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Dell 04101

JUNE, 1981
$1.50

Camels For Uncle Sam's Army


Hi-Jolly's Noble Experiment

Water Conservation w
Imperative of the Des«* "*

Oregon's John Day Country


and the Chinese Medicine Man

Harris'
The Aristocrat of Hawks
(see page 8)

0 6

71 5 7 2 0 4 1 0 1
tfH&A •

purpose of
Desert Magazine
is to support
communications
about the
experience of life
on the desert.
i

Ed Seykota, Publisher
VOLUME 44 NUMBER 5 June, 1981

Power Beyond John Day Country and

1
Symbol the Chinese Medicine
by Susan Dorr Nix Man
For more than 5,000 years, by Billie Durfee
hawks have been How Ing Hay became every-
worshiped, feared, admired body's doctor in eastern
or stigmatized. Oregon's immense John Day
page 8 Country.
page 38
Water Conservation:
Imperative of the
Desert A Dream with a
Purpose

N
by Dr. Sherwood B. Idso
Can man succeed in his iff *'• WBP& f by Mary Eileen Twyman
unending struggle to live at He stayed in Baja for the
peace with the sun in this
land of cactus and mesquite?
page 14
v • \T^J{ respect which he first
offered, and then had
returned a thousand-fold.

-'% Jk
page 42
Fred Oldfield, the
Cowboy Artist Petroglyphs of the
by Emily } . Horswill •

Coso Range
His paintings leave no doubt
that the artist has worn by Anne Duffield
chaps and boots, ridden Whoever they were, the
hunched against sleet and artists were gone by the time
dust storms. the first white explorers
page 20 appeared in the 1830s.
page 50
Camels for Uncle Sam ;

by Richard Varenchik page 24


Suddenly an incredible
The Moab Mastodon
apparition wheeled into view by Art Foran
— an Arab in a yellow cart When, like LaVan
drawn by two massive Martineau, you learn to read
camels. rock writings, you'll relive
page 24 adventures forgotten for a
millenium.
page 52
The Cactus City
Clarion:
Mary Eileen Twyman, Mary Austin's Land of
Ed. Little Rain
News and nostalgia as seen by Jon Wesley Sering
by the nosiest newspaper in A book about a vast land
the west, this issue featuring known to the Indians as the
water harvesting in Israel. "Country of Lost Borders."
page 29 page 54
page 50

Departments Our Cover:


5 Editorial 47 Chuck Wagon Andrew Steuer HI was known to us as an accom-
6 Letters Cookin' plished photographer (Desert, February 1981, page
34 Desert Rockhound 61 Desert Product of 55) so it was a pleasant surprise when he brought in
35 Desert Calendar the Month his exquisite watercolor of the Harris' or bay-wing
45 The Living Desert 62 Publisher's Notebook hawk. Look for more of his work on future covers.

DESERT
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SUSAN GOLDEN

Contributing Editors
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Reduce Monthly Utility Bills Heating and


ABC MEMBERSHIP APPLIED FOR 8/19/80
cooling bills are cut by one-third to one-half. Advertising Information: See Current SRDS, Sec. 30A
Classes for Building Your Own Home With Desert Magazine ISSN 0194-3405, is published monthly by Ed
our extensive owner-builder assistance Seykota, dba Desert Magazine, Editorial Office: P.O. Box 1318,
Palm Desert, CA 92261. Telephone: (714) 568-2781. Business
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There is GOLD in
them 'thar hills!
and it is
being found
with the
help of . . .

For Whom the Bell Tolls ALLIED


SERVICES
T HE DAY is surely coming
when the Federal Office of
Endangered Species, its
equivalents in the various states and the
taxpayers who support these bureau- ,-
a much more modest species survival
plan. Six species—five mammals and
One bird plus an alternate reptile-
have been chosen for study. These are
the Amur tiger, gaur, golden lion
Over 6,000 square feet of
the most complete stock
of supplies for the professional
or beginner — plus, expert
cracies, who are you and I as well as tamarin, Mongolian wild horse, guidance in the use and
Sierra Club members, must sit down Barasinga deer and Rothschild's selection of your equipment.
together and, without rancor, evaluate mynah. The alternate reptile is the
the goal. Specifically, are we trying to Chinese alligator. • Gold Dredges • Wet Suits
play God? The best brains in zoology are now
One way to put this thought into calculating the necessary populations, • Metal Detectors • Dry
perspective is to imagine our civiliza- space and financing that will be re- Washers • Sluices • Gold
tion transplanted back in time to when quired for this pilot program. Each
dinosaurs and other gigantic exotics species will have its designated Pans • Tools • Topo Maps
roamed the earth. We'd be scurrying manager. The animals were chosen • Laboratory Apparatus
about, conferring and raising money in because each needs immediate atten-
an attempt to save them, despite the tion, each has already demonstrated • Mineral Lights • Gold
fact that their day had come. They itself as able to reproduce in captivity,
Scales • Lapidary
became outmoded in nature's (or and sufficient records exist to establish
God's) scheme of things. a base for study. Equipment • Books
Another perspective is the price we Robert O. Wagner, executive direc-
• Magazines • And Much.
must be prepared to pay to save pres- tor of the association, flatly states that
ent life forms whose day, for whatever there is no way the world's zoos can Much More!
reason, has come. An updated figure at ever save more than a small fraction of
1981 prices to maintain the 1,400 the list of presently endangered Over 1,600 different
tigers of all species now in the world's species. So, in addition to the species publications in stock. Back
zoos is $7,409,500 per year. That is survival plan, plans are being for- issues of magazines
just one specie in a quantity thought mulated to establish sperm and tissue including Desert!
sufficient to safely maintain it in banks. Species will be recreated if and
captivity. when their habitats can be restored. "If we don't have it in stock
There are currently 279 endangered I ask again: Are we trying to play . . . chances are you don't
or threatened mammals on the United God, or are we just feeling the guilt we need it."
States Government's list alone, perhaps place upon ourselves for, over the ages,
twice as many internationally. Then, usurping so much space in nature's
each state has its own list, even though
the same or quite similar species might
thrive in a neighboring state. The total
kingdom? Perhaps now is the time to
note that man wasn't too plentiful, he
wasn't to blame at all, the day the last
ALLIED
for all living things currently on the
U.S. list, including plants, is 740.
Tigers cost $14.50 a day to keep;
dinosaur expired.
Perhaps he's still not entirely to
blame. Certainly cattlemen and
SERVICES
Sales, Service and Rentals
your calculation for the entire list ranchers over the years have shot more since 1969
(remember, scientists consider the 25 coyotes than mountain lions; yet the
kinds of endangered clams to be as coyote thrives and the lion is threat- Visit our showroom located 5
romantic as the tiger) would be as ac- ened. It must have something to do miles east of Disneyland, VA
curate as mine. I do know that if the with which is the more fit to survive. blocks south of Kctella Avenue
world's existing zoos elected between Perhaps the lion's days might have (east of Orange Freeway, R'e 57)
them to maintain 500 of each of 2,000 been numbered even had there been no
species, the bill for 20 years would be men. fi\ 966 North Main Street
$25 billion! Orange, Californip 92S67
The improbability of obtaining funds Phone (714) 637-8824
of this magnitude has prompted the Store Hours: Weekdays, 1C-6;
American Association of Zoological
Saturdays. 10-3.
Parks and Aquariums to begin work on
DESERT
How Go the Flowers? two Spanish crosses. I have two of Lost Gold of Huachuca
What is the prediction for desert these bells which have been in our A few years ago I read quite a story
flowers for this year, 1981? Where and family for years, and am interested in about Ft. Huachuca. Some black
when will they be in bloom? Is it a learning more about them. soldiers were stationed there and one of
good year? (Mrs.) Curly Alps them in his wanderings slipped and fell
Kay Burrow Madras, Oregan into a hole which proved to be the en-
Eldridge, Calif. trance to an underground mine or
It's been a poor year in the Cali- I have a bell just like the one pictured cave. Inside he found a stack of gold
fornia, Arizona and Nevada on page 6, Desert, February 1971, in- bars, and brought one out and had it
deserts. We had a dry fall and also scribed "1878 —Saicnelegier, Chiantel, assayed.
a dry early winter. Rainfall, while Fondeur." I am interested if it has any The bar was genuine and the soldier
totalling close to normal in a late great worth. sold it, keeping the location a secret.
winter spurt, has been too erratic Ellen E. Pope He later told the Army about it, and
as, too, have been the tem- Bowman, N. Dakota they went in with heavy equipment but
peratures. Thus the annuals, with Three of our readers now account could never locate the cave due to the
the exception of sand verbena for four of these bells, not counting soldier's vague directions. I've never
which thrives in conditions of. the one mentioned in the original read any more about the Ft. Huachuca
blowing sand, simply did not ger- article by Gale R. Rhodes. They gold since, but verification was reason-
minate. Perrenials such as palo seem relatively common, but the ably good at the time. What ever hap-
verde have fared better. However, several dealers in western pened to this gold?
no "carpets of flowers" have been Americana we've asked about the Victor M. Parachini, Sr.
reported anywhere. bells have never seen one, can't Antioch, Calif.
find them catalogued, and thus You'll find out, Mr. Parachini, in
Where's Ridgecrest hesitate to price them. We'll con- a near-future issue of Desert.
Please tell whoever drew your map of tinue our attempt to trace the
source.
Death Valley National Monument Pesky Labels
(Desert, February 1981) that Ridge- I am a new subscriber to Desert and en-
crest, California, has not been wiped joy it very much. I think the cover is
out like some of the other ghost towns important, not only for the nice picture
around. It is alive and thriving, just a but for the titles of the features inside.
few miles due south of much smaller They are the first things I look at but
China Lake which you did show. unfortunately, most times, they are
Patricia Farlander covered up by the mailing label. Why
Ridgecrest, Calif. don't you put the label on the back
Our apologies to Ridgecrest cover?
Chamber of Commerce executive Den Rietz
administrator Pat Farlander. Voice From Jacumba Tempe, Ariz.
Maybe we'll be welcomed back in I enjoyed Greg Prossor's article about
town if we note Ridgecrest's popu- the reopening of the Jacumba Hotel I don't understand why you persist in
lar High Desert Escapade, sched- (Desert, February 1981). I lived in the spoiling the front cover of your maga-
uled this year for May 2 and 3. town for several years in the mid-1920s zine with the mailing label stuck right
These two weekend days are when my father owned and operated over the titles of articles and picture.
packed tight with your choice of the only other hotel there, the Carrizo Surely in this computer age there
exciting events, ranging from a Gorge, which burned to the ground should be enough ingenuity to find a
tortoise race to desert tours. long ago. Prossor's right about the better way.
Check in at either gate to the many summer visitors trying to escape Dick Crowe
Naval Weapons Center, obtain the heat of the Imperial Valley. My Sacramento, Calif.
your temporary pass, and have dad used to sell beer from nearby Mex- There isn't, apparently, for we've
fun. ico to his guests, a risky venture in fought this problem month after
those Prohibition days. The only mis- month. We can't put it on the back
information in the article was that cover because the advertiser there
The Bells of Fondeur Jacumba was on the old Butterfield pays for his space and wants every
An article, "Spanish Treasure of the Stage route. The nearest it and the inch of it to show, despite one
Unitahs," in Desert, July 1968, men- other old trails came to Jacumba was reader's suggestion that this might
tions an old Indian and a small brass about 30 miles to the east. get a lot of postal employees to
mule bell with the inscription "1878 — Ralph Willis read the ad who wouldn't see it
Saicnelegier, Chiantel, Fondeur" and Hemet, Calif. otherwise.
6 JUNE, 1981
-^ Luxury on a Baja Beach

1Itieconhotel
Av. Mlslon de Loreto No. 148 • Apdo. Postal No. 190 • San Felipe. Baja California. Mexico • Telefono.: 7-1094 al 7-1098

The best compromise would be


placing the label horizontally in
the lower left corner, thus cover-
ing up the UPC Code symbol (bar
chart) which is needed only for
newsstand sales. There is, how-
ever, no machinery available that
will affix labels this way without
greatly slowing down the process
and thus adding to the cost. Sorry,
but those are the economic facts of
publishing.
Discover the Other Mexico When You Visit
Beautiful San Felipe, Baja California
Travels In Sonora Whether you're after that telephones and bath. Restaurant, bar,
Recently I found a copy of Desert record-breaking corvina or simply swimming pool, tennis, gift shop.
Magazine dated September, 1974, in getting away to a quiet, friendly place Discotheque, too. Bring the whole family.
which there was an article by Rodger with ocean breezes and luxury
accommodations, you'll love the For Information and Reservations
Mitchell about a trip in Sonora from Call Your Travel Agent or
village of San Felipe and your stay at
Cananea to Arispe. My wife and I Econhotel. Overlooks a superb beach
made this trip in 1931. for sunning, swimming, surf fishing.
We were warned by the oil com- 120 air conditioned rooms with flneconhotdles
panies, whcih made maps for travelers 7488La Jolla Blvd. • P.O. Box 3335, La Jolla, CA 92038 .Telephone (714)459-0251
in those days, not to try it and we were California Toll Free: (800) 542-6028 • Nationwide: (800) 854-2026 Telex: 695444
similarly warned by a former patient of
mine who lived in Cananea. We went
anyway, following the Sonora River to
Arispe, to Ures, and on to Hermosillo
in our passenger car. There were no
real roads and sometimes it was best to
drive the water in the river.
In 1939 we packed into the Barranca
de Cobre from the south, and were the
first to botanically explore that big un-
known area. We were doing research AND LOUNGE
for my Mammillaria Handbook on cac- in Indian Wells, Calif.
tus plants, published in 1945. I hope Phone:(714)345-2581
Mr. Mitchell sees this and contacts
me, as I'd like to talk with him about
the area.
HOWIE'S HOUSE RULES of
Robert T. Craig, D.D.S.
Baldwin Park, Calif.
HARMONY and HOSPnAUTY
Hence:
1. All Vegetables will be Fresh, all 3. Major Credit Cards will be honored
Fish Newly Captured, all Breads and, under Special Conditions, Cash
Freshly Baked and all Meats Properly will be accepted as payment for all Ac-
Prepared to your Taste. If not, RAISE counts.
HELL!
The editors of Desert Magazine
welcome the experiences and opinions 2. Service will be Prompt and Pleasant 4. Above All, no Man shall leave this
of readers and will publish as many as the Pleasing of our Patrons is Establishment with unsatisfied Hunger
letters as space permits. They should Paramount. If not, see Above. or undiminished Thirst.
be addressed to us at P.O. Box 1318,
Palm Desert, CA 92261. No unsigned OPEN FOR BREAKFAST * LUNCH * DINNER
letters will be considered, but names Fabulous Sunday Champagne Brunch, 10 to 2
will be withheld upon request. Please Entertainment in the Lounge Tues. through Sat., beginning 8:30 p.m.
be brief; otherwise, we cannot Situated in the luxurious Indian Wells Hotel
guarantee to print your letter in its (Built by Lucille Ball and Desi Arnez in 1957)
entirety.
DESERT
The Harris1 hawk nests in what's
technically known as the Upper
Sonoran zone, a desert area
embracing the northern part of the
Mexican mainland, the southern
portion of Arizona and
Southeastern California. ;.

by Susan Durr Nix

Photographs by
10 JUNE, 1981
H AWKS AND doves were
powerful symbols in the
charged atmosphere of the late
'60s and early '70s, when Americans
were denouncing one another for pro
rather than eagle, owl, vulture or
falcon. Collectively, these five are
known as birds of prey, or raptors, all
sharing three anatomical features:
hooked, tearing beaks, strong clawed
or anti-war sentiments. Then, as in feet and excellent vision. Among
wars past, the birds were symbols of themselves, they are differentiated by
power and gentleness, of aggression size, wing and foot structure, preferred
and pacifism. prey, hunting style and habitat. One of
Like most of the 'Nam generation, I the most striking differences is that
allied myself with the peacemakers and which sets the owls apart. They are
decorated my apartment with the issue almost all night-hunters, with the acute
posters of bird and olive branch. Had I hearing and specialized vision
realized at the time that doves are necessary to nocturnal habits, whereas
technically pigeons—birds with far less other raptors are active exclusively dur-
emotional appeal—I might not have ing the day.
been so cocky about my totem. Nor at
the time had I ever seen a hawk,
silhouetted against a cloudless sky, or
looked one in the eye and recognized a
fellow creature. For more than 4,000years, man has used the
Few symbols, I suppose, can with-
stand close scrutiny. Although we need hawk's strength and speed to help him hunt...
them to enrich our language and
crystallize our thoughts, we also need
to know the thing itself, the real hawk
or dove, to give substance and depth to
our understanding. Up close, the eyes of a hawk are so
Demythologizing hawks isn't easy. startling, so certain, that the whole
The hawk is many birds, more than bird seems to be concentrated there. In
100 species world-wide, and 21 of conjunction with the violently hooked
these are native to North America beak, the effect is distinctly aristocratic
above the Mexican border. Hawk can and highly intimidating. A handsome
mean streamlined falcon or stocky buz- species like the Harris', or bay-winged,
zard. The word evokes images of hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus) heightens
cruelly-taloned killers, of daring the impression of absolute, unyielding
180-mile-per-hour dives and of lonely, control. Poised on top of a tall saguaro
almost eagle-sized birds making lazy cactus or airborne and screaming to
circles in the sky. warn off intruders, this Swiss-chocolate
For more than 5,000 years, hawks colored, medium-sized hawk com-
have been worhsipped, feared, admired mands the respect not only of cowed
or stigmatized. In Egypt, the hawk was humans, but of larger, equally efficient
Horus, the Lofty One; to the Old red-tailed and ferruginous hawks.
Testament prophets, he was both Harris' hawk ranges through Central
evidence of the mysterious ways of and South America and briefly into the
God and one of the "unclean;" to the United States, where it is confined to
Incas, he was a supernatural protector, the southwestern border states of
synonomous with the sun. For more California, Arizona, New Mexico and
than 4,000 years, man has used the Texas. We know it as a Sonoran Desert
hawk's strength and speed to help him bird that nests in saguaro, mesquite
hunt, first for necessary food and later and yucca, or as a rarer resident of the
for sport. For centuries, gamekeepers, Colorado River margins from Needles
farmers and ranchers have protected to Yuma. Against this open desert or
their interests by killing these birds. semi-desert background, Harris' is
No single hawk is all of these things, especially dramatic, skimming above
yet each individual exhibits the ground or soaring overhead, sharp-
characteristics that clearly say "hawk" eyed for mice, gophers, lizards, snakes,

