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phy

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..(i.e. a measure of the concentration

of flux).

If a uniform magnetic field of (B) acts perpendicular to an

, the .. () passing through the area

is given by :

B = /A, magnetic field strength can be re-defined as MAGNETIC

FLUX DENSITY

MAGNETIC FLUX DENSITY (B) at a point in a magnetic field is

the ..()perpendicular to unit

(A).

If the area (A) has turned through an angle () from its

original position, less magnetic

flux now passes through it and

the magnetic flux () is given by

When area (A) is perpendicular to the flux : = , and cos = cos . =

When area (A) is . to the flux : = , and cos = cos .. = 0

MAGNETIC FLUX LINKAGE

The coils used in motors and generators have many turns of wire, so we need to know the

amount of flux which passes through and so links with all the turns.

Consider a coil of . and .. which is perpendicular to a uniform

magnetic field of.. The magnetic flux which links with the coil is called the

MAGNETIC FLUX LINKAGE (N) and is given by :

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION - EXPERIMENTAL PHENOMENA

STATIONARY FIELD MOVING CONDUCTOR

A voltage is .. in a conductor when it is

through a magnetic field.

The same effect can also be produced by holding the

. and moving the magnet.

The induced voltage will produce an ..

if the conductor is part of a complete circuit

The is increased by

increasing :

The (B).

The (v) of motion of the conductor.

The . (L) of the conductor in the magnetic field.

The direction of the induced voltage or current is reversed by reversing :

The of the conductor.

The ..

No . if the wire is held stationary with the magnetic field

(i.e. no motion - no induced current).

STATIONARY CONDUCTOR MOVING FIELD

Moving a magnet into or out of a coil causes a current to be induced in the coil. The

diagrams above show that when the magnets S-pole is plunged into the coil, the

galvanometer deflects one way and when the S-pole is pulled out of the coil, the

deflection is reversed.

The the magnet is moved, the is the deflection and

there is no deflection when the magnet is held .. inside the coil.

The deflection is also . by using a coil with a ..

number of turns of wire

A voltage .is induced in the coil whenever there is between

the magnet and the coil. This is because the motion causes a change in the amount of

.

The direction of the induced voltage and current depends on the

and its

The size of the induced voltage and current is increased by increasing :

The ..of the magnet.

The . of the coil.

FLEMINGS RIGHT-HAND RULE

The direction of the induced current can be predicted using FLEMINGS RIGHT-HAND

RULE as illustrated in the diagrams above

The thumb, first and second fingers of the right hand are held at right angles to each other. If

the thuMb indicates the direction of .. of the conductor and the First finger the

magnetic. direction, then the.. finger gives the induced

. Direction

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