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Will the Real Fifteenth Century Sleeve Please Stand Up?

Charlotte Johnson (Lady Mathilde Bourette)
mathilde@mathildegirlgenius.com
Atlantia Kingdom Arts and Science Festival
March, 2006
1
Will the Real Fifteenth Century Sleeve Please Stand Up?

Charlotte Johnson (Lady Mathilde Bourette)
Atlantia Kingdom Arts and Science Festival – March, 2006


Introduction

In reenacting and SCA circles, the ubiquitous 15
th
century women’s casual outfit
consists of a short-sleeved fitted kirtle, with long sleeves pinned on at the shoulders.
While this fashion certainly existed to some extent in 15
th
century Western Europe, was it
as common as many modern-day reenactors and medieval recreationists believe? What
was the most common fashion, as depicted in art? What options are there other than the
pin-on sleeve?

The Evolution of the Overdress

To place the pin-on sleeve in context, we
must look at the garments that accompany
this dress feature. In the mid- to late 14
th
and
early 15
th
centuries, a new, voluminous
garment appeared called a houppelande.
This garment was worn over a fitted under-
dress, or kirtle, which sometimes shows in
various illustrations at the sleeve, neck, or
hem. The sleeves of early houppelandes
were large, and sometimes open, so the
under-sleeves were often visible.
Presumably, one could wear decorative
sleeves over a plain dress, to give the
appearance that the entire under-dress was
of a much richer fabric.
During the mid-15
th
century, the
houppelande evolved into what is commonly

Fig. 1 Mary of Burgundy’s Book of
Hours; Österreichische
Nationalbibliothek, Vienna; Illumination
on parchment; ca. 1467–80
2
known as the v-neck, or Burgundian gown, with the neckline becoming wider, the collar
flattening, the sleeves tightening, and the waistline becoming trimmer. By 1470 to 1480,
the sleeves were very snugly fitted (fig. 1). It is likely that it would have been very
uncomfortable to wear this gown over pinned-on sleeves, and unnecessary, as the sleeves
of the under-dress would not be visible at the tight wrists of the over-dress.
The question remains: was a plain kirtle often worn with pin-on sleeves, without the
houppelande, or as the century wore on, v-neck gown? If it was worn at all, was it as
common a style as one might deduce from a general survey of modern reenactor
wardrobes?

A Survey of Sleeve Types

With a perusal of period artwork, it is possible to determine what was common and
realistic fashion in the mid- to late fifteenth century. While the v-neck gown was a much
more popular fashion for almost all social levels, that is not the subject of this paper, and
the data only focuses on the fitted gown, or kirtle. If the sample size of kirtles seems
small, that is due to the more common nature of the v-necked gown in the mid- to late
15
th
century, and not due to a small amount of artwork searched.

Sources

The data is focused on the mid- to late fifteenth century. The earliest well-known pin-
on sleeve example is from ca. 1435, so that is the beginning point
1
. At the end of the
century, there is an overlap of styles between the fitted kirtle, and the more straight-line
early Tudor fashions, including their square necklines. If a particular image was from the
1480s or 90s, it was only included if the kirtle was more in the mid-15
th
century style.
Tudor-style kirtles were not included.
Most of the images come from France or the Low Countries. English art of the 15
th

century is very rare, mostly depicting women in funeral brasses wearing v-neck gowns.
German, Italian, and Spanish fashions are different enough that they would not apply to
this study. The data includes a few German images, however, as there are examples of
pin-on sleeves therein. While there are certainly additional examples of pin-on sleeves

1
Please see fig. 8 for an early example, Rogier van der Weyden’s Deposition.
3
that were not included, it also stands to reason that there are examples of long and short
sleeves not included as well. The sample size is large enough to give a reasonably
accurate picture of trends in art. For a complete listing of all of the images used, please
see the appendix starting on page 15.
The source pool does not include documentary evidence such as inventories and
wills, due in part to the scope of this project, and the relevance of the information. If
“Agnes” left two pairs of sleeves to her maid in her will, that would not tell us whether or
not she ever wore the sleeves in public without another gown over them. Documentary
evidence may be able to tell what items were worn and existed, but, in relation to the
question at hand, not necessarily the social context in which they were worn.

