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CBMR

Fall 2011

Group 7

Assignment 3
Literature Review


September 30, 2011
Zainab Durrani 2012-01-0018
Farwah Ahmed 2012-01-0022
Muhammad Hamza Shahid 2012-01-0034
Tazeen Saleem 2012-01-0081
Hina Ali 2012-01-0123


Table of Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 1
Defining Digital Media ............................................................................................................................. 1
Features of Digital Media ......................................................................................................................... 2
Digital Media and Children .......................................................................................................................... 3
Food & Noodles Industry Digital Marketing ............................................................................................. 4
Why are FMCGs deploying decent amounts of resources on their digital marketing efforts? ................ 4
Digital Media in the Noodle Market ......................................................................................................... 5
Digital Marketing in Pakistan ....................................................................................................................... 6
Unilever Pakistan .......................................................................................................................................... 7
Digitizing its Brands ................................................................................................................................. 8
The Knorr Brand ....................................................................................................................................... 9
Limitations of Digital Media Marketing ..................................................................................................... 10
Ending Note ................................................................................................................................................ 10
References ................................................................................................................................................... 11



































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Introduction

Well over 1,000,000 books are published every year while Google books scanner digitizes
1,000 pages every hour. In the last 5 years unique readers of online newspapers are up by 30
million. In 2009, traditional advertising growth was in steep decline with newspaper at 18.7%,
TV at 10.1%, radio at 11.7%, magazines at 14.8%, while mobile usage grew at the rate of 18.1%
and internet usage increased by 18.2%. More videos were uploaded to YouTube in the last 2
months than if ABC, NBC, & CBS had been airing new content 24/7/365 since 1948. An
average teenager sends 2,272 text messages every month. Nokia manufactures 13 cell phones
every second. The mobile device will be the worlds primary tool of communication in 2020.
The computer is your cell phone today and a million times cheaper, a thousand times more
powerful, and a hundred thousand times smaller than the one computer in MIT in 1965. So what
used to fit in a building now fits in a pocket and what fits in your pocket now will be fit inside
your blood cell in 25 years (Ray Kurzwell).
i


Advertising in todays day and age has become a pervasive feature of our society (Litman,
1999)
ii
. Marketers purposefully design an integrated communication strategy, where each
element reinforces a consistent brand message creating what Grimes (2008) calls a media
supersystem
iii
. With the onslaught of various new media, consumers are constantly bombarded
with plethora of marketing messages that it is becoming an increasingly challenging task for
brands to obtain & retain share of mind. Digital media, despite being in its developmental and
hence fluid state, continues to grow in popularity as a medium of advertising for organizations all
over the world (Chester & Montgomery, 2009)
iv
. This media functions as a third space which
companies use to pull their target market and convert them into their brands lifetime users
(Sharples et al, 2009)
v
.

Defining Digital Media

For the purpose of this paper, digital media can be defined as all those channels that allow the
consumers and organization to interact with each other on a direct and personalized one-on-one
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basis. It includes Search Engine Marketing, Display / Banner Advertising, Email Marketing,
Social Media, Mobile Advertising, Websites, Apps, Virtual Worlds, and Online Radio Stations.

Features of Digital Media

Chester & Montgomery (2009) identified several rationales as to why digital media has become
such a prevalent channel for communication.

What makes digital media a conducive vehicle of communication is its ability to engage its
audience in a manner that has never been possible before. Unlike traditional media, which relies
on passive participation of its intended users, digital media has the panache for forcing the
desired consumer to pay attention immediately and demand action.

Consumers today stay connected to everything that is important to them through the use of
digital media. Through advergames and fanvertising, through community branding and T-
technology, marketers have found a way to leverage this aspect by utilizing the same tools to
connect to them at every level.

Google and Facebook are continuously developing behavioural targeting services that help
business is zero-in on their prospective market. These data-portability initiatives allow for
tapping into the everyday lives of the web-browsing audience.

This profiling and interactive nature of digital media leads to user-generated ad content. Digital
medias ability to engage its consumers, converts them into active practitioners turning them into
brand advocates.

