ont i nuous
assessment s & t he f i nal ex am.
The c ont i nuous assessment = 2 TMAs ( shor t t est s, qui zzes,
pr oj ec t s, l ab sessi ons or assi gnment s).
You c an hand i n your TMAs t o your t ut or, w ho w i l l under t ake
t he mar k i ng & gr adi ng.
The f i nal ex am i s c onduc t ed at t he end of ever y semest er
and w i l l usual l y be hel d at venues near maj or RCs.
I n or der t o achi eve an over al l pass st at us on t he c our se, you
have t o pass t he c ont i nuous assessment s & f i nal ex ams.
SUBJ ECT: EXAMI NATI ON & ASSESSMENT POLI CY FOR
UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS FOR ALL UNDERGRADUATE
STUDENTS ONLY.
(A)Assessment & grading system Criteria for passing a course
The grade for a course is assigned based on the overall score which
combines both the continuous assessment and the final examination
components.
I n order to pass a course:
1. A minimum thereshold, as set by the University must be achieved in
both the continuous assessment component. I n this regard, students
are advised to duly submit their TMAs and to sit for the final
examination.
2. For MPW/ MPU courses (Mata PelajaranWajib/ Mata pelajaran Umum),
a student must achieve an overall score of a minimum of Grade C.
3. For non-MPW/ MPU courses, a student must achieve an overall score of
a minimum of Grade D.
I f a student has passed both components, the grade for the course will be
accorded based on the overall course score. However, if a student fails
either component, the highest grade that can be achieved is C.
(B) El i gi bi l i t y f or suppl ement ar y ex ami nat i on
A st udent w ho has at t ended t he f i nal ex ami nat i on f or a c our se and
obt ai ned gr ade F w i l l be gi ven t he oppor t uni t y t o r e-si t dur i ng t he
f ol l ow i ng suppl ement ar y ex ami nat i on, pr ovi ded t hat t he st udent has
achi eved t he mi ni mum t hr eshol d (as set by t he Uni ver si t y) i n t he
c ont i nuous assessment c omponent . Thi s opt i on c an onl y be
EXERCI SED ONCE at t he nex t i mmedi at e of f er i ng of t he same
c our se. No suppl ement ar y TMA w i l l be of f er ed. I f t he st udent does
not si t f or t he suppl ement ar y ex ami nat i on i n t he nex t i mmedi at e
of f er i ng, t he el i gi bi l i t y w i l l be f or f ei t ed.
The hi ghest over al l sc or e gr ade t hat c an be achi eved i n a
suppl ement ar y ex ami nat i on i s Gr ade C (as t hi s c onsi der ed as
at t empt i ng t he ex ami nat i on c omponent f or t he 2
nd
t i me) i r r espec t i ve
of st udent s havi ng passed bot h c omponent s event ual l y. However
st udent s w ho wer e gr ant ed AR st at us (absent f r om ex ami nat i on
due t o val i d r easons ac c ept ed by t he Uni ver si t y) i n t he f i nal
ex ami nat i on, and sat f or t he suppl ement ar y ex ami nat i on, woul d be
ac c or ded t he appr opr i at e gr ade i f t hey have passed bot h
c omponent s (as t hi s i s c onsi der ed t hei r 1
st
at t empt i n t he
ex ami nat i on c omponent .
1. Take your calendar and your Student handbook. Mark
on your calendar the first day of your first semester.
Mark also the last day of this semester. Indicate when
the semester break is. If you do not have the calendar
for the following year, just mark for this year. You can
continue your marking when you get your calendar
next year.
2. Refer to the Student Handbook, Mark all the dates for
the tutorial sessions. Check to see if these dates clash
with any of your important activities. All the tutorials
will be held on weekends only. The tutorials should be
given priority over other activities. This is because you
only have a limited number of tutorials.
3. For each course that you are taking this semester, check
the weightage or percentage contributed by the
continuous assessment and the final examination to the
overall grade. Is it the same for each course?
Now, you should have a better understanding of WOU in
relation to your role and responsibilities as a student here.
Its background, objectives, as well as the academic
organisation and structure were explained in this section
and we also looked at the support services that you will
receive as a student here.
Obj ec t i ves
By t he end of t hi s sec t i on, you shoul d be abl e t o:
1. Desc r i be t he c har ac t er i st i c s of t r adi t i onal
l ear ni ng.
2. Ex pl ai n t he c har ac t er i st i c s of open and
di st anc e l ear ni ng.
3. Di i f er ent i at e bet ween t r adi t i onal and di st anc e
l ear ni ng.