Results

In 115 separate images, 178 women are wearing some form of fitted kirtle. Out of
these, eighty percent (143) of the women are wearing a simple long sleeve, or a long
sleeve visibly over another long sleeve. Eight percent (14) are wearing a short sleeve over
a smock, or short sleeve over long. One percent (2) wear ambiguous sleeves in which
there is no way to guess whether it belongs in the short-over-long, or pin-on category.
Eleven percent (19) clearly wear pin-on sleeves. Fig. 2 illustrates the breakdown.


Distribution of Sleeve Types in Art
Long
Short
Pin on
Ambiguous

Fig. 2

It might seem from this illustration that, while certainly not the most common, the pin-on
sleeve was easily a valid fashion for this time. Let’s look closer at the pin-on sleeve
examples, and see how they hold up to scrutiny.
4


The Pin-On Sleeve

An extensive search of period artworks has revealed almost twenty instances of the
pin-on sleeve in 15
th
century artwork. This number would seem adequate to term this a
common fashion; however, there are inherent issues with most of these examples. The
“problem” sleeves can be grouped into four categories for discussion: ambiguous images,
private space, Mary Magdalene, Saint Barbara. Lastly, there are a few sleeves grouped
into a fifth, non-problem category.

Ambiguous Images

The first category is populated with ambiguous representations of the sleeves. These
dresses appear to have pin-on sleeves, and if the observer wishes to interpret the image as
representing a pin-on sleeve, they may do so. Upon closer examination, there is no
definite way to
determine if the sleeve
is pin-on, or a long-
sleeved dress worn
under a short-sleeved
one. In some cases, the
under-hem is visible
and, if the same color
as the sleeve, it is
likely part of another fitted layer under the visible one.
The detail from Heures de Marguerite d’Orleans (fig. 3) is one such example. Some
believe that the women in this illustration are wearing pin-on sleeves. The women
depicted in the margins of this work are wearing various examples of everyday 15
th

century fashion. The woman on the far right is wearing a pink dress, and has blue sleeves.
Are these sleeves pin-on? Notice that her hem is also blue, making it likely the artist was
depicting a woman wearing a pink dress over a blue dress. Of course, it may be a pin-on
sleeve, with a sewn-on hem of the same shade of blue. This uncertainty leaves this image
Fig. 3 Heures de Marguerite d’Orléans; Bibliothèque
Nationale de France, Paris; Latin 1156 B, fol. 161v; 15
th
cent.
5
somewhat ambiguous, though for the purposes
of the survey, the sleeves were considered short.
The woman in the pink over-dress with red
sleeves likewise has the same configuration of
matching hem and sleeve. A third woman, on
the far left, is wearing a blue dress and has
white sleeves. These could either be pin-on
sleeves, or she may be wearing a short-sleeved
dress worn only over a long-sleeved linen
smock. Again, this image cannot be used as
reliable evidence of pin-on sleeves used in this
context.
The shepherdess in the Rohan Hours (fig. 4)
is also ambiguous, though it seems more likely
that her sleeves are pin-on. It appears that the
sleeves on her pink dress are encased by the dark blue over sleeves. There also appears to
be a white area on the inside of her left arm, which could be explained by a gap between
a short sleeve and the pinned-on sleeve.
When looking at these ambiguous
dresses, one must look for other clues to
help determine whether the sleeve may be
pinned-on. Is there a hem showing in the
same color as the sleeves? Is there any
indication that there might be an under-
dress? Is there any hint of smock showing
between the sleeve and the rest of the
dress? Does the sleeve come up in a point,
indicating that it might be pinned, or is the
color demarcation straight across?




Fig. 4 Grandes heures de Rohan;
Bibliothèque Nationale de France,
Paris; Latin 9471, fol. 85.v; ca. mid-
15
th
cent.

