A denial of service (DoS) attack is an A Security intrusion which causes a system to be damaged, and where the damage is sufficient

to disable at least one of the services offered by that system. D.O.S attack is to take down our server (computer) or, if that is not possible, make it look like our server is down by taking all the bandwidth of our network (internet) connection. A final major source of harm in computer communications is denial of service. As people become increasingly dependent on computer communications for business, education, research, and interactive, the impact of denial of service in individuals and society grows alarmingly. In this section we review some of the threats to continuity of service. A network is like a large and complex web. To be useful, every point must be reachable from every other point. Of course, hardware and software are not perfect or error-free. Links and host constantly fail or taken offline, and new or repaired link and host are constantly put back on line. Thus, the topology of every network changes: small networks change slowly, and large networks change very frequently. Most nodes are connected by multiple path. So that when one path is unavailable, communication can be maintained using another path. However, the failure of a critical path or node will block communication.

Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is an attempt to make a computer resource unavailable and flood of incoming messages to the target system essentially forces it to shut down. DDoS also attacks involve breaking into hundreds or thousands of machines all over the Internet, These attacks typically exhaust bandwidth

or network stack resources, to the victims. To perpetrate a distributed denial of service or DDoS attack starts by breaking into weakly-secured computers, using defects in standard network service programs, an attacker does two things, as illustrated in the first stage the attacker uses any convenient attack such as (install software to conceal the fact of the break-in, and to hide the traces of their subsequent activity, exploiting a buffer overflow or tricking the victim to open and install unknown code from an e-mail attachment) to plant a to Trojan horse on a target machine . Trojan horse are almost always designed to do various harmful things, but can also be harmless and might broken down in classification based on how they breach and damage systems. Trojan horse does not necessarily cause any harm to the target machine so it may not be noticed. No matter how it is situated within the system, it will probably not attract any attention. The attacker repeats this process with many targets. Each of these target systems then becomes what is known as a zombie. The target systems carry out their normal work, unaware of the resident zombie. At some point the attacker chooses a victim and sends a signal to all the zombies to launch the attack. Then, instead of the victim’s trying to defend against one denial-of-service attack from one malicious host, the victim must try to counter n attacks from the n zombies all acting at once. Not all of the zombies need to use a same attack; for instance, some can use smurf and other syn floods to address different potential weaknesses.