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HUMARCH

AKA THE ROLE OF ARCHITECTURE WITHIN HUMANITARIAN ACTION IN THE DIFFERENT STAGES OF COMPLEX EMERGENCIES

by

LORENZO LA FAUCI
IDHA GRADUATE ARCHITECT

Foreword This theoretical enforcement thesis, aims to define the role of architecture and urban planning, within humanitaria action, for the specific instance of complex emergencies. The work is divided into two sections: Cooperation – Analysis of the problematical settings, and of the whole humanitarian emergency action framework. Space Damage – Development of the specific context and modality of intervention in the fields of concern; formulation of an architectural point of view, upon the complex emergency phenomenon.

Introduction.................................................................................................................................page1

Global Context - Cooperation
1. Complex Emergencies 1.1. Disasters............................................................................................................................3 − Definition − Hazard − Vulnerability 1.2. Complex Emergencies.......................................................................................................5 − Analysis − Emergency Indicators − Obstacles 2. Laws and documents 2.1. International Humanitarian Law......................................................................................10 − Principles − Tools − Treaties 2.2. Human Right Law............................................................................................................13 2.3.Refugee Law.....................................................................................................................14 − UNHCR Statute − International Tools − Regional Tools 2.4. Millenium Development Goals........................................................................................16 − 2005 Report 2.5. Agenda 21........................................................................................................................19 − Human Settlements 3. Complex Emergency Humanitarian Action 3.1. UN....................................................................................................................................20 − Programs, bodies, funds, agencies 3.2. Relating with militaries....................................................................................................23 3.3 Chronology and actors......................................................................................................25 − Roles, functions, purposes − Strategies − Evolution 3.4 Relating with donors.........................................................................................................29 − Accountability − Problems − Monitoring and evaluation 3.5 Project proposal................................................................................................................30 − Project development − Implementation − Monitoring and evaluation

Specific Context – Space Damage
Inserting Architecture in the Global Planning..............................................................................33 4. Pre - Disaster: Prevention, Alert, Early Warning 4.1. Disaster Risk Reduction – Principles and applications...................................................34 − Disasters and development − Reducing risks − Planning tools 4.2. Emergency preparedness and early warning system.......................................................38 − Disasters: causes and effects − Emergency cycle − Planning prevention 4.3. Controlling standards.......................................................................................................43 − Sphere Project − Tools 5. Post-Disaster: Assistance and rehabilitation 5.1. Sheltering.........................................................................................................................48 − Camps − Planning − Building 5.2 Tents................................................................................................................................53 − Use − Planning a response − Weather − Logistics − Alternative to tents − Adaptations − Common damages 5.3. Protection based physical planning.................................................................................67 − Assistance − Planning for one community − Community shelters 5.4. Organizing water resources.............................................................................................73 − Water supply − Guidelines 5.5. Communicable disease control........................................................................................78 − Risk factors − Post-disaster interventions in war − Surveillance − Chronology Conclusions: Space Management Hand Off..................................................................................87 Attachments – Maps, tables, images, reports, laws Bibliography Acknowledgements

Introduction Humanitarian outlook is rapidly changing. There is a growing need for expertise and accountability, as professionals work in more and more complex situations, requiring a multi-disciplinary approach that includes logistics, management, health, psychology, social sciences, anthropology, engineering, communications, agriculture, environment, education, international law, security, media, politics, economy... Humanitarian interventions in complex emergencies often involve architects and urban planners who don't have, unlike other professionals, a global ideological, istitutional, analitical and technical paradigm to operate in. Their position is instead more defined and represented in developmentoriented activities, often characterised by political trends. Complex emergencies are humanitarian crises that need an international response, as they affect communities left without protection by the frailty/absence of economic, political and social institutions. Emergency humanitarian action is therefore set up as a civil(ian) response to a political failure.

Sri-Lanka 2004, New Orleans 2005 Environmental disasters are growing in number, frequency and severity