4. I dent i f y t he at t i t udi nal changes essent i al f or
suc c essf ul di st anc e l ear ni ng.
How di d you l ear n w hen you wer e a st udent i n
sc hool ?
What i s school ?
A sc hool i s a pl ac e w her e l ear ni ng oc c ur s.
has a physi c al pr esenc e = sever al bui l di ng i n a
c ompound.
You st udi ed i n a r oom c al l ed t he cl assr oom.
Physi c al l y, a cl assr oom has t abl es and chai r s and
or c our se a bl ack boar d or a w hi t eboar d.
a t eac her st ands i n f r ont of a cl ass t eac hi ng a gr oup
of st udent s.
He i s t he most i mpor t ant per son i n cl ass.
He t eac hes by t al k i ng & ex pl ai ni ng t o you.
Al l ac t i vi t i es happen bec ause he or gani ses i t .
Apar t f r om t eacher, you w i l l al so meet your
cl assmat es and ot her st udent s at l east 5 hour s
ever y sc hool day 200 days a year !
You have pl ent y of t i me t o do school wor k &
homewor k & t o meet your school mat es t o c ompar e
not es and di sc uss t hi ngs.
What we have desc r i bed above i s TL we al l l ear n.
You w i l l r eal i se now TL i s t eacher c ent r ed you
depend on t eacher t o i nst r uc t you.
Teac hi ng & l ear ni ng pr oc ess oc c ur s at school .
We al l have t o be physi c al l y pr esent t o r ec ei ve
i nst r uc t i on.
The t eac hi ng ac t ( by t eacher ) & l ear ni ng ac t ( by
st udent s) happens si mul t aneousl y.
We l ear n as t he t eacher t eaches & i t happens i n
r eal t i me.
The TL syst em has a f ew weak nesses:-
Ex pensi ve t o bui l d school s-a physi c al bui l di ng br i ck &
mor t ar syst em, doubl e sessi ons
Teacher dependent c ont r ol s st udent l ear ni ng, st udent s
not pr oac t i ve & do not quest i on t he t eacher, t eacher set s
t he pac e & w hat t eacher says i s l ar gel y t r ue.
Teacher or i ent ed- Teacher t el l s st udent s w hen t o do, w hat
t o do and how t o do i t .
Fi xed year s of i nst r uc t i on -
El i t i st educ at i on syst em f avour s t hose f r om bet t er soc i al
ec onomi c f ami l i es,poor st udent s do not go t o school as onl y
f ew school s & f ar away.
For chi l dr en onl y 7 year s ol d st ar t & onl y a smal l % t o
t er t i ar y educ at i on, t hey st ar t wor k & no l onger st udy .
At w hat age di d you st op
school i ng ? What wer e your
r easons f or doi ng so? Ar e your
r easons t he same as your
f r i ends?
The t r adi t i onal educ at i on syst em has ser ved
most humans f or c ent ur i es.
Why t hen di d you dec i de t o c ont i nue your
st udi es ?
Why do you want t o t ake up f or mal educ at i on
agai n?
Mor e i mpor t ant l y, w hy di d you choose WOU and
t he ODL syst em?
In your opinion, do you think the traditional system still
discriminates against those from the lower social economic
status?
Give reasons to support your view.
St udent s f r om t he l ower soc i al ec onomi c st at us (SES) t end t o l ose out
i n t he f ol l ow i ng aspec t s:
1. Addi t i onal r ef er enc e book s t hey may not be abl e t o buy so many
r ef er enc e book s c ompar ed t o t hei r f r i ends f r om t he hi gher SES.
2. St udy t i me t hey may have l ess t i me t ost udy as t hey may be
r equi r ed t o hel p out i n t he f ami l y, or t o wor k af t er school t o ear n
ex t r a money.
3. Loc at i on of t he school st udent s f r om l ower SES have f ewer choi c e
over t he school s w hi ch t hey c an at t end due t o t r anspor t . (They
usual l y have t o cycl e or wal k and so c an t o near by school s onl y
c ompar ed t o t hei r f r i ends of hi gher SES)
4. Pr i vat e c oachi ng/t ui t i on st udent s of l ower SES may not have so
many pr i vat e c oachi ng/ t ui t i on due t o f i nanc i al pr obl ems.
open = t he l ear ni ng syst em avai l abl e t o anyone,
i r r espec t i ve of age, qual i f i c at i on or et hni c gr oup.
di st anc e = has a spat i al & a t i me di mensi on.
The physi c al di st anc e means you st udy away f r om
t he ac ademi c i nst i t ut i on.