Fig. 5 Birth of Mary; Master of the Life of
the Virgin; Alte Pinakothek, Munich; ca.
1460
6
Private Space

In two instances in the sample collection, the pin-on sleeve is shown on women who
are occupied in private space, or in various states of dressing or undress. The Birth of
Mary (fig. 5) depicts two women wearing pin-on sleeves while attending in a birth
chamber. This is one of the few German images
included in the survey, as it is a very clear example of
the pin-on sleeve. The artist may have been using this
particular state of undress to demonstrate that they
were in a private space. The central figure even has
one sleeve off, thus showing that she is not fully
dressed in any sense. While this figure may be used
as evidence that pin-on sleeves existed, this scene
may not constitute evidence that it is appropriate to
wear pin-on sleeves in the public domain.
The next image under study is that of a woman in
the process of abusing her husband with a distaff (fig.
6). This image also has its problems. It shows the
woman putting on a pair of men’s braies, or
underwear, indicating that she is the one “wearing the
pants in that house,” a popular way to depict
male/female role-reversal in the 15
th
century. The fact that she is in the process of
dressing leaves doubt as to whether her pin-on sleeve would be covered by another gown,
or is actually meant to be worn in public.

Mary Magdalene

There are several very famous examples of the pin-on sleeve, most notably those of
Mary Magdalene painted by Rogier van der Weyden. Figs. 7 and 8 are oft-cited
references for this fashion.


Fig. 6 Henpecked Husband;
Israhel van Meckenem; Lehrs
649; ca. 1475–80
7
Fig. 7 Braque Family Triptych (right
wing); Weyden, Rogier van der; Musée du
Louvre, Paris; ca. 1450
Fig. 8 Deposition; Weyden, Rogier van
der; Museo del Prado, Madrid; ca. 1435

Out of the nineteen pin-on sleeve images found, ten of them are of Mary Magdalene.
Why was she so often depicted dressed in this manner? What was so special about Mary
that might make this garment one of her unofficial symbols? One theory is that Mary, so
distressed and overwrought at the death of Christ, was not fully dressed. Details of her
dress, such as missed eyelet holes with the lace, the pin-on sleeves, the lack of an
overdress, could all have been ways for artists to show her extreme distress. Her clothes
might be acceptable for private wear, but somebody more in their “right mind” wouldn’t
wear such an outfit in public
2
.

2
This idea has been tossed around costuming circles for several years, and was introduced and popularized
by Robin Netherton.
8
Though the Bible does not specifically
mention the connection, popularly Mary
was often known of as the sinner of Luke
7:36–50, and was often referred to as a
fallen woman
3
. Perhaps a woman of less
repute might wear the garments of private
space in public.
For whatever the reasons, this
combination of kirtle and pin-on sleeve is
very often shown on Mary Magdalene,
and with other clues, can be used as an
identifying feature in Deposition scenes.
This association with Mary doesn’t lend
credibility to the fashion being worn in
public by the average woman, any more than one would expect an average woman to
carry around an urn (one of Mary’s other well-known iconographic symbols).
Figures 9 and 10 are two more examples. While the
woman in the red dress is certainly Mary Magdalene, figure
10 is questionable. There is another Mary figure in the
Deposition painting that is not shown here, leaving the
woman in blue to be a mystery. Does that mean that a non-
Mary figure is wearing possible pin-on sleeves? Fox points
out in his work on Rogier van der Weyden that the artist of
the Deposition pulled all of his figures directly from van der
Weyden
4
. Even though she is not intended to be Mary
Magdalene, she is still a copy; note the striking similarity
between her and the Magdalene in the Seven Sacraments
altarpiece (fig. 9).



3
Grössinger, p. 34.
4
Fox, p. 129.

Fig. 9 Seven Sacraments (central panel);
Weyden, Rogier van der; Koninklijk
Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp;
1455–50

Fig. 10 Deposition;
Master of the Legend of
St. Catherine; Wallraf-
Richartz-Museum,
Cologne; ca. 1470–1480
9
Saint Barbara

Saint Barbara (figs. 11 and 12) was another popular female saint during the Middle
Ages, often depicted carrying the tower in which she was imprisoned as her identifying
symbol. In the early Christian era, the legendary Barbara was locked in a tower by her
father, to prevent her from seeing men, or to prevent her from learning Christian doctrine,
depending on the legend. She converted to Christianity, and her father had her beheaded
5
.
For most of her life, Barbara lived alone in that tower, never entering the public sphere.
Considering that we have other examples of the sleeves in a private space, could the artist
have been giving a nod to her captivity?


Fig. 11 Memling, Hans; The Donne
Triptych; National Gallery, London; ca.
1475
Fig. 12 Memling, Hans; Triptych of the
Family Moreel; Groeninge Museum,
Bruges; ca. 1484



5
Grössinger, p. 33.
10
Non-Problem Sleeves

There are a few unambiguous images left of pin-on sleeves that don’t have any
apparent problems. For the purposes of the sleeve survey, the shepherdess in the Rohan
Hours (fig. 4) is considered a pin-on sleeve.