The keystone of digital media marketing is the state-of-the-art technology, which allows for
diverse array of instruments that immerses consumers with the brand. Virtual worlds are created
by businesses to capture the interest of everyone and anyone. Dynamic product placement
through rich media, like social media, animations, and multi-media applications creates an
immersive environment for digital media users.
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Digital Media and Children

Given its strong pull towards consumers, it is not surprising to find that digital media is
embedded in society, used not only by adults, youths, teenagers and tweens but also by
elementary school children. Children are fascinated by the multi-functionality that digital media
offers them they can listen to music, play games, stay connected with friends, share memories
and even work on their school assignments. In effect, the online lives of kids are an extension of
their offline lives (OKeeffe, 2011
vi
).

They have always been a distinct audience group for marketers given that they are in the phase
of maturing their cognitive abilities (Kunkel
vii
, 2001; Calvert
viii
, 1999; Piaget
ix
, 1962). Children
under the age of 8 find it difficult to distinguish between advertising and non-advertising content,
even if it is highlighted for them (Calvert, 1999). After this age, their social and emotional
development paces up and their discretionary income increases (Moschis
x
, 1978, 1981; Moschis
and Moore
xi
, 1979) as does their understanding of the economics of purchase (Moschis and
Moore
xii
, 1984; Ludvigsen and Sharma
xiii
, 2004); familiarity with brands (Ward
xiv
et al. 1977);
understanding of advertising intent (Moschis, 1987; Ward et al. 1977; Rossiter
xv
, 1979);
recognition of consumption symbolism (Belk et al. 1982
xvi
, 1984
xvii
); interest in family
consumption as opposed to personal consumption (Moore and Holtzman
xviii
, 1965; Moschis and
Mitchell
xix
, 1986; Rust
xx
, 1993; Dunne
xxi
, 1999; Sherry et al.
xxii
1999); independence in shopping
(McNeal
xxiii
, 1969; Reece
xxiv
, 1986; Pabilonia
xxv
, 2001; Lundberg and Romich
xxvi
, 2005);
information acquisition (Ward et al. 1977; Roedder-John and Whitney
xxvii
, 1986), processing
(Capon and Kuhn
xxviii
, 1980), retention (Adler et al. 1977; Moschis and Churchill, 1979) and
recall (Atkin
xxix
, 1975) skills; and sophistication in decision making and cognition abilities
(Moschis and Moore, 1979). Conversely, it is found that materialistic orientations (Atkin, 1975;
Ward et al. 1977; Belk et al. 1985) direct demands for products (Isler et al
xxx
. 1987; Atkin
xxxi
,
1982) and parental refusal decrease with age.

In the attentional economy
xxxii
(Castell & Jensen, 2004) of today, it is a daunting task to
capture the eyeball hours of children while they go through their growth years. This is where
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digital media can make a difference. Its engaging and immersive qualities create the necessary
environment to connect the hard-to-reach (Grimes, 2008) children to the brand at every level.

Disney, McDonalds, Ikea, Coca Cola, Blendtec, Pepsi, Procter & Gamble, Unilever, Kelloggs,
M&M and Cadbury all extensively utilize digital media in their marketing. McDonalds for
instance, created a McFlurry mobile marketing campaign that provided electronic coupons in
return for a text message (Chester & Montgomery, 2009). It also transformed its popular Happy
Meal website to an online world where childrens avatars interact with popular celebrities, play
games, download music and even get coupons for purchases. Another success story comes from
Frito-Lays which partnered with Microsofts X-Box to create a Dorito game, generating 1
million users traffic downloading 160,000 Theme Packs (Chester & Montgomery, 2009).
Food & Noodles Industry Digital Marketing

Children preferences play a key role in devising the marketing strategy of any FMCG company
as numerous products of these companies are specifically geared towards fulfilling the
needs/wants of the children. Traditionally, point of sale promotions, print and television ads
played an integral role in creating product awareness and pushing the product to the very end
entity of the supply chain the end user of the product, children. Due to the suggestive nature of
the television marketing, the effect was profound in creating awareness and increasing the sale of
the product. However, with the advent of social networking sites and increase usage of digital
devices amongst the children, FMCG companies were forced to adopt a change in their
marketing strategy and encompass digital marketing as a major pillar of their marketing strategy.

Why are FMCGs deploying decent amounts of resources on their digital marketing efforts?

