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Chapter 4

Data/Methodology

4.0 Tools of Data Collection:

In order to find data on perceived organizational support and turnover intentions I will collect

data on four variables: perceived organizational support (POS), organizational commitment

(OT), job satisfaction (JS) and turnover intentions (TI) and for that I decided to use a

questionnaire survey because it is a prevailing quantitative method used vastly by social science,

management, and HRM researchers (Anderson, 2004). A survey describes a population

(Sapsford, 1999) by providing “a quantitative or numeric description of some fraction of the

population – the sample – through the data collection process of asking questions of people…

this enables a researcher to generalize the findings from a sample of responses to a population”

(Creswell, 1994). In addition, questionnaire survey data can provide useful statistics to the

researcher, which can be used to describe how things are and why the phenomena occur (Lewin,

2005). On the one hand, descriptive statistics can be used to “describe and summarise data and

include measures of central tendency (average) and dispersion (the spread of data or how close

each other is to the measure of central tendency)” (Lewin, 2005). On the other hand, inferential

statistics are used to “identify differences between groups, look for relationships between

attributes and create models in order to be able to make predictions” (Lewin, 2005). Therefore,

by using a questionnaire survey method, the author was able to quantify answers to questions,

compare and contrast responses among the samples look for relationships between variables, and

enable generalizations from a sample of responses. More specifically, the present study will use a

“self-completion questionnaire”, often referred to as a “self-administered questionnaire”

referring to the type of questionnaire where “respondents answer questions by completing the
questionnaire themselves” (Bryman, 2001). The first benefit to use questionnaire technique is

that

• It is good for measuring attitude and eliciting other content from research participants.

• It is Inexpensive.

• It can administer to probability samples.

• It can be quick turn around.

• It can be administered to groups.

• The Perceived anonymity by respondents possibly high.

• There is an ease of data analysis for close-ended items.

But on the other hand, there are some weaknesses of using questionnaire technique like

• It needs validation.

• It must be kept short.

• The high ratio of non response to selective items

• The analysis of data sometimes time consuming for open-ended items.

Acknowledging that each method has some limitations but efforts will be made to minimize the

weaknesses in order to increase the validity of the result.

4.1 Sampling Technique and Sample

The Population of my study will be higher educational. Institutions of Pakistan in which the

sample size of 100 teachers will be taken for conducting the study by using simple random

sampling in order to generalize the findings in the particular sector.

4.2 Measures:

In case of measuring Perceived Organizational support, Organizational Commitment, Job

Satisfaction and turnover intentions only respondent filled questionnaire will be used. Participant
data was obtained thorough in one survey with 5-point likert scale only. Participant will asked a

few questions. The survey contained a total of 28 questions and took approximately 10 to 15

minutes to complete. Incomplete survey was not included in the survey. There were different

measures for the variables defined and were thought of with many complications. There were at

least 5 questions in the survey obtaining data for one variable and some questions were directly

obtaining data with no complications. Measure for each variable is defined below:

Perceived Organizational Support

Perceived organizational support was measure by asking the seven questions by using the 5-

points itemized rating type scale ranging from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree

Organizational Commitment

Organizational Commitment was measure by asking the seven questions by using the 5-points

itemized rating type scale ranging from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction was measure by asking the seven questions by using the 5-points itemized rating

type scale ranging from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree

Turnover Intentions

Turnover Intentions was measure by asking the seven questions by using the 6-points itemized

rating type scale ranging from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree

4.3 Methodology:

To make analysis of data we will use Spss software in which we will make analysis in to two

parts where part one will lead descriptive statistics that will be use to “describe and summarize

data and include measures of central tendency (average) and dispersion (the spread of data or

how close each other is to the measure of central tendency)” (Lewin, 2005) and part two will
lead to inferential statistics that will be use to “identify differences between groups, look for

relationships between attributes and create models in order to be able to make predictions”

(Lewin, 2005). The methodology that we will adapt is discussed below one by one

In order to get the overall summary of variable we will used descriptive statistics in which we

will come to know about the nature of response that we will get from respondent like the value of

maximum, minimum, mean and standard deviation.

We will use frequency distribution which is a descriptive measure used for a graphical

representation of the data to check the frequency (occurrence of one option) of the data as well as

the normality curve to check either data is normally distributed or not.

To check the overall picture for identifying the relationship between dependent and independent

variable we will use scatter-plots. This matrix shows all the possible two dimension plots of the

variables. Scatter plot will used to see the graphical picture of relationship between the

dependent and independent variable.