DESERT 11
cottontails and small birds. modified to the bird's way of life. Bird-
Those eyes again—but the world of eaters generally have long, slender toes;
this birds and especially birds of prey is
predominantly visual. The great rap-
mammal-eaters, short, powerful ones.
The feet and talons are dual-purpose
publication is torials are equipped with eyes nearly as
large as our own, some eight to 10
killing and holding tools which lock
automatically to secure prey. A hawk
cvailabte in times more acute. When we see has three toes pointing forward and

mscfoform nothing but a fuzzy blur up close, they


still see a clear image at great
one pointing backward, a design useful
for perching, too. Dagger-like, the
distances. Consider this: At more than talons grip and pierce with such unex-
100 yards, a hawk can sight a small pected strength that handling even a
green grasshopper against a back- small sparrow hawk requires a stout
ground of green weeds. Put that same leather glove. I have never held a large
grasshopper in plain view on a post raptor, but I have seen the vice-like
and it fades from our 20-20 sight at grip on other arms and have a healthy
about 30 yards. respect for both bird and handlers.
Apart from the size of the eyes The grasp of the larger and stronger
Please send me additional information. themselves and the large image cast on eagle is numbing, so I hear, and im-
University Microfilms the retina, birds of prey have two possible to loosen unless the bird
International points in each eye where sight is ex- relents.
300 North Zeeb Road tremely sharp. Two of these are
Dept. P.R. directed sideways, to the right and the
Ann Arbor, MI48106
U.S.A. left, for monocular vision, and two face
18 Bedford Row forward for binocular vision. A slight
Dept. P.R. movement of the head instantly focuses
London, WC1R4EJ ...the hawk's body is designed
England any image to the sides or straight
Name
ahead. To see behind, the head swivels for where it lives, what it eats
on a very flexible neck, especially
Institution
noticeable in owls, who seem to be able and how it hunts.
Street
City
to turn it a full 360 degrees. Hawks
State Zip have two added advantages: the highest
known concentration of visual cells in
the world and the most elaborate
pecten, an organ at the back of the eye Although the impact of the landing
that throws shadows on the retina and bird is often sufficient to kill, two
Water Witching and Drilling seems to sharpen depth perception. powerful muscles contract the toes un-
If we need further proof that sight is til they meet resistance. Large animals
No Water . . . No Charge absolutely vital to these birds, it's there whose bodies fill or extend beyond the
Also, we Dowse in the form of a protective bony ridge outstretched foot are impaled on the
for Minerals and Oil above the eye, which contributes to talons, while moderately sized prey
their haughty appearance, and a third allow the toes to close with crushing
CHARLES W. eyelid, shared by all birds and in-
herited from their reptile ancestors,
force, as well. With small prey that can
be completely enclosed by the contract-
SHAW called the nictitating membrane, which
can be drawn across at will to prevent
ing foot, the talons may not come into
play at all.
Phone (714) 262-2260 damage while struggling with prey, The foot, tnen, is as important as the
or leave message 262-5483 crashing through vegetation or feeding beak in determining predator/prey rela-
1205 46th St., San Diego, CA 92102 eager, uncoordinated young. tionships. Short, stubby toes are clearly
The rest of a hawk's body is de- better adapted to killing snakes than
signed for where it lives, what it eats are long, slender ones.
and how it hunts. The length, strength Harris' hawks have huge, powerful
GARAGE and arch of the beak is a fair, if not in-
fallible, clue to its prey preferences.
feet which allow a wide range of prey,
including jackrabbits five times heavier
SALE Broadly, those who eat large mammals
like jackrabbits have proportionately
than they are. Bare, scale-covered legs
(another vestige of reptile ancestry)
ANTIQUES
ANTIQUES*
larger beaks than bird or insect eaters.
Those that make carrion part of their
mark Harris' and numerous other rap-
tors as snake and sometimes carrion
COLLECTIBLES*
diet tend to have fewer feathers at the eaters. Easier to keep clean than
ART* base of the beak. Wings and tail are feathers, scales also offer some protec-
FURNITURE* longer, shorter, broader or narrower tion against snake bite.
ORIENTAL* depending on whether the bird soars,

T
ANTIQUES glides or dives and where it lives. In HE FLIGHT and hunting style
MEMORABILIA* densely wooded areas, for instance, a of a Harris' hawk are
74-435 HIGHWAY 111 longer steering and maneuvering tail characteristic of two quite
PALM DESERT. CA. 92260 and shorter wings are an advantage. distinct genera: the soaring Buteos or
(714)346-1713 Likewise, the structure of the foot is buzzard hawks (e.g. the red-tailed
12 JUNE, 1981
hawk) and the secretive, gliding Ac- the nest with prey, delivering it either
cipiters or bird hawks, like the to the brooding female or to another
goshawk. (One authority dubs Harris' male who in turn feeds it to the chicks. Rockhound
the Jeckyl and Hyde hawk.)
They might be common red-tailed
They also gather to repel intruders,
circling and crying together, or stand-
GryphonAProducts
hawks making graceful spirals high in ing sentry on near-by perches until the energy efficient, and portable
the sky but for a conspicuous band of danger is past. DIAMOND
white at the end of the longer tail. At Why this solidarity rather than the MICRO WIRE
rest, they can be mistaken for red- isolation and monagamy that is the SAW
shouldered hawks because of the rusty general rule among raptors? No one
patches on their shoulders and thighs. knows. Contrast the behavior of the in-
To make a kill, however, this broad- cubating red-tailed hawk, whose own
winged buzzard look-alike takes on the safety takes precedence over the safety
appearance of a bird hawk, dashing of its offspring. The adult will aban-
through thorny bush or along desert don the nest when danger approaches,
water courses with remarkable speed. presumably because nesting success
In several other ways, Harris' hawks can be assured later by laying another 10 in 1
are highly atypical. Most raptors hunt clutch. LAPIDARY
alone and maintain a more or less ex- Harris' hawks are also fastidious WORKSHOP
clusive hunting range by conspicuous eaters, at least where bird prey is con-
cerned. They are known to pluck a kill
almost as completely as does a falcon.
They also keep the nest scrupulously
clean, discarding bones, fur, feathers DIAMOND
At more than 100 yards, a GEM LATHE
and other indigestable material after
hawk can sight a small green the chicks have fed. Because of their
cleanliness, bold looks, aggressive and
grasshopper against a agile hunting style, their rarity,
background of green weeds. cooperative behavior and ease of hand-
ling, they are highly prized by
American falconers.
Most of the raptors I see as a
naturalist at a refuge are damaged DIAMOND
perching or soaring. Once the kill is birds—victims of systematic poisons, BAND SAW
made, they assume a shielding posture gunshot wounds, accidents and
to conceal it from other predators, or malnutrition. That last is probably the
carry it off to a secure site to eat at most frustrating cruelty, the result of
leisure. Harris' hawks not only hunt well-meaning but uninformed human
cooperatively, they share the kill. interference with wildlife. Skilled
Three have been observed pursuing a falconers are not to blame, for they are DIAMOND MICRO WIRE SAW
rabbit and finally cornering it in a well-schooled in the needs of predatory Makes even the most intricate designs
bush. After repeated attempts to flush birds and have traditionally con- possible! with a diamond impregnated
it out had failed, one of the birds final- tributed new information to our wire blade only .008 inch in diameter.
ly slipped in and got it. Each bird in understanding of raptor biology and 10 in 1 LAPIDARY WORKSHOP
the hunting party received a share. behavior. Their less skilled imitators, A superb CABOCHON MACHINE
with selected accessories and tools
Even more unusual is their nesting excited by the prospect of taming a converts to a trim saw, drill, faceter,
and breeding behavior. William J. bird of prey, may be. Unfortunately, a polisher, slicer/slabber, glass beveler,
Mader discovered and documented the young bird whose exacting dietary re- cabbing, sphere making, buffing and free
fact that anywhere from one to three quirements have not been met, or who forming fire stones.
other adult birds, who would be con- has been kept in too small an enclosure DIAMOND GEM LATHE
sidered trespassers and quickly too long, is ultimately deprived of a Enables even the amateur to make a
great variety of round objects out of
challenged or attacked for their pains normal life. It may live up to 50 years gem materials.
by all but one other raptorial species, in captivity without once having flown DIAMOND BAND SAW
are welcomed as "helpers" by mated or hunted on its own, a partially- Cuts circles around any standard trim
pairs of Harris' hawks and are allowed realized thing. saw! By contour cutting, material yield is
to assist in defense and feeding duties. Until I saw macaws in the wild, it increased. Clean and quiet in operation.
The broad stick next generally was hard to think of them as anything Factory direct sales and service.
houses three chocolate and rust Harris' but colorful, rather clumsy birds. In Call or write for free catalog or come in
chicks. It sits eight to 30 feet off the and test our equipment for yourself!
flight in their natural state, though,
Weekdays 8:30 am to 4:00 pm.
ground in a variety of plants, including they are whole creatures with a grace
prickly pear, Spanish bayonet, mes-
quite, cottonwood and saguaro, and is
and elegance that delights and sur- GRYPHON
prises. I hope when I see a Harris' CORPORATION
decorated with leaves, grass, Spanish hawk, it is screaming its harsh ter-
moss, elm shoots and other bits of 101 East Santa Anita Avenue
ritorial krrr over a desert landscape
Burbank, CA 91502 (213) X45-7807
greenery for no known utilitarian pur- where it belongs, both a symbol and
pose. The "helpers" regularly supply example of lofty power. 0
DESERT 13
WATER CONSERVATION
Imperative of the Desert
Can man succeed in his unending
struggle to live at peace with the sun?

by Dr. Sherwood B. Idso Photographs by the Author

I
T'S 2 O'CLOCK in an Arizona management. Many of the techniques for the changeover was the probable
afternoon. The searing rays of the developed were sound and lasted for destruction of mesquite, due to its
summer sun are beating merciless- centuries, but each finally gave way to heavy utilization as fuel for ceramic
ly upon a patchwork quilt of greens new innovations: today we stand on the production, which the Hohokam
and browns. A vehicle appears and threshold of perhaps the greatest civilization concentrated on for trade.
pulls to the side of the dusty road that technological leap ever envisioned by
zigzags through the blocks of vegeta- man in his unending struggle to live at THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE
tion. Two men get out. One of them peace with the sun in this land of cac- Why didn't this sytem of life, this
holds what looks like a small handgun. tus and mesquite. marriage of man to the desert, continue
He points it, first toward one field and Will he finally succeed? Let's check much beyond A.D. 1300? One reason
then another. his track record, and then let's look at was the change at that time from a
"Our sensors indicate the alfalfa has some of the new reasons for his summer-dominant to a winter-
used about 60 percent of the available ebullient optimism. dominant rainfall regime. With the less
water in its root zone," he says without Three hundred B.C. marks the start intense rainfall of winter prevailing,
expression. "Irrigation will be needed of significantly structured life in the rate of canal-filling by silt exceeded
within the next 36 hours." Arizona. About that time, the the ability of the Indians to keep the
"You're probably right," replies the Hohokam civilization emigrated into channels open. Thus, the Hohokam
other, "but let's check the data from the Salt and Gila river basins by way abandoned their aging system of canal
the airborne scanner. It can assess the of the "Piman Corridor"—a broad irrigation and converted to a floodplain
high spots farther out." thoroughfare up the west coast of Mex- system much like that used in
It sounds like a portion of a Star ico. The early peoples that traveled Mesopatamia, where they periodically
Trek episode, with Mr. Spock giving a this route brought with them traditions let the rivers flood adjacent fields by
report to Captain Kirk on the status of of large houses, figurines and ceramics, breaking their banks.
a farming venture on some far-flung turquoise, stone and shell work, and, This system worked well in the
planet in the distant future, but it is most significantly, the concept of canal valleys, but more complex approaches
not. The time is now, and the place is irrigation. were needed in range and hill areas.
the U.S. Water Conservation Labora- For the next 1,600 years, the practice On Fort Mountain near Cave Creek,
tory in Phoenix, Arizona, where scien- of irrigating terraces for food produc- for instance, a three-foot-high wall was
tists are conducting experimental work tion was vigorously pursued; more built to divert runoff from rainstorms
on the remote detection of plant water than 500 miles of canals have been to terraces on the hillside and small
stress—work that will one day be essen- charted for this period, many of them garden plots at the foot of the slope.
tial to the continued existence of with sequences of rebuilding. The Check dams were constructed along
agriculture in the demanding environ- canals were sophisticated too, with the two streams that parted to flow
ment of the desert. laterals, gates and overflow reservoirs. around the hill, and water thereby
Contrary to what many have long diverted to irrigation borders.
CONSERVATION IN HISTORY believed, however, these great irriga- Downstream, a canal system directed
Water conservation: It's almost as tion systems may not have been used the tailwater to another series of garden
old as civilization itself. A man named to grow cultivated crops such as maize, plots. Tempe Butte was similarly
Isaiah once said that the desert would but rather to augment the natural pro- farmed on its entire northwest slope by
someday "blossom as the rose." The duction of highly nutritious indigenous a multitude of small, half-moon
Mormon pioneers took him at his word foods. Saguaro fruit, barrel cactus fruit, gardens that were fed water from
and made him a prophet, indeed, but cholla buds of all kinds—these are the rainstorm runoff by a series of check
their ways of irrigating were not the staples of the desert. Indeed, the early dams.
first, nor were they to be the last. As Hohokam found that they could easily The Hopi Indians of Black Mesa had
far back as the archaeological record produce more mesquite pods on a unit yet another diversified system of water
can be deciphered, the great south- area of land than they could maize. It conservation, whereby every drop of
western desert has been the site of in- was not until A.D. 900 that corn rain that fell on their watershed was
numerable efforts at intelligent water achieved dominance. The only reason used in one way or another. Rain fall-
14 JUNE, 1981
Irrigation water is distributed and reclaimed by furrows in the parched desert cotton fields.

ing far back in the uplands infiltrated dreams were either dashed or fulfilled, in about 1850, canal irrigation became
the ground and eventually reappeared they moved on. Others came seeking a the way of life for the settlers. At the
at the base of the hills in the form of different kind of gold, and sank their start of this "modern" age of irriga-
springs. That which ran off the land roots into the fragile desert soil along tion, shovels were used to turn water
was used for floodplain farming at the with the Indians. Once again, new ir- from earthen distribution systems onto
edge of the mesa. rigation techniques were instituted. fields, where the slope of the land was
Even on the desert, they made use of With the shifting of the climate back relied upon to (hopefully) spread the
minimal rainfall by "sand dune farm- to a summer-dominant rainfall regime water evenly. With the advent of
ing." Sand dunes there lay upon an siphon tubes in the 1940s and gated
impervious clay layer, so rain falling pipe more recently, this labor-intensive
upon a sand dune would seep vertically system was significantly improved, but
through the sand and exit the dune efficiencies still remained low. Only
horizontally at its base. Thus, the Hopi about 50 percent of the water applied
planted their crops in the sand around to a field was ever used by the plants;
the base of the dune, where they were the rest either percolated through the
favored by practically all of the water soil to the groundwater, or ran to the
that fell over the dune's entire surface. end of the field and was lost. By in-
By each family owning a little of each stalling reuse systems that picked up
kind of land—spring, floodplain and runoff water from the ends of their
sand dune—they were almost always fields, however, farmers boosted their
assured of success in at least one farm- irrigation efficiencies to about 85 per-
ing venture each year, in spite of varia- cent. Even better figures were in the
tions in weather patterns. offing.