Ti me = t he t eachi ng & l ear ni ng ac t i vi t i es ar e
separ at ed.
Teac hi ng ac t i vi t i es = t he pr epar at i on of t he c our se
mat er i al s wel l i n advanc e.
Lear ni ng ac t i vi t i es = your st udyi ng ac t i vi t i es at
home or el sew her e and c ompl et i ng your assi gnment s
I n bot h t he geogr aphi c al and spat i al sense t hen,
ODL i s di st anc ed.
Apar t f r om WOU, ot her i nst i t ut i ons of f er open
di st anc e educ at i on.
Some wel l -k now n ones ar e :
The Open Uni ver si t y (UK)
The Uni ver si t y of Sout h Af r i c a (Sout h Af r i c a)
Suk hot hai Thammat hi r at Open Uni ver si t y
(Thai l and)
Ar habasc a Uni ver si t y ( Canada)
I ndi r a Gandhi Nat i onal Open Uni ver si t y (I ndi a)
Open Uni ver si t y Mal aysi a ( Mal aysi a)
ODL = t he syst em of l ear ni ng ac c essi bl e t o al l ,
w her e t he t eachi ng & l ear ni ng ac t i vi t i es ar e
separ at ed i n t i me & spac e.
Lear ni ng need not nec essar i l y t ake pl ac e i n t he
physi c al pr esenc e of a t eacher & l ear ni ng al so
need not nec essar i l y t akes pl ac e at t he same
t i me as t eachi ng.
I n di st anc e l ear ni ng t he mode of c ommuni c at i on
i s r epl ac ed by t echnol ogi c al i nnovat i ons: sel f
i nst r uc t i onal pr i nt ed mat er i al s, el ec t r oni c
c ommuni c at i on, t el ephone, t el ec onf er enc e, audi o,
vi deo, br oadc ast i ng and on-l i ne c ommuni c at i on.
You al so have t he pr i vi l ege of st udyi ng i n t he
c omf or t of your home.
The WOU vi a ODL, pr ovi des an oppor t uni t y t o al l
t hose w ho ar e wor k i ng & w i sh t o f ur t her t hei r
educ at i on.
St udent s l ear n at t i mes & pl ac es di f f er ent f r om
t he i nst i t ut i on & gi ves you f l ex i bi l i t y & c hoi c e over
w hat , w hen, w her e, at w hat pac e, & how you
l ear n.
You c an t ai l or your ow n t i met abl e t o f i t i n your
l i f est yl e.
You dec i de t he t echnol ogy t hat best sui t s your
st yl e of l ear ni ng & c i r c umst anc es.
ODL = an educ at i on syst em t hat put s st udent s i n
c ommand.
I n di st anc e l ear ni ng, t he human t ouc h i s st i l l
mai nt ai ned t hr u r egul ar F2F t ut or i al s w i t h a
per sonal t ut or.
Ther e ar e 2 mai n t ypes of separ at i on i n di st anc e
educ at i on spat i al & t i me di mensi ons.
Some di st anc e educ at i on syst ems use
sync hr onous ( at t he same t i me) mode of
i nst r uc t i on.
Sync hr onous i nst r uc t i ons r equi r es al l st udent s
and i nst r uc t or s t o be pr esent si mul t aneousl y or
t oget her at t he same t i me.
They may meet at t he same pl ac e, or t hey c an be
mi l es apar t but c onnec t ed vi a t echnol ogy.
Ex ampl e, cl assr oom l ear ni ng, I nt er net c hat s,
t el ec onf er enc i ng and web c onf er enc i ng.
Async hr onous i nst r uc t i on does not r equi r e t he
si mul t aneous par t i c i pat i on of al l st udent s &
i nst r uc t or s.
Emai l i s async hr onous bec ause t he 2 par t i es
need not have t o be i n f r ont of t he c omput er
sc r een at t he same t i me.
I n t er m of ODL, i t means st udent s do not need t o
be at t he same t i me.
You c an choose you ow n t i me f r ame and i nt er ac t
w i t h t he l ear ni ng mat er i al s, ot her st udent s &
i nst r uc t or s ac c or di ng t o t hei r ow n sc hedul es.
Async hr onous i nst r uc t i on i s def i ni t el y mor e
f l ex i bl e t han synchr onous i nst r uc t i on.
Thi s l eads t o sel f -pac ed l ear ni ng & al so sel f -
managed l ear ni ng.
I t al l ow s mul t i pl e l ear ni ng l evel s & schedul es.
Ot her ex ampl es of asynchr onous del i ver y =
emai l , l i st ser ves, audi oc asset t e c our ses,
vi deot aped c our ses, c or r espondenc e c our ses and
WWW-based c our ses.