Davis
xxxiii
(2006) has reported that approximately 70% of children between the ages 8-11 go
online from home. He further points out that 37% of the children have used instant messaging
last month and 35% have played a video game. This clearly shows that digital medium is of
utmost importance when FMCG tend to devise their marketing plans for children. According to
Chester and Montgomery
xxxiv
(2007), Coca-Cola has successfully ran My Coke Rewards
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program which encourages consumers to access the website with special codes by virtue of
which they are able to free download ringtones and other entertainment features. Furthermore,
Coca-Cola uses the information provided by their consumers in order to get to know more about
their consumer preferences and taste. This scenario clearly depicts how digital marketing has
been integrated into the broader spectrum of the overall marketing strategy by successful FMCG
Company.

Digital Media in the Noodle Market

Knorr Noodles falls under the domain of Knorr, which is the largest global brand of Unilever.
Toit
xxxv
(2010) reports that Knorr SA launched a Whats for Dinner program website, in
collaboration with a digital marketing agency, and it soon became the number on recipe website
in South Africa. Toit further elaborates that to use a social networking site Facebook, in this
regard was a strategic choice as they wanted to align themselves with the social community and
their social media habits.

Keeping in view the inclination young children have towards social networking sites such as
Facebook, majority of the companies have started maintaining special pages on the network of
their product/ brand and Knorr Noodle is no exception. Maggi Noodle, brand of Nestle and a
fierce competitor of Knorr Noodle also is maintaining a page on Face book. This clearly shows
the need to constantly keep a presence on the medium which is has gained tremendous popularity
among the young children all over the globe. Children few decades ago were never exposed to
such digital mediums that nowadays are defining the ways we are going to spend our lives. The
FMCG companies use these social networking sites as a medium to communicate about the
brand programs and promotions that they plan to undertake. These companies regularly carry on
special programs such as the recent Quest for the Noodle Pot on the social networks because
of which they would be visiting schools and carrying out various engaging activities with the
young students which in a way will help them in gaining brand loyalty from the children. The
growing number of likes that a Facebook page have, clearly shows the popularity and the
effectiveness of digital marketing as a modern day tool for increasing brand awareness amongst
the target audience.
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Digital Marketing in Pakistan

With a tremendous increase in internet penetration and mobile usage over the past 8 years,
Pakistan has become an emerging market for digital media. Internet subscribers reached 20
millionxxxvi while cellular subscribers crossed 108 million mark in May2011, with a tele-density
of 65.2%
xxxvii
. With new avenues of internet access via GPRS,
EDGE, Wireless Broadband, DSL and affordable mobile phones,
internet penetration and mobile density is further going to
increase. Pakistan ranks twenty-fifth amongst all countries where
Facebook is used. Facebook traffic from Pakistan has increased to
5.3 million users which grew by 1.5 million in the last six months
with 3.04% penetration of population out of 29.16% penetration
of online population. Age wise break up of Facebook usage
shows that tremendous potential lays in the younger segment
xxxviii
. Mobile usage has also been
on the rise in Pakistan with cellular subscription reaching the mark of around 95%.

Unfortunately, Pakistani brands are unable to fully leverage this growth. Great opportunity still
exists to reap fruit from this medium. Most of the brands in Pakistan still rely on traditional
media (TV, radio, print advertisement) for marketing to the consumers which is not only costly
but also inefficient due to unprecedented fragmentation in the media habits of consumers. Last
few decades have witnessed a transition of consumer behaviour towards interactivity. SMS
bundling, gaming, blogging are some of the examples in this regard. Digital Marketing is
cheaper and engages consumers much more effectively as compared to traditional media but
brands in Pakistan are unable to fully exploit this medium for their benefit
xxxixxl
.

Telecom brands in Pakistan like Ufone, Djuice and Telenor Talkshawk have used digital
marketing to engage consumers via interactive Facebook pages and mobile marketing. Viewers
of fan pages are mostly young audience who are targeted at timings when they are most
responsive and receptive to the communication messages. Various contests are run, games are
offered and promotional activities are managed through these pages. Aim is to make the brand a
part of consumers life so they feel and breathe it
xli
,
xlii
. Mobile marketing is used to run various
Age %age
13-15 16%
16-17 9%
18-24 51%
25-34 25%
35 and above 13%
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promotional schemes to incentivize and educate consumers
xliii
. Numerous brands also advertise
via Facebook banner ads which can be used to target the intended audience with immense
precision. Banner Ads on various websites and messengers are also used to be on consumers top
of mind.