Fig. 13 Liédet, Layset,
Gerard and Bertha Find
Sustenance at a Hermitage,
Histoire de Charles Martel;
J . Paul Getty Museum, Los
Angeles; ca. 1460s
Fig. 14 Les douze dames de
rhétorique; Montferrant;
Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris; MS.
Fr. 1174, f. 29r; 15th c.
Fig. 15 Bibliothèque
Nationale, Paris; MS.
Arsenal 5073, f. 336;
4th quarter, 15th c.

Figs. 13–15 show women who are not saints, and who are not apparently in a private
space, wearing a pin-on sleeve. It’s possible that there is some reason for it, or it could
have been a rare fashion. Fig. 15 does seem to be some sort of allegorical image, as one
of the “Twelve Women of Rhetoric”, though without more background, she is not
inherently a problem image. As an aside, note that they are all wearing a similar
headdress. It may also be noted, however, that the shepherdess (fig. 4) and the women in
figs. 14 and 15 are laboring and may be in some form of undress, as men of the period in
11
similar functions are often depicted wearing only shirts or doublets, without the proper
gown, which is worn where they are considered fully-dressed.

A Survey of Sleeve Types – Redux

What happens to the sleeve breakdown when images depicting Mary Magdalene,
Saint Barbara, and women in private space are removed from consideration? When
looking closer at the images, many pin-on sleeves fall in the categories described above.
As shown in fig. 16, over half (10) of the images are of Mary Magdalene. Three of the
women depicted are in a private space, or are in the process of dressing. There are two
images of St. Barbara, which leaves four non-problem sleeve images.

If you remove the problem sleeves from the equation, the big picture changes. As
shown in fig. 17, eighty-eight percent of the sleeves are long, nine percent are short, still
only one percent are ambiguous, but now only two percent of the sleeves are pin-on.
Distribution of Pin on Sleeve Wearers
Magdalene
Private Space
Barbara
Other

Fig. 16
12

Even without taking the problem sleeves into
consideration there are many more depictions of a
simple long sleeve. When removing the problem
sleeves from the mix, the pin-on sleeve becomes a very
small subset of the total. In either case, it appears that
the “norm” is a plain long sleeve.

Long Sleeves and Layers in the 15
th
Century

What other options are there in sleeve styles? Long
sleeve or short, there are plenty of ways to wear sleeves
aside from pin-on. Take into consideration that short
sleeves are also not as common as long, and it’s
possible to achieve a wide mix of styles within a
particular group of women.
Fig. 18 shows a simple long sleeve, worn over
another long sleeve. The black barely visible at her
cuffs is the same black showing below her hem.
Presumably, she is wearing a long-sleeved dress over another long-sleeved dress.
Distribution of Sleeve Types without Problem
Subjects
Long
Short
Pin on
Ambiguous

Fig. 17

Fig. 18 Last Judgment and the
Wise and Foolish Virgins;
Staatliche Museen, Berlin;
1450s and ca. 1480
13
Fig. 19 shows an image like many in mid- to
late 15
th
century art. Viviane is wearing a plain
long sleeve, and it is unclear whether she is
wearing anything else under that layer. She could
be wearing another dress under, or it could be a
single layer. A single visible layer does seem to
be the most common depiction of this time period.
In the St. John Altarpiece, another woman
wears a long sleeve over another long sleeve. The
under sleeves are buttoned tight at the wrist, with
at least four or five buttons. The long sleeves of
the over-dress are not particularly tight, as she is
able to push them up to her elbows.


Though short sleeves don’t seem
nearly as common as long, they certainly
existed and were about as common as
the pin-on sleeve, as shown by the
survey above. In fig. 3, it appears that
several of the women are wearing a short
sleeve over a long sleeve, as the sleeve
matches the hem of the under dress. Fig.
21 shows a woman who is simply
wearing a short sleeve dress over a
smock. Often, like the pin-on sleeve,
short-sleeved dresses seem also to be worn in private space, or casual circumstances.