Benef i t of ODL = ac c ess t o educ at i on t hat you
woul d not ot her w i se have, al l ow s l ear ner s t o
st udy w hen & w her e sui t s t hem, you ar e abl e t o
c ont i nue st udyi ng w hi l e f ul f i l l i ng wor k , f ami l y or
c ommuni t y c ommi t ment s.
Uni que nat ur e of ODL char at er i st i c s:
separ at i on of t eacher & l ear ner i n t i me or pl ac e or
i n bot h t i me & pl ac e.
sel f -managed l ear ni ng l ear ner s have t o be
i ndependent & or gani se t hei r ow n l ear ni ng.
sync hr onous & asynchr onous l ear ni ng t eac hi ng &
l ear ni ng t ake pl ac e si mul t aneousl y or at di f f er ent
t i mes.
unl i mi t ed ac c ess t o c our se 24 hour s a days, 7
days a week , 52 week s a year.
j ust i n t i me and on-demand l ear ni ng di gi t al l ear ni ng i s
del i ver i ng k now l edge w hen & w her e t he st udent needs i t , and
as of t en as t hey need i t . Thi s c onc ept of :anyw her e-anyt i me
l ear ni ng l eads t o gr eat er r et ent i on and sat i sf ac t i on, i n addi t i on
t o a si gni f i c ant c ost savi ngs f or empl oyees.
i nst i t ui t onal ac c r edi t at i on t hat i s, l ear ni ng i s
ac c r edi t ed or c er t i f i ed by some i nst i t ut i on or
agenc y.
use of mi xed-medi a c our sewar e i ncl udi ng pr i nt ,
r adi o and t el evi si on br aodc ast s, vi deo and audi o
c asset t es, c omput er -based l ear ni ng and
t el ec ommuni c at i ons.
t wo-way c ommuni c at i on - al l ow s l ear ner s &
t ut or s t o i nt er ac t as di st i ngui shed f r om t he
passi ve r ec ei pt of br oadc ast si gnal s.
Communi c at i on c an be synchr onous or
async hr onous.
f ac e-t o-f ac e meet i ngs f or t ut or i al s - l ear ner -
l ear ner i nt er ac t i on, l i br ar y st udy & l ab or pr ac t i c e
sessi ons
Based on w hat we have di sc ussed so f ar, c an you f i l l i n t he t abl e
bel ow w i t h at l east 6 di f f er enc es bet ween ODL and t r adi t i onal
st udent s at a t er t i ar y i nst i t ut i on (e.g., a uni ver si t y). The f i r st one
has been done f or you.
Traditional student ODL student
Attends lectures at the
same time set by the
institution
Studies the course materials
at a time of his/her choice.
Traditional student ODL student
Attends lectures at the
time set by the
institution/ lecture.
Studies the course
materials at a time of
his/ her choice.
Attends lectures on-
campus
Studies wherever is
convenient.
Usually has to study full-
time
Can study while
employedfull-time.
Can only apply the
knowledge gained after
completing the degree
Can apply the
knowledge as it is
learned.
Starts the degree
programmes
immediately after
leaving school.
Often is matured,
experienced individual.
Motivation is to get a
degree than a job.
Motivation is to improve
his/ her work
performance and
prospects for promotion.
Studies with his/ her
peers
I n relative isolation.
Traditional student ODL student
Has immediate academic
&administrative support
from the university.
Has limited facxe-to-
face support
Depends on the quality
of the lectures delivered
by the lecturer.
Has well-developed
course materials
specifically designed for
the independent learner.
Learningis teacher
centred.
Learningis self-
managed by the learner
Delivery of teaching
teachers talking most of
the time.
Delivery of teaching
relies a lot on
technologies, especially
computer technologies.
ODL st udent s go t hr u a ver y vi gor ous ac ademi c
pr oc ess.
Bei ng an ODL l ear ner you need t o :-
Or gani se and manage your ow n l ear ni ng.
Take r esponsi bi l i t y f or your ow n l ear ni ng by
mak i ng dec i si ons as t o w hat , w hen & how you w i l l
l ear n.
QUALITIES OF ODL STUDENTS
Qual i t i es of ODL
st udent s
Responsible
Dedicated
Possess
mul t i t ask i ng
sk i l l s
Mot i vat ed
For war d
t hi nker s
Responsi bl e - empl oyees i nc r easi ngl y r ec ogni ses
t he val ue.