MODERN MAN ARRIVES DEAD-LEVEL IRRIGATION


As the years rolled on, new in- One technique that is expanding
fluences made their way into the area. rapidly at the present time and gives
Spanish padres led the way from the water use efficiencies of better than 90
south, while pioneers and profiteers After being filtered through the percent is dead-level irrigation. Here,
came from north and east. Some soil, reclaimed water is pumped level basins eliminate the problem of
looked for easy riches, and when their back to the surface. runoff loss, common to standard
DESERT 15
A battery-powered laser transmitter and receiver mounted on a
drag scraper achieve precise land-leveling in record time.

sloping-field irrigation, and also allow a fashion, working the high spots toward irrigation, the delivery of water to the
more uniform application of water. To the low areas, using the field map as a level basins has been automated. There
use it, fields must be accurately guide. In much less time than it could are now several systems on the market
leveled, so that there is no more than have been done in the past, the field is that, at an affordable price, will
one inch difference between the leveled with a degree of precision that reliably open, close or change irrigation
highest and lowest points. Until recent- was only a dream a few years ago. flow from field to field on a given time
ly, such precise leveling was nearly im- To enhance the benefits of dead-level schedule, ensuring that just the right
possible. In just the last few years, amount of water is applied.
however, the introduction of laser
technology to land-leveling has made it CONTROLLING THE WATER
commonplace. One of the most promising of these
To achieve precise land-leveling, an methods is a jack-gate actuator,
operator sets up a battery-powered powered by compressed air transmitted
laser transmitter on a tripod, and a to an air cylinder from a central con-
receiver is mounted onto a drag trol station. It delivers water to the
scraper. The transmitter projects a basins by opening and closing, in prop-
beam out over the field as it revolves er sequence, slide-type gates or ports in
around and around, sweeping out a the sides of modern concrete-lined
level plane in the air. The operator of canals.
the scraper then surveys the field by Other recent innovations in irrigation
driving about with the scraper blade technology deal with the means of
held at a no-scrape height. He reads water application. Foremost among
the blade elevations below the laser these developments is the center-pivot
plane from a tractor-cab console, sprinkler system, which has been
recording them on a field map. The touted as "perhaps the most significant
average field elevation is thus com- mechanical innovation in agriculture
puted and set into the control since the replacement of draft animals
mechanism. Switching to automatic An infrared thermometer senses by the tractor."
laser-leveling, the operator then starts when plants are in need of Why such strong praise? One reason:
driving in more or less random watering. center-pivot sprinklers provide accurate
16 JUNE, 1981
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control of both water application rate WHEN TO IRRIGATE craft for obtaining actual temperature
and frequency; for another, they But when to irrigate? This is the maps of entire fields. Flying between
operate automatically. They can also primary question that has faced ir- altitudes of 500 and 1,000 feet, such
be used to apply liquid fertilizers and rigators of all times. One approach to devices can map the temperature of
herbicides. Perhaps the most important the problem that is widely employed is each square foot of farmland below.
reason of all, however, is that the to place soil moisture sensing devices
center-pivot sprinkler is well adapted in various locations throughout a field. FARMING BY SATELLITE
to rolling terrain and to coarse or sandy Another modern development is the Carried to its ultimate, the thermal
soils. Thus, its most rapid growth has use of computers to calculate scanning technique can also be applied
been on land once considered non- evaporative water losses from basic from satellites. At the present time,
irrigable, land that has now been con- weather data. It is likely, however, that ground resolution from satellite
verted to high crop production. the greatest innovation of the last two altitudes is rather coarse, but as
Although sprinkler systems can be decades of this century will be the use technology is improved and new
used so as to produce no runoff water of remote sensing techniques to direct- satellites capable of sustained orbits at
and practically no deep percolation to ly evaluate plant water stress and lower altitudes are developed, we can
the groundwater, there can still be a thereby signal when irrigation is expect that this application may some-
superfluous loss of water by evapora- required. day become a reality.
tion from unplanted portions of a The basis for the remote sensing ap- We stand, then, at a unique point in
field. The ultimate in irrigation control proach is to be found in the concept of history. The space age has truly
to eliminate this last nonessential use leaf temperature assessment. When arrived and is exerting its influence
of water is trickle or drip irrigation, plants are well watered, they transpire upon the most basic of human endeav-
whereby water is delivered right to the a significant amount of water through ors—the production of food for sustain-
base of individual plants, to drip out their leaves. The evaporation process ing life. Nowhere is this interplay of
onto the soil from plastic pipes or cools the leaves, sometimes as much as technology and tradition more apparent
tubes through small outlets called emit- 10 degrees below air temperature in than in the desert: irrigation is the
ters. In this way, areas of the lifeblood of agriculture in arid lands,
ground not covered by the crop are and civilization cannot long exist in
kept dry, with water only going to such an environment without acknowl-
plant roots. Orchards are the most ob- edging this fact.
vious application for irrigation by this The space age...is exerting its Not all of today's new water conser-
method. In Arizona, about 7,000 acres influence upon the most basic vation tools are products of the space
of citrus, pecan and deciduous fruit age. Some of the more unique ones
trees are managed in this way. of human endeavors—the date back to the earliest inhabitants of
But what good are the best of tools the land.
unless one knows how to use them? production of food for Take water harvesting. A lot like
Over-irrigation, for instance, can cause sustaining life. sand dune farming, its basic objective
leaching of fertilizer nutrients, flooding is to collect rainfall from a large area
and downstream pollution in addition and concentrate it on a smaller area
to wasting water. In hot climates, too where it is used for a variety of pur-
much water can also scald sensitive poses. Many treatments have been
plants. Where energy costs are high, as the hottest part of the afternoon. Once developed for waterproofing catch-
in pumping districts, over-irrigation ex- the water in the crop's root zone has ments to provide water for both crops
acts a monetary toll that can hurt inef- been reduced below a certain percent- and livestock in this manner. One well-
ficient operators. Of course, the age, however, it becomes more and tested approach consists of installing an
drawbacks of insufficient irrigation are more difficult for the plants to extract asphalt-fiberglass lining, while another
obvious. further water. Their transpiration rate simply creates a water-impervious layer
All of these problems are now being falls; the reduced evaporation at the by sprinkling wax chips over the soil
minimized by the development of a leaves no longer cools them as much as surface that will melt in the afternoon
new flow-measuring device or flume before. Leaf temperatures rise, sun and solidify at night.
that represents a real breakthrough for sometimes as much as 10 degrees Once captured, harvested rainfall is
ditch irrigators, who supply water to above air temperature. Consequently, also conserved in storage. Earthen
more than 1.1 million acres of land in by monitoring crop temperature, water stock ponds, for example, can have
Arizona. At a cost of one-third to one- can be withheld until it is definitely their seepage rates significantly
tenth that of previous flumes, the new known that it is needed. lowered by chemical treatments to
device can be installed in a ditch in a How is it done? All objects in the en- restrict water flow through otherwise
single day, and flow rates subsequently vironment radiate heat. An infrared porous soil constituents. Metal storage
read with a precision of plus or minus thermometer senses this heat radiation tanks are another approach. In both
two percent—with the irrigator not and translates it into the temperature cases, water evaporation can be cur-
even required to get out of his pickup of the object viewed. Portable infrared tailed with floating covers of different
to take a reading. The new measure- thermometers have been developed types of plastic films, wax blocks, or
ment technique allows operators to put that weigh no more than a 35mm even lighter-than-water cement slabs.
precise quantities of water onto level camera. In the shape of a small hand-
basins, where highest efficiencies can gun, they are ideal for use by an USING HARVESTED WATER
only be obtained with careful attention individual farmer. Larger operators or One of the most interesting water
to the application of just the right irrigation districts can also install ther- harvesting projects presently under in-
amount of water in each irrigation. mal scanning equipment in light air- vestigation involves the construction of
18 JUNE, 1981
small micro-catchments near individual
bushes of jojoba. This is the native
plant of the Sonoran Desert that pro-
duces peanut-sized seeds containing a
high quality wax. The wax has been
proven to be an excellent substitute for
the now rare sperm whale oil, which is
renowned for its tolerance to high
temperatures and oxidation. The oil
has long been essential to many dif-
This is
ferent industries, and sustained produc- Holiday Country
tion of jojoba wax could relieve some
of the pressure on the endangered For over a quarter of a century
sperm whale. By augmenting the water Holiday Realty has been serving
received by jojoba bushes with water the Real Estate needs of desert
harvesting, researchers have boosted lovers. Whether you are interested
their yield by several hundred percent. in Residential, Commercial,
As man thus learns to exist in sym- Agriculture or Industrial.
biotic harmony with the desert, the
volume of waste products produced by Make your desert connection
his civilization continues to grow with with the firm whose professional
his prosperity. Yet, even these floods expertise is the result of 25 years'
of refuse can provide useful resources, experience right here in
not the least of which is water. the great American Desert.
The Flushing Meadows Project is a
prime example. Operating for more
than a decade now, this joint research
project of the U.S. Water Conservation
Holiday
Laboratory, the Salt River Project, the Realty Corporation
City of Phoenix and the Environment- 73-700 El Paseo, Palm Desert (714)346-6168
al Protection Agency has demonstrated Dick Coffin, President
that secondary sewage effluent from
Phoenix can be profitably reclaimed by
allowing it to filter through the
sands and gravels of the Salt River
basin, and then extracting it from
strategically placed wells. Research has
shown the reclaimed water to be both
chemically and biologically cleansed: it
can be used for both irrigation of crops
and construction of recreational lakes
capable of sustaining large populations
offish.
The CAXTON PRINTERS, Ltd.
P.O. Box 700
So we ask ourselves again, will man
be able to cope with the demanding en- Caldwell, Idaho 83605
vironment of the desert as we ac-
celerate into the future? I suggest that
he will. His temper may be brash and
his self-confidence overinflated, but his W'e take pride in the production
tutelage has been long and significant.
With the mind-boggling tools of the
of fine books for the readers of
space age at his disposal and centuries Western American history —
of hard-earned experience behind him,
he is forging a system of water conser- with particular emphasis on the
vation that hearkens diligently to the
requirements of the land. It is a mar-
history of the Pacific Northwest
riage of harsh realities and delicate and the Rocky Mountain region
aspirations, but with continued and
conscientious nourishment, it can be
successful.
A rose indeed, the beauty that is the
desert may be enhanced even more by
the intelligent husbandry of man. This Write for a Free Catalog
was his God-given charge from the
creation of the world. It remains his
stewardship to the end of time. 0
DESERT 19
His paintings prove
he's worn boots
and chaps
by Emily J. Horswill

FRED
OLDFIELD enigma, but his old friends know
that cowboy is Fred, and he is follow-
ing a familiar trail. It leads from cow
The Cowboy Artist country, 1860, to a posh party at some
big hotel in 1980. Fred is the guest of
honor. His cowpony failed to make the
time machine journey, leaving his
master waiting for the bus. That paint-
ing is Fred's autobiography.

I DON'T KNOW if I paint so walls. The paintings leave no doubt Fred was born in 1918 on the
good, but I got the reputation," that the artist has worn boots and Yakima Indian Reservation. His
Fred Oldfield chuckles. The col- chaps, ridden hunched against sleet Scotch-Irish father followed the
lectors and admirers who mob his art and dust storms, cooked bannock and harvest, taking his family by covered
shows and auctions don't agree with bacon over a campfire. Hand in hand wagon. Eventually, nine children were
Fred's self-assessment, and everyone with the titles, each painting tells a to take part in those migrations, of
knows his reputation. He is the complete story, with one exception. In which only one showed Fred's
cowboy-artist whose work is now sold the middle of the wall hangs the odd mother's part Indian ancestry. "My
with Charlie Russell's at the annual one. Here with bold, sure palette knife, pretty, sweet Mom. What a rough
Russell Auction in Great Falls, Mon- Oldfield has depicted a horseless life," Fred says. "My Dad? He was an
tana. Fred is also a throwback to the cowboy. honorable man, a hard worker, a gifted
1860s. In full regalia, the cowboy stands in talker. Everybody liked him. When I
Titles like Quittin' Come Payday, endless burnt sienna space, with a sad- was a little guy, and he'd toss me into
For 30 a Month and Keep, and Leaving dle in one hand and a bridle in the the wagon for a trip to town, I'd
the Humboldt march down museum other. The title, Bus Stop, adds to the whoop with joy."

20 JUNE, 1981
CHEYENNE WINTER CAMP
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Joe Crouck

Fred was but three when he first saw Later, the boy saved the brown paper of Dad's sight for a while." The boy
cowboys in the cloud of dust hanging bags in which he carried his school took an alternate route to the harvest
over a roundup. Then he heard the lunches. fields.
bawling of the frightened cattle, Formal schooling was scanty and it That summer he learned how to hop
smelled smoke from the campfires and was from his mother's meager freights and cook beans on the railroad
the acrid odor of branding, saw the knowledge that Fred got his art train- tracks, but next to beans in importance
men crouched over the fires, the riders ing. "She'd had only an eighth grade was a sketching pad. In the fall when
on their sweating horses, their lariat education, but she had talent," Fred he drifted home, his mother admired
loops swinging, the horses braced as says softly. "It wasn't until years later his book full of sketches. His father
the loop settled. In his excitement, he that I realized how great she could clapped him on the shoulder and said,
almost fell out of the wagon. have been." "Boys will be boys." The incident was
It may have been then that Fred first Fred was 14, when, while lagging forgotten.
tried to capture western action with a behind the family caravan, he stumbled That year, Fred's father gave up
pencil. But, more likely, that came onto a whisky still and his first bottle wandering to sink roots on the Yakima
later as the covered wagon jounced of white lightning. He tasted and Indian Reservation, and the boy quit
from crop to crop. tasted. A younger brother doubled school to pick spuds and pitch hay. He
"I can't really remember when I back looking for him. "It had to be spent the winter alone in a shack,
began to draw," Fred says, "but I 'Decent Dick' who found me stretched feeding 1,000 pigs left-over bakery
know I decorated the wagon with my out giggling," Fred grimaces. "Still, goods for the animals' owner, who was
doodles. I drew on every scarce inch of disgusted as Dick was, he shared his away tending his bakery. A friend rode
paper. I covered both sides of scraps of lunch with me and since I couldn't go up to Fred's shack to visit, bringing
old building paper. I drew on barns back to the wagon, we rode all night to the latest news. It was about a
and fence posts." get me a camp outfit. We both knew "depression."
Fred's mother encouraged him. he wouldn't lie, and I'd better stay out "What's that?" Fred asked. He ex-

DESERT 21
and I always figured that gave me the
edge over all those other guys."

W
ITH THE war over and
murals going well, Fred
enrolled in The Burnley
School of Art in Seattle. Shortly, he
decided the training was inconsistent
with space, freedom, his oneness with
nature's seasons—all those things
which are his essence and the spirit of
his paintings. He says, "Stay with the
same teacher long, and you're in
danger of becoming a carbon copy. Get
stuck with rules, and you're in
trouble."
He quit and moved to a mountain
cabin. When he ran out of money, he
Fred Oldfield uses a palette knife to create a more active painted murals once again in order to
surf ace for his work. build Frontier Village near Mt.
Rainier, complete with teepees, Indian
crafts and his own art work. He also
plains, "I couldn't see any changes. he stumbled back to Sitka. He began offered visitors an opportunity to drive
Things were pretty much as they'd casing the honky-tonks for the most a stagecoach. His venture, unfortunate-
always been with me. If anything, a food for the least price. He broke his ly, antedated the craze for the Old
pinch better. Along with the hunting last dollar bill for a double order of West that was soon to sweep through
and fishing—and they were great—I hotcakes. He now knew that every the country. In 1964, he went broke.
had all the doughnuts I could eat." cheap bed and every inch of concrete Desperate to feed his family, he took
About that time, beef ranching came under a roof had a prior claimant. 12 paintings to a dealer, who offered
to the Yakima Reservation, and Fred Still, on a full stomach, the alley $300 for the lot. Fred walked out, only
settled into a saddle. Life, like his scenes intrigued him. Shortly, he was to return the next day to accept an of-
drawings, followed the cycles of engrossed in a drawing. fer reduced to $200. Still, he refused to
nature. Slow times, he covered walls of He looked up when a boozy voice go through bankruptcy. He went back
restaurants and taverns with murals asked, "You broke, kid?" A woman, to painting murals, hopefully for the
which mostly were awkward but con- who'd been sitting at the nearest bar last time, and paid every debtor.
vincing stories of the life of a cowboy. drinking, pointed at the drawing and But fate runs in strange circles: enter
"I was still lying fluently about my said, "That's worth a bed and the 1970s and western art. Sellouts fol-
age to get into the bars," Fred recalls. breakfast." lowed—and collectors. Recently, one
"Then, while I worked, customers By the time she had assigned him a collector priced at $34,000 10 of the 12
would argue with me about how I tiny room, he realized she was a paintings Fred had sold for $200. In
should proceed. A drunk would stagger madam. "The next few days, she woke 1976, Fred had a one-man show at the
over, pick up a paintbrush and help." me at daybreak, fed me, and hustled Frye Art Museum in Seattle. Today,
Fred shudders, then adds, "But, that me out to work. As fast as I could he doles out paintings, often still wet,
experience has been invaluable. Now, finish a picture, she sold my art to her to the collector highest on his waiting
demonstrations are easy." clients," Fred remembers. "I'll never list.
The murals were popular, and pro- forget her kindness." In January, 1981, Fred's biography,
prietors began to pay well. Of those With cash in his pockets, he bought by J. Moynahan, came off the press,
early efforts, Fred says, "Fortunately, a ticket home. and admiring crowds at an author's
in the spots still operating, owners There, he found that the younger party in Tacoma stood in line for the
have been able to redecorate." His brother he adored, handsome, hard- artist's autograph.
work improved. Soon most of the working Pat, had died in a factory ex- However, Oldfield hasn't forgotten
nightspots in the northwest testified to plosion, leaving a wife, Alice, with a the lean years. He encourages and pro-
his ambition. Then he ran out of art five-year-old child and another on the motes other artists, and he is constantly
commissions. way. working on a benefit show. At his own
He heard rumors of a good job World War II came. From his Army annual auction in Tacoma, a percent-
possibility in Alaska. He hitched his base, Fred began writing to Alice. age of every sale has gone to such
way to Sitka, where he learned he had "She was so very beautiful," he charities as the Juvenile Court, Gon-
20 more miles to go. He started walk- reminisces. "Yet, three-and-a-half years zaga University, organizations for
ing. The road was deserted. So was the later she married me. Why me?" He retarded children, Opera on Wheels
logging operation when he found it. It hesitates, then says, soberly, "I made a and his current favorite, the Northwest
had closed for the winter. Somehow, point of polishing my image as a papa, Kidney Foundation.

