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# SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR USING CHOPPER DRIVE

AIM:
1. To study the control circuit of a single quadrant chopper drive for a separately excited dc motor by
observing the following waveforms of the control circuit before energiing the power circuit.
!a". #ate source drive signal
!b". \$aw tooth reference voltage %
r
!pin&" and control voltage %
c
!pin'".
!c". (omparator output voltage !pin)"* for duty ratio+,.-.
.. To study the power circuit: The following may be
a. /uty ratio vs no load speed at normal excitation!at rated field current"
b. To observe the wave form of armature current* current through the fly wheel diode and current
through the chopper for continuous motor current !at about .0&
rd
load on the motor and at armature
voltage of .,,%".
&. To find the value of current limit set for chopper drive.
'. /etermine the armature inductance by observing the pea1 to pea1 ripple current of motor at a duty ratio
of ,.) with continuous load current.
A22A3AT4\$:
(hopper drive 1it .',% /.( input* 5utput )A max.
/.( Motor generator set Motor .&, %* 16p* 1),, rpm separately excited.
/.( ammeter M.(* ,7) A 7 18o
M.(* ,7) A 7 18o
/.( voltmeter M.( ,7&,,% 7. 8os
Tachometer )799999 rpm 718o
5scilloscope ., M6: /ual trace with 1:1 and 1,:1 probes.
T6;53<:
In a chopper circuit the principle of switching the load on and off periodically with a duty ratio is used as a
means for controlling the power. M5\$=;Ts 0 I#>Ts are generally used as the switching devices in chopper.
These devices can be switched on and off simply by applying or removing a voltage across gate and source
terminals.
A chopper with M5\$=;Ts feeding a /.( motor is shown in fig 1 !a". ;quivalent circuit is shown in fig 1. !b"
1 !a" 1!b"
=ig 1 (hopper fed motor.
M1
IRF120
control
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The chopper switch will be made on and off periodically. ?hen the switch is on* an exponentially rising
current will be ta1en from the source. ?hen the switch is off* the current will continue to flow through the
flywheel diode. (urrent through the diode will be an exponentially falling current. ?ith t1 and t. as on and off
times of the chopper* waveforms of voltage across the motor* motor current* supply current and diode current
for case when motor current is continuous are shown in =ig .
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t t
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s s mean
.
. .
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?here / is duty ratio.
The mean motor current *
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The maximum pea1 to pea1 current in the motor occurs ?hen / + @ and it is given by

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1 .
The speed of the motor can be varied by varying the mean voltage applied to the motor * i.e* the duty ratio.
Thus in normal steady state conditions for a given /.( source voltage and chopper frequency the on time of
chopper would be determined by the speed required.
Initially* to limit the starting the current the on time would be low. As the motor speed goes up the on time
can be progressively increased until it corresponds to the required speed.
The control circuit of chopper drive is shown in fig &. It consists of the flowing functional bloc1s:
1. AA1.% power supply with its ground tied to the armature terminal A. in the power circuit shown in fig .)
To power control circuits other than the gate drive circuits.
.. AA-% power supply isolated to power the gate drive of the chopper.
&. A comparator giving a high level during the interval when the reference sawtooth voltage is more than the
control voltage and giving a low level other wise.
'. An amplifier to feed the optocoupler input when the output of the comparator is high.
). An optocoupler to produce a gate drive isolated from the controller ground.
B. A gate drive signal shaper to produce a gate drive with good rise and fall time.
C. A gate drive amplifier to reduce the load on pulse shaper and to drive the current of the I#>T with low
impedance.
-. A current controller to limit the motor current as a protective measure. The motor current sensed across the
shunt in the armature circuit. If the armature current reaches a value such that the net voltage at pin1&
becomes negative* the pulse width of the comparator will decrease and limit the motor current. 6igher the
gain of controller sharper will be the current limit.
%arious control circuit waveforms are shown in fig .'.