Dedi c at ed - ODL l ear ner s ar e r ec ogni sed as goal -
or i ent ed i ndi vi dual s w ho see educ at i on as ongoi ng
pr oc ess l i f el ong l ear ner s.
Possess mul t i t ask i ng sk i l l s- ODL l ear ner s ar e
r ec ogni sed as i ndi vi dual s w ho per f or m ef f ec t i vel y
i n a mul t i -t ask i ng envi r onment c os maj or i t y ar e
f ul l -t i me or par t -t i me wor k i ng adul t s w ho j uggl e
j ob, c our sewor k & f ami l y r esponsi bi l i t i es. They
under st and t he need t o pr i or i t i se.
Mot i vat ed - ODL l ear ner s ar e seen t o be
mot i vat ed sel f -st ar t er s w i t h t he abi l i t y t o
c ompl et e assi gnment s on t i me & adapt t o dynami c
envi r onment s. They st r i ve on chal l enge.
For war d t hi nker s ODL l ear ner s ar e per c ei ved t o
be c apabl e of st r et chi ng t hei r t hought s & i deas
i nt o new t er r i t or i es t o be i nnovat i ve & c r eat i ve
peopl e. They al so seek t o under st and t he
c ompet enc i es & per sonal i t y t r ai t s of t hei r
c ol l eagues or t eam member s.
At t he end, you w i l l be a mor e or gani sed,
syst emat i c & i ndependent per son a change i n
your at t i t ude & mi ndset i s nec essar y.
You must be pr epar ed t o f ac e a l ot of chal l enges
al ong t he way.
You ar e now n i ndependent di st anc e
l ear ner & t her e ar e c er t ai n changes
t hat you need t o make i n or der t o be
suc c essf ul .
You w i l l need t o dec i de w hen, how,
w hat & w her e t o l ear n.
You need t o or gani se & t ake
r esponsi bi l i t y f or your ow n l ear ni ng.
The f ol l ow i ng ar e some t hi ngs ex pec t ed of you as
ODL :-
Thi s syst em i s st udent or i ent ed & st udent
c ont r ol l ed. Good t i me management c omes i n
handy her e.
You now have a t ut or t o gui de you & advi se you
i n your l ear ni ng but does not t each you- f ac i l i t at e.
You need t o exer c i se f l ex i bi l i t y i n your l ear ni ng
appr oac h you not onl y wor k i ndependent l y but
c ol l abor at e & wor k i n a t eam as & w hen t he need
ar i ses.
You need t o be mor e r esour c ef ul t o f i ndi ng
sol ut i ons espec i al l y w hen f ac ed w i t h ambi gui t i es.
You must be w i l l i ng t o i ni t i at e c al l s t o your t ut or s
or c our se mat es f or assi st anc e.
As a di st ant l ear ner, you need t o bec ome mor e
sel ec t i ve & f oc used i n your l ear ni ng i n or der t o
mast er new i nf or mat i on. For ex ampl e, you shoul d
be abl e t o f oc us on w hat i s si gni f i ed ( t he t ut or s
ar gument ) or or gani se & st r uc t ur e c ont ent
pr esent ed t o you.
So, i f you want t o be a suc c essf ul open di st anc e
l ear ner, t hi nk about t he c ommi t ment &
r esponsi bi l i t y t hat l i es ahead of you & t ake t he
nec essar y ef f or t s t o make t he t r ansi t i on.
Ar e you r eady t o bec ome a di st anc e l ear ner ?
Two si mpl e t est s ar e pr ovi ded her e t o j udge your
r eadi ness or bec ome a di st anc e l ear ner.
Test A
Below are statements that describe some of the more important
characteristics of self-directed learners. Such learners have a certain
degree of autonomy that predisposes them to be successful in a
variety of learning contexts, including distance learning or distance
education. DEARS is a non-scientific instrument that is intended to
provide general guidance for those considering courses or even a
degree via distance education, regardless of the source. Here,
distance education means any form of instructional delivery that does
not involve continuous teacher students interaction in a face-to-face
classroom setting. By assessing yourself on the DEARS statements, you
will get an idea of your predisposition & temperament for a successful
distance education experience.
Rate each statement according to the scale below. And please be as
honest as possible!
1. Never
2. Very infrequently
3. Sometimes
4. Frequently
5. Always
_____ 1. I take responsibilty for my own learning.
_____ 2. I am regarded by my peers as a self-starter.
_____3. I can stay on task without constant feedback about my
performance.
_____ 4 . I am a person who is curious about many things.
_____5. I often figure out novel ways to solve problems.
_____6. I enjoy helping others who have learning needs.
_____ 7 . Once I have goals or a set of objectives, I can determine
what I need to do to reach them.
