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Robert N. Meroney

1

Emeritus Professor of Civil Engineering,

Colorado State University,

Robert.Meroney@Colostate.Edu

Prepared for

11

th

Americas Conference on

Wind Engineering

June 22-26, 2009

San Juan, Puerto Rico

2

CFD Prediction of Airflow in Buildings for Natural Ventilation

Robert N. Meroney

1

1

Emeritus Professor of Civil Engineering, Colorado State University, Robert.Meroney@Colostate.Edu

ABSTRACT

This computational exercise examines how well Computational Fluid Dynamics ( CFD)

techniques can reproduce recent wind-tunnel measurements performed by Karava (2008) of

airflow around and within a model rectangular building. Various strategies are examined

including numerical simulation of the approach boundary layer, consideration of alternative

turbulence models, 2-d vs. 3-d simulations, and the use of domain decomposition to simulate

internal building flows based on external simulation of the building with sealed openings.

INTRODUCTION

Natural /hybrid ventilation systems provide an opportunity to utilize green construction

techniques, reduce energy consumption, and enhance air quality and ambience when properly

applied. Such systems require careful consideration of the effects of the exterior wind

environment and how it interacts with building components. In early years model investigations

have examined external building flows separately from the flows induced in the building

interiors, but in the last ten years there have been a number of joint laboratory and numerical

simulation projects to evaluate penetration and crossflows in buildings resulting from exterior

openings. This computational exercise continues this tradition of verifying how well different

numerical options replicate measured natural ventilation situations, but it also examines how

well the method of domain decomposition reproduces full numerical simulations and laboratory

measurements.

Karava identified ten wind-tunnel studies of natural ventilation including cross-flow

ventilation between 1987 and 2007.

1,2

Six of these included comparisons with CFD predictions.

The experimental studies were performed in boundary-layer wind tunnels (BLWT) and uniform

flow wind tunnels, and they included measurements with laser-doppler anemometers, hot and

split film anemometers, thermister anemometers, ultrasonic anemometers, tracer gas evaluation,

and particle-image velocimetry to identify flow details and dilution rates. Numerical studies

have used RANS turbulence models (k-, RNG k-, SST k-, V

2

f k-, Durbins k-, and RMS)

as well as large eddy simulation (LES). Based on this review she identified a test matrix for

additional data acquisition.

WIND TUNNEL SIMULATION OF NATURAL VENTILATION

Karava made all measurements in the Building Aerodynamics Laboratory Wind Tunnel

at Concordia University. A building model 10 x 10 x 8 cm with 2mm walls was used that

corresponds to a building 20 x 20 x 16 m high (assuming a 1:200 scale ratio). A simulated

atmospheric boundary layer was created with screens, spires, a fence, and wall roughness with a

power-law coefficient of 0.11, and a turbulent intensity of 10 % at building height.. Karava

utilized PIV equipment and fast-response pressure transducers to measure velocity vectors and

pressure distributions within multiple prism shaped buildings with exterior openings placed at

different upwind, downwind and side locations to interpret internal flow patterns and mean and

3

peak internal pressure coefficients. She compared her measurements with other research results

while considering the influence of building porosity, inlet-outlet ratios, opening configurations,

and internal blockage. Five opening configurations are considered during this numerical

comparison exercise with inlet and openings located (1): Case A: both high on up- and

downwind walls, (2) Case C: both low on up- and downwind walls, (3) Case E: both at the

middle height of up-and downwind walls, and (4) & (5) Case B: and Case D: high on the upwind

wall and low on the downwind wall, and vice-versa as show in Figure 1.

Figure 1: The basic opening configurations considered

CFD SIMULATION OF THE NATURAL VENTILATION EXPERIMENT

There appears to be some contradictions among previous CFD predictions of cross-ventilation

through prismatic buildings. Some reproduce experimentally observed inlet jet trajectories and

others do not.