ON ON ON OFF OFF
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=ig . ?aveforms in a chopper feeding a motor
235(;/43;:
17 Ma1e the power circuit connections as per =ig.).
7 2lug in the single phase A( input plug to energie the control circuit and switch on the power.
a. 5bserve waveform of gate7 source drive signal !\$cope ground at pin 11 and probe at pin 1,". AdDust the
control voltage at pin ' to get a duty ratio of ,.- for the gate drive and note the waveform.
b. 5bserve and note the waveform of the saw tooth reference voltage %r at pin .& and the control voltage %c
at pin.' with scope ground at pin .1.
.7 AdDust the duty ratio of waveform of the comparator output to about ,.1.
7 \$et the variac of the variable /( source of the field supply to minimum output voltage position.
7 \$witch on the power to the auto transformer of the variable /( source of field supply
7 4sing autotransformer adDust the field current of the motor to the rated value of ,.)BA.
7 \$witch on the ..,% /.( supply.
7 5bserve and note the waveform of voltage across the motor !1,:1 probe A1 and scope ground at point A."
on graph 1.(hec1 if the armature current is continuous or not from the above waveform. 8ote the on
time of chopper* the readings of armature voltage and speed. Increase the duty ratio by changing the
control voltage and for each step note down the above readings until the armature voltage is .,,%.
&. \$witch on the load on the generator and adDust the load and duty ratio so that the motor draws .0&
rd
rated
current at .,,%. 5bserve and note the waveform of armature current !1:1 probe at A. and scope ground at
(" Mar1 on the waveforms the duration when the chopper !transistor" conducts and when the flywheel
diode conducts.
'. 5bserving the current waveform as in ! & " above adDust the duty ratio to ,.) and
note the armature current waveform. 8ote the pea1 to pea1 the ripple current of the
motor and hence calculate the armature inductance.
). AdDust the duty ratio to get .,,% across the motor. Increase the load on the generator and note the
readings of ammeter A1 and voltmeter %1 until there is no further increase of armature current.
B. /etermine the current limit for the chopper drive.
5>\$;3%ATI58\$:
1. The waveforms of saw tooth reference voltage %r* control voltage %c* comparator output voltage and
gate source drive are shown in graph 1.
.. The graph of duty ratio %s speed of the motor is shown in graph ..
&. The waveforms of armature current* flywheel diode current and /.( source at .0& rd rated armature
current and .,,% as shown in graph &.
'. %alue of current limit set for the given chopper is 7777 A.
). The armature current waveform for duty ratio of ,.) is shown in graph '. The armature inductance is
determined to be7777777 m6.
(5MM;8T\$:
1. 5n the width of the gate drive signal generated by the comparator in relation to reference saw tooth
voltage and control voltage.
.. 5n the gate source signal generated
&. 5n the variation of speed with respect to duty ratio
'. 5n the shape of armature current and source current! reasons for variations"
). 6ow the maximum value of the armature current is limitedE (an it be variedE If so howE
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=ig. ). 2ower circuit of chopper drive >rief specification of I3=-',
/etails of Motors 5utput: 162 Type: shunt Armature: .&,%0&.9)A 3ated speed: 1),,rpm(lass of insulation: >
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5>\$;3%ATI58\$:
Table: 1. Test on chopper drive feeding a lightly loaded separately excited /.( motor
Input voltage to chopper: ..,% /.(
Motor field current ,.))A
(hopper frequency +
\$l 8o: 58 Time !Fs" /uty ratio Mean
Armature voltage
! % "
\$peed ! rpm" 3emar1s:
Armature current
continuous or not
\$AM2G; (AG(4GATI58:
=I# '. (ontrol (ircuit ?ave form
%r vr
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%g1
(hopper period +10f + T +
58 time + t58 +
/uty ratio + t58 0T. +
=rom graph pea1 to pea1 armature current at duty ratio of ,.) + 777777 A
Armature inductance
=

=
f I
V
s
. . '
Table: . Goad test on chopper drive to test current limit.
Input voltage to chopper + ..,%
(hopper frequency + 77777 6.
\$l 8o: 58 Time of chopper
! Fs"
Average armature
voltage ! v "
Average motor
current !A "
/uty ratio
(urrent limit of (hopper + 7777777 A