Companies in Pakistan have started to use digital marketing in Pakistan as an effective medium
to involve children and build their perceptions about the brand. Successful examples in this
context are Surf excel, Safeguard and Top Pops. Top Pops has 356,968 fans on its Facebook
pages, which is maintained as a general forum to engage consumers. Surf Excel Tools for
Schools is another fanpage developed by Surf Excel to promote its campaign for children in
school. It runs a contest and then rewards children
xliv
. Safeguard has made Commander
Safeguard a part of every childs life via a Facebook page which educates children about the
product and general hygiene. Weekly activities are conducted. They are also advertising their
school program via this page. In addition to Facebook, mobile advertising is being used for this
purpose too
xlv
.

Although efforts are being made but it is in its preliminary stages. As rightly said by Fouad
Husain, GM, Mindshare: You tap onto the [digital] consumer because theyre more conducive
to technology than any other medium even if they dont understand it fully. The attention of
marketers now should be on mobile devices & laptops. To tap into these mediums and to let the
corporate message be available to them - this is the definition and the scope of Digital Medium
in Pakistan in the current scenario.
Unilever Pakistan

Unilever today is known as one of the top multinationals in the FMCG sector with widespread
setups the world over. Over the years it has built a strong repute in mainly two kinds of
consumer goods: Food & Beverages and Home & Personal care. Chiefly through acquisitions
of what have been called billion-dollar brands
xlvi
; today the company has over 400 brands. The
success it claims has come as a result of a constant commitment to delivering value to customers
through quality goods and also emphasizing innovative promotional drives. It is believed to
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spend more than $7 billion a year globally on advertising and promotions
xlvii
. In Pakistan alone
Unilever ranks number four in Top Advertiser for 2010 listing with an Ad spending of up to
$250,000
xlviii
. Unilever has certain measures for determining success in a promotional campaign
that are standard across brands, and many that are based on specific brand objectives
xlix


Digitizing its Brands

For the purpose of this research we studied several Unilever brands in order to gather examples
of how is it currently making use of digital and social media in various promotional campaigns.
The foremost case is of Axe deodorant, which was introduced in 2002 mainly through an
internet-based campaign targeting boys and became the number one male deodorant in just
two years
l
. With a keen focus on the kind of experience consumers have with the brand Unilever,
in close coordination with media agencies, managed to identify appropriate digital channels such
as online, interactive television and mobile to establish an effective communication with the
target segment
li
. In the words of the divisions VP, The digital world allows the company to be
more of a data-driven, learning culture, which allows us to instantly change campaigns as they
are executed in the market
lii
.

After the success that online promotions brought for Axe, Unilever has started moving towards
the use of digital medium for other product promotions as well. Recently in August 2010, it
launched its first all-digital consumer campaign for Dove in Canada by introducing an original
web series called Get Fresh
liii
. The Get Fresh Channel represents a major first for Dove as part
of a 100% digital media campaign, said Jack Dortmans, Brand Manager
liv
. It is a new way to
engage customers with interactive activities like polls, trivia, and mobile alerts. The series
consists of a female host who updates viewers on latest trends, from fashion to new local
eateries
lv
. Over the years, the Dove line has expanded into personal care products like body wash
and hair care. In 2011 the Body Language campaign was launched all over Europe, for the
Dove Hand & Body range. The central component was the digital activity that featured a
Facebook application called The Body Language Tool. Michelle St Jacques, global brand
director of Unilever says, Women are spending more and more time on social media, which is
why we decided to focus on Facebook to create engaging and playful applications they could
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share with their friends. It will enable us to bring Dove even closer to our consumers and give
them an opportunity to have a live relationship with our brand
lvi
.

During the course of this research, we found a few examples of Unilever brands in Pakistan that
too have adopted digital and social media as an integral part of their advertising and promotional
strategy. Cornettos digital campaign was initiated in 2010 with the main purpose of building
consumer interaction with the brand through the use of social media. It was the first Unilever
brand in Pakistan to make use of social medium to communicate with consumers through
services like SMS short code, online advertising, activities via Facebook page, all aimed at
creating a sense of excitement in the consumers, all year round
lvii
.

Lifebuoy has been a recent
entrant (as of 2011), and it has launched a social game, the first ever in Pakistan, by the name
of Germ Strike. The game is launched on Facebook and is built around the brands key
message of killing germs superfast
lviii
. It is a fun and interactive way for both children and
adults to learn and also helps promote the brand. This is truly a campaign that sets itself apart
from the promotional clutter in the Pakistani market. The idea is novel and the overall package of
game and give-aways is well knit, something that will serve as a Case Study and become a best
practice for other brands in the future
lix
.