22 JUNE, 1981
CAMP ON DRY CREEK
Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Keith Corner

Asked about his extensive donations, manage it." He also manages to find 1945, Fred sold an adventure story,
Fred shuffles his feet, puts a hand in a time for Alice and their three children. Bear for Breakfast, to Outdoor Life.
pocket, and answers, "It's embarrass- There's beautiful Patty Lorraine, one Both Oldfield and Russell counted In-
ing. Everything I give seems to come of the area's most talented vocalists. dians among their best friends, and
floating back faster than I can give it. I She has appeared on the Lawrence each shared the Native American's
have more offers of vacation homes, Welk Show, but she takes time out to philosophy.
yacht cruises and dinners than I got entertain at her "daddy's" exhibi- Russell once wrote, "Where cattle
any use for." tions. Then, there is Jerry, the DJ in waded hip-deep in bluejoint, a gopher
In 1972, he gave a large painting to Portland, and Joella, who, with her couldn't graze now."
Spiro Agnew's family when the United husband, manages Fred's art shows. Fred has an update, "When I first
States formally returned 22,000 acres Give Joella a chance and she asks, rode in the Medicine Valley, bunch
to the Yakima Indian Tribe. "Have you met Daddy? Isn't he grass grew belly-deep to a horse. Now,
Fred still goes home to Yakima for marvelous?" like everything else that has any value,
fishing trips with friends and, of They will all tell you Fred was born it is an endangered species. Man is a
course, he rides in the annual fall in the wrong era, that he belongs in disease. He's eating up the world."
roundup in Medicine Valley on the the 1860s. Asked what education he would ad-
reservation. His eyes sparkle as he says, Fred Oldfield and Charlie Russell vise for the present generation, he
"We trail the herd 70 miles in two have much in common. Both were answers, "I'd advise them to get a
days. I get pretty stiff, but I can still always artists, both storytellers. In degree in Survival." @

DESERT 23
CAMELS FOR UNCLE SAM
by Richard Varenchik

American southwest?
I T WAS 1860; the sun smiled
down through clean air on the
dusty little town of Los Angeles,
California. Members of the Los
On March 3, 1855, at the urging of
then Secretary of War Jefferson Davis,
the United States Congress approved
By May 13, 1856, 34 camels had
been unloaded near the Texas port of
Indianola. The expedition ended with
an extra camel, despite the death of
Angeles German community laughed $30,000 (some say the amount was one adult beast during the journey.
and sang as they enjoyed a picnic. The $50,000) for "...importation of camels Several baby camels had been born
horses and horse-and-buggy rigs that and dromedaries to be employed for aboard ship; two had survived.
had carried the celebrants to the picnic military purposes." It was during the camels' stay in In-
grounds were scattered about; the dianola that Major Wayne became irri-
horses grazed peacefully. tated by suggestions that the animals
Tables were piled high with fine were too weak to ever be of much use
German delicacies including liver- in hauling supplies. The major
wurst, dill pickles and sauerkraut. marched out one of the beasts, had it
Baskets of pretzels were the target of kneel down, and loaded it with four
attack by children, who snatched and bales of hay, weighing a total of 1,226
ran to avoid the slaps of scolding pounds. People in the crowd made bets
women. that the camel would not even be able
Finally, the speaker of the day rose to stand up, much less walk off with
and cleared his throat. The happy the load.
crowd prepared to listen to an en- "But," Wayne wrote with some
thusiastic speech which would extol humor, "When the camel arose
the virtues of the Fatherland. without a strain and quietly walked off
Suddenly—like a shimmering mirage with his four bales...there was a sudden
from a faraway desert land—an incredi- change of public sentiment, most flat-
ble apparition wheeled into view. It tering to the outlandish brute and en-
Edward Fitzgerald Beale
was a strangely-dressed Arab in a couraging to his military sponsors."
yellow cart which was being drawn Henry C. Wayne, a U.S. Army ma-
along by two massive camels. The
idyllic picnic scene was quickly
transformed to one of wild chaos. The
picnickers' horses, spooked by the
jor, wrote of the proposed experiment:
"Its object being to introduce a new
animal into the heart of our continent,
where there are neither navigable rivers
I N FEBRUARY of 1857 a second
shipment, containing 41 camels,
was landed in Texas. With the
camels came several Arabian and
strange sight (and smell) of the camel nor practicable roads, and by means of Turkish camel drivers to assist the
team, bolted with terror. Parents it to hold in check the wandering tribes Army in caring for the animals and to
scrambled to snatch their screaming of Indians that are constantly warring teach soldiers how to use them.
children out of harm's way as upon civilization, to carry on com- Among the foreigners was Hadji Ali,
stampeding horses, some of them drag- merce, and to facilitate whose name was changed by the
ging overturned carts and buggies, sent communications.'' American soldiers to Hi Jolly. Home
tables of food flying through the air. Wayne, along with Navy Lieutenant for Hi Jolly, his companions and the
The camels gazed upon the tumul- David Porter, sailed to the Levant on camels was set up at Camp Verde, an
tuous uproar with a look of disdainful the Navy Ship Supply. After many Army post about 60 miles northwest of
boredom, calmly trotting off down the adventures and misadventures, in- San Antonio, Texas.
road and vanishing from sight with cluding the purchase of two sickly The Army had imported the
their buggy and driver in tow. camels that were quickly sold off to a camels as work animals, not curiosities.
It is said that Los Angeles news- butcher "for purposes known only to The time for serious evaluation was at
papers devoted colorful paragraphs to himself," the two men managed to buy hand. Former Navy Lieutenant Ed-
the incident the next day, describing 33 healthy camels. ward Fitzgerald Beale was assigned the
picnic grounds that looked like a bat- "I was much pleased with the task of putting the camels to the test.
tlefield arid hungry Germans who had dromedaries when I got them all on Beale was an energetic explorer who
to walk miles to get home. board and cleaned up," Porter wrote. had made many trips across the coun-
The whole bizarre incident would There was one problem, though: a try. He was very high on the idea of
never have taken place were it not for Bactrian (two-humped Arabian) camel using camels. His enthusiasm for the
one of the strangest experiments in the was so huge (seven-feet, five-inches beasts sprang, perhaps, from the book
history of the United States Army. tall), he would not fit in his stall. The Travels in Tartary, Thibet and China
The logic behind the experiment was problem was solved by cutting a hole During the years 1844, 1845 and 1846,
simple: If camels could successfully in the deck of the ship. On February by Abbe Hue. The book described the
haul men and supplies in the Levant 15, 1856, the Supply set sail from use of camels in those foreign lands;
(Arab countries), why could the beasts Smyrna, a seaport in west Turkey, for Beale read passages aloud to his com-
not do the same in the deserts of the Texas. panion, Kit Carson, during one of the
24 JUNE, 1981
When Beale's party became lost, the camels were used to search for water.

explorations they made together. approach was the jingling of the large journal, as recorded by Stacey, con-
Beale's assignment was to survey a bells suspended from their necks. tained words of praise for his ships of
wagon road along the 35th parallel Presently, one, then two, three, four, the desert:
from Fort Defiance, New Mexico, all until the whole twenty-five had come "It is a subject of constant surprise
the way to California. On June 25, within range in the dim light...Our and remark to all of us how their feet
1857, Beale, with a contingent of mules and horses were very much can possibly stand the character of the
troops, 25 camels and camel driver Hi frightened at the approach of the road. It is certainly the hardest road on
Jolly, set out for California. camels. They dashed around the corral, the feet of barefooted animals I have
Accompanying Beale to assist with with heads erect and snorting wild ever known. As for food, they live on
the survey was 19-year-old May Hum- alarm." anything and thrive. Yesterday they
phreys Stacey. The young man At first the camels were slow, and drank water for the first time in
recorded events of the expedition in a lagged behind the mules and horses. twenty-six hours..."
journal. He was in camp near San An- As they toughened up they set a good The explorer's admiration for the
tonio when Beale brought in the pace and were able to outdistance the camels increased even more during an
camels for the first time: other animals, in spite of the heavy incident that brought the survey party
"The first intimation we had of their loads they carried. By mid-July, Beale's near disaster. On September 5, Beale

Camels were generally more reluctant than horses or mules to cross rivers.
DF.SF.RT 25
When water was found the men, horses and mules rushed forward to drink, but
the camels looked on disinterestedly.
camped in the desert near some Indian other side of the river, but the camels While the main contingent of men,
ruins, a site near present-day seemed balky about the swim. horses, mules and camels went by way
Holbrook, Arizona. A few days later, Beale ordered the largest camel of Palmdale up to Fort Tejon (about
one of the guides reported he could brought up to the river's edge. The 40 miles south of Bakersfield), Beale
find no water and the party was lost. beast waded up to its flanks and then and Hi Jolly took two camels and head-
Beale ordered scouts, mounted on started to swim. The other camels were ed for Los Angeles.
camels, to search for water and try to soon coaxed into the water and made it On November 8, 1857, they rode the
pick up the trail west. Young May to the other side. desert beasts into the sleepy little town.
Stacey reported that it was remarkable Such was not the fate of the other Hi Jolly was decked out in a flashy
how the camels "...stood it so well as animals: "We lost 10 mules and 2 native costume, while his camel was
they did, traveling under a hot sun all horses by drowning, the Mohave In- strung with tiny bells. Their arrival
day and packing two hundred pounds dians had a great feast that night on created a sensation.
apiece..." The camels did not seem to dead mules," Stacey wrote in his Local children begged for rides,
be suffering from thirst while "one of journal. while horses bolted and ran off in all
the most painful sights I ever wit- The crossing, made on October 19 directions. Beale and Hi Jolly spent a
nessed was a group of [mules] standing about 15 miles north of present-day few days in town and then headed off
over a small barrel of water and trying Needles, marked the official end of for Fort Tejon. (It was Hi Jolly who,
to get a drink from the bunghole, and Beale's assigned journey. The great three years later, brought chaos to the
seemingly frantic with distress and adventure from San Antonio had taken German picnic when he rode by with
eagerness to get at it." four months and covered more than his camel team.)
Water was finally found in a small 1,200 miles. In a letter sent to the Secretary of
canyon and the party was saved. But Beale felt the trip had been a War, Beale was lavish in his praise of
water—too much of it this time—was resounding success. He was in such a the camels. "At times I thought it im-
again a problem when Beale's party good frame of mind that he talked Hi possible they could stand the test to
reached the Colorado River. California Jolly into joining him in playing a joke which they have been put, but they
and the end of the journey were on the on the people of Los Angeles. seem to have risen equal to every
26 JUNE, 1981
trial...
"With heavy packs, they have
crossed mountains, ascended and
decended precipitous places...I think it
would be within bounds to say that, in
these lateral explorations, they have
traversed nearly double the distance
passed over by our mules and
wagons."
After arriving back at Fort Tejon,
Beale even ordered the camels out to
work in the snow. He reported that
they did quite well and did not seem to
mind the cold.

B UT, BEALE was sorely


mistaken in thinking that
camels had a bright future in
America. The Army never imported
another camel. The animals fell into
disfavor for several reasons.
When the Civil War started in 1861,
no one on the Union side was about to
support an experiment proposed by
former Secretary of War Jefferson
Davis, the man who became president
of the Confederate states. Even the
Confederate soldiers who took over "First name in Metal Detectors Since 1931"
Camp Verde in Texas did little more
than abuse the camels they found Whether you are a weekend coinshooter or a professional
there. treasure hunter, Fisher has a model designed for your needs.
In fact, abuse became the common Fisher detectors have proven themselves time and timeagain
lot of the poor beasts. Soldiers are as the most sensitive deep seeking detectors you can buy.
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were allowed to escape. Settlers and

miners shot at them.

FISHEREED
On February 26, 1864, the Army
auctioned off the 37 camels it owned in
California. In 1866, a similar auction
was held at Camp Verde.
From then on the animals were sold Fisher Research Laboratory
to circuses or zoos, or put to work 1005 I Street, Los Banos, CA 93635
hauling freight and supplies. Unhappy
owners set more of the camels loose to
fend for themselves in the desert.
And for years, prospectors would
belly up to the bar in dusty
"We're Celebrating Our 50th Year"
southwestern towns and tell of the
strange beasts they had seen in the
desert. Some of these stories had more
than a little fiction in them—as, most
likely, did the story of how Hi Jolly
met his death.
It is known that the old camel driver
READ ABOUT
TODAY'S GOLDRUSH F l Jeep
died on December 16, 1903, in Quartz- Articles and news items about
"our only business"
site, Arizona. He was 75. Supposedly, prospecting, mines and mining, both
large and small operations. Pictures,
Hi Jolly was in a Quartzsite saloon
hints, tips, advertisements for ma- SALES - LEASING
when a prospector walked in and told
of seeing a huge red camel in the near-
chinery, mines and claims. Published
monthly. $5.00 per year. Send for
PARTS — SERVICE
by desert. sample copy. We Service What We Sell
Hi Jolly walked out of the saloon and
was not seen alive again. His body was JOHNSON'S 4WD CENTER
found several days later in the desert, Western PROSPECTOR b MINER
Dept. D 7590 Cypress Ave. at Van Buren
his arms wrapped around the neck of Box 146, Tombstone, AZ 85638 Riverside, Calif. 92503 (714) 785-1330
the red camel, which had also died. 0
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THE NOSIEST NEWSPAPER IN THE WEST
VOL. 2 NO. 4 * MARY EILEEN TWYMAN, EDITOR * JUNE 1981

Rangers Harass Sick, Lost Man

CRY FOR HELP COSTS $80,000


by Wayne Winters
smoke from the blazes hung These civil servants must be appears, however, the old-line
Tombstone, Ariz.—The over the city of Sierra Vista for held liable for the actions they Forest Service administrators
United States Forest Service is three days and nights before be- take on their own. Heretofore haven't received the message as
notorious for throwing its ing wafted away by the wind. they have been let off via in-de- yet that there are times when
weight around, harassing the The list of cabins torched by partment investigations, with rules and law should be tem-
helpless, picking on women and the Forest Service in southern such ridiculous excuses as "the pered with mercy. The Miles in-
children, then backing off on Arizona alone over a period of contractor's crew got ahead of cident appears to be one such
prosecution of real lawbreakers 20 years is almost endless. A few the ranger's supervision" in the case: some compassion should
who have no excuse for their ac- that come to mind include the case of the old Spanish ruin. be shown for the plight of an ill,
tions. historic cabin in the Santa Ritas Many observors hoped these lost man who feared for his very
The latest American to feel where President Grant stayed in bureaucratic highjinks would life.
the sting of the green whip is the course of his mining camp cease with the installation of a
John R. Miles, a 56-year-old dia- visit to Arizona Territory, a cou- new set of federal officials under —Western Prospector &
betic who, after four days ple of house trailers on the Pitts- the Reagan administration. It Miner
stranded in an Idaho mountain burgh patented mine in Warsaw ***••*•••>•••*•••••**•••:• »*• »J« •*• »J# •*• »*• »J» •£• »J« •** »*4 «J« »J» •*• •*• •*•» »*• »*• «J» •*• •*« • J
snowstorm, set fire to a couple of Canyon of Santa Cruz County,
old cabins in a national forest in the Oro Fino cabin, the Apache
Mine cabin, the Wolff buildings
YUMA DESALTING PLANT
an attempt to attract rescuers.
Now the bureaucratic hirelings in Ash Canyon and the Oro TEST PROGRAM DELAYED
seek $80,000 from the ill man as Blanco camp in California Yuma, Ariz.—Unexpected de- content of Colorado River water
restitution for his effort to save Gulch. clines in productivity have inter- flowing into Mexico.
his own life. Then there are structures that rupted proof-testing of mem- The manufacturers and feder-
On the other hand, four Fort fell to the bulldozer, places like brane desalting equipment for al engineers are investigating the
Huachuca soldiers—grown men the Old Soldier cabin, Black the planned desalting plant productivity decrease, and are
—were cited by the Forest Serv- Diamond camp, the old store on here, the Interior Department hopeful desired performance
ice for leaving a campfire unat- Ruby Road, more buildings in reported recently. levels can soon be restored.
tended, one that allegedly California Gulch, the whole The Yuma desalting plant is The testing halt is not expect-
touched off a 9,000-acre fire in town of Harshaw, the ancient the central feature of the Col- ed to delay completion and
the Huachuca Mountains. Spanish cabin ruin on the Laura orado River Basin Salinity Con- startup; in fact, uncertainty of
Their citation was a misdemean- patented claim. Add to these trol Project. Scheduled for com- future funding for the project is
or and called only for a $15 fine mine tunnels whose portals were pletion and startup in 1986, the more likely to delay plant com-
under federal law. covered, roads wiped out and plant is a federally sponsored pletion than the equipment test
The list of such inequities is shafts on active claims filled in— project to meet treaty obliga- interruption.
long. It was not many years ago the list of autocratic actions ex- tions placing limits on the salt —Desert News Service
that the service acquired, via tends throughout the west.
purchase, the old Reef Mine and These are not just incidents
its associated camp—a place that out of the past. The harassment TWO CAPTURED BURROS
has been described as the "best of so many active, legitimate
ghost town in Arizona." It's in miners, particularly in northern PATROL HUACHUCA CITY
the Huachuca Mountains of California, that continues at this Bisbee, Ariz.—Huachuca vegetation around the town's
Cochise County. The feds lost time emphasizes the need for re- City's two lawnmowers are a sewer lagoons.
no time in putting the torch to a form in the federal bureaucra- pair of wild burros, captured in The Arizona Department of
number of buildings that were in cies, particularly the Forest Serv- the Grand Canyon and official- Health Services requires munici-
excellent condition. So many ice and the Bureau of Land ly adopted by the local govern- palities to control plant growth
structures were burned that Management. ment to. keep down weeds and Continued on page 36
GRASSHOPPERS THRIVE DESPITE RLM SIX STATES PASS
Reno, Nev.—Officials of the
United States Bureau of Land
Management last year conduct-
comments to augment a written
multi-agency draft environmen-
tal assessment, no doubt part of
PRO-SAGEBRUSH LAWS
ed an experimental program a back-up plan whereby grass- Bridgeport, Calif.—Twelve government, citizens are battling
under which they attempted to hoppers would be smothered western states have officially a plan to ban oil exploration in
eradicate threatening swarms of with paper. joined a fight, called the Sage- the Arctic Wildlife Range.
grasshoppers in northern Neva- If BLM officials really want to brush Rebellion, to gain control Colorado timber firms claim
da by studying them to death. cut down the grasshopper popu- of federal lands in their jurisdic- that they are denied access to
The plan failed despite weather lation, they should quit stalling tions. The rebellion began in federal forests, where timber is
conditions that were rough on around and take some drastic 1976, when the Federal Land literally rotting on the ground.
grasshopper populations, so this action. One possibility would be Policy and Management Act Nevada and Utah residents
year the BLM has a new plan, to negotiate a management pro- was passed, placing public land are disturbed over federal plans
announced here recently. gram for grasshoppers under the in perpetual trust by the federal to base the M-X Missile System
In 1981 the federal agency will jurisdiction of the Nevada De- government. in their states: 24,000 square
attempt to talk the grasshoppers partment of Wildlife, the agency The federal government owns miles are needed for the project.
to death, and they have invited which managed the mule deer 52 percent of all the land in the Legislators in California have
public participation in the cam- herds of northern Nevada to west, 700 million acres in all. objected to the Bureau of Land
paign. In addition to plain old near-oblivion. The states feel that they cannot Management's proposal to in-
talk, BLM is soliciting written - T h e NEVAD1AN control their own destiny and ventory mineral and energy re-
that the federal government is sources in the California desert.
M-X BUDGET DOUBLES
Washington, D.C.-The M-X 1978, with no regard for infla-
continuing to restrict use on The BLM study will document
more and more public land. these resources and could place
Seventy-five percent of Mono them off-limits to the public.
mobile missile system, which the tion. Even taking the Defense County's 3,139 square miles is Not everyone favors state con-
Air Force has estimated will cost Department's traditionally over- owned and managed by the fed- trol of federal land. Environ-
$34.2 billion, actually will carry optimistic inflation projections eral government, 62 percent is mentalists and many congress-
a price tag of more than twice into account and assuming no managed by the United States men feel that if the land were
that much by the end of the cen- major program changes, the Forest Service and 13 percent by turned over to developers, much
tury, according to the General M-X program will cost the Air the Bureau of Land Manage- of the west's most beautiful land
Accounting Office. Force some $70 billion to build ment. Only 21 percent is pri- would be ruined. Others feel
A report issued by that office and operate, the report said. vately owned. that wildlife habitats would be
states that the required number Interestingly enough, this $70 The problems in Mono affected, water supplies would
of intercontinental missiles and billion figure does not include County are small compared to dwindle and sensitive ecosys-
shelters is not firm, and that the the undisclosed cost of develop- those in other western states. In tems would disappear.
lack of a new arms limitation ing, acquiring and maintaining Idaho, a group is fighting against In spite of the environmental-
treaty with the Soviet Union the warheads for the M-X, or a proposal to expand a wildlife ists, six western states have
could mean that many more the cost of impact aid to the refuge from 26,000 acres to passed legislation laying claim to
would be necessary, adding bil- areas where the missile system 839,000. Some of the acreage in- federal land within their bor-
lions of dollars to the cost. could be deployed. Also not in- volved is valuable crop land, ac- ders. Alaskans have gone so far
The report cast doubt on the cluded are the salaries of themil- cording to opponents of the as to threaten to secede from the
accuracy of the $34.2 billion esti- itary personnel needed to ac- plan. union if the issue isn't resolved.
mate, which the service based complish this task. In Alaska, where 95 percent of —The Mammoth Lakes
on the value of the dollar in —Desert News Service the land is owned by the federal REVIEW