This work is set in the environmental disaster field, and faces the complex emergency case, confronting with prevention and post-disaster assistance, to be managed within the times of human emergency. Environmental disasters of both human and natural origin are growing in number, frequency and intensity. This is the consequence of unsustainable resource exploitation in both rich and poor countries. Geographical areas are all potentially prone to disasters, but the severity of damage depends on their respective vulnerability level. Concepts concerning emergency cycle tended to focus on the immediate pre and post disaster, the moments during which communities most need protection. It's been necessary to reflect on a multi-disciplinary practice of architecture and urban planning, to extend urban poverty context tools and methods to complex emergencies, marking connections between human habitat, humanitarian action and community development. Many refugee/IDP camps have a quasiurban character that recalls a natural connection between human and humanitarian settlements, whose condictions often evoke the poverty of certain suburban areas. Including architecture in the global planning implied distinguishing specific architectural features and tasks from other disciplinary' competencies, within selected intervention areas. It's been important to conduct a comparative study of intervention strategies for different cultural, environmental, economical and political conditions, and to look for common problems and solutions in the different contexts; developing innovative methods and techniques, to confront changes and practical uncertainty. The whole work aims at defining the economical, technical, istitutional and social performance architecture could prove, within emergency humanitarian interventions, in order to reduce risks, safeguard health, generate incoming and help communities to rebuild, making them regain their own space's management.

This introductory section, describes the thesis' problematical context. It begins from the disaster and complex emergency concepts, the analysis goes through the legislative body, the principles of intervention, and then examines actors and dynamics of humanitarian action. This is the picture in which the role of architecture will be traced.

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Global Context - Cooperation
Complex Emergencies Disasters Complex Emergencies - Analysis Laws and documents International Humanitarian Law Human Right Law Refugee Law Millenium Development Goals Agenda 21 Complex Emergency Humanitarian Action UN Chronology and actors Relating with donors Relating with soldiers Project proposal

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After localizing and analyzing the architectonic areas, intervention strategies are planned by applying architectural methods and techniques to humanitarian practice in complex emergencies.

Inserting Architecture in the Global Planning
Common Features
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Architectural Features
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Respect for social and cultural difference Interdisciplinary comprehension Workgroup organization Leadership, flexibility, safeguard Ethical evaluation, personal responsibility Negotiation and partnership Coordination Presentation and communication Compilating reports and projects

Construction, sheltering Shelter anthropology Planning for refugees and IDPs Planning sustainable settlements Urban planning and development Territory policy Infrastructures and plants Building technologies Job creation

[...]

Specific Context – Space Damage
Inserting Architecture in the Global Planning Pre - Disaster: Prevention, Alert, Early Warning Disaster Risk Reduction – Principles and applications Emergency preparedness and early warning system Standards Post-Disaster: Assistance and rehabilitation Sheltering Tents Protection based physical planning Organizing water resources Communicable disease control

[...]

The final goal for every humanitarian intervention is to favour the aided community's autonomy, decreasing vulnerability: appropriate emergency management can avoid new disasters. The main duty of architecture and urban planning within humanitarian action is to prevent, minimize and repair the damages that disasters cause to communities' physical space, be it collective or individual, while supporting the administration of security, health, logistics, water and sanitation. The contribution that architecture can give in the assistance and rehabilitation phases, before the final space hand off, is fundamental in order to lead to a safer, sustainable physical reconstruction, with an effective advantage in developing health, social and economic structures after disasters. Recostrution's result should be prevention and protection.

Bibliography
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Cahill, K.M. (editor); Basics Of International Humanitarian Missions. New York, Fordham University Press, 2003 Cahill K.M. (editor); Emergency Relief Operations. New York, Fordham University Press, 2003 Orbinski, James; Ethics Of Humanitarianism. Acceptance speech by Dr James Orbinski of the Médecins Sans Frontières on the award of the Nobel Peace Prize for 1999, 10 December 1999 Chalinder, Henry; RRN Good Practice Review # 6 “Temporary Human Settlement Planning For Displaced Populations In Emergencies”. ODI 1998 Harrel-Bond, Barbara; New Issues In Refugee Research, Working Paper n° 29. “Are Refugee Camps Good For Children?”. American University In Cairo 2000 Lautze, Sue; Hammock, John; Coping With Crisis, IASC 1996 Snell, Justin; Stanton, Olivia; Vitale, Antonella;: Report “Preliminary Observations To Inform The Revision Project Of The Shelter & Site Planning Chapter Of The Sphere Standards”. Shelterproject.org in association with University Of Cambridge 2002 Fowler, John; Manfield, Pete; Report “Assessment Of Livelihood And Settlement Conditions In Kakuma Camp, Kenya; Rumbek Town And South Bor County, South Sudan” . Shelterproject.org in association with University Of Cambridge 2003 Mansfield, Pete; Corsellis, Tom; Cold Climate Emergency Shelter Systems. “A Research Project for Humanitarian Organizations”. The Martin Centre for Architectural & Urban Studies, University of Cambridge 2000 Davies, J. and Lambert, R. Engineering in Emergencies, RedR 2003 Howard, J. and Spice, R.. Plastic Sheeting, Its Use for Emergency Housing and Other Purposes, Oxfam Publishing 1988 shelterproject, Transitional Settlement: Displaced Populations, 2004 The Sphere Project, The Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response, 2004 Anderson, M. B. Do No Harm: Supporting Local Capacities for Peace through Aid, Collaborative for Development Action Local Capacities for Peace Project, Boston, 1996 Anderson, M. B. Linking Relief and Development: A Manual to Aid in Programming Assistance to Break the Cycle of Disasters and Promote Sustainable Development, Collaborative for Development Action, Inc., July 1996, Boston Carlson, R.D. Humanitarian Assistance Lessons Learned, Remarks to the UNOMOZ Workshop, 27 March 1995, New York Duffield, M. Complex Political Emergencies: With Reference to Angola and Bosnia - An Exploratory Report for UNICEF, March 1994, Birmingham Lautze, S. Lives vs. Livelihoods: How to Foster Self-Sufficiency and Productivity of Disaster Victims, U.S. Urvin, P. Development, Aid and Conflict: Reflections From the Case of Rwanda, The United Nations University, World Institute for Development Economics Research, Research for Action, 1996 V.V. A.A. High Relief Committee, et. al., Final Report, Workshop on: Disaster Management: Lessons Learned and Future Planning, 29 - 30 May 1996, Brourmmana V.V. A.A. African Rights, Humanitarianism Unbound? Current Dilemmas Facing Multi-Mandate Relief Operations in Political Emergencies, Discussion Paper No. 5, November 1994, London V.V. A.A.; CHIC’s IDHA 18 Hand-outs