3,4

It would be desirable to determine prediction sensitivity to approach flow

conditions, turbulence levels, building porosity, etc.; hence, this effort to replicate some cases

studied by Karava. This author has previously studied experimental and numerical infiltration

and tracer gas dilution situations (Meroney et al., 1995; Birdsall & Meroney,1995);

5,6

but this

study explores the opportunity to validate methods using new high-quality ventilation data.

FULL DOMAIN CALCULATIONS

Two- and three-dimensional configurations have been considered. Domain size and flow

conditions have been set to meet the COST harmonization recommendations.

7

The 3-d

computational domain was prepared with a combination of hexagonal and tetrahedral shapes

totaling ~1 to 2 million cells. Cells were adapted near the wall to sizes less than 0.03 cm. In most

cases wall boundaries had zero thickness and only configurations with the wind blowing normal

to the openings were evaluated. Solutions were obtained using the FLUENT 6.3 CFD code.

Several computational alternatives were considered.

The influence of RANS (Standard, RNG and Realizable k-, kappa-omega, RMS ), LES

and DES turbulence models were examined for both steady and unsteady flows,

Original and adapted mesh geometries were examined to evaluate the effects of grid

resolution near building boundaries,

The rectangular building was created with walls infinitely thin as well as 2mm thick for

Case E to consider any wall thickness influence at the building openings.

4

The generic building had dimensions of height (H), length (W), and depth (D) of 8 cm by

10 cm by 10 cm. The numerical domain for all calculations of external and internal flows was a

rectangular region 50 cm tall by 150 cm long by 100 cm wide. The building was centered 50

cm downwind from the entrance as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Computational domain

Inflow conditions were set to provide an inlet velocity profile proportional to a power-law

coefficient equal to 0.11, and inlet turbulent intensity conditions at building height of 10% as

measured by Karava during her wind-tunnel experiments.

All steady state calculations were iterated until all residuals were less than 0.0001. All

unsteady state calculations were iterated until residuals were less than 0.001. For the cases

studied the roof-top height Reynolds number equaled 36,000, and the typical opening Reynolds

number was ~5,000 both large enough to expect flow field independence.

DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION CALCULATIONS

Kurabuchi et al. have demonstrated a novel domain decomposition technique to predict internal

flows in buildings which considerably reduces the computational effort and expedites design

decisions. They suggest one separately analyzes the building outside region and building inside

flow fields.

8

With this technique , CFD analysis is first performed for the flow field outside the

building, from which boundary conditions are extracted for the analysis of the indoor situation.

Subsequently one uses boundary conditions of wind pressures and flow orientation at proposed

opening locations, estimates of internal pressure coefficients based on cross-building surface

pressures, and opening discharge coefficients related to a dimensionless internal room pressure

to predict opening flow rates. These boundary conditions are imposed on a numerical domain to

calculate internal flows also using CFD.

Opening flow rates for the internal flow calculations were estimated from the relations

ernal in H Din

Cp Cp AV C Q

int

= (1)

2 / ) (

int out in ernal

Cp Cp Cp + = (2)

where Q is the cross-ventilation flow rate (m

3

/s), C

Din

is the discharge coefficient, A is the

opening area (m

2

), V

H

is the approach wind speed at building height, and Cp

in

and Cp

out

pressure

5

coefficients found at the opening locations on the sealed building during the full-external-flow

CFD analysis. The discharge coefficient, C

Din

, was estimated by the method proposed in

Kurabuchi et al. from estimates of external opening, internal and tangential flow pressures, but

for these tests the values were found by their method to all equal 0.67. The only other critical

opening inlet condition stipulated from the full-CFD calculations was the incident flow angle just

outside the upwind opening. These boundary conditions suffice to define the internal building

flow field using CFD. Since there was no need to balance pressures between several internal

rooms no subsequent iteration of the internal flow situation was required.