RAGTOWN REMEMBERED, FOUNDER FORGOT


Carson City, Nev.—Among plies and whiskey for the final grant trains out on the trail. He sack the store, intent on carry-
those Nevada pioneers ignored push over the Sierra Nevada, would then act as an agent to ing off anything that struck their
and forgotten by modern histor- the immigrants gave Kenyon a negotiate the return of the cat- fancy, but Kenyon had become
ians is Asa L. Kenyon, early-day liberal patronage; he did well in tle, taking a percentage of what- suspicious and was standing in
station keeper on the Carson his new enterprise. ever monetary consideration the doorway with a shotgun a
River. The station soon became was involved in the transaction. few minutes after his hasty exit.
Born near Rome, N.Y. on known as "Ragtown" because of On accasion, the immigrants Informing them that his own
April 20, 1830, Kenyon learned the washed clothing, tarps and would try to put one over on cure for smallpox was a quick
the blacksmith trade as a young linens draped over the sage- Kenyon, but they were seldom walk up the Carson River, they
boy, but his ambitions took him brush after families came off the successful. The story is told that took the hint and lit out west.
far from the tranquil life he trail. a group of travelers once came As compensation for his own
might have lived had he re- Kenyon also did some trading into Ragtown and inquired time and trouble, Kenyon kept
mained in upstate New York. with the Indians of the area—a about purchasing medicine. their teams and wagons.
In 1854, overland immigrant trade which included providing Kenyon asked what ailment Asa Kenyon died at Ragtown
travel on the Carson River route them with whiskey — and there they were seeking to treat, and on March 25,1884. The remains
was picking up. Kenyon and his are stories of other kinds of deal- they told him smallpox. Fearing of Ragtown Station are no
wife established a station on the ings between the enterprising that he would contract the more, but the site, 10 miles west
river that became the first stop station keeper and the natives. dreaded disease, he bolted out of Fallon, is marked by a histori-
for wagon trains coming off the There is evidence that Ken- the door and crossed the river cal plaque, a saloon and a
dreaded Forty Mile Desert. yon hired Indian bands to run on a dead run. pizzeria.
Needing fresh stock, hay, sup- off stock accompanying immi- The visitors then proceeded to —Nevada Historical Society
30
FUND SHORTAGE TO STALL
QUALIFICATIONS OUTLINED HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION
Sacramento, Calif.—Califor- deficits for a wide range of serv-
FOR JOB HERDING TURTLES by Ernest G. Kirby
nia must cut all of its state and
local transportation services un-
ices, including local transit and
streets and roads, the state's
less new revenues are provided, highways, the Highway Patrol,
Kanab, Utah—I have applied privileged creatures — their life according to the California even the registration of vehicles
to the federal government for cycles, eating and drinking Transportation Commission's and licensing of drivers.
( the position of Chief Turtle habits, sex lives, longevity and draft biennial report to the legis- The report points to inflation
Herder. You see, the feds want most especially, their environ- lature. and fixed user fees, especially a
to set aside a 35-mile square of mental impact on the land. According to the report, more gasoline tax set at 7c a gallon
land (that's 22,400 acres) down However, I'm a little worried than $1 billion is needed in the since 1963, as the main causes of
here in southern Utah as a turtle about the reactions of the next five years to buy buses and the financial crisis. For example,
refuge. They call them the desert ranchers and cowboys of this coaches needed to keep up tran- San Bernardino County's labor
tortoise, but they are turtles to area, who don't seem to realize sit services. Some counties have costs have jumped 82 percent
me, and even the dictionary that turtles are more important begun to change paved rural since 1974, its gasoline costs 300
agrees. I'm sure a retired person to the economy than cattle. roads to gravel, to save on main- percent, and road oils 600 per-
could fill the bill. Turtles move They might attempt to invade tenance costs. cent, but revenues for transpor-
rather slowly—certainly I could my domain and put cows to Contracters and construction tation have increased only 21
keep up with them. graze there illegally. To thwart workers should know that after percent.
I'd expect that the govern- this, I'm going to propose that next year there will not be A recommendation of the re-
ment would fence the entire the government put up watch- enough money to match federal port is that the Department of
project so that cattle persons, towers with armed guards at road aid, so about $400 million a Transportation adopt more effi-
cowboys and tourists would strategic locations to properly year in construction funds will cient management policies for its
have to apply for permission to monitor the project. be lost. highway maintenance program.
enter. I'd expect the government This turtle territory will be- The report documents huge —Desert News Service
to build Rita (my wife) and me come an important tourist at- SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS
an air-conditioned home and traction. How else could you
offices. I'd need a private car and
Jeeps to take me around my tur-
tle domain.
spend a few hours more profita-
bly and interestingly than
watching a tortoise move about?
LYNX LAKE MISNAME
Bisbee, Ariz.—By exploring alongside the water. Thinking it
No doubt the government If I get the position, I hope you unknown country, Arizona's was dead, Sam reached down to
would want me to record for will welcome me and support early day inhabitants earned the pick it up and the cat sprang at
posterity many important as- me. right to name rivers, creeks, him, clawing his arm. One ac-
pects of the lives of these under- -Southern Utah NEWS mountains and passes. They count says Miller kicked the
*<•*•>*••••••••••••*••••••••••••:••••:•••••••>•••:••••:• named them after their home bobcat to death, the other has
towns, their girl friends or wives, him strangling the cat with his
LADY'S BEST FRIEND historic figures, or some physical
feature that reminded them of a
bare hands.
Sam and the other members
RELATIVE NEWCOMER
New York, N.Y.—For some ated by color, clarity, carat
particular thing, or some event
that occurred there.
Sam Miller was one of a group
of the party thought the cat was
a lynx. But that dweller of high
country was never found in Ari-
2,000 years, the only known weight and style of cut. In fact, of adventurers recruited by Cap- zona, the state being far south of
source of diamonds was the colorless, or white, diamonds tain Joseph Walker. The party its normal range. It looked like a
streambeds of ancient India, are extremely rare and prohibi- set out from the east to make lynx, at any rate, and history
where diamond "pebbles" were tively expensive. their fortunes prospecting for passes along the story with the
found occasionally in the alluvi- Most diamonds have a tinge gold in Arizona. lynx name intact.
al wash. Though the gems were of color, and those of a strong In May of 1863, the group The creek where the gold was
prized for their rarity and col- cast are called fancies. A famous camped for a few days on the found was called Ookilsipava by
lected by royalty, no one knew fancy is the dark blue banks of the Hassayampa River, the local Indians, and that's the
how to cut them, so they were 44.50-karat Hope Diamond, while small scouting parties name that it went by for a time
far less spectacular in appear- now in the Smithsonian went out to explore the sur- after the gold strike. Many An-
ance than rubies or emeralds. Institution. rounding countryside and do a glo tongues tripped over the odd
The discovery in about the Clarity refers to the absence of little hunting. Indian name, and Sam Miller's
15th Century that diamonds imperfections, such as carbon Miller and his group headed cat tale was repeated so many
could be used to cut other dia- spots or cracks, which might in- for the Bradshaw Mountains, times that the small stream
monds led to a new interest in terfere with the free passage of while the rest of the half-dozen eventually became known as
the gem. In the closing decades light through the stone. A dia- scouts followed a small stream Lynx Creek.
of the 17th Century, a Venetian mond is considered flawless only up into the forest in search of So, back in the 1960s when
lapidary, Vincenzo Peruzzi, de- if no imperfections can be found game. Sam stopped and panned the Arizona Game and Fish De-
veloped what is known as the in it with a 10-power magnifier. for gold. He found the shiny partment decided to build a lake
brilliant cut. This manner of The cut, which refers to the stuff in his first pan, and his dis- on the stream, it was named
cutting the stone, which is an ar- arrangement and number of covery led to a booming mining Lynx Lake. Today the small lake
rangement of 58 facets, mathe- facets, must be executed so industry and the establishment is a very popular spring, summer
matically proportioned to ob- exactly that each angle falls of the city of Prescott. and fall camping, fishing and
tain maximum fire — or refrac- within a half-degree of each However, Sam Miller is most picnicking spot for local resi-
tion of light rays—gave the dia- other angle; to miss is to lose a famous for what happened a few dents, and for visitors from the
mond a new and dazzling gem's full potential of fire. minutes after he found the gold. Phoenix area.
brilliance. Walking along the sandy stream
A diamond gemstone is evalu- —Desert News Service bed, he saw a bobcat lying -Bisbee DAILY REVIEW

flT»rt,r« flTttw 31
WATER
HARVESTING
IN ISRAEL
3,033 YEARS OF NECESSITY
BREED INVENTION
Sde Boker, Israel—On a bar- an arid valley where no more
ren hilltop in the Negev Desert, than one inch of rain falls every
the windswept ruins of a once- year, receive no additional irri-
affluent, ancient civilization gation. The fields, however,
stand guard over rows of flour- have been brought back to life
ishing fig and pistachio trees. after more than 2,000 years by Israeli technology has turned desert like this in arid
The lush orchards, growing in inquisitive Israeli scientists, who Aravah to growing vegetables.