_____ 8. I recognise and know how to use feedback about progress
on a learning task that I have undertaken.
_____9. I am good visualising how things would be when they are
the way I want them to be.
______ 10. I am good at logistics. I can determine what is needed and devise
a plan for getting it.
______ 11 . I believe that knowledge is largely constructed by the learner
and that teachers are more facilitators of learning than
dispensers of information.
______ 12. I understand how I learn best and often think of ways I can
improve.
_______13. I know what I believe but I am open to other opinions that may
be contrary to my beliefs.
_______14. I enjoy learning that is both interesting and challenging and I am
motivated in such situations to go beyond the minimum
requirements.
_______ 15. I am able to translate learning objectives that have been set for
me into objectives that reflect my own personal style of learning.
_______ Total
Assessing the results
The total scores are explained below. The maximum score you can
get is 75. Obviously, the higher the number, the higher your potential
is benefit from your WOU experience.
55-75 Youshould have no difficulty with distance education courses.
You have a pronounced sense of autonomy and self-direction.
These are important qualities that will make it easier for you
to cope with WOU courses.
45-54 Youwill probably do well in a distance education course.
However, you need to remind yourself that you have to be
focused and to stay on task.
30 - 44 Well, if your score falls within this range, studying through
diatance education will be a challenge. You are more inclined
to the traditional learning environment. You will miss the
classroom interaction context a great deal. However, you can
still make it by being aware of the ODL system and quickly get
yourself into this new mode of learning.
29 and
below
I hope your score does not fall within this range. Distance
education is probably not a good idea for you! Dont give up! I
would encourage you to take the challenge and make sincere
and real hard efforts to succeed.
Thi nk about t he sc or e you obt ai ned.
I t may not be per f ec t l y ac c ur at e.
However, i t does gi ve an i ndi c at i on of
your r eadi ness t o be a di st anc e
l ear ner. Do t ake t he sc or e ser i ousl y.
I f you ar e not happy w i t h your sc or e,
i t w i l l be a good i dea f or you t o
c onsul t your t ut or or your Regi onal
Cent r e manager.
I n t hi s sec t i on, you l ear nt about t he
char at er i st i c s of TL & DL. By
under st andi ng t he di f f er enc es bet ween
TL & DL, you w i l l be mor e awar e of t he
at t i t udi nal & ment al changes t hat you
need make i n or der t o bec ome a
suc c essf ul open di st anc e l ear ner.
Obj ec t i ves :
By t he end of t hi s sec t i on, you shoul d be abl e t o:
1. Ex pl ai n c onst r uc t i vi sm and ODL.
2. I dent i f y t he f our l ear ni ng modes of ODL.
3. Appl y t he f our l ear ni ng modes i n your
st udi es.
So, how do you l ear n at WOU ?
WOU i s a dedi c at ed di st anc e educ at i on i nst i t ut i on.
I t uses al l t he r esour c es t o suc c essf ul l y desi gn and
i mpl ement ways & means t o hel p you r educ e your wor r i es &
t o make your l ear ni ng pr oc ess as a di st anc e l ear ner easi er
& smoot her.
Bef or e t hat , you need t o k now about t he c onst r uc t i vi st
l ear ni ng phi l osophy & how i t r el at es t o you as an OD l ear ner.
Thi s c onst r uc t i vi st phi l osophy i s based on t he basi c
c onc ept of human bei ngs bei ng seeker s & bui l der s ( now
t er med c onst r uc t or s) of k now l edge.
ODL of f er s t he w i dest oppor t uni t y t o pr ac t i se t he
i deas behi nd c onst r uc t i vi sm.
Const r uc t i vi sm i s a phi l osophy of l ear ni ng
f ounded on t he pr emi se t hat , by r ef l ec t i ng on our
ex per i enc es, we bui l d our ow n under st andi ng of
t he wor l d we l i ve i n.
We al l gener at e our ow n met aphor s , r ul es
and ment al model s t hat we use t o make sense
of our i ndi vi dual ex per i enc es.
Lear ni ng t hus bec omes t he pr oc ess of mak i ng
adj ust ment s t o our ment al model s t o i ncl ude al l
t hese new ex per i enc es.
Ac c or di ng t o t hi s phi l osophy, l ear ni ng i s an
ac t i ve pr oc ess.
Lear ni ng i s ac t i ve ment al wor k , not passi ve
r ec ept i on of t eachi ng.
The use of a var i et y of t echnol ogi es i n t he oDL
set t i ng pr ovi de an i deal envi r onment f or i nf usi ng
and c onst r uc t i ves pr i nc i pl es.