We will use regression analysis to find out the effect size of independent variable on dependent

variable that how much change will occur in dependent variable due to change in independent

variable by using regression equation for analysis. Where we will check the value of f-test to

check the goodness of fit of the model. We will also make focus on the value to T to check the

significance level of relationship for the acceptance or rejection of our alternative hypothesis. We

will also make focus on the value of R square to see the contribution level of variable mean how

much independent variable contribute in changing the value of dependent variable. Since the

objective of this study is to check the impact of perceive organizational support on turnover

intentions in higher educational sector of Pakistan. So, here in this study ordinary least square

(OLS) method of simple regression will be used to find such equation which could be used to
find the impact of perceived organizational support on turnover intentions and the specified

regression equation will take the following form

POSi = C + B(TIi) + Ei

The equation which shows above where POSi is the dependent variable and C is the value of

constant, B(TIi) is the value of independent variable shows the partial regression coefficient

represents the change in dependent variable, due to one unit change in independent variable. Ei is

the error term.

We will also use correlation to find the relationship among variables as well as check the

strength of the relationship of different variables. It will also show the direction of relationship

between two variables.


Chapter 5

Analysis

The result of the study analysis is presented in this chapter. Descriptive analysis used to describe

the data by using descriptive summary as well as histogram with normal distribution curve.

Inferential analysis used to describe the relation between variables by checking the acceptance or

rejection of hypothesis and to see the nature of relationship between variables. In inferential

portion the study tested the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS), job

satisfaction (JS), organizational commitment (OC) and turnover intentions (TI).

5.1 Data Screening:

Data screening and preparation is focused on ensuring that the data contained the appropriate

range of scores for all analyzed variables including the identification of possible outlines. We

used questionnaire for collection of data. After that the most complicated work is to make

analysis of the data. So, for that purpose the first step is data screening in which we ensure that

all the participants were filled the questionnaire correctly and completely and after that we coded

all returned questionnaires in to Spss software for data analysis. For every variable we used 7

questions so, firstly we compute all the variables to get the final shape of our data variables and

after that used different test for analysis. Let’s discussed the detail of each variable one by one in

the results portion.

5.2 Results:

In this portion all the results with their interpretation were shown and being discussed one by one

5.2.1 Descriptive Summary


Table 1.1
Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation

pos 100 2 5 3.63 .537

commitment 100 2 5 3.43 .479

satisfaction 100 2 4 3.31 .492

Turnover intentions 100 2 5 2.75 .622

Valid N (listwise) 100

Table 1.1 presents the descriptive statistics that show the overall picture of all the four variables.

There were scales of 5 responses that lead to the options (strongly disagree, disagree, neutral,

agree, and strongly agree). Number of observations of each variable is 100. In the above table the

mean values and the values of standard deviation of all the 4 variables have been shown. Mean

value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a variable. For example if we

observe the above output to assess the average response rate or the respondent then we come to

know the mean of different variables like POS (mean:3.63), commitment(mean:3.43),

satisfaction (mean:3.31) and turnover intentions (mean: 2.75). If we observe then for the first

three variables (POS, commitment and satisfaction) the average response rate of responded is lie

with in the option 3-4 (3 is for neutral and 4 is for agree) and for turnover intention the average

response rate of responded is lie in the option 2-3 (2 is for disagree and 3 is for neutral). The

minimum option that is ticked by responded is 2 and the maximum option that is ticked by

responded is 5.

Standard deviation gives the idea about the dispersion of the values of a variable from its mean

value. So, if we observe then in the response rate for the variable of commitment is value of

standard deviation is (S.D.479) which is the lowest value as compare to other variable values.

Which shows that most of the respondent answers were same for the variable of commitment and
have consistency in their response rate but if we observe then for turnover intention the value of

standard deviation is (S.D .622) which is quite high as compare to other variables which clearly

shows that the response regarding turnover intention of mostly respondents were not the same

and they don’t have consistency in their answers.

5.2.2 Histogram

This shows the graphical representation of the variables with the curve to check the normality of

the response rate. Let’s discuss the result of each variable’s histogram one by one

Figure 1.1

Strongly Disagree = 1
Disagree = 2
Neutral = 3
Agree = 4
Strongly Agree = 5
The fig.1 shows the graphical representation of the bars that is showing the response of the

respondents regarding perceived organizational support. Most of the participant’s lies in the

option 3 - 4 (3 is for neutral and 4 is for agree). Similarly small numbers of respondents were

marked very low and very high options. The bars in the histogram from a distribution (pattern or

curve) that is similar to the normal, bell shaped curve. Thus, frequency distribution of the

perceived organizational support is normal.