Surf Excel Tools for School campaign was another successful digital ad drive of Unilever
Pakistan in 2010, with a total online media spend of about Rs. 1,191,441. The campaign ran for
three months and made use of online channels such as : Facebook, Google, MSN, Yahoo and had
about 94,000 website hits with about 57,000 Facebook likes in just the first five weeks
lx
.

The Knorr Brand

Knorr is Unilevers biggest global brand that is currently sold in over 85 countries the world
overlxi. A key feature learnt after seeing various online articles was that Knorrs launch in
several countries was done with the expansion of its product line. For example in India the
category of Knorr soups was launched and later Soupy Noodles were also introduced and in
Pakistan Knorr was introduced with the launch of Instant Noodles which became an instant hit
among children and housewives. Knorr as a brand has always set out to empower homemakers
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and enable them to make healthy, wholesome and delicious food options. All Knorr products are
healthy, completely preservative free and low on sodium and cholesterol content.
lxii



Unilever Pakistan attempts at engaging Knorr target consumers through the use of social media
include such strategic decisions as having Facebook pages for Knorr Noodles that has over
7500 likes and Knorr Quest page with more than 1300 likes
lxiii
. The main interaction is through
wall posts and polling activities on topics such as Which Knorr Noodles flavour do you like
more, Chicken Delite or Mast Masala? and so on. Both the pages give links to the official
website for Knorr noodles, where games (like Knorr Noodle Catcher) and download options
(ringtones, wall papers etc.) are made available to the children.
Limitations of Digital Media Marketing

However, the success rate of different companies using digital media may be questionable.
Morgan
lxiv
(2010) has pointed out that many companies have made errors while using digital
media which has decreased the value of their brand as compared to others. Broida
lxv
(2010) in
this context has reported the exchange of a few nasty comments on the Nestle Facebook page
between a consumer and the company clearly showing how the situation or communication was
mishandled by the company. Such errors on the digital media can have serious and long term
consequences for the companies and their respective brands.
Ending Note

Digital Media has ushered in a new era of communication practices. Since children in
undergoing a cognitive growth, digital media is poised to connect directly with them.
Organizations all over the world are increasing their spending on digital advertising. Pakistani
organizations are also not far away behind. With internet penetration hovering around 62.5% and
cellular subscription reaching the mark of 95%, Pakistan offers ample opportunities to access the
market via digital media. With aims to centralizing its digital marketing at a global level
Unilever is heading for major shifts of its global brands with in this ever changing digital
landscape. The most important thing is that we dont let the technology drive the strategy.
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References