have unravelled the technologi- nels help direct the water to the
cal secrets of water collection fields and orchards below. In
and storage used by earlier civili- order to collect enough water,
zations. The scientists intend to the catchment area must be 20
apply the techniques of the an- to 30 times the size of the actual
cients to modern agriculture in farm area.
the desert. "In the desert," he explains,
Avdat, which in the first cen- "we hope to close watersheds or
tury B.C. was one of a chain of catchment areas to capture rain
wealthy Nabatean cities in the water, probably with dams."
desert, is the setting for this un- The project has also uncovered
usual research project. It is only the possibility of creating wells
one of hundreds of ambitious from flood waters by catching
water research projects which rainfall and forcefully using it to
are helping Israel keep pace with recharge natural aquifiers.
growing water demands. In this The project has revealed sur-
half-desert country, where 95 prising facts about the water
percent of all practical water re- needs of certain plants. With the
sources are already being used, aid of geiger counters, it has
the quest for more water and a been proven that many crops
more efficient use of it is a matter can thrive with much less water
of necessity, not merely scientific than is being given to the same
curiousity. plants in a nearby kibbutz.
Professor Michael Evanari, "Policies governing water use
who for the last 20 years has ex- in both developing and devel-
plored the agricultural tech- oped countries are not aggres-
niques of early Israelites and Na- sive enough," declares Ben-
bateans, works in collaboration Asher. "Water research must be
with Dr. Yiftah Ben-Asher, one given top priority, not just in Is-
of a new breed of young Israeli rael, but in the world."
scientists. Ben-Asher, a soil phy-
sicist and agronomist, is tall, pre- Water for Agriculture
maturely gray — a former kib- In Israel, where there is a
butznik who knows that the pressing need for more water
future of food production in the now, the government plans to
world depends on wise use of increase Israel's available water
water today. supply an impressive 50 percent
"What we are learning here," by 1990. One of the solutions
says Ben-Asher, "are basic prin- will come through desalination
ciples of collecting and saving of sea water. Three flash-evapo-
local water. Rain is collected ration plants are already in oper-
from the hills surrounding our ation, supplying desalinated
farm in what is called the 'catch- water from the Red Sea to the
ment' area. There, some 30 per- people in the port town of Eilat.
Kibbutzim (collective farm) controls drip irrigation cent of the rainfall can be cap- This is only the beginning: Is-
tured and directed to the lower rael is in the midst of a 15-year
water with computers. farming area. Man-built chan- program to develop plants with
32
flights Olttn flllartrrrt
Amited to basic vegetable and
lion gallons per day (MGD). Is- fruit growing in restricted areas.
rael signed a $20 million agree- Now, with special disposable
ment with the United States to hoses, vast fields of cotton, sugar
build a plant at Ashdod, on the and potatoes, producing basic
Mediterranean coast, but the commodities, can be reached by
real news is that a 100 MGD de- this water-saving system of
salination facility will be built irrigation.
coupled to a nuclear power Further in the field of irriga-
plant, producing about 120 mil- tion, it is becoming more and
lion cubic meters of fresh water more common to see a kibbutz
each year at around 30? per with a special control room
cubic meter —the cheapest cost equipped with electronic remote
yet anticipated for producing sensing, control devices and a
fresh water from the ocean. computer. All these gadgets are
Water supplies will also be used to optimize water-saving ir-
supplemented by recycled sew- rigation systems for several
age and industrial liquid wastes thousands of acres producing a
— not to be used for drinking, wide variety of crops.
but for irrigating restricted agri-
Israeli subsidiary of Motorola leads in the culture. Israel currently uses 80 Mobilizing Resources
development of computerized irrigation control. percent of her water supply in The shortage of water has al-
the fields. Treatment of sewage ways been a problem in the
is a costly process; scientists at Holy Land, even in Biblical
the Technion, Israel's Institute times when the Jordan River
of Technology, Hebrew Univer- was the main practical source. It
sity and Ben Gurion University is only in the last 33 years, dur-
are involved in many promising ing Jiftah Ben-Asher's lifetime,
research projects to develop feas- that the problem has been tack-
ible treatment methods to aug- led. The land of Israel has always
ment Israel's water supply at a suffered the incongruity of a wet
reasonable cost and at the same north and a dry south. When
time clean up the environment. statehood occurred in 1948, the
Israelis immediately started to
Underground Water employ modern technology to
Newly discovered water re- transport large quantities of
serves located by hydrologists in water from the Galilee to the
huge reservoirs under the Negev Negev by means of the National
and Sinai deserts may be anoth- Water Carrier, a 108-inch diam-
er partial answer. Although eter pipeline, which along the
plentiful, the water (actually an way integrates thousands of
accumulation of rain water boreholes and wells.
which fell on the Judean Hills to Paralleling such engineering
the north and the Sinai to the feats as the giant carrier are the
south during the time of Jesus) constant stream of scientific in-
Dr. Yiftah Ben-Asher, one of the new breed of young has drawbacks; it is slightly novations which continue to
Israeli scientists, poses at Audat Experimental station. saline and costly to bring to the emerge in the areas of desalina-
Photo: M.S. Krosney farmer. tion, ground water research, irri-
Researchers at Israeli institu- gation technology and sewage
tions are now developing special treatment. The experiment at
strains of crops which can toler- Avdat is only one of thousands
ate and actually thrive on that of research activities which have
water. Cotton, tomatoes and taken place during Israel's 33
other crops are already growing years of existence, investigating
successfully and economically various aspects of water.
on this ancient water in no-rain Equally important is the high
areas, not far from where Dr. priority the Israeli government
Ben-Asher is conducting experi- has given to national water
ments at Avdat. planning and the scientifically-
oriented nature of the entire
Counting Each Drop water program: "Israeli research
It was 15 years ago that Israel, into water use must continue on
in keeping with her efforts to use a high, dynamic level," says Ben-
water wisely, gave to the world Asher. "What we are learning
her innovative system of drip ir- now is of course relevant.to Is-
rigation. Today, however, con- rael and other desert countries
trolled amounts of water, with today, but our present-day dis-
very little loss through evapora- coveries hold important conse-
-•••• • i - . -
tion, are mixed with soluable fer- quences for the future of the
Professor Michael Evanari applies irrigation methods tilizers and other chemicals and whole world." (Please see related
of earlier civilizations to modern agriculture —here, a fed to field row crops for the first article on page 17.)
flourishing fig tree. time. Before, drip irrigation was —Desert News Service
33
(Eacius (Etttr Clarion
THE DESERT ROCKHOUND
by RICK MITCHELL
Collecting Sites: Santiam canyon. Take it to the diggings. his merchandise. His reply was this guide. It is available free to
Lapidary will allow collecting on They are easily spotted on the that "everybody knows it is any member of the club.
their famous Dryhead Agate southern side of the cliff because standard practice to call synthet- Gem Slides: Gem Media is
claim again this summer. Cur- the color in the soil is lighter. ic green spinel, synthetic emer- marketing beautiful 35mm
rently, they plan fee collecting Simply climb to a promising ald." He also told me that other transparencies of cut diamonds
from June 1 to September 30, spot and start to work. synthetics touted to be tourma- and virtually all of the more
but in the future, the time may The spherical nodules are easy line, peridot, etc., are actually commonly encountered colored
be substantially reduced because to find, even when only sifting spinel or corundum, and not stones. These can be invaluable
the company is having trouble through the loose soil. I have what they are advertised to be. to supplement lectures and talks
filling all of its own orders. The had my best luck, though, using I disagree! A synthetic stone is by rockhounds and jewelers. I
rates will be $25 per person per a pick and shovel. A good col- a man-made chemical replica of have personally viewed them
day, with a ladies' fee of $20. I lecting technique is to have one the gemstone it duplicates. If a and they are all first class. The
suggest you bring a shovel, bar person doing the pick-and- merchant is selling synthetic price is $7.50 per set of five, or
and pick. A hammer and chisel shovel work, while another in- green spinel, he should advertise the complete collection of 110
are often handy, as well. To get spects the freshly excavated soil it as such, maybe with a note slides is available for $165. For
there, take Highway 37 north for the nodules. Their sizes range saying that it looks like emerald. more information, contact Gem
from Lovell, Wyoming, 35 miles. from very tiny to many inches in He should not try to pass it off as Media, Dept. D, 1660 Stewart
This is a good paved road for the something it is not. Genuine Street, Santa Monica, CA
first 25 miles, and then it turns synthetic emeralds are available 90404.
to gravel. There is a dry camp at on the market, and are beauti- Helpful Hints: A good way
the mine itself for those staying ful. Most people do not have the to accomplish two tasks at the
more than one day. The Dry- equipment to analyze what is ac- same time is offered by the Rock-
head agates are among the most tually sent, and are at the mercy hound Ramblers. They suggest
beautiful to be found in the of the seller's integrity. using shells to neutralize acid
United States, and the work in- Equipment: The Lev-Co De- that you want to dispose of. The
volved, as well as the fee, are well velopment Company, P.O. Box acid will do an outstanding job
worth it. For more information, 183, Pottstown, PA 19464, is of getting the shells ready for use
write Dryhead Agate Mine, producing a revolutionary new in jewelry, and they, in turn, will
Lovell, WY 82431. type of soldering block. It is neutralize the acid. This tech-
c===^Very nice agate-filled nod- unique, because it only gets hot nique is especially handy for
ules can be obtained near the in the area immediately near the bringing out the iridescence in
tiny town of Newberry Califor- work, while the rest remains abalone shells.
nia, which is about 20 miles east cool enough to handle. It is c ? = \ If you ever find yourself
of Barstow. Take Interstate 40 to diameter. Most have nice agate made from a very durable, hon- ready to start tumbling a barrel
the Newberry exit and drive interiors, but there are some eycombed ceramic, and should full of stones and discover that
through town to Newberry duds. This has long been a prove to be a most useful piece of you have no coarse grit on
Road. Turn south, going ap- prime source for nice agate nod- equipment for anyone who em- hand, I suggest using an old sili-
proximately eight-tenths of a ules, and it is still a most produc- ploys soldering in their lapidary con carbide grinding wheel. Just
mile to the fork. Head to the tive location. work. break it up into small pieces and
right, and continue until the Misrepresentation: A few Publications: The Ultra Tec place them in the barrel with the
road ends at the base of the weeks ago I saw an advertise- Company has an informative stones. The chunks will granu-
ment for a large, well known pamphlet available: The Econom- late quickly and then serve as
supplier of lapidary materials. ics of Semi-Pro Faceting. It con- grit. I have used this technique
They were having a sale on cut tains valuable information for and it does a good job, allowing
synthetic stones. Among the of- those who go beyond the hobby old wheels to serve a purpose.
ferings was synthetic emerald. I stages of faceting, using it as a Don't, of course, do this for the.
have collection of such stones source of income. If you already finer grits.
and therefore sent for some. I have an Ultra Tec machine, this Warning: There have been a
knew that synthetic emeralds information will be distributed number of articles published
could not be mass-produced as to you in their regular newslet- which suggest that antifreeze
economically as other widely ter. If not, you can get a copy by can be used as a good coolant in
known synthetics, so I was not writing Ultra Tec at 1025 E. saws. It does, in fact, serve that
surprised at their higher price. Chestnut Avenue, Santa Ana, purpose very well, but poses se-
When the package arrived, I CA 92701. Please tell them you vere health hazards. Antifreeze
eagerly opened it and inspected saw it in Desert Magazine. is quite toxic, whether ingested,
the emeralds. They looked dif- p===\ The Automobile Club of inhaled, or simply absorbed
ferent from those I have pre- Southern California offers an in- through the skin. In addition, it
viously purchased, so I decided teresting, though basic, pam- can kill animals if they drink
mountains, about one mile from to test them for authenticity. phlet on rockhounding. It gives even a small amount. Therefore,
the fork. Here you will see where They were green synthetic information about rock types, I suggest avoiding it as a coolant,
others have camped, and you spinels, so I queried the dealer as mineral identification and col- and sticking with the more
can spot a trail going into the to why he had misrepresented lecting locations. I recommend standard solutions.
34
(finctus Cttg Clarion
DESERT CALENDAR
Listing for Calendar must be received at least three months prior to the event.
There is no charge for this service. Six
exhibit halls
dedicated to the
May 16-Aug. 2: A photographic exhibit mation contact Show Chairman: G. M.
horse. From early Greek
capturing the delicacy of the tiniest desert Halterman, 406 Tyrone St., El Cajon,
wildflowers opens May 16th at the CA 92020. to modern times.
Natural History Museum in Balboa Park, June 7-21: Albuquerque, NM. Arts &.
San Diego, CA. The exhibit will feature Crafts Show at the Textiles Co-op in Old
photographs by Robert I. Gilbreath Town. Work represented: Andrea Miller,
which were taken in the deserts of the mixed media; Betty Meador, weaving;
western United States and Mexico. For Harriet Reymore, stoneware pottery.
further information, call (714) 232-3821. Hours are: 10 a.m. to 6 p.m., with a recep-
May 22-24: Northern California Square tion on the 7th from 2-4 p.m.
Dancer's Association will hold their 28th June 13-14: The National Petroculture
Annual Square Dance Festival at the San Society will be sponsoring an Energy Fair
Francisco Civic Auditorium. More than at the Sheraton-Anaheim in Anaheim,
1,000 dancers will be on the floor at any CA. The fair will feature some 70 exhibits
given time. Exhibitions will be held each and a continuous film festival encompass-
evening and on Saturday and Sunday ing diversified aspects of renewable
afternoons. Spectators are welcome in the resource and alternative energy in-
balcony for all events from 8 to 11 p.m. dustries. Hours are: Saturday, 8 a.m. to 9 Original Remingtons • Russell
Friday, 10 a.m. to 11 p.m. Saturday and p.m.; Sunday, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. General Bronze • One of Four Kachina
noon to 11 p.m. on Sunday. For further admission is $3, senior citizens and Chess Sets in The World • West-
information, contact Parker and Jill students, $2. For more information, con- ern T r e a s u r e s Valued at
Brown, Publicity Chairmen, 1587 Mizzen tact the National Petroculture Society, $1,000,000.
Lane, Half Moon Bay, CA 94019 or call 3990 Westerly Place, Ste. 100, Newport Fine Indian crafts for sale in the gift shop.
(415) 726-6272. Beach, CA 92663 or call (714) 833-2333. Just 60 miles south of Tucson on S-83
May 22-24: Annual Green Fair and June 13-14: Gates Cactus and Succulent in historic Patagonia, Arizona
Balloon Festival. Spring exhibits. 8 a.m. Society Show and Sale at the San Bernar-
Open daily 9 to 5
to 5 p.m. at Red Rock State Park, Gallup, dino County Museum, 2024 Orange Tree
Your host: Anne Slradiing
NM. Lane, Redlands, CA. Hours are: Satur-
May 29-31: Lancaster, CA will hold its day, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sunday, 1 p.m. to
Annual Heritage Days Celebration on 5 p.m. For more information, contact
Lancaster Blvd. between Sierra Highway Doris S. Lutz at (714) 885-7692. Q I N S H O O T I N G * BOTy
and West 10th St. On Friday evening, June 17-20: Gallup, NM. Rodeo spon-
there will be a street dance. On Saturday,
a 10 kilometer run, parade, antique car
and fashion show, volleyball and Softball
sored by the Lions Club. Festivities,
which begin at noon, will include a barbe-
que and dancer's and fiddler's contests.
TREASURE tn
tournaments, barbecue and more. Satur-
day and Sunday at the Fairgrounds there
The rodeo is being held at the Red Rock
State Park. HUNTING n
will be an art show, gem and mineral June 27: Great Hi-Rise Baking Competi- The Outdoor Hobby
show and much more. Hours are 7 a.m.
to midnight Saturday and 8 a.m. to 5
tion at the Bazaar Del Mundo, 2754
Calhoun St., San Diego, CA. Judging will
for FUN and PROFIT! o
If you want to learn how to get (15
p.m. Sunday. For further information, begin at 11 a.m. Competitors and started in this fascinating hob-
call (805) 948-4518. onlookers alike are welcome. After the by, contact us today. We'll mail
June 4-6: Clovis, NM will hold its 1 lth competition, spectators get to taste. For to you a treasure hunting book, 03
Annual Pioneer Days Celebration. more information, call (714) 296-3161. a consumer's metal detector 0
Festivities include a balloon fiesta lift-off June 27-28: In Ventura, CA, there will guide, and true stories of peo- 09
at 5:45 a.m. and a rodeo during the even- be a spectacular Hower and Plant Sale, ple, just like you, who have 03
ing. On the 6th, a parade will be held at with many varieties of plants being ex- found treasure. No obligation. ffl
10 a.m. downtown. For details contact hibited and sold. It will be held in the D
Curry County Fairgrounds, Clovis, NM.
June 6-7: The 15th Annual Rockatomics
Agriculture Building at the Ventura
County Fairgrounds. The show will be
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Gem and Mineral Show will be held at judged; admission is $1, with children
8500 Fallbrook Ave., Canoga Park, CA. under 12 free. Hours are: Saturday and
TEXAS m
1-800-442-4889
There will be exhibits, dealers, Sunday, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. ALL OTHER STATES
demonstrations, free hourly prizes and
junior member participation. Hours are:
Saturday, 10 a.m. to 9 p.m.; Sunday, 10
a.m. to 6 p.m. For further information,
June 27-28: The San Bernardino Coun-
ty Historical Bottle and Collectibles Club
is having its 13th annual show and sale at
the San Bernardino County Fairgrounds
1-800-527-4011

GARRETT s
O
contact Betty Martin at (805) 527-3718. in Victorville, CA. The show will feature ELECTRONICS CD
June 6-7: Convair Rockhounds Gem a variety of antique bottles, fruit jars, glass Dept. G100
and Mineral Show at the Convair and related collectibles. Hours are: Satur- 2614 National Drive m
Garland, Texas 75041
Recreation Hall, 9115 Clairemont Mesa day, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sunday, 9 a.m. to 4 214 278-6151
Blvd., San Diego, CA. Show includes p.m. Admission is $1. For more informa-
dealers, Tailgaters Pancake Breakfasts (8 tion, contact Gene Kemble, 14733 Poplar,
a.m.). Hours are: Saturday, 9 a.m. to 8 Hesperia, CA 92345 or call (714)
p.m.; Sunday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. For infor- 244-5863. v A1IWVJ
Cactus (Hits Clarion 35
Continued from page 29
around their sewer lagoons.
Huachuca City's burros save the
cost of sending men to the la-
BLM THREATENS SEIZURE
Trona, Calif.—The Bureau of not known whether the BLM Wyman, attention John Lovett,
goon area to mow or spray the Land Management's California would try to take the private at 14800 Seventh Street, Victor-
vegetation, a cost estimated at Desert Plan is threatening pri- property from Canning. ville, CA 92392. The Victorville
$2,000 or $3,000 a year. vate property in the Trona area. The Wilderness proposal is office of Assemblyman Wyman
The lagoon area is fenced and Peter Canning owns 520 acres not clear on how much of Crow may also be reached by calling
gated, and the third pond has near Indian Joe's old home. It Canyon and Homewood Can- (714) 245-1661.
water pure enough for animals. was also the home of John yon would also be included in It is important that the letters
The town had five goats forag- Searles, for whom Searles Lake protective custody, with no en- be dispatched at once to assist in
ing the 23-acre sewer lagoon was named after he discovered trance allowed. a pending court suit to stop the
area. They were.doing a good borax here. Canning has been Anyone having property that local implementation of the Cal-
job of keeping down the weeds notified that his property has may be threatened by the Cali- ifornia Desert Plan.
and grass, but local coyotes de- been included in the proposed fornia Desert Plan, including
veloped a taste for goat meat. Wilderness Area. This would mine prospects, is asked to send
Huachuca City decided to mean denial of access, and it is a letter to Assemblyman Philip -Trona ARGONAUT
adopt the burros because they
can graze just about anything ATTORNEY SEES BRIGHT
and still ward off coyotes. If the
project works, other cities may FUTURE IN MX
RULES PROPOSED TO CURB Carson
adopt burros for the same City, Nev.—A Ne-
purpose.
-Bisbee DAILY REVIEW
DRUGSTORE COWBOYS vada attorney forsees a bonanza
in law activity should the pro-
Reno, Nev.—A survey by the one to harrass or nag a cow posed M-X system be built in the
United States Department of which he did not personally state, with much of the litigation
WATT'S ANSWER Agriculture revealed that there own or had not been paid to having to do with claims against
Tombstone, Ariz.—"The fed- are approximately 100 million pester. the government by Nevada
eral regulatory regime affecting head of cattle in this country at Should these measures prove ranchers.
the mining industry is the result any given time. Another recent effective, the nation might look Dave Gamble, Carson City
of years of activity at all levels survey, by the United States forward to healthier, less neurot- attorney, says, "One of the
and branches of the federal es- Habadashers Association, re- ic cows and see a decline in the impacts of the M-X will be the
tablishment to achieve goals . . . vealed that there are more than number of people wearing cow- construction of a great many
have not only failed to achieve 200 million cowboy hats sold in boy hats, thus finding it easier to buildings and courthouses in
those goals, but have also creat- America each year. watch movies in crowded Nevada to house lawyers and
ed additional severe disrup- As everyone knows, the prin- theaters. law cases."
tions," wrote American Mining cipal responsibility and duty of a - T h e NEVADIAN -Humboldt SUN
Congress President J. Allen cowboy is to boss cattle around.
Overton, Jr. to Interior Secre- That was all well and good back
tary James Watt in response to
the secretary's request for exam-
ples of "excessive, burdensome
in the days when the cattle out-
numbered the cowboys. Now BATH BAFFLESDOG
that nine out of 10 people in by Don Felon up out of the creek all clean 'n
and counterproductive" regula- America are cowboys, the im- Tombstone, Ariz.—Over white, the dog wouldn't let him
tions under his jurisdiction. pact on cattle herds is devastat- Arivaca way they tell about a near his clothes nor his burro.
The secretary has asked for ing. tramp miner who used to work "I guess I didn't smell right,"
similar material from a variety of With two or three cowboys in some of the mines around the he said.
sources, including government bossing around each individual district. He mucked in the Mon- -Western PROSPECTOR &
agencies and environmental cow, the poor animals become tana Mine at Ruby, drilled in MINER
groups. He told Overton that confused and disoriented. They the Dos Amigos at old Oro
his request is part of an effort "to get depressed, lose weight and, Blanco, and rocked a cradle in ••••••••••••••••••••
end unnecessary and burden- in general, become stringy and Holden Canyon during the
some regulations now frustrat-
ing the balanced management"
tough. Great Depression days. $1000 REWARD
The newly formed Cow Pro- He got the name of "Bathless"
of the nation's resources. Watt is
also seeking data on recommen-
tection League is introducing Cooper for obvious reasons. FOR FEDERAL
laws in several state legislatures Some say it was 11 years, six
dations for changes in existing
legislation.
which would require that any- months since he changed socks. VANDALISM
one posing in advertisements for He was so gamey, only his dog Tombstone, Ariz.—The
In his response, Overton any product whatsoever (from would get closer 'n a rock throw Committee of 1,000 is a loosely
urged numerous changes in the cologne to automobiles to de- of him. organized group dedicated to the
department's coal management signer jeans) while wearing a One day Bathless disappeared suppression of vandalism and
program, which he says "will not cowboy hat must personally 'n they sent out a search party destruction on unpatented min-
in a timely fashion place suffi- own at least three head of cattle. lookin' for him. He was found ing claims by Bureau of Land
cient coal in industry hands to Additionally, all male models the next day sittin' on a rock in Management and Forest Service
meet our national energy appearing in western wear must the creek that flows through personnel. It offers a reward of
needs." In addition, he deplored have dipped snuff or chewed to- Smugglers' Gulch. Up on the $1,000 for information leading
the "attitude of the Interior De- bacco for a full 60 days before bank, here was his faithful dog, to the arrest and conviction of
partment [during the last 10 the advertisement or commer- snarlin' and yappin' every time such federal government em-
years] to emphasize other land cial is photographed or filmed. Bathless so much as blinked. ployees who commit these
uses, or even total nonuse of Finally, the Cow Protection What happened, we said/ He crimes. Address of the Commit-
land, at the expense of mineral League is seeking a constitution- says it was so hot he decided to tee is Box 146, Tombstone, AZ
production." al amendment which would go wadin' and he stepped off in- 85638.
-Western PROSPECTOR & make it a federal offense for any- to a deep hole. 'N when he come -Western PROSPECTOR &
MINER MINER
36
Cactus Cdtltt flllarrnn
s
OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY

John Day
Country and
The Chinese
Medicine Man BY BILLIE DURFEE

T
HE LAND Oregonians refer to Astoria, where the Columbia flows into Eventually, because of bad weather and
as "the John Day Country," an the Pacific. Almost all of the 60 men lack of food, the men were divided into
area of 4,000 to 5,000 square who set out from Nodowa, Missouri, four groups, to increase their oppor-
miles, extends south nearly 200 miles were fur trappers, as was John Day. tunities for shooting game. Either at
from the mouth of the John Day River The Astor-Hunt group followed seven this point or soon after, Day, Ramsay
on the Columbia. U.S. Highway 26 years after Lewis and Clark had com- Crooks (his superior in the party) and
transects it east to west, and U.S. 395 pleted the first overland exploration to three Canadians became ill and
comes north from California through the west. dropped back, unable to travel further.
the empty desert to arrive at the Twenty-five years after the expedi- The Canadians joined with some
crossroads of the eastern Oregon town tion, John Jacob Astor paid $5,000 to friendly Shoshone Indians, but it was
of John Day. Washington Irving to write a book some time before Day and Crooks were
John Day is a name once given to about the Astor Pacific Fur Company. strong enough to continue west. Six
several small towns and stagecoach This book, Astoria, includes the only months later they were found by
stops, two rivers, one dam and three description of John Day: Robert Stuart, the leader of a few men
impressive fossil beds. The United who were canoeing down the Columbia
States Postal Service, however, was "He was about forty years of age, six towards Astoria. Day and Crooks had
forced to rename all but one of the feet two inches high, straight as an In- been attacked by Indians, and were left
towns to eliminate confusion. dian; with an elastic step as if he had naked on the river bank north of The
The use of the name John Day in so trod on springs, and a handsome, open, Dalles military post. It seems in-
many places is strange, since the man manly countenance. It was his boast credibly like a grade B western movie
himself contributed little to Oregon that, in his younger days, nothing that a canoe would simply paddle by so
history. He is known mainly for one could hurt or daunt him; but he had far out in the wilderness. However,
uncomfortably cold experience with lived 'too fast,' and had injured his this is what happened.
hostile Indians on the banks of the Co- constitution by excesses." The river near where they were at-
lumbia River. tacked was called Day's River and John
All this started back in 1811, when The Astor party experienced great Day's River before it settled in as the
the Astor-Hunt Overland Expedition difficulties from the beginning, but John Day River. It is curious that the
left the midwest to go by foot, especially in crossing the Snake River name Lepage's River, given by Lewis
horseback and canoe to the outpost of near the Grand Tetons in Wyoming. and Clark, didn't stick. It is even more

38 JUNE, 1981
BILUEDU
Picture of Ing Hay
(opposite page) was
taken when he was in
his early twenties, with
hair still in a queue.
Kam Wah Chung Co.
building (above) is now
a museum. The John
Day River runs
through the town of
the same name (left) to
create an oasis in
barren eastern Oregon.

BILLIEDURFEE

DESERT 39
curious that John Day's name has sur- Walla Walla, Ing, a handsome young try. Doc Hay made house calls with
faced so frequently when not one man, arrived in John Day in 1887. He Lung On interpreting and driving over
hamlet or stream has been named after was dressed in traditional Chinese the vast area, first in a buggy and later,
Crooks. Perhaps Crooks had lived less clothes, complete with queue, and soon a car.
riotously, or maybe he was just shorter. after arriving he met Lung On, who Ing became well known for his
Even though the-river bearing his was to become his lifelong partner. diagnoses through taking pulses from
name runs by the town, John Day Without Lung, Ing could not have four different places on the body. His
himself couldn't have been within 150 practiced his herbal skills. cures for blood poisoning, influenza
miles of the crossroads. Nonetheless, The two men were very different. and meningitis were respected by all.
today's townspeople call him theirs, Lung On, a young scholar, adapted Both men prospered but unlike most
and they are very proud of him. Their quickly to this country. He learned to other immigrants, they did not keep in
folk hero, they believe, was every bit as read and write English with fluency contact with their families back in
good a frontiersman as Daniel Boone. and he became a canny businessman China. Americanized, but still retain-
In fact, the Oregon Historical Society with successful investments in real ing much of their Cantonese heritage,
has several letters in its files which estate, cattle and gold. In later years, they became a respected part of the
claim that the two men came from the he owned the first automobile repair John Day-Canyon City community.
same part of Virginia, and must have shop in the eastern part of Oregon. Ing Ing must even have become a Mason,
known each other. Hay, however, always had trouble with for he was given a Masonic funeral.
English, but with Lung On as his con-

I L
N THE early years, the biggest stant companion and interpreter, he UNG ON died suddenly in
settlement in the John Day Coun- became the doctor for the immense 1940. He left an estate of more
try was Canyon City, a stage stop John Day Country. than $90,000 to his friend Ing,
for north to south and east to west Their partnership started in 1887, an amazing amount of money for a
transportation. It was here, in 1862, on when the two men bought the Kam Chinese immigrant to have made in
Hog Point near Whiskey Gulch, that Wah Chung Company Building, which such a small and remote town. After
gold was discovered, and a full-scale Hay's death, the estate was to have
rush followed. gone to Lung On's daughter in China.
During the peak of the gold rush, Because of the political situation be-
Canyon City had a population of tween the two countries, this never
10,000, and it is thought that by 1870 happened, and the money eventually
more than 1,000 of these were Chinese Ing became well known for his reverted to the State of Oregon.
who had come to work in the mines. diagnoses through taking pulses After Lung On's death, Ing Hay,
After a devastating fire, the Chinese who was slowly becoming blind, asked
population was forced to move a few from four different places on his nephew to come help him with his
miles north to what was originally practice. In 1948, he fell and broke his
referred to as "the other town," the body. hip, an affliction he could not cure
despite the fact that the Post Office with herbs. He consulted the town's
had already decided it was to be called MD, a man he had known as a child,
John Day. A Chinese community and the doctor persuaded him that he
developed, and a Cantonese herbal must have the hip pinned in a Portland
practitioner moved in. soon became the center of business and hospital. The hip did not heal proper-
Ing Hay, later to be known as "Doc" social life for the Chinese in eastern ly, and Ing spent four years in a
Hay, was born in southern China near Oregon. Translated, Kam Wah Chung Portland nursing home before he died
Canton. From 1860 to 1870 there was becomes the Golden Flower of Pros- at the age of 89.
a period of unrest in China and many perity, and it turned out to be a highly The Kam Wah Chung Building was
men left to find work in the United suitable name. given to the town of John Day. In
States, among whom were five of Ing The men enlarged the sandstone 1967, Gordon Glass, a councilman,
Hay's "uncles," who settled in Walla building to include not only the decided to look it over with the idea of
Walla, Washington. [Ed. note: The general store but also a pharmacy, restoring it as a reminder of the con-
term "uncle" could have included ac- medical office, gambling hall, bank, tributions of the Chinese to the John
tual uncles or more distant male assay office, opium den and religious Day Country. The Chinese population
relatives in the Chinese familial shrine. Barlow and Richardson, who had dwindled to 21 by 1940, the last
tradition.] wrote China Doctor of John Day, say available figure. The Occidental
The Chinese Exclusion Act was that the structure is architecturally like population had also declined;
passed in 1882 when gold strikes had many in southern China. nowadays, only 2,090 people live in
become less frequent and railroad It is thought that Ing studied herbal John Day, with an additional 690 in
construction was slowing down, the medicine in Walla Walla with Doc neighboring Canyon City.
purpose being to stop the influx of un- Lee, a pioneering Chinese herbal doc- The contents of the building, which
skilled workers who could be tricked tor in this country. Lee's books were are on display today, tell the story of
into working for so much less than found in the Kam Wah Chung Build- life among the pioneer Chinese
Americans. However, after this date it ing. It is evident that Ing learned well. workers in the American west. Most
was still possible to enter Canada and Initially his patients were the Chinese interesting among the items found
migrate south, and that is probably the miners, many of whom stayed to work from the attic to beneath the floor-
route taken by Ing Hay, who emigrated on the roads, but in time he became a boards were 500 different herbs and
with his father. trusted healer for everyone—Occidental medications, most imported from
After some years with the uncles in and Oriental—in the John Day Coun- China. Ing had ground these up and
40 JUNE, 1981
combined a variety of them to boil as a
medicinal tea. Many letters in the
Oregon Historical Society attest that, MILLION DOLLAR
no matter what the ingredients, the
brew tasted awful. Some of the more
exotic items found were jars of rat-
BLACKJACK
tlesnakes steeped in alcohol, opium Bv Ken Uston
cans dating from 1898 to 1913, opium
pipes, Doc Lee's herbal medicine book, Now you can own the most important blackjack book ever published.
Chinese lamps and the shrine, a receipt This long awaited event in the world of gaming books presents the most
for a Chinese poll tax (an early-day complete coverage of the game ever printed. Only the world's most ex-
Oregon law), a large chest with one perienced professional blackjack player, Ken Uston, could have written
dead bat, a burlap bag with two bear this book. Heretofore unpublished details of professional play, cheating,
claws and a jar with playing cards sur- team play, learning techniques and a host of inside secrets are revealed
rounded by herbs. for the first time in print. * This is the story of how Ken and six sets of
There were cartons and cartons of teammates won over $4,000,000 from casinos around the world. * This
records in Chinese calligraphy, some is a textbook that will take you from beginner to intermediate, to advanc-
being letters from parents asking for ed, to professional levels of play—with a system you can learn at each
help in finding sons who had come to level. The Uston Advanced Point Count —complete in this
work in the western mines. Seventy- book—previously sold for $97. * This is the most complete glossary of
two fifths of bourbon bearing labels no blackjack terms ever printed. * This is a guide to all the previously
longer on the market also surfaced: published blackjack books and the major blackjack schools. * This is
"Joel Frazier" and "Old Palmer" were over $500 worth of blackjack materials. * This is the book you cannot be
especially well liked. And, of course, without. BE THE FIRST TO HAVE YOUR COPY.
the shelves contained the dusty staples
that any grocery store of the era would ONLY $14.95 plus $1.00 postage and handling.
Use check, money order or VISA/MasterCharge [include billing address, card no., expiration date].
stock, such as ancient cans of coffee, {California residents must add 90<" sales tax. Gambling Times subscribers may deduct $1.50]
tea, baking powder and the like. SEND YOUR ORDER TO:
The money to rebuild the building
and to clean and inventory the contents SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH SERVICES
came from the National Trust for
Historic Preservation, the Oregon State
889 N. Highland Avenue, Hollywood, CA 90038
Parks and the Oregon Historical Socie-
ty. The manpower came from com-
munity volunteers as well as students
In the Heart of Beautiful Coachella Valley
and faculty from Lewis and Clark Col-
lege and the University of Oregon. Plan To Stay At The
The museum is now open. A leisure- Sands Hotel of Indian Wells
ly visit takes the curious a long step
back into a vastly different culture in
(1/4 mile east of Palm Desert]
132 PAGE CATALOG
pioneer America. It speaks well for a » Open Year-Round CAMPING FURNITURE & GEAR —
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& FOREIGN REQUESTS
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["^J HOTEL
OF INDIAN WELLS

75-188Highway 111,
Indian Wells, Calif. 92260 iSta .Zip.
Phone (714) 346-8113

DESERT 41
turista, becomes one with Baja and its
people.
In 1961, Don Johnson came to
Mulege for the sole purpose of check-
ing out an investment he had made
sight unseen, a part ownership in what
today is called the Hotel Mulege.
Though then and now he could be

A DREAM mistaken for the prototype "white


hunter," he was actually a successful,
34-year-old custom tailer in San Jose,
California.

WITH A His business was prospering, but he


felt empty. Even today, he cannot ex-
plain just why. There was a void that

PURPOSE success could not fill. It is this kind of


restlessness, the vague trouble of the
spirit, that is the prelude to under-
standing Baja. Once infected, there are
The story of Don Johnson, some who stay.
Johnson had no skill with the
a man of two nations language, and he soon realized his im-
age of the people was erroneously
by Mary Eileen Twyman founded on second, third and even
Photographs by Loren Smith more-hand hearsay. To his astonish-
ment, he found that he could not only
trust these people, but that he sincerely
liked them and their town.
What is more, he met and fell in love
with Nancy Uguilde Gorasave, a lady
of prominent family, business acumen
and exciting good looks. She accepted
his proposal of marriage and they
decided to make their home in Mulege.
He soon exchanged his interest in
the hotel, then called the Loma Linda,
for that which he holds today in the
Hotel Serenidad, a partnership he
shares with his wife and another North
American, Chester Mason, who lives
in Murietta, California. It was an
astute exchange. The Loma Linda,
while more pretentious then, was with-
out land around it, whereas the few
cottages called the Serenidad sat on
property with space for an airstrip.
This was vital to success, for the
transpeninsular highway would not be
paved for another 12 years. Places like
the Serenidad are called sky ranches,
isolated resorts to which affluent
Americans fly their own airplanes for
an afternoon, a weekend or a week. A
Don Johnson, host of the Hotel
Serenidad and U.S. Consular "D AJA CALIFORNIA is as much
cult has grown around this concept,
J5
a mystique as it is a land.
agent, has successfully blended two Everyone who ventures beyond each ranch being separately favored for
cultures. Tijuana or Mexicali senses this; few, its special kind of fishing or hunting,
however, find true perception, few or just the personality of its owner.
come face to face with the "other Serenidad has its own fleet of fishing
Mexico." boats, hunting trips can be arranged
For each of those who do, it is a dif- and so, too, can mules and guides for
ferent experience. Or so it seems; in visits to the remote mission ruins and
reality, it is the same. Whatever they cave murals in the mountains behind
may have been, the misconceptions, Mulege, but its proprietor, Don John-
the misunderstandings and the precon- son, is why patrons, including the
ceived notions are stripped away. He famous, keep coming back.
who has been just a visitor, a gringo, a First names, informality with digni-
42 JUNE, 1981
ty, are the rule at Serenidad. You ask to Disneyland. crously big maneuvering the small bike.
Don why he stayed. He offers none of The farmer, you see, was apprehen- The most cherished entries in the
the usual inanities about fleeing from sive. He had heard he would be has- Serenidad's guest book, however,
freeways, pressures and smog. He says sled about the papers, that it would chronicle a 16-year record of friendship
it is the respect which he first offered, take a long time. With Don Johnson, it with John Wayne. The Duke loved
and then had returned a thousand-fold. didn't. The trip was all the family had Mulege: Like many others, he consid-
It is, he says, the basis of the charm of dreamed it would be, and one more ered Bahia de la Concepcion, 12 miles
the Mexican people. step was taken toward understanding south, to be the most beautiful bay in
Shared respect brought him accept- between the peoples of two nations. the world.
ance in Mulege. In the process, he Mulege is a hard two days drive The Duke was a frequent visitor to
became an even better citizen of the from the border, even with the new the hotel and at Don's home in town,
United States. He has dedicated him- highway, but the airstrip at the Sereni- which sits over the gift store operated
self to erasing the barriers that stand dad makes it possible to be there in by Nancy. The visits were reciprocat-
between the Mexican and North less than four hours. The famous and ed: Don talks of a lunch he almost
American peoples. He has found the not so famous come in their own or missed at Wayne's home in Newport
viewpoints of each distorted about the chartered planes. Lately, there has Beach about a year before the actor
other. He would like to see all of this been scheduled service by Air Cortez died. He's glad now that for once he
give way to complete understanding out of San Diego. set business aside and chose to spend
and respect between the two countries. The famous may be the easiest to what turned out to be his last few
Don Johnson uses the term respect a please, for they find the casual at- hours with a great man.
lot, believing it is the foundation upon mosphere of the Serenidad wonderful Don Johnson now is a man content.
which this understanding can be built. relief from the demands of the spot- He has been able to span two cultures
No doubt he is very right. light. Johnson is friends with many over the years, blending the best of
When the Johnsons and Chester and awed by none, except maybe back each. He has status, yes, perhaps to a
Mason finalized their acquisition of the when the late Charles Lindbergh used degree that he could never have
Hotel Serenidad in 1962, it was little
more than a few cabanas and a name.
Today there is a main building hous-
ing guest rooms, a kitchen, a dining
room and a bar which is ringed by 32
comfortable cottages. The focal point,
however, is outside at the massive facil-
ity where Serenidad's traditional Satur-
day night barbeque is prepared. Whole
goat and pig are the usual fare; some-
times steaks are offered.
Don appreciates his successful resort
and the employees who helped it to
succeed, but he has a more compelling
mission. His stature in the community
and with the Mexican authorities has
led to his appointment as Consular
Agent of the United States of America,
the first ever to be stationed in Baja. In
fact, there are only 24 U.S. consular
agents in the world; nine of these are
in mainland Mexico.
He is able to help North Americans
visiting Baja when this is needed, but
more important, is his role in expedit-
ing visas for Mexicans who wish to
visit the United States. Few people rea-
lize we do not reciprocate our southern to fly in with the great Baja authority, Mulege is four hours, by air, from
neighbor's open border policy. A visit Kenneth Bechtel. San Diego.
to this country for a Mexican family Don recalls a frequent visitor, a
can require weeks of waiting for the young man named Astaire, who kept
necessary papers. saying he was going to get his Dad to achieved in the United States, but it is
Being a U.S. official now, Don John- come down. A telegram for reserva- meaningful rather than ego-serving,
son will not criticize our policies. He tions finally came from Fred Astaire, because he translates it into good and
just takes scissors figuratively in hand but Don didn't really connect the two positive action.
and snips unmercifully at the red tape. until they got off the plane together. Don Johnson has never met Joseph
The families and individuals in Baja Another memory frequently revived Pintauro, but he would agree with
who come to him from as far away as is Jim Arness borrowing Don's little what the latter says: "Peace will never
La Paz appreciate this, especially the Honda 90 to tour Mulege, a couple of happen until we can laugh at the
simple farmer who had saved nearly a miles down a tropical riverbank trail stitches in our maps where we think
lifetime to bring his wife and children from the hotel. Arness looked ludi- we really split the planet into parts. @
DESERT 43
STOP The
"Service Station
Vacation"