Figure 1.2

Strongly Disagree = 1
Disagree = 2
Neutral = 3
Agree = 4
Strongly Agree = 5

The fig.1 shows the graphical representation of the bars that is showing the response of the

respondents regarding organizational commitment. Most of the participant’s lies in the option 3 -

4 (3 is for neutral and 4 is for agree). Similarly small numbers of respondents were marked very
low and very high options. The bars in the histogram from a distribution (pattern or curve) that is

similar to the normal, bell shaped curve. Thus, frequency distribution of the commitment is

approximately normal.

Figure 1.3

Strongly Disagree = 1
Disagree = 2
Neutral = 3
Agree = 4
Strongly Agree = 5
The fig.1 shows the graphical representation of the bars that is showing the response of the

respondents regarding job satisfaction. Most of the participant’s lies in the option 3 - 4 (3 is for

neutral and 4 is for agree). Similarly small numbers of respondents were marked very low and

very high options. The bars in the histogram from a distribution (pattern or curve) that is similar
to the normal, bell shaped curve. Thus, frequency distribution of the job satisfaction is slightly

skewed but approximately normally distributed.

Figure 1.4

Strongly Disagree = 1
Disagree = 2
Neutral = 3
Agree = 4
Strongly Agree = 5

The fig.1 shows the graphical representation of the bars that is showing the response of the

respondents regarding turnover intentions. Most of the participant’s lies in the option 2 - 3 (2 is

for disagree and 3 is for neutral). Similarly small numbers of respondents were marked very low

and very high options. The bars in the histogram from a distribution (pattern or curve) that is

similar to the normal, bell shaped curve. Thus, frequency distribution of the intentions is

approximately normal.

5.2.3 Scatter Plots


Scatter plot or graph of two variables shows how the scores for an individual on one variable

associates with his or her scores on the other variable. Let’s discuss each plot or graph one by

one

Figure 1.1

Figure 1.1 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the

relationship between perceived organizational support and commitment. If we observe then the

flow of line is come from right to left which shows the positive relationship between perceived

organizational support and commitment. This means that if the organization gives high perceived

organizational support then there is also increase in the commitment level of an employee and

the above results have been confirmed by the table of correlations.

Figure 1.2
Figure 1.2 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the

relationship between perceived organizational support and satisfaction. If we observe then the

flow of line is come from right to left which shows the positive relationship between perceived

organizational support and satisfaction. This means that if the organization gives high-perceived

organizational support then there is also increase in the satisfaction level of an employee and the

table of correlations has confirmed the above results.

Figure 1.3

Figure 1.3 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the

relationship between commitment and satisfaction. If we observe then the flow of line is come

from right to left which shows the positive relationship between commitment and satisfaction.

This means that if the commitment level of an employee is increase then there is also increase in
the satisfaction level of an employee and both variables are mutually correlated with one an other

and the table of correlations has confirmed the above results.

Figure 1.4

Figure 1.4 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the

relationship between commitment and turnover intentions. If we observe then the flow of line is

come from left to right that shows the negative relationship between commitment and turnover

intentions. This means that if the commitment level of an employee is high then there is low

turnover intentions occur for an employee and the above results have been confirmed by the

table of correlations.

Figure 1.5
Figure 1.5 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the

relationship between satisfaction and turnover intentions. If we observe then the flow of line is

come from left to right that shows the negative relationship between satisfaction and turnover

intentions. This means that if the satisfaction level of an employee is high then there is low

turnover intentions occur for an employee and the above results have been confirmed by the

table of correlations.

Figure 1.6

Figure 1.6 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the

relationship between perceived organizational support and turnover intentions. If we observe

then the flow of line is come from left to right that shows the negative relationship between
perceived organizational support and turnover intentions. This means that if the perceived

organizational support level of an employee is high then there is low turnover intentions occur

for an employee and the above results have been confirmed by the table of correlations.

