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SUMMARY

Cells having similar structural characteristics and functions are grouped together to
form tissues.
PRIMARY TISSUES
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle and Nervous
EPTIHELIAL TISSUE
General Characteristics
1. Lines and covers body surfaces
2. Forms glandular tissue
. No direct blood supply
!. Little surrounding e"tracellular space# cells closely pac$ed together
%. Epithelial Cells held together by speciali&ations on lateral cell surface'
&onula adherens and macula adherens or desmosome.
(. )onula occludens and gap *unction speciali&ation of lateral cell membrane
implicated in functions such as transport and electrical coupling
+. ,pical surface of columnar epithelial cells modi-ed to form microvilli,
characteristic of digestive system and cilia, characateristic of respiratory
tract.
.. /asal layer of epithelial cells rest on a basement membrane
0. 1hree shapes of cells 2 s3uamous, columnar, and cuboidal
14.,rrangement 2 one layer or simple, many layers or strati-ed
Functions:
1. 5rotection
2. 6ecretion
. ,bsorption
!. 6pecial sensation# speciali&ed neuroepithelium# e"amples 2 eye, ear and
nose.
Most Common Tyes o! Eithelium
Simle S"uamous 2 lining heart, blood, and lymph vessels and forming
capillary net7or$s 2
endothelium# lining serous cavities and covering visceral organs 2
mesothelium# ease of e"change of materials due to one8cell layer
thic$ness
Simle Cu#oi$al 2 found in many glands, lines $idney tubules, adapted for
secretion and
absorption
Simle Columnar 2 found lining digestive tract, stomach, small and large
intestine# in small intestine epithelial cells 7ith microvilli
predominant# function of microvilli is to increase surface area for
absorption.
Pseu$ostrati%e$ 2 one layer of cells but appear as many layers#
pseudostrati-ed 7ith goblet cells lines greater part of respiratory
passages.
Strati%e$ s"uamous 2 many cell layers, adapted for protection# forms outer
layer of s$in
1ransitional 2 many cell layers, lines hollo7 organs that are sub*ective to
changes due to contraction and distention, such as the urinary
bladder.
C&''ECTI(E TISSUE:
GE'ERAL CHARACTERISTICS
1. 5rovides frame7or$ that supports epithelium and other tissues# essential role
in transport, protection and repair.
2. 9reater proportion of e"tracellular material in relation to cells.
A) Connecti*e Tissue Proer
Loose +areolar, connecti*e tissue 2 Composition' many collagenous
-bers, some elastic and reticular -bers# cells 2 -broblasts, macrophages,
plasma cells, mast cells, adipose cells, and blood cells.
Function' connects, insulates, forms protecting sheaths, and is continuous
throughout the
7hole body# :uid matri" is called tissue :uid# :uid matri",
often called internal
environment, serves as a medium for transfer of supplies from
blood and lymph
vessels to cells, and 7astes from cells to blood and lymph#
stores 7ater, salts, and
glucose
-ense irre.ular connecti*e tissue 2 collagenous bundles thic$er, more
numerous, and
randomly 7oven into compact frame7or$# typically seen in dermis of
s$in
-ense re.ular connecti*e issue 2 collagen -bers predominant, arranged
in speci-c patterns# this tissue ma$es up tendons, ligaments
Elastic connecti*e tissue 2 elastic -bers predominate# tissue is e"tensile
and elastic# found in 7alls of arteries, trachea, bronchial tubes, and
vocal folds
Reticular tissue 2 predominant -ber type is reticular# this tissue ma$es up
stroma of liver, spleen and lymphoid organs.
A$iose connecti*e tissue 2 cells -lled 7ith fat# found throughout body
7herever loose connective tissue found# important reserve of food, 7hich
may be utili&ed for energy# supports and protects various organs
/) Cartila.e) Cartilage consists of a group of cells in a matri". ;t is -rm , tough,
and elastic covered and nourished by perichondrium
(ARIETIES:
1. <yaline Cartilage
,rticular
Costal
2. Fibrocartilage
. Elastic Cartilage
C) /one0 or &sseous Tissue) /one is connective tissue in 7hich the
intercellular substance derived from the cells is rendered hard by being
impregnated 7ith mineral salts.
C&MP&SITI&':
;norganic Matter =about (+>?
Calcium 5hosphate
Calcium Carbonate
Calcium Fluoride
Magnesium phosphate
6odium Chloride
@rganice Matter =about >?