Fig. 19 Évrard d’Espiniques,
Lancelot Enlevé Par Viviane;
Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris; MS
Français 113, fol. 156v; mid-to late
15
th
cent.

Fig. 20 Weyden, Rogier van der; St John
Altarpiece (left panel); Staatliche Museen,
Berlin; 1455–60
14

Summary

Whether one considers sleeves worn by Mary
Magdalene, Saint Barbara, or in private space to be
valid or not, certainly a long-sleeved dress is much
more common than a pin-on sleeve outfit. The ratio is
anywhere from 8:1, to 44:1, depending on which
arguments are accepted. While the pin-on sleeve may
have existed, it doesn’t seem to have been normal
public attire for most women. Even in the few examples
we do have of a normal woman wearing it in a non-
private space, she is generally undertaking some sort of
work or heavy labor. Wearing it may be akin to a 24
th

century person reenacting the late 20
th
century by
wearing a bustier to an office scenario.


Fig. 21 Memling, Hans;
Advent and Triumph of Christ;
Alte Pinakothek, Munich;
1480
15
Appendix:

These images are listed by source. For more details on the sources, please see the
bibliography below. All images from the Bibliothèque Nationale de France are listed in
one subsection, though are broken out in the bibliography for ease of reference. The
website <http://gallica.bnf.fr>can be difficult to navigate for a non-French speaker.

Bibliothèque Nationale

Moïse et Dieu. Moïse frappant le rocher; Antiquités judaïques; MS Fr 11, Fol. 64
Châtiment de Coré; Antiquités judaïques; MS Fr 11, Fol. 90
Rahab et les espions de Josué. Prise de Jéricho. Samson et le lion, Antiquités
judaïques; MS Fr 12, Fol. 111
Onction de Saül. David décapitant Goliath, Antiquités judaïques; MS Fr 12, Fol.
135v
Philosophe abusé par un démon, De civitate Dei; MS Fr 27, Fol. 259v
Enlèvement des Sabines, De civitate Dei; MS Fr 27, Fol. 28
Conception d'Alexandre. Naissance d'Alexandre, Histoire d'Alexandre le Grand; MS
Fr 47, Fol. 16
Saturne à l'oracle de Delphes. Naissance de Jupiter, Histoires de Troyes; MS Fr 59,
Fol. 1
Confession de la mère de Merlin, Histoire de Merlin; MS Fr 91, Fol. 1
Mort du fils de Meliadus, Tristan de Léonois; MS Fr 102, Fol. 26v
Mariage de Pellias et d'Arcade, Lancelot du Lac; MS Fr 112, Fol. 28v
Gaharié recevant le chapel, Lancelot du Lac; MS Fr 112, Fol. 45
Guenièvre à la Roche as Saisnes, Lancelot du Lac; MS Fr 112, Fol. 152v
Tristan et Iseut buvant le philtre, Lancelot du Lac; MS Fr 112, Fol. 239
Naissance de Lancelot, Histoire du saint Graal; MS Fr 113, Fol. 1
Ban de Benoïc, Bohort et leurs familles, Histoire du saint Graal; MS Fr 113, Fol.
150v
Mort de Ban de Benoïc, Histoire du saint Graal; MS Fr 113, Fol. 154v
Lancelot enlevé par Viviane, Lancelot du Lac; MS Fr 113, Fol. 156v
Lancelot embrassant Guenièvre, Lancelot du Lac; MS Fr 114, Fol. 244v
Combat de Gauvain et de Gloadain, Lancelot du Lac; MS Fr 114, Fol. 280v
Lancelot Soulevant Drian, Lancelot du Lac; MS Fr 114, Fol. 329
Gauvain prisonnier de Caradoc le Grant, Lancelot du Lac; MS Fr 114, Fol. 336v
Gauvain et la demoiselle, Lancelot du Lac; MS Fr 115, Fol. 361v
16
Guenièvre confrontant les anneaux, Lancelot du Lac; MS Fr 115, Fol. 370v
Galinde devant sa nièce, Lancelot du Lac; MS Fr 115, Fol. 386v
Lancelot et Griffon del Mal Pas, Lancelot du Lac; MS Fr 115, Fol. 409
Lancelot et les enchanteresses, Lancelot du Lac; MS Fr 115, Fol. 456v
Lancelot à la carole magique, Lancelot du Lac; MS Fr 115, Fol. 476
Guenièvre bannissant Lancelot, Lancelot du Lac; MS Fr 115, Fol. 568v
Perceval présenté à son frère, Quête du saint Graal; MS Fr 116, Fol. 593v
Mort de Gaharis, Quête du saint Graal; MS Fr 116, Fol. 692v
Naissance de Jupiter, ; MS Fr 137, Fol. 3v
Tirésias prédisant la fin de Narcisse, Metamorphoseon libri XV; MS Fr 137, Fol. 35
Minyades méprisant Bacchus, Metamorphoseon libri XV; MS Fr 137, Fol. 42v
Médée rajeunissant Aeson, Metamorphoseon libri XV; MS Fr 137, Fol. 91
Philomèle, Procnè et Térée, Metamorphoseon libri XV; MS Fr 137, Fol. 80v
Métamorphose des bergers lyciens, Metamorphoseon libri XV; MS Fr 137, Fol. 78v
Arachnè défiant Minerve. Métamorphose d'Arachnè, Metamorphoseon libri XV; MS
Fr 137, Fol. 73v
Enlèvement de Proserpine, Metamorphoseon libri XV; MS Fr 137, Fol. 68v
Persée délivrant Andromède, Metamorphoseon libri XV; MS Fr 137, Fol. 61