The domain-decomposition method was applied to Cases A, C and E of the Karava

building, and results are compared to the wind-tunnel measurements as well as the full-CFD

predictions of external and internal flows. The internal building domain mesh consisted of

51,200 hexagonal cells 0.25 cm on a side. The turbulence model specified was the realizable

kappa-epsilon (rke) model with an inlet flow turbulent intensity of 10% and a length scale of 1

cm. Boundary conditions extracted from the full-CFD sealed building solution are summarized

in Table 1 below.

Table 1: Boundary Conditions for Domain Decomposition Calculations

Case Cp

in

Cp

internal

C

Din

Q (m

3

/s) V

in

(m/s) (deg)

A 0.856 0.275 0.67 0.0029 3.50 20

C 0.675 0.250 0.67 0.0025 3.01 -45

E 0.856 0.315 0.67 0.0028 3.38 -20

COMPARISON OF CFD AND FLUID MODELING RESULTS

The numerical program provides information about flow-field magnitude and directions, surface

pressures, shear stresses, and various turbulence components. Comparisons have been made

between wind tunnel and CFD results that include velocity vectors and contours along various

building sections, inlet and outlet flow rates through building model openings, effective opening

discharge coefficients, and internal pressure coefficients. The CFD calculations also produce

particle track, surface stress, and surface pressure results.

EXTERNAL FLOW FIELD RESULTS

Flow around a wall mounted rectangular object immersed in a turbulent shear layer is

characterized by a horse-shoe shaped vortex which develops before the upwind wall and wraps

about the base and sides of the object. Stagnation pressures typically reach a maximum on the

upwind face at about 0.67 H, and downwind pressure coefficients are generally low or even

slightly negative. Flow separates around the front top and side edges and depending on the

Reynolds number reattaches to the roof and sides producing separation regions and local

minimum pressures close to the edges. All of these features were present for all turbulence

models stipulated (ske, rke, k-, RNG, RMS, LES & DES) and all opening situations (A-E).

However, roof and wall separation details differed somewhat among the different turbulence

models, and the resultant minimum mean roof pressure coefficients differed significantly as

noted in Table 2.

Detailed examination of the velocity contours, vectors and pressure fields suggest that the

ske and k- models produced minimal separation regions over the roof which reattached close to

the forward edge, and the rke, RMS, LES and DES models produced similar shape and extent

separation regions extending nearly to the downwind edge along the roof centerline, although the

6

LES and DES model results were, of course, unsteady. The flow did not appear to reattach to the

roof for the RNG model. Side wall separation regions were most prominent near the building

base reattaching about half-way along the side.

Table 2: External flow characteristics

Turbulence

Case Model (Cp

upwind

)

avg

(Cp

downwind

)

avg

(Cp

rooftop

)

minimum

E ske 0.570 -0.266 -1.600

E rke 0.556 -0.243 -1.180

E RNG 0.635 -0.257 -0.530

E k- 0.829 -0.241 -1.400

E RMS 0.581 -0.332 -0.868

E LES 0.611 -0.287 -0.931

E DES 0.627 -0.252 -0.931

Box rke 0.595 -0.254 -0.825

Box Karava

1

0.720 -0.160 -0.940

A rke 0.568 -0.227 -0.930

B rke 0.587 -0.238 -1.280

C rke 0.545 -0.218 -1.090

D rke 0.535 -0.235 -1.220

If one discounts the ske, RNG and k-omega runs which produced distorted separation

over the flat-topped roof, then for Case E the average upwind Cp is 0.594 with a standard

deviation of 0.027 and the average downstream Cp is -0.273 with a standard deviation of 0.037.

These deviations are actually less than similar pressure measurements performed over

rectangular building faces in different wind tunnels by the AIJ Working Group investigating

prediction reliability.

9

The building drag coefficient, C

Drag

, is equal to the difference between

up- and downwind average pressure coefficients, (Cp

upwind

)

avg

(Cp

downwind

)

avg

found in Table 2.