The use of c omput er medi at ed c ommuni c at i on &
c omput er -suppor t ed wor k , f or e.g., of f er t he f i el d
of ODL al t er nat i ve ways of l ear ni ng.
I n addi t i on, l ear ner aut onomy r equi r ed i n ODL i s
al so r ef l ec t ed i n t he c onst r uc t i vi st vi ew s t o
enc our age ac t i ve, c ol l abor at i ve, & r esponsi bl e
l ear ner s.
The WOU LMS WawasanLear n i s an e.g. of
c onst r uc t i vi st pr ac t i c es f or l ear ner i nvol vement ,
and so does t he w i der I nt er net & t he sear ch
engi nes l i ke Googl e, Yahoo!, w her e you sear c h &
c onst r uc t your ow n per sonal vi ew about a
c onc ept or a spec i f i c t opi c of dut y.
I t i s t her ef or e, a st udent -c ent r ed appr oac h t hat
pl ac es r esponsi bi l i t y on st udent s t o t ake c har ge
of t hei r l ear ni ng ex per i enc es.
I n t hi s appr oach, t eacher s ar e t he k now l edge
ex per t s w ho have a good under st andi ng of t he
subj ec t mat t er - t hey pr epar e ac t i vi t i es &
assi gnment s t hat f ost er t he ac qui si t i on or
c r eat i on of k now l edge.
St udent s ar e t hen chal l enged t o pr oduc e r eal i t y
based pr oduc t s such as or al pr esent at i ons or
pr oj ec t paper s.
Thi s al l ow s st udent s t he oppor t uni t y t o di sc uss
& quest i on each ot her s under st andi ng & ex pl ai n
t hei r ow n per spec t i ves i n or der t o devel op some
f or m of shar ed under st andi ng.
The appr oach not onl y f ost er s ac t i ve
par t i c i pat i on of bot h t eacher s & st udent s i n t he
l ear ni ng pr oc ess but enc our ages c ol l abor at i on
bet ween t eacher s & st udent s & among ot her
st udent s as wel l .
I n ot her wor ds, not onl y i s l ear ni ng shar ed but
r esponsi bi l t y f or i nst r uc t i on i s al so shar ed.
The amount of gui danc e & hel p gi ven by t he
t eac her w i l l depend on t he k now l edge l evel &
ex per i enc e t he st udent s br i ng t o cl ass.
As an OD l ear ner, t hi s i s t he appr oach t hat you
need t o get used t o.
You w i l l no l onger depend on your t eacher s or
ex pec t t hem t o spoon f eed you al l t he t i me.
You w i l l t ake r esponsi bi l i t y f or your ow n l ear ni ng
or be a sel f -di r ec t ed l ear ner.
Constructivist checklist
This checklist serves as a simple measure of some of the
ways in which the constructivist charateristcs are present
in your assignments, projects, activities and ultimately in
your learning environment. The observation should
provide insights into the ways in which constructivist
philosophy translates into practice in ODL settings. The
checklist should only be applied to assignments, projects
and activities which are presented to you online. It may
not always be possible to observe all of the
characteristcs depending on the content and the group of
students. So, do not worry if all the characteristics are
present in the assignment, project or activity.
Instructions:
Select one assignment, project or activity that you need to do
online and check if the following charatceristics are present (Yes),
not present (No) or cannot be observed. (Cannot observe). Put a
tick (/)in the appropriate column.
Char ac t er i st i c s Yes No Cannot observe
I s i t goal -or i ent ed ?
I s i t st udent -c ent r ed?
Doe si t have cl ear, spec i f i c obj ec t i ves?
Does i t have mul t i pl e per spec t i ves?
Do your t ut or s ac t as f ac i l i t at or s f or t hi s
ac t i vi t y?
Does i t enc our ages peer l ear ni ng?
Does i t have a l ear ner c ont r ol ?
Does i t c ont ai n aut hent i c ac t i vi t i es and
c ont ex t s?
Does i t enc our age k now l edge
c onst r uc t i on?
Does i t enc our age k now l edge
c ol l abor at i on?
Char ac t er i st i c s Yes No Cannot observe
Pr evi ous k now l edge c onst r uc t i ons?
Doe si t i ncl ude pr obl em sol vi ng?
Does i t al l ow ex pl or at i on?
Ar e t her e al t er nat i ve vi ew poi nt s?
I s t her e aut hent i c assessment ?
I s t her e pr i mar y sour c es of dat a?
I n t hi s sec t i on, we w i l l di sc uss 4 maj or modes of l ear ni ng under
ODL.