Cells
/lood Aessels
9elatinous 6ubstance
(ARIETIES:
1. Cancellous, or spongy
2. Bense, or compact
CA'ALS:
1. Medullary 2 red and yello7 marro7
2. <aversian
/lood Aessels
Lymphatics
HA(ERSIA' SYSTEM:
1. <aversian canals are surrounded by lamellae, lacunae and
canaliculi
2. Lamellae 2 bony -bers arranged in rings around haversian canals
. Lacunae 2 hollo7 spaces bet7een lamellae occupied by bone cells
!. Canaliculi 2 canals that radicate from one lacuna to another and
to7ard the haversian canals
Me$ullary Mem#rane) , vascular tissue that lines the medullary canal
Marro1:
1. Ced
Consists of connective tissue supporting blood vessels,
myelocytes, fat cells, erythroblasts from 7hich red blood cells
are derived, and giant cells# found in the marro7 cavity at
the ends of long bones and in cancellous tissues
2. Dello7
Contains more connective tissues and fact cells than red
marro7 fe7er mylecocytes, fe7 if any red cells, and fe7er
giant cells# 7hite cells of blood and lymph are derived from
its myelocytes# found in the medullary canals of the long
bones.
Periosteum) , vascular -brous membrane that covers the bones e"cept at
their cartilaginous e"tremeties and serves to nourish them# important in the
reunion of bro$en bone and gro7th of ne7 bone.
/loo$ (essels) 17igs of nutrient artery in medullary canal anastomose 7ith
t7igs from haversian canals, and these in turn anastomes 7ith others that
enter from peroisteum # nerves accompany areteries into bone.
-e*eloment o! /one =;n the embryo, bones are performed in membrane and
in cartilage?
2) &ssi%cation
8 ;ntramembranous
8 ;ntracartilaginous, or endochondral
3) -een$ent on
8 ,de3uate amounts of calcium and phosphorus in food
8 Aitamins and <ormones

Ric4ets =, disturbance of mineral metabolism?
2) Prohyla5is or Pre*ention
8 ,de3uate amounts of calcium and phosphorus in food.
8 Aitamin B supplied by -sh oils, egg yol$, mil$, butter, fresh vegetables,
direct sunlight
3) Tyes
8 1rue ric$ets
8 ECic$etsli$e conditionF
MUSCLE TISSUE
TYPES:
1. 6iriated s$eletal
2. Cardiac
. 6mooth
GE'ERAL CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Muscle cells long and often taper at their ends, called muscle -bers
2. 5roperties of contractibility and irritability
STRIATE- S6ELETAL MUSCLE:
1. Form muscular system. Aoluntary muscle
2. 6ingle muscle is multinucleated, made up of myo-brils# myo-brils made
up of myo-laments, actin and myosin
. ,rrangement of myo-laments responsible for striations and speci-c
banding pattern
CAR-IAC MSUCLE'
1. 1issue that forms the heart, involuntary
2. Myo-laments create banding pattern similar to s$eletal muscle
. Fibers branch and connect at region of ontercalated disc. /ranching of
-bers forms comple" three8dimensional net7or$
SM&&TH MUSCLE
1. Called smooth because striations not visible 7ith light microscope#
myo-laments are# ho7ever, present. No banding pattern.
2. Cells spindle shaped, centrally located nucleus.
. ;nvoluntary muscle, ma$es up outer 7alls of gastrointestinal tract and
7alls of blood vessels
TA/LE 2) C&MPARIS&' &F THREE TYPES &F MUSCLES
/ASES F&R
C&MPARIS&'
S6ELETAL
MUSCLE
SM&&TH
MUSCLE
CAR-IAC
MUSCLE
SHAPE -lamentous 6pindle8shaped /ranching
-laments
'UM/ER &F
'UCLEUS
multinucleated mononucleate
d
Mononucleated
STRIATI&'S striated unstriated 6triated
ACTI&' voluntary involuntary ;nvoluntary
E7AMPLES /ices
trices
Stomach
Small
intestine
heart
'ER(&US TISSUE
GE'ERAL CHARACTERISTICS:
1. 6peciali&ed tissue ma$ing up nervous system
2. 1issue possesses properties of irritability and conductivity
. 1he neuron is the unit of structure and function of the nervous system
'EUR&':
1. Cell body or peri$aryon, from 7hich pro*ect one long process, the a"on,
and usually many short processes, the dendrites
2. 6hape and si&e of cell body and e"tent of dendritic branching vary
. Function of neuron to receive and transmit impulses
'EUR&GLIA:
1. Cells of nervous system that do not have the ability to transmit impulses#
act as speciali&ed connective tissue of nervous system
2. Cells include astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, microglia, and 6ch7ann cells
'ER(ES
1. Collection of many a"ons from many neurons
2. Nerves e"tend over great lengths and ma$e contact 7ith s$eletal, smooth
and cardiac muscle and glands
. Nerve -bers are myelinated or unmyelinated