The drag coefficient for the sealed building is 0.85, whereas the average drag coefficient for the

building with a set of paired openings is 0.80 0.03. The drag coefficient variation for Case E

produced by the various turbulence models ranged from 0.80 to 1.07.

Table 3: External pressure coefficients, rke model all cases

Upwind Face Downwind Face

Case y (cm) = 6 4 2 6 4 2

Box 0.856 0.856 0.695 -0.306 -0.226 -0.186

A 0.514 0.809 0.640 +0.050 -0.245 -0.203

B 0.540 0.802 0.644 -0.250 -0.250 +0.013

C 0.873 0.828 0.397 -0.269 -0.269 -0.031

D 0.867 0.817 0.414 -0.054 -0.241 -0.191

E 0.873 0.545 0.592 -0.301 -0.025 -0.168

E-walls 0.893 0.507 0.604 -0.313 -0.025 -0.168

The local pressure coefficients over the building exterior are tabulated in Table 3.

Pressure coefficients at opening locations were always less than those found over the sealed

building model; however, pressure coefficients at sealed locations on buildings with openings

were very close to values found on the sealed building despite the presence of nearby streamlines

7

flowing into or out of the building interior. The bold italicized numbers denote opening

locations.

INTERNAL FLOW FIELD RESULTS

The primary data of interest for the internal flows are the dimensionless cross-ventilation flow

rate, DFR = Q/(U

H

A

Inlet

), the coefficient of internal pressure, Cp

int

, and the general nature of the

internal circulation between the inlet and outlet. Table 4 presents the comparative results for the

dimensionless flow rate and the internal pressure coefficients.

Table 4: Cross-ventilation flow rates and internal pressure coefficients

Turbulence

Case Model DFR

CFD

DFR

wt

(Cp

int

)

CFD

(Cp

int

)

wt

(Cp

int

)

Eq 2

E ske 0.484 0.400 0.305 0.315

E rke 0.488 0.400 0.315 0.315

E RNG 0.463 0.400 0.251 0.315

E k- 0.483 0.400 0.269 0.315

E RMS 0.478 0.400 0.297 0.315

E LES 0.520 0.400 0.305 0.315

E DES 0.481 0.400 0.301 0.315

A rke 0.545 0.430 0.269 0.230 0.275

B rke 0.478 0.358 0.380 0.335

C rke 0.479 0.180 0.130 0.100 0.250

D rke 0.424 0.226 0.200 0.185

E-walls rke 0.516 0.400 0.269 0.315

CFD = Computational Fluid Dynamics and wt = Wind Tunnel measurements of Karava

1

The DFR

CFD

and DFR

wt

as measured by Karava follow the same trend, that is higher

flow rates occur for openings nearer to the roof. Average DFR

CFD

for different turbulence

models for Case E is 0.4850.02. Although the different turbulence models produced

significantly different external flows, it appears that since the internal flows are primarily driven

by cross building surface pressures which did not vary strongly, the cross ventilation DFR values

are very similar. Indeed, past researchers have also shown that most turbulent models can

reliably predict such internal flows.

The CFD values of DFR calculated herein (~0.5) fall about midway between Karavas

PIV measurements (~0.4) and laboratory hot-film and hot-wire measurements and full-scale 3-D

anemometer and tracer gas predictions by other researchers (~0.6) for a similar building

configuration.

1

The internal pressure coefficients, Cp

int

, predicted by CFD produce values very similar to

those measured by Karava. The predicted values are also very similar to values predicted from

the external sealed building pressure coefficients with Equation (2). CFD internal pressure

values were predicted from the volume weighted average pressures, the surface weighted internal

wall pressures, and along lines passing through the interior between openings. All values were

very close in magnitude.