They ar e sel f -l ear ni ng, F2F l ear ni ng, gr oup l ear ni ng & onl i ne
l ear ni ng.
Figure 2.3 Types of learning
Distance learning?
No school?
No classroom?
(a)
(b)
(c)
means t hat you w i l l spend most of your t i me
r eadi ng c our se mat er i al s on your ow n.
Make dec i si ons on w hen, w hat , how and w her e
t o st udy
r ead al l c our se mat er i al s pr ovi ded and
under st and t hem, go t hr u al l t he ac t i vi t i es &
ex er c i ses & c heck w i t h t he answer s gi ven at t he
end of each uni t .
r ef er t o ot her r eadi ng mat er i al s avai l abl e at
ei t her your RC or publ i c l i br ar y or DL.
r ead t he summar y at t he end of ever y uni t .
1. Look through all the course material which you have received. Make a full
list of all of them. Write down briefly what each course material is about.
No. Title of Course Materials What is it
about?
I n WOU, you do not have t he oppor t uni t y t o meet your t ut or
as of t en & as f r equent as i n t r adi t i onal i nst i t ut i on.
I n an ODL, t ut or i al s have a ver y di f f er ent f unc t i on.
I t i s i mpor t ant t hat you under st and t hor oughl y t he r ol e of
t he t ut or & t he f unc t i on of t he t ut or i al . So t hat you c an der i ve
max i mum benef i t s f r om t hem.
I n an ODL syst em, most of your l ear ni ng i s ex pec t ed t o
oc c ur t hr u sel f - l ear ni ng- you st udy i ndependent l y, at your
ow n t i me & pl ac e.
Tut or i s t he one you w i l l meet most f r equent l y t hr oughout
t he 18 week s of your c our se.
The t ut or i s not a l ec t ur er engaged by WOU t o pl ay on a
par t -t i me basi s, a f ac i l i t at i ve r ol e i n your l ear ni ng.
Tut or s ar e t he key i nt er f ac e bet ween WOU & your under st andi ng
of t he c our se mat er i al s.
The t ut or pr ovi des t he per sonal t ouch & ac ademi c suppor t t o t he
st udent s t hr u sever al means : t he t ut or i al s, assi gnment mar k i ng
& f eedback , t el ephone t ut or i ng, & onl i ne suppor t at t he LMS.
Of c our se a t ut or most i mpor t ant j ob i s t o c onduc t F2F t ut or i al
sessi ons.
But t her e ar e onl y 5 t ut or i al s & each l ast s 2 hour s.
10 hour s i s not enough f or t he t ut or t o l ec t ur e t he c ont ent of t he
w hol e c our se t o you.
So, w hat ar e t he t ut or i al s f or t hen ????
Al l st udent s ar e enc our aged t o at t end al l t he t ut or i al sessi ons.
These sessi ons ar e f or you t o i nt er ac t w i t h t he t ut or & f el l ow
l ear ner s as wel l as par t i c i pat e i n l ab cl asses.
If you are absent from a tutorial class, it is likely that you will miss
out on certain teaching learning activities.
When you are in tutorial class, it is important you participate
actively cos it is the most effective way to learn.
Another way is by sharing your knowledge & understanding with
other students it helps to check how accurate your understanding
is.
One of the major activities conducted during the tutorial session
is the completion of the TMAs.
All the courses have 2 TMAs- can be essay, short test, short
project, research proposals, or presentations during tutorials.
The first TMA is normally after the second tutorial.
All TMAs will be submitted thru OAS and will be returned the
same way with a grade and comments.
Other than marking & grading, what else will tutor do ?
They will facilitate your learning process by guiding you thru the
difficult parts of your study units.
They highlight the most important points or arguments in the study
units, exemplify & give further explanation, provide more examples,
or relate the points to your personal experiences.
They will provide alternative imterpretations to what has been
given in the study units.
They will help you to solve your individual problems.
In a nutshell, you can say that they are the most important component
of WOU to provide a personalised learning experience for you.
In fact, many of you probably ar enot aware that assignments such
as TMAs are themselves important & effective personalised learning
tools too.
Based on w hat you have w r i t t en i n your TMAs, t he
t ut or s c an :
Comment s on your under st andi ng of t he c our se
c ont ent .
Poi nt out your weak nesses, hi ghl i ght ar eas or
t opi c s you shoul d pay mor e at t ent i on t o or need
f ur t her cl ar i f i c at i on.
Ref er you back t o spec i f i c sessi ons of t he st udy
uni t s, and/or make any f ur t her suggest i ons.