i http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ILQrUrEWe8
ii Litman, J 1999, ' The Public Interest in the Advertising Age', The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 108,
No. 7, pp. 1717-1735
iii Grimes, S.M, 2008,'Kids Ad Play: Regulating Children's Advergames in the Converging
Media Context', International Journal of Communication & Law Policy, Issue 12, Winter 2008,
pp. 162-178.
iv Chester, J & Montgomery, KC 2009 'Opportunities for Addressing Interactive Food and
Beverage Marketing to Youth' under Digital Marketing, Memo prepared for The Second
NPLAN/BMSF Meeting on Digital Media and Marketing to Children for the NPLAN Marketing
to Children Learning Community, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Berkely Media
Studies Group, Berkely CA 29-30 June
v Sharples, M, Graber, R, Harrison, C & Logant, K, 2008, 'E-safety and Web 2.0 for children
aged 1116', Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Vol.25, Issue 1, October 2008, pp.70-84.
vi O'Keeffe, GS, Clarke-Pearson, K, and Council on Communications & Media 2011 'The
Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families', Official Journal of the
American Academy of Paediatrics, Vol. 127 pp. 800 - 807
vii Kunkel, D. (2001). Children and Television Advertising In D.G. Singer, & J. L. Singer (Eds.),
Handbook of children and the
Media (pp. 375393). Thousand Oaks, CA7 Sage.
viii Calvert, S.L. (1999). Childrens journeys through the information age Boston:
McGraw Hill
ix Piaget, J. (1962). Play, dreams, and imitation. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
x Moore and Moschis, 1978, Family Communication Patterns and Consumer Socialization, Mass
Communication and Society Division, Association for Education in Journalism Annual
Convention, August, Seattle
xi Moschis and Moore, 1979, Family Communication and Consumer Socialization, Advances
in Consumer Research, vol 6, pp 359 363
xii Moschis and Moore, 1984, Anticipatory Consumer Socialization, Journal of the Academy
of Marketing Science, vol 12, no 4, pp 109 123
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xiii Ludvigsen and Sharma, 2004, Burger Boy and Sporty Girl, Barnados, Essex
xiv Ward, Wackman and Wartella, 1977, How Children Learn to Buy: The Development of
Consumer Information Processing Skills, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA
xv Rossiter, J. 1979, Does TV Advertising Affect Children?, Journal of Advertising Research,
vol 19, Feb, pp 49 53
xvi Belk, Bahn and Mayer, 1982, Developmental Recognition of Consumption Symbolism,
Journal of Consumer Research, vol 9, June, pp 4 17
xvii Belk, Mayer and Driscoll, 1984, Childrens Recognition of Consumption Symbolism in
Childrens Products, Journal of Consumer Research, vol 10, March, pp 386 397
xviii Moore and Holtzman, 1965, Youth Present a Case for Home Marketing and Family Life,
in Tomorrows Parents: A Study of Youth and Their Families, ed. B M Moore and W H
Holtzman, University of Texas Press, Austin
xix Moschis and Mitchell, 1986, Television Advertising and Interpersonal Influences on
Teenagers Participation in Family Consumer Decisions, Advances in Consumer Research, vol
13, pp. 1 6
xx Rust, L. 1993, Observations: Parents and Children Shopping Together: A New Approach to
the Quantitative Analysis of Observational Data, Journal of Advertising Research, vol 33, July,
pp. 65 70
xxi Dunne, M. 1999, The Role and Influence of Children in Family Holiday Decision Making,
International Journal of Advertising and Marketing to Children, vol. 1, no 3, pp. 181 191
xxii Sherry, Greenberg and Tokinoya, 1999, Orientations to TV Advertising among Adolescents
and Children in the US and Japan, International Journal of Advertising, vol. 18, no 2, pp. 233
250
xxiii McNeal, J. U. 1969, An Exploratory Study of the Consumer Behaviour of Children, in
Dimensions of Consumer Behaviour, 2nd ed., ed. J U McNeal, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New
York
xxiv Reece, B. B. 1986, Children and Shopping: Some Public Questions, Journal of Marketing
and Public Policy, vol. 5, pp. 185 194
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xxv Pabilonia, S. W. 2001, Evidence on Youth Employment, Earnings and Parental Transfers in
the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, Journal of Human Resources, vol. 36, no 4,
pp. 795 822
xxvi Lundberg and Romich, 2005, Decision Making by the Children of the NLSY, University of
Washington Printing Press, University of Washington
xxvii Roedder-John and Whitney, 1986, The Development of Consumer Knowledge in
Children: Cognitive Structure Approach, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 12, March, pp.
406 417
xxviii Capon and Kuhn, 1980, A Developmental Study of Consumer Information Processing
Strategies, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 7, Dec, pp. 225 233
xxix Atkin, C. K. 1975, Effects of Television Advertising on Children Second Year
Experimental Evidence, Report # 1, Michigan State University, Michigan
xxx Isler, Popper and Ward, 1987, Childrens Purchase Requests and Parental Responses:
Results From A Diary Study, Journal of Advertising Research, November, pp. 28 39
xxxi Atkin, C. 1982, Television Advertising and Socialization to Consumer Roles, in
Television and Behaviour, ed K Pearl et al., US Department of Health and Human Services,
Rockville
xxxii de Castell, S & Jenson, J 2004 'Paying Attention to Attention: New Economies for
Learning', Educational Theory, Vol. 54, No. 4, pp. 329-397
xxxiii Wendy Davis, Seven in 10 Tweens Surf Web at Home, Online Media
Daily, October 27, 2006. http://publications.mediapost.com/
index.cfm?fuseaction=Articles.showArticleHomePage&art_aid=50280
xxxiv Chester, J & Montgomery, KC 2007 'Interactive Food and Beverage Marketing: Targeting
Children and Youth in the Digital Age', Berkeley Media Studies Group, Public Health Institute,
The California Endowment, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
xxxv Toit, P.D,2010, 'One of South Africas largest brands enters social media', viewed July 28,
2010, <http://www.socialmediaiq.co.za/business/one-of-south-africas-largest-brands-enters-
social-media/#respond>
xxxvi http://www.internetworldstats.com/asia.htm
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xxxvii http://www.pta.gov.pk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=269:telecom-
indicators&catid=124:industry-report&Itemid=599
xxxviii http://www.socialbakers.com/facebook-statistics/pakistan
xxxix http://umairmohsin.wordpress.com/2010/06/25/the-rise-of-digital-marketing-in-pakistan/
xl http://www.intelligenes.net/DigitalMarketing.aspx
xli https://www.facebook.com/ufone
xlii https://www.facebook.com/djuicepk
xliii http://blog.converget.com/2010/05/05/digital-marketing-in-pakistan/
xliv https://www.facebook.com/toppops.snack?sk=wall
xlv https://www.facebook.com/Commandersafeguard
xlvi http://www.answers.com/topic/unilever
xlvii Macdonald, J, 2011, Unilever consolidates digital marketing globally,2011,
<http://blog.freedmaninternational.com/unilever-consolidates-digital-marketing-globally/>
xlviii Unilever Pakistan Company Documents on Knorr Noodles plans for digital marketing
obtained via group member who interned at the company.
xlix George,K,2007, 'Unilevers Digital Media Strategy', viewed October 16th, 2007,
<http://www.strategy-business.com/article/li00047?gko=215d5>
l George,K,2007, 'Unilevers Digital Media Strategy', viewed October 16th, 2007,
<http://www.strategy-business.com/article/li00047?gko=215d5>
li George,K,2007, 'Unilevers Digital Media Strategy', viewed October 16th, 2007,
<http://www.strategy-business.com/article/li00047?gko=215d5>
lii George,K,2007, 'Unilevers Digital Media Strategy', viewed October 16th, 2007,
<http://www.strategy-business.com/article/li00047?gko=215d5>
liii Suboorah, 2010, Dove launches first all-digital campaign on ctv.ca, viewed 19th August
2010, < http://blog.converget.com/2010/08/19/dove-launches-first-all-digital-campaign-on-ctv-
ca/>
liv Suboorah, 2010, Dove launches first all-digital campaign on ctv.ca, viewed 19th August
2010, < http://blog.converget.com/2010/08/19/dove-launches-first-all-digital-campaign-on-ctv-
ca/>
Group 7
CBMR_ 3