Figure 3a, b, & c compare the cross sectional view of mean velocity vector fields on the

vertical mid-plane for Cases A, C & E (10% porosity and = 0

o

), respectively. The three

figures show results for the PIV measurements, the full-field rke CFD calculation, and the rke

CFD domain decomposition calculation. The PIV measurements are unable to provide values

8

near the openings due to light path obstruction. The full-field predictions are only dependent on

domain entrance conditions and building dimensions, and the domain decomposition prediction

is only dependent on boundary conditions extracted from the full-field sealed building surface

results. Both the PIV and full-field CFD calculations reproduce the vena-contracta that occurs

downwind of the inlet opening, that results in maximum concentrations occurring about 1/2

opening dimension within the room. The domain decomposition approach does not produce a

vena-contracta, and maximum velocities tend to occur at the inlet opening.

Figure 3a:

Figure 3b:

Figure 3c: PIV vector values CFD rke full-field calculation CFD rke domain decomp.

Velocity vectors on building vertical midplane for Cases A, C & E.

Figure 4 presents the cross building variation of the ratio of x-component velocity to

reference velocity, V

X

/V

H

, for the PIV, full-field CFD, and domain decomposition CFD results

for Cases A, C, & E (10% porosity and = 0

o

) along a line joining the centers of the inlet and

outlet openings. Very minor variations in inlet angle (5

o

) can produce negative values of V

X

near the building center or produce coincident lines for the PIV and domain decomposition CFD

results. Note that the PIV and full-domain CFD calculations display a maximum local velocity

just downstream of the inlet and outlet openings at about x = 1 and 11 cm, but the domain

decomposition method does not, although it otherwise reproduces flow variations quite closely.

9

Figure 4: Velocity ratio, V

X

/V

H

, along line joining inlet and outlet openings for Case A, C & E

building configurations.

The variation of static pressures along the same line joining the openings is displayed in

Figure 5 for full-domain and domain decomposition CFD calculations. Since the domain

decomposition calculations are produced independent of external static pressures, the static

pressures have been adjusted by adding the average value of Cp

internal

from Equation (2) to the

computed values. Again the domain decomposition method has reproduced the variations of

internal pressures within the building very closely.

Figure 5: Static pressure coefficient, Cp, along line joining inlet and outlet openings for Case A,

C, & E building configurations.

10

Pressure transducer measurements of the mean internal pressure coefficient performed by

Karava are also shown on Figure 5 for Cases A and C. Since the Karava measurements were the

average of several internal side wall transducers, they are marked at a building center location.

1

Peak pressure coefficients for the LES unsteady calculations can be estimated as:

10

RMS mean peak

Cp g Cp Cp * + = where g 5

. (3)

For Case A and C style opening conditions CFD calculated results are shown in Table 5 and

compared to Karava measurements. Peak concentrations were also extracted from time series

generated within the building interior over 30-100 second sampling intervals and noted as

(Cp

peak

)

CFDts

in Table 5.

Table 5: Peak and mean internal pressure coefficients

Case (Cp

mean

)

CFD

(Cp

rms

)

CFD

(Cp

peak

)

Eq 3

(Cp

peak

)

CFDts

#

(Cp

mean

)

wt

(Cp

peak

)

wt

A 0.153 0.061 0.458 0.870 (0.339) 0.230 0.75

C 0.109 0.026 0.239 0.978 (0.288) 0.100 0.40

E 0.319 0.086 0.749 0.881 (0.713) -- --

CFD = Computational Fluid Dynamics , wt = Wind Tunnel measurements of Karava

1

, and ts = time series

# Numbers are vertex maximum peaks over building interior surface, numbers in italics are peaks over five selected interior points.

The mean and peak internal pressure coefficients are also consistent with the predictions

provided by Equation (3) (See Table 4, right column) and past studies performed by Womble et

al. and Munarin.

11, 12

The ratio of (Cp

peak

) / (Cp

mean

) for the CFD calculations is 2.76-8.97

versus a ratio of 3.26-4.00 for the Karava wind tunnel measurements.

