# By Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta: Email: kg.abhi@gmail.

com

Introduction to Calculus
Course-3 Now we know x is a variable which can take any value positive or negative, small or big, something close to zero or something close to infinity, integer or fraction etc. We can have various expressions of x , we call it a function of x such as: f (x) = 3x 2 − 2 x + 5 . So we see f (x) is dependent on x according to the form of the function. We can call y = f (x) to be another variable.

More precisely, x is independent variable and y is dependent variable. Therefore, we can easily understand that when x changes, y also changes. We want to see how y changes when x is changed only a very little. Let us look at the following graphical plot of y versus x :
y y increases here

y decreases here

(0,0)

x

If we carefully examine the above graph, we see that the value of y sometimes increases with the increase of x , sometimes y decrease when x increases and so on. At a certain value of x , the value of y may increase and at the immediate next point the value of y may decrease. Therefore, if we want to know how y changes when x changes, it is essential to find out the changes of y with respect to x at each and every possible values of x . We can call such changes as ‘instantaneous changes’.
Let us define the above concept mathematically:

Suppose we change x by a small amount, we call it ∆x (‘delta x’).
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By Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta: Email: kg.abhi@gmail.com When x → x + ∆x f ( x) → f ( x + ∆x). Thus the change in the function is ∆f = f ( x + ∆x) − f ( x) . In terms of the dependent variable, the change is ∆y . So to calculate the rate of change f (x) or y we write ∆y ∆f f ( x + ∆x) − f ( x) = = . ∆x ∆x ∆x
Imagine ∆x is getting smaller and smaller. We get the changes in the function or the dependent variable for a smaller and smaller interval. When ∆x is extremely small which means ∆x → 0 we get really instantaneous change! We write Lim
∆x →0

∆f df = ∆x dx

This is called derivative of the function f (x) with respect to x . Alternatively, we write ∆y dy Lim = when we consider y = f ( x) . ∆x →0 ∆x dx Calculations of derivatives

dy for various functional relationships of y with x: dx

For the purpose of calculations we write h = ∆x . #1. y = x ∆y = ∆f = f ( x + ∆x) − f ( x) = ( x + ∆x) − x = ∆x =h dy ∆y h ∴ = Lim = Lim =1. ∆x →0 ∆x h →0 h dx #2. y = x 2 ∆y = ( x + h) 2 − x 2 = x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − x 2 = 2 xh + h 2

dy ∆y 2 xh + h 2 = Lim = Lim = Lim(2 x + h ) = 2 x . ∆x →0 ∆x h→0 h→0 h dx

#3. y = x 3 ∆y = ( x + h) 3 − x 3 = x 3 + 3x 2 h + 3xh 2 + h 3 − x 2 = h(3x 2 + 3xh + h 2 )

dy ∆y h(3x 2 + 3xh + h 2 ) = Lim = Lim = Lim (3 x 2 + 3 xh + h 2 ) = 3x 2 . ∆x →0 ∆x h →0 h →0 dx h
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By Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta: Email: kg.abhi@gmail.com In the same way we could also show that when y = x 4 , we have Thus we now have a general formula: FORMULA No. 1
y = xn dy = nx n −1 dx Where n can be anything 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,…….

dy = 4x 3 . dx

When y = C (constant), we can easily see that
FORMULA No. 2

dy = 0. dx

y=C dy =0 dx Where C is a constant. This can be 2, 4, 10 or 6.5 or 3 ….any kind of number.

Some Rules:

1. If y = Cf ( x) ,

dy df =C dx dx
dy dy1 dy 2 = + dx dx dx
dy dy dy = C1 1 + C 2 2 . dx dx dx

2. If y = y1 + y 2 ,

3. If y = C1 y1 + C 2 y 2 ,

Home Work Problems: Find out the derivatives 1. y = 2 x + 5 2. y = 3x 2 − 9 x + 8 6 3. y = 3 5x 1 9 4. y = 5 + 4 x 2 − 10 2x

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