Camille

p. 93; A castle of unbridled female desire, The Housebook, fols 23v-24r; Fürstlich
Leinningensche Sammlungen Heimatismuseum; ca. 1475-85

Campbell

p. 39; Bouts, Dirk; The Entombment; London, National Gallery; ca. 1450-55
p. 306; Marmion, Simon; Scenes from the Life of Stain Bertin; Berlin, Staatliche
Museen; ca. 1450s
p. 377; Memling, Hans; The Virgin and Child with Saints and Donors (The Donne
Triptych); London, National Gallery; ca. 1478
p. 421; Master of the Prado Redemption; Saint Helena discovering the True Cross;
Madrid, private collection; mid-fifteenth century

Davenport

p. 309; Tapestry: Hawking; Hardwick Hall, Mansfield; ca. 1445
17
p. 311; Wauquelin, J ean; Chronicles of Hainault; Bibliothèque Royale, Brussels; MS.
9242-4; ca. 1447
p. 316; Wauquelin, J ean; Ystoire de Helayne; Bibliothèque Royale, Brussels; MS.
9967; ca. 1448
p. 327; Miélot, J ean; Epitre d’Othea; Bibliothèque Royale, Brussels; MS. 9392; ca.
1461
p. 331; Froissart; Chronicles of England, France, and Spain; Bibliothèque Nationale,
Paris; MS. Fr. 2644; mid-15th century
p. 339; Hours of Anne de Beaujou; Morgan Library; MS 667; ca. 1480

Fox

Cover; Heures de La Duchesse de Bourgogne, Harvesting Fruit; Musée Condé,
Chantilly; ca. 1450
J anuary 1; Livre des symples medichines, autrement dit Arboriste; Bibliothèque
Nationale, Paris; MS. Fr. 9136, f. 344; 4th quarter, 15th c.
J anuary 19; Livre des propriétés des choses; Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris; MS. Fr.
9140, f. 107; 4th quarter, 15th c.
May 13 detail; Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris; MS. Arsenal 5073, f. 336; 4th quarter,
15th c.
J une 13; Histoires des nobles princes de Hainaut; J acques de Guise; Bibliothèque
Municipale, Boulogne/s/Mer; MS. 149, tome 3, f. 119; second half, 15th c.
J une 19; Les douze dames de rhétorique; Montferrant; Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris;
MS. Fr. 1174, f. 29r; 15th c.
August 7; Tractabus de herbis; Dioscorides; Miblioteca Estense, Modena; MS. Lat.
993, f. 142r; 15th c.
September 13; Quart volume de histoire scolastique; J . du Ries; British Library,
London; MS. Royal 15 Di, f. 18; 1470

Grössinger

p. 32; Moser, Lucas: Altarpiece of St Magdalene; Tiefenbronn, Parish Church; ca.
1432
p. 116; Henpecked Husband, Israhel van Meckenem, engraving, ca. 1475-80, Lehrs
649