CONCLUSIONS

Full-domain and domain decomposed CFD calculations were compared to wind-tunnel

measurements of natural ventilation. The external flow field characteristics and internal flow

channel trajectories as well as cross-ventilation flow rates and internal pressures were reproduced

within experimental uncertainty. The methods produce results accurate enough to support

ventilation designs.

The internal flows fields and associated cross ventilation flow rates appear to be fairly

insensitive to choice of turbulence model. Domain decomposition worked well, and provides a

valuable analysis tool which can significantly reduce computational overhead.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The continued access to information and research on natural ventilation from the international

wind-engineering community is strongly appreciated. The use of computer software and

hardware provided by the Colorado State University, College of Engineering is gratefully

acknowledged.

REFERENCES

(1) Karava, Panagiota , Airflow Prediction in Buildings for Natural Ventilation Design: Wind Tunnel

Measurements and Simulation, Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering,

Concordia University, Montreal Quebec, 2008, 242 pp

11

(2) Karava P., Stathopoulos T., Athienitis A.K.. Cross-ventilation building design: Application of Particle

Image Velocimetry. Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Wind Engineering, 2, pp. 1407-

1414, Cairns, Australia, July 1-6, 2007..

(3) Karava, P., Stathopoulos, T. and Athientis, A.K., Wind Driven Flow through Openings-A Review of

Discharge Coefficients, Int. Journal of Ventilation, 3 (2004), No. 3, 255-266.

(4) Kotani, H., et. al., Paper Review of Cross-Ventilation Research Results from Activities of Working

Group for Natural Ventilation and Cross-Ventilation in AIJ, Third International Workshop on Natural

Ventilations, Proceedings, Tokyo, Japan, March 16, 2009, pp. 7-1 to 7-6.

(5) Meroney, R.N., Birdsall, J.B., and Neff, D.E., Wind-Tunnel Simulation of Infiltration Across

Permeable Building Envelopes: Energy and Air Pollution Exchange Rates, Proceedings of the 7th

International Symposium on Measurement and Modeling of Environmental Flows, San Francisco, CA,

November 12-17, 1995, 9 pp.

(6) Birdsall, J.B., and Meroney, R.N., Model Scale and Numerical Evaluation of Tracer Gas Distribution

Due to Wind Forced Natural Ventilation, Proceedings of 9th Int. Conf. on Wind Engineering, New Delhi,

India, January 1995, 11 pp. and Wind Engineering: Retrospect and Prospect, Wiley Eastern Limited,

New Delhi, Vol. IV, pp. 1693-1703.

(7) Franke, J., Recommendations on the Use of CFD in Wind Engineering, COST Action C14, The 4th

QNET-CFD Workshop, 14 May 2004, Brussels, Belgium, 19 pp

(8) Kurabuchi, T., Ohba, M., and Nonaka, T., Domain Decomposition Technique Applied to Evaluation

of Cross-Ventilation Performance of Opening Positions of a Building , Third International Workshop on

Natural Ventilations, Proceedings, Tokyo, Japan, March 16, 2009, pp. 5-1 to 5-10.

(9) Tamura, T. et al., Numerical prediction of wind loading on buildings and structuresActivities of AIJ

cooperative project on CFD, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 67&68 (1997), 671-685.

(10) Davenport, A.G., The interaction of wind and structures, Chapter 12 in Engineering Meteorology

(ed. E.J. Plate), Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1992, pp. 527-572.

(11) Womble, J.A., Yeatts, B.B., Cermak, J.E., Mehta, K., Internal wind pressures in a full and small-scale

building. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Wind Engineering,, New Delhi, India, 9-11

January 1995, Vol. 3, 1079-1090 .

(12) Munarin, J., Wind tunnel measurements on internal pressures in a two storey house. B.E. thesis,

Department of Civil and Systems Engineering, James Cook University, 1978.

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