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lv Suboorah, 2010, Dove launches first all-digital campaign on ctv.ca, viewed 19th August
2010, < http://blog.converget.com/2010/08/19/dove-launches-first-all-digital-campaign-on-ctv-
ca/>
lvi Baig,F, 2011, Unilever launches dove hand & body campaign, viewed 7th June 2011, <
http://blog.converget.com/2011/06/07/unilever-launches-dove-hanunilever-dove-d-body-
campaign/>
lvii Afreen, 2010, Cornettos new digital campaign, viewed 8th March 2010,
< http://blog.converget.com/2010/03/08/cornettos-new-digital-campaign/>
lviii Hameedi, T, 2010, Lifebuoy launches first ever social game in Pakistan germ strike ,
viewed 30th October 2010, < http://blog.converget.com/2010/10/13/lifebuoy-launches-first-ever-
social-game-in-pakistan-germ-strike/#more-10451>
lix Hameedi, T, 2010, Lifebuoy launches first ever social game in Pakistan germ strike ,
viewed 30th October 2010, < http://blog.converget.com/2010/10/13/lifebuoy-launches-first-ever-
social-game-in-pakistan-germ-strike/#more-10451>
lx Unilever Pakistan Company Documents on Knorr Noodles plans for digital marketing
obtained via group member who interned at the company.
lxi http://www.unilever.pk/brands/foodbrands/knorr.aspx
lxii http://www.hul.co.in/brands/foodbrands/Knorr.aspx
lxiii Info section of Facebook pages for Knorr Noodles and Knorr Quest
lxiv http://gemmawent.com/2010/06/23/case-study-crunch-fmcg-social-media-case-studies/
lxv http://www.bnet.com/blog/businesstips/nestles-facebook-page-how-a-company-can-really-
screw-up-social-media/6786