Handbooks, guidelines, catalogues
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Médecins sans Frontières, (MSF); Refugee Health, Macmillan, London 1997 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, (UNHCR) Water Manual for Refugee Situations. Program and technical support Section, Geneva 1992 Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-ordination (UNDRO, now OCHA) Davis, I. Shelter After Disaster; Guidelines for Assistance, UNDRO, 1982 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, (UNHCR) Handbook for Emergencies, UNHCR, 1999 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, (UNHCR), Cooking Options in Refugee Situations, A Handbook of Experiences in Energy Conservation and Alternative Fuels, UNHCR 2002 Inter Agency Standing Committee, (IASC), Implementing the Collaborative Response in Situations of Internal Displacement, 2004 Inter Agency Standing Committee, (IASC), Appeal and Strategy Documents, 2003 Inter Agency Standing Committee, (IASC), Examples from UN Agencies and Partner Organizations of Field-based Initiatives Supporting Internally Displaced Persons, 1999 Inter Agency Standing Committee, (IASC), Inter Agency Contingency Planning Guidelines for Humanitarian Assistance, 2001 ICRC/IFRC (International Committee of the Red Cross/International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies) Emergency Items Catalogue, ICRC, Geneva 2002 IAPSO (Inter Agency Procurement Service), Emergency Relief Items-Compendium of Generic Specifications, vol. 1 Médecins Sans Frontières, (MSF), Catalogue, 2002

Web-sites 2. Amnesty International: www.amnesty.org 3. Architecture For Humanity: www.architectureforhumanity.org 4. Architecture For Humanity Italy: http://www.architectureforhumanityitaly.org 5. Architecture Sans Frontières International: www.asf-international.org 6. ASF Italia: www.asfitalia.org 7. Builders Without Borders: http://builderswithoutborders.org 8. CENDEP: http://owww.brookes.ac.uk/schools/be/arch/cendep/home.html 9. CESVI: www.cesvi.org 10. CIHC: http://www.cihc.org/index2.html 11. COOPI: www.coopi.it 12. Doctors without Borders: www.doctorwithoutborders.org 13. InterSOS: www.intersos.org 14. Journal of Humanitarian Assistance: http://jha.ac/ 15. MEARCH: www.mearch.org 16. NIDM India: www.nidm.net 17. OCHA: http://ochaonline3.un.org/ 18. RedR: www.redr.org 19. Relief Web: www.reliefweb.int 20. shelterproject: www.shelterproject.org 21. UNHCR: www.unhcr.org

Bam, Iran 2004

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Valeria Fabbroni Roger Mburente Larry Hollingworth Kevin M. Cahill Talal Al Bayati Joyce Kago René De Vries Brendan H. Cahill Carlos E. Mejia Ghassem Fardanesh prof. Francesco Karrer Friends, colleagues, musicians My family My parents

I'd like to dedicate my work to all the civilian victims of war and disasters, and to all my humanitarian friends currently working in complex emergencies.