5.2.4 Correlation

Correlation is used to check the mutual relationship among variables. For checking the

relationship we will make two hypotheses: null (H0) and alternative (H1). We interpret the

findings on the acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis. We used correlation matrix to check

the mutual relationship of different variables. The hypothesis which we developed are given

below

Hypothesis 1:

H1: there is relationship between POS and organizational commitment


H0: there is no relationship between POS and organizational commitment

Hypothesis 2:

H1: there is relationship between POS and


H0: there is no relationship between POS and job satisfaction

Hypothesis 3:

H1: there is relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction


H0: there is no relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction

Hypothesis 4:

H1: there is relationship between organizational commitment and turnover intentions


H0: there is no relationship between organizational commitment and turnover intentions

Hypothesis 5:

H1: there is relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intentions


H0: there is no relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intentions

Hypothesis 6:

H1: there is relationship between POS and turnover intentions


H0: there is no relationship between POS and turnover intentions

Table 1.1
Correlations

pos commitment Turnover intentions satisfaction

pos Pearson Correlation 1 .422* -.201* .592

Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .045 .000

N 100 100 100 100

commitment Pearson Correlation .422* 1 -.232 .792**

Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .042 .000

N 100 100 100 100

satisfaction Pearson Correlation .592 .792** -.212 1

Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .032

N 100 100 100 100

Turnover intentions Pearson Correlation -.201* -.232 1 -.212

Sig. (2-tailed) .045 .042 .032

N 100 100 100 100

Table 1.1 represents the table of correlations. Where two variables – commitment and

satisfaction– are positively correlated to perceived organizational support (r= .422, p = .000, and

r= .592, p= .000, respectively). Turnover intention is negatively correlated to the perceived

organizational support (r= -.201, p = .045). The magnitudes of the above discussed two

correlations are greater than 0.33 in the absolute terms, which shows the moderate correlations

between the said pairs of the variables but the correlation of turnover intention is lesser than 0.33
in absolute terms, which shows the weak correlation between POS and turnover intention. If we

see the mutual relationship of commitment and satisfaction (r= .792, p = .000) then there is

positive relationship exist between both variables and the value of r= .792 which shows that both

variables are strongly related to each other and the variables – commitment and satisfaction– are

negatively correlated to turnover intentions (r= -.232, p = .042, and r= -.212, p= .032,

respectively) but both correlation were lesser than 0.33 which shows that both have weak impact

on turnover intentions. All the above correlations are statistically significant at less than five

percent level of significant. In the case of these correlations the null hypothesis that were stated

above of no correlation are rejected as the P-values are lesser than 0.05.

5.2.5 Regression

Regression is used to check the effect size of independent variable to dependent variable. Let’s

discuss the results of regression

Variables Entered/Removedb

Variables Variables
Model Entered Removed Method

1 posa . Enter

a. All requested variables entered.

b. Dependent Variable: turnover intentions


Model Summary

Adjusted R Std. Error of the


Model R R Square Square Estimate

1 .409a .167 .158 .570

a. Predictors: (Constant), pos

ANOVAb

Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression 6.390 1 6.390 19.643 .000a

Residual 31.881 98 .325

Total 38.272 99

a. Predictors: (Constant), pos

b. Dependent Variable: turnover intentions

The value of the coefficient of determination (R2) is .167. This shows that the correlation
between the observed values of perceived organizational support and the fitted value of the
turnover intention is 16% percent. The adjusted coefficient of determination (adj. R2) shows is
adjusted for the degrees of freedom. The value of the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj.
R2) is not affected. The value of the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj. R2) is .158,
which shows that 15% variations in turnover intentions. The value of F-statistic is statistically
significant at less than five percent that exhibits that in the estimated model at least one of the
partial regressions coefficients is different from zero.

Coefficientsa

Standardized
Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients

Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig.

1 (Constant) 1.031 .391 2.633 .010

pos .473 .107 .409 4.432 .000

a. Dependent Variable: turnover intentions


The coefficient table presents the results of the regression analysis. The objective of the
regression in this study is to find such an equation that could be used to find the impact of
perceived organizational support (POS) on turnover intentions (TI). The specified regression
equation takes the following form:

POSi = C + B1TIi +Ei


POSi= 1.031+.473(TIi)+Ei

The results show that the independent variables less significantly affect the employee turnover
intentions as shown by the values of the t-statistic and the corresponding P-values. T-test is used
to test the significance of the individual partial regression coefficients. Null hypothesis in this
test is set as the partial regression coefficient is zero. This test shows that the coefficients of the
predictor are statistically significant at less than five percent level of significance.