Kemperdick

p. 13; Deposition; Rogier van der Weyden; Prado, Madrid; ca. 1435-1440
18
p. 20; Nativity Triptych; Anonymous; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; ca.
1460-70
p. 26; Trajan and Herkinbald Tapestry; Anonymous; Bernisches Historiches
Museum, Berne; before 1461
p. 45; Abegg Triptych; Workshop of Rogier van der Weyden; Abegg-Stiftung,
Riggisberg near Berne; ca. 1445
p. 47; Seven Sacraments Altarpiece; Rogier van der Weyden; Koninklijk Museum
voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp; ca. 1445-50
p. 51; Crucifixion; Workshop or circle of Rogier van der Weyden; Gemäldegalerie,
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin; ca. 1440-50
p. 70; Last Judgment, and the Wise and Foolish Virgins; Anonymous;
Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin; ca. 1450-60
p. 74; Braque Triptych; Rogier van der Weyden; Louvre, Paris; ca. 1450
p. 81; Columba Altarpiece; Rogier van der Weyden; Staatsgemäldesammlunger,
Munich; ca. 1455
p. 93; Deposition; Anonymous; Staatsgemäldesammlunger, Munich; ca. 1460
p. 97; Hunting Stags and Herons; Victoria and Albert Museum, London; ca. 1440
p. 113; St. John Altarpiece; Rogier van der Weyden; Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche
Museen zu Berlin; ca. 1455-60
p. 128; Deposition; Master of the Legend of St. Catherine; Wallraf-Richartz-Museum,
Cologne; ca. 1470-80

Marks and Williamson

p. 291; The Buxton Achievement; Stranger’s Hall, Norwich; ca. 1470

Pierce

p. 103; St. Agatha, fromThe Hours of Catherine of Cleves; Master of Catherine of
Cleves; ca. 1440
p. 125; Anger; Robinet Testard; ca. 1475
p. 126; Avarice; Robinet Testard; ca. 1475
p. 127; Gluttony; Robinet Testard; ca. 1475
p. 128; Sloth; Robinet Testard; ca. 1475
p. 128; Lust; Robinet Testard; ca. 1475
p. 181; City Youths Dancing from The Hours of Anne de France; J ean Colombe; ca.
1473
19
p. 193; Livre des prouffis champestres et ruraux; Master of Margaret of York; ca.
1470

Scott

p. 87; The Story of Patient Griselda, Master of Mansel, post 1451

Sinclair

Plate 2; The Adoration of the Magi
Plate 7; The Visitation
Plate 8; The Nativity
Plate 16; The Road to Calvary
Plate 19; The Pietà
Plate 29; The Birth of Saint John the Baptist
Plate 39; St. Veranus Curing the Insane
Plate 41; The Magdalene Wiping Christ's Feet
Plate 44; St. Anne and the Three Marys

Tanis

p. 77; Book of Hours for Rouen Use, The Visitation; Workshop of the Master of the
Échevinage de Rouen; The Library Company of Philadelphia; MS 5 fol. 39v; ca.
1470
p. 79; Book of Hours for Rome Use, Nativity; Master of the Collins Hours;
Philadelphia Museum of Art; fols. 73v-74; ca. 1445-50
p. 84; Leaf From a Book of Hours, Annunciation to the Shepherds; Master of
Guillaume Lambert; Free Library of Philadelphia; ca. 1485
p. 107; Book of Hours for Sarum Use, Verionica with Her Veil; miniature inside
clasp; Free Library of Philadelphia; ca. 1460-70
p. 138; Raising of Lazarus; Free Library of Philadelphia; ca. 1490-1500
p. 162; Leaf from an Antiphonary; Historiated Initial H with the Nativity; Free
Library of Philadelphia; ca. 1440
p. 211; Idleness and the Dreamer-Lover in the Garden of Pleasure, Roman de la Rose;
Philadelphia Museum of Art; fol. 143; ca. 1440-1480
p. 214; Venus Aiming her Arrow at Fear and Shame, Roman de la Rose; Philadelphia
Museum of Art; fol. 143; ca. 1440-1480

20
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Acknowledgements

Thank you to Melanie Cozad and Kim Barker for pointing me in the direction of some
useful images.

Thank you to Brent Hanner for providing a large repository of high quality images of 15
th

century art.

Thank you to my editorial readers who provided me with useful comments and
constructive feedback.