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= nI is called a

Hadamard matrix of order n. For brevity, we use + instead of 1 and instead of 1.

Examples:

[+]

_

+ +

+

_

_

_

+ + + +

+ +

+ +

+ +

_

_

Notes: If two matrices have product tI then they commuet. It follows that H

H = nI

for every Hadamard matrix of order n. Also note that modifying a Hadamard matrix by

multiplying a row/column by -1 or permuting the rows/columns yields another Hadamard

matrix.

Observation 10.1 If H is a Hadamard matrix of order n then n = 1, 2 or n 0 (mod 4).

Proof: We may assume n 3 and may assume (by possibly multiplying columns by 1)

that the rst row has all entries +. Now, the rst three entries of each column must be

+ + +, + +, ++, or + and we shall assume that there are respectively a, b, c, and

d of these. Now we have a + b + c + d = n and the three orthogonality relations on the rst

three rows yield the equations: a + b c d = 0, a + c b d = 0 and a b c + d = 0.

Summing these four equations yields 4a = n

Conjecture 10.2 There exists a Hadamard matrix of order n whenever 4 divides n

Tensor Product: Let A = {a

i,j

} be an mn matrix and let B be a matrix. Then

A B =

_

_

a

1,1

B a

1,2

B . . . a

1,n

B

a

2,1

B a

2,2

B a

2,n

B

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

a

m,1

B a

m,2

B . . . a

m,n

B

_

_

Note: if A, B have the same dimensions and C, D have the same dimensions, then

(A C)(B D) = (AB) (CD) (1)

(A C)

= A

(2)

2

Observation 10.3 If H

1

, H

2

are Hadamard matrices, then H

1

H

2

is a Hadamard matrix.

Proof: This follows immediately from the above equations.

Character: A character of a (multiplicative) group G is a function : G C which is a

group homomorphism between G and the multiplicative group {z C : ||z|| = 1}. Whenever

q is a power of an odd prime, we dene

: F

q

C as follows

(a) =

_

_

0 if a = 0

1 if a F

q

1 otherwise

Observation 10.4

(i)

(ab) =

(a)

q

. (so

is a character)

(ii)

(1) =

_

1 if q 1 (mod 4)

1 if q 3 (mod 4)

.

(iii)

aFq

(a) = 0

(iv) If b F

q

\ {0} then

aFq

(a)

(b + a) = 1

Proof: The mutiplicative group F

q

\ {0} is cyclic, and thus isomorphic to Z

q1

. So, if we

choose a generator g for this group we may write its elements as 1 = g

0

, g

1

, g

2

, . . . , g

q2

.

Now, the squares F

q

= {g

0

, g

2

, g

4

, . . . , g

q3

} form a (multiplicative) subgroup of index 2.

Parts (i) and (iii) follow immediately from this. Since 1 is the unique nonidentity element

whose square is the identity we have that 1 = g

q1

2

, so if q 1 (mod 4) then 1 F

q

and

otherwise 1 F

q

which establishes (ii). For (iv) we have

aFq

(a)

(b + a) =

aFq\{0}

_

(a)

_

2

(ba

1

+ 1)

=

cFq\{1}

(c)

= 1

as desired.

3

Conference Matrix: An n n matrix C with all diagonal entries 0 all other entries 1

and CC

Lemma 10.5 Let C be a conference matrix.

(i) If C is antisymmetric, then I + C is a Hadamard matrix.

(ii) If C is symmetric, then

_

I + C I + C

I + C I C

_

is a Hadamard matrix.

Proof: For (i) we have (I +C)(I +C)

= I +C +C

+CC

instance, the upper left submatrix of the product is

(I +C)(I +C)

and the other submatrices are similarly easy to verify.

Theorem 10.6 Let q be a power of an odd prime. There exists a Hadamard matrix of order

q + 1 if q 3 (mod 4) and a Hadamard matrix of order 2(q + 1) if q 1 (mod 4).

Proof: Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

q

be the elements of F

q

and dene a matrix B = {b

ij

}

1i,jq

by the

rule b

ij

=

(a

i

a

j

). Now we have

(BB

)

ij

=

1kq

b

ik

b

jk

=

1kq

(a

i

a

k

)

(a

j

a

k

)

=

aFq

(a)

(a

j

a

i

+ a)

=

_

1 if i = j

q 1 otherwise

For every 1 i q we have

1kq

b

ik

=

1kq

(a

i

a

k

) =

cFq

(c) = 0

b

ij

=

(a

i

a

j

) =

(1)

(a

j

a

i

) =

(1)b

ji

=

_

b

ji

if q 1 (mod 4)

b

ji

if q 3 (mod 4)

.

4

If q 1 (mod 4) then the previous equation shows that B is symmetric and we dene

C =

_

_

0 1 . . . 1

1

.

.

. B

1

_

_

Now C is symmetric and CC

On the other hand, if q 3 (mod 4) thenB is antisymmetric and we dene

C =

_

_

0 1 . . . 1

1

.

.

. B

1

_

_

Now C is antisymmetric and CC

q + 1. It now follows from the previous lemma that the desired Hadamard matrix exists.

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