Insure against overheating — don't leave home without the low


cost protection of a Hayden Transmission and Engine Oil Cooler.
Heat — Your Car's Greatest Enemy. Quick, Do-It-Yourself Installation.
Today's down sized cars run hotter due to emis- If you can change the oil in your car, you can
sion controls, smaller engines and higher RPMs. make the installation yourself in a half hour using
Heat problems develop when you Hayden's patented Quik-Mount and Quick
carry extra passengers . Connect. Complete illustrated
extra baggage . . . drive installation instructions
in stop-and-go traffic . . . come packaged with
drive on ice or snow . . . every oil cooler.
drive in hot temperatures
. . . climb steep grades Act Now, Free
. . . and do towing. Offer. Purchase any
Hayden Trans-Cooler™
or Duo-Cool™ at your auto parts
Over 11 Million store and receive a Trans-Gard™
Transmissions failed last year*. Automatic Transmission Fluid Inspec-
9 out of 10 were caused by overheating. tion System absolutely FREE ($7.95 value. Offer
ends Sept. 1, 1981).
Low Cost Protection. Limited Offer**
You wouldn't think of owning a home without Purchase a Trans-Gard direct from
insurance and yet the risk of burning up your Hayden for only $5.75 prepaid.
car's transmission and engine is greater. Repairs Name
can run as high as $600-$ 1500. You can buy Address _
transmission and engine insurance by installing City State. Zip_
"Offer expires December 31, 1981. CA residents add 6% sales lax.
a Hayden Oil Cooler for as little as $29.95.
"Courtesy ATRA For free product brochure, write:

INC.
1531 Pomona Road, Corona, CA 91720
The Prolific Jackrabbit
by Susan Durr Nix

E VERY COLLEGE algebra stu-


dent has had to work out the
figures: Mr. Brown's pet shop
has a population of 100 rabbits. The
100 become 495 in four months; in
second.
A hare's gait is halfway between a
weasel's lope and a horse's gallop. The
jackrabbit bounds on paired hind feet,
like the weasel, but puts his forefeet
jackrabbit's large size and non-
burrowing habits. Part of the reason is
that we are looking at the wrong times
—dusk to dawn is their most active
period—but the main reason is that
eight months, 2,450; in a year, 12,100; down one after another at the end of a they spend most of the day motionless
and in two years, 1,500,000, assuming leap, like a horse. Extra long and in shallow scratchings called forms,
none die or go home with customers. strong hind feet, proportionately the screened and shaded by plants. There
(I've wondered what happened to Mr. longest and strongest on the desert, they rest and escape as best they can
Brown. Was he lauded by the permit bounds 15 to 20 feet long and the desert heat.
S.P.C.A., or fined by the Health up to five feet high. It's not necessary A form is scant protection in 120
Department? Perhaps he simply suf- for the jackrabbit to land fully and degree temperatures, but here at least
focated under a mountain of bunny gather between springs; he rebounds the soil and air stay relatively cool.
bodies.) The truth is more startling. A by the force of the impact of his toes as Jackrabbits have inefficient cooling
single pair of rabbits is theoretically systems, so they rely on a combination
capable of producing 13,000,000 of behavioral and psysiological adapta-
descendents in three years. tions to cope with high temperatures,
Nature gave rabbits an insatiable sex including the ability to store excess
drive to compensate for the dubious body heat without becoming agitated
distinction of being her number one or restless. An animal with a higher
prey and game animal. They are pro- body temperature absorbs additional
lific breeders out of necessity; wherever heat from the environment less readily
they live, there is a host of predators and doesn't need to work so hard to
ready to eat them. Here in the desert feel comfortable. As temperatures dip,
they must evade hawks, eagles, owls, he cools off more quickly. A
coyotes, foxes, mountain lions, bobcats, jackrabbit's richly veined and lightly
gopher snakes, rattlesnakes and people, furred ears are thought to help control
not to mention the latter's automobiles. heat intake and loss by a unique system
With so few defenses to protect them, that regulates the blood supply
it's no wonder they ensure their reaching them. The more blood in the
species' survival by an indiscriminate, ears to pick up heat and carry it
some say indecent, eagerness to mate. through the body, the hotter the
The Leporidae family includes hares animal gets, so when temperatures
and rabbits, a distinction muddled by soar, circulation to the ears is cut off.
their close resemblance to one another The jack's richly veined ears help Those ludicrously large jackass ears
and the misapplication of the terms in control heat intake, loss, and act which, incidentally, account for the
popular usage. Belgian hares are prop- as megaphones. jackrabbit's name, also act like
erly rabbits. They make burrows or megaphones to amplify the slightest
nests and give birth to blind, naked, they hit the ground. This is an animal sound. This is necessary in hot, dry
helpless young. Our desert black-tailed built for speed and maneuverability, a desert air, where sound travels poorly.
jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) are real- perfect running machine. Maximum coverage is achieved by con-
ly jack hares, non-burrowing leporids Leaping not only puts distance be- tinuously swiveling the ears in wide
whose young, called leverets, are open- tween jackrabbit and predator, it arcs. This is especially necessary at
eyed, fully furred and nearly independ- reveals the lay of the land to eyes with night, when visibility is poor and most
ent at birth. a visual range within an ace of a full predators are out hunting a meal.
This independence stays with the circle. Because dense vegetation would Jackrabbits have prodigious appetites
jackrabbit as he becomes the free spirit impede both flight and sight, black- for a variety of green stuff, which they
we see springing across the desert land- tailed jackrabbits are found only in nip off with pliable lips and sharp up-
scape like a rubber ball. To say he is wide-open settings where they are un- per and lower incisors. Behind the
cursorial, or adapted to running, is an protected from predation. They range upper front teeth is a second pair, pur-
understatement. He easily outdistances through the western United States and pose unknown, which helps distinguish
a lone coyote and is reportedly able to into northern Mexico. rabbits and their relatives from
explode from a crouching position to It's remarkable how few we see in an rodents. Depending on the time of
45 miles per hour in a fraction of a average desert day, considering the year, jackrabbits eat grasses, herbs,

DESERT 45
yucca, mesquite, wildflowers, cacti (in-
cluding cholla),( dried vegetation and
QlNSHOOTING * BO7>

TREASURE I
numerous other plants, including chile
peppers minus the seeds.
A jackrabbit near starvation will even
(9
g HUNTING
try to eat bitter creosote leaves and
stems, a litter of trimmings under the
bush being evidence of his lack of suc- The Outdoor Hobby
cess. Jackrabbits get most of their
for FUN and PROFIT!
water from plant material, although
If you want to learn how to get
they will drink free water if it is started in this fascinating hob-
20-MULE TEAM DAYS IN DEATH VALLEY by available. At the Living Desert by, contact us today. We'll mail
Harold O. Weight. Specialists and critics praise Reserve, they have been seen drinking to you a treasure hunting book,
this account of the great borax wagons of the from ponds and artificial water holes. a consumer's metal detector
1880s, the drivers and mules, the trail to Mojave. guide, and true stories of peo-
Story of Borax Smith, Wm. T. Coleman, Death Leverets are brought into the reserve ple, just like you, who have
Valley pioneers, Harmony Borax Works. First- for rehabilitation less frequently than found treasure. No obligation.
hand stories. Includes reprint of Henry G. Hawks'
report on Death Valley 1883. Pb., 48 pgs., 33 young cottontails, proving the greater
historic and modern photos, map. 5th ed. $1.00. self-sufficiency of young hares.
Jackrabbits void soft greenish pellets
FREE BOOKS
CHILI LOVERS' COOKBOOK compiled by Al TOLL FREE NUMBER
and Mildred Fischer. Two cookbooks in one. The as well as hard brownish ones, an TEXAS
first portion describes the best of chili cookery, average of 531 a day, according to one 1-800-442-4889
from mild to fiery, with recipes for some of the
best. The second part gives a variety of taste-
study, irrespective of age, sex, species ALL OTHER STATES
tempting foods made from chili peppers with many or type of forage. The greenish pellets 1-800-527-4011
suggestions on use and preparation. Spiral bound. are usually re-eaten. This practice,
Pb., 128 pgs. $3.00.
shared by other mammals, is called GARRETT
SCOTTY'S CASTLE by Dorothy Shally and coprophagy. It is an efficient way to ELECTRONICS
William Bolton. The sumptuousness of the castle, extract as much nourishment and
its history, construction, and design of the Dept. G100
buildings are told by the authors, both National moisture as possible from food. 2614 National Drive
Park Service employees who have been associated Garland, Texas 75041
Despite their potential for infinite 214 278-6151
with the maintenance and interpretation of the
property since the government acquired title in reproduction, jackrabbit populations
1970. Pb., large format, profusely illus., $2.00. fluctuate from year to year. Reproduc-
tion, directly affected by rainfall,
ANZA-BORREGO DESERT GUIDE BOOK,
declines during long periods of drought
A1IWVJ M3N
Southern California's Last Frontier by Horace
Parker, revised by George and Jean Leetch. A clas- and poor nourishment, but returns to
sic reference to America's largest desert park,
originally published in 1957 and now updated,
normal as soon as conditions improve.
enlarged and improved by the "dean of desert
rangers" and his wife. With excellent logs, maps,
and photographs brought up to 1979 standards.
Pb., 154 pgs., two maps, many photos, $6.95.
Any upset can affect jackrabbit
numbers, including overgrown vegeta-
tion and too few coyotes. Coyotes,
H Free!
whose normal diet is 75 percent
HIGH MOUNTAINS AND DEEP VALLEYS by jackrabbit, are an important check on
Lew and Ginny Clark, with photographs by Edwin
these animals. The coyote's meal is not
1981
C. Rockwell. A history and general guide book to
the vast lands east of the High Sierra, south of the without consequences, however. I Catalog
Comstock Lode, north of the Mojave Desert, and
west of Death Valley, by oldtimers who know the
Jackrabbits carry the larvae of 1 . •fa?^-~€>- _
area. Pb., 192 pgs., 250 photographs, and many tapeworm, which are activated in the
maps. $6.95 coyote's digestive tract. The cycle is
perpetuated when the tapeworm Camping
matures, lays eggs, and the coyote and Backpacking
Desert Book Shop defecates, depositing in the process Equipment *
Name _ numerous eggs on weeds and grass, Don Gleason's has been outfitting campers
Address later eaten by jackrabbits. and backpackers for 23 years. We have the ex-
perience and selection to fill all your outdoor
City _State _ _Zip_ Under normal circumstances, a equipment needs from our new giant 1981 cat-
I enclose $ jackrabbit has a 50 to 80 percent alog.It contains a complete selection of first class
Check, money order or charge chance of being eaten or dying of acci- quality camping and backpacking equipment, in-
MYCHARGEDM.C • VISA cluding many items that you will not find else-
dent or disease before he is one year where, personally selected by our staff of experts.
Credit Card No
old. When populations get out of hand, There is a wide selection of family camping
Expiration Date equipment, tents, dining flys, sleeping bags,
Month/Year
epidemics of rabbit fever, a sort of cooking equipment, backpacks and thousands
Signature
emergency substitute for normal con- of other items, suggestions and tips to make your
trol of predators, may wipe out 90 outdoor adventure safer and more enjoyable.
Write today for your free copy of this catalog and
percent. guide to the best quality equipment at reason-
The odds are against a jackrabbit able prices.
from the moment he is born. Speed FREE in U.S.A. and possessions
California residents add 6% sales tax Otherwise, add $1.50 surface mail,
$1.50
and vigilance are all he has going for $3.00 airmail, for postage and handling.
Postage/handling
Total .
him in a world full of hungry clawed
Mail today to:
and taloned creatures. He truly needs CC/ '^•CAMPERS SUPPLY INC-
Desert Book Shop P.O. Box 296, Goleta, CA 93117 both of his "good luck" hare's feet to 43 PEARL ST., P.O. BOX 87F,
NORTHAMPTON, MASS. 01061
keep him alive to see another day. @
46 JUNE, 1981
Tomatoes
by Stella Hughes

I T'S BEEN said that the west was


won, not by guts and guns, but by
beef and beans. If that's so, then
the dessert had to be canned tomatoes.
I once asked an old-time cowman,
seasoned with salt, pepper, and
perhaps several spoonfuls of bacon
drippings, and eaten with bread or
crackers.
Green Bean and Tomato
Casserole
2 cups stewed tomatoes
1 cup chopped onion
Before the days of refrigerators, 1 cup chopped celery
who was due to become a millionaire ranchers and farmers were wont to V2 green pepper, chopped or thinly sliced
from oil found on his ranch, what he lower cans of tomatoes in a gunny sack 2 tablespoons bacon drippings
planned to do with all his money. His into their shallow wells or cisterns. 2 tablespoons sugar
prompt reply was, "I'll buy all the Cold tangy tomatoes were a wonderful 1 bay leaf
canned tomatoes and peaches I can treat on a sizzling hot day. salt and pepper to taste
eat!" In our part of the southwest, 4 cups cooked green beans, drained
One of our Arizona ranches, back in tomatoes are a prolific crop. A few 1 cup shredded cheese
the early twenties, was so stingy with plants are often consumed by grasshop- V2 cup buttered breadcrumbs
grub, it was known from Canada to the pers or cut-worms, or are nipped by
Mexican border as The Macaroni Cat- early frost, so I usually plant a few ex-
tle Co. The cowboys working for this tra rows, hoping I'll end up with Saute onion and green pepper lightly in
outfit swore they seldom even had the enough fresh tomatoes to eat all sum- bacon drippings in a large skillet. Add
"termaters" to go with the macaroni. mer, and a few left over to can. Last celery, tomatoes, bay leaf, sugar, salt and
The old-time prospector may not pepper and allow to simmer a few
have eaten very high on the hog, carry- minutes. Place 2 cups green beans in a
ing months of supplies on his burro, lightly greased casserole, layer half of
but you can bet he always managed to tomato mixture and half of cheese on top
have a few precious cans of tomatoes, of beans. Repeat layers. Sprinkle top
along with his salt pork and beans. with breadcrumbs. Bake at 325 degrees
These old desert rats knew a can of to- for 25 or 30 minutes. Serves 8.
matoes was more refreshing—and far
better for their well being —than
gallons of gyppy water.
When I was a child on the farm, my Summer Squash Casserole
mother often made a simple dish, when 8 cups sliced squash (yellow gooseneck,
in a hurry, by opening a jar of stewed scalloped green squash or zucchini)
tomatoes, sauteing a little onion in but- V2 cup chopped onion
ter, combining the two , and when Vs cup melted butter or margarine
brought to a boil, crumpling in just ILLUSTRATION: GITTA PFAHL
2 cups fresh tomatoes, diced
enough stale bread to barely take up year, something happened and the few 1 cup green pepper, diced (or green chile
the liquid. Seasoned with salt and pep- turned out to be a slew. Tomatoes do can be used)
per, we kids thought this great fare. not freeze worth a darn, so I resorted 1 cup cubed Cheddar cheese
Sometimes leftover bits of bacon were to canning. As whole tomatoes take up salt and pepper to taste
added to the dish, but leftover biscuits lots of room in a jar, I peeled them,
were never considered as good as chopped them in small pieces and
"light" bread. canned them as stewed tomatoes. I You can use just one kind of summer
On hot summer days, many of our added onions, garlic and chiles. Ac- squash, or combine two or more different
Apache cowboys would make a quick cording to the hotness of the chiles, I kinds. Allow 2 cups sliced raw squash per
and easy lunch by opening a can of labeled the jars Hot, Sorta Hot and serving.
tomatoes, drinking the juice, crumbl- Damned Hot. You better believe the Cook squash in as small amount of
ing crackers or bread on the remaining last one, for I used some little fiery water as possible. Do not overcook; drain
tomatoes in the can, pouring in a gen- blow-torches called chiletepins, or bird while squash is still quite firm. Saute
erous amount of canned milk and top- peppers. onion in butter lightly; add onion, green
ping it off with as much sugar as this Canned stewed tomatoes are good pepper and tomatoes to squash, stirring
mess could absorb. Others preferred added to other vegetables or vegetable to mix. Season with salt and pepper and
salt and pepper on their bread and casseroles. The hot tomato and chili place in lightly greased casserole. Top
tomatoes. If the weather was cold, the combination goes into my chili con with cubed cheese. Bake about 25 min-
tomatoes were heated in a skillet, came and gives it lots of pizazz. utes in 350 degree oven.

DESERT 47
Tomatoes and Corn
/ can stewed tomatoes (16-oz.)
3 or 4 ears corn, cooked and cut front
cob, or canned whole-kernel corn

Complete Your 1 green pepper, chopped


1 medium onion, chopped
1 tablespoon butter or margarine

Collection Of 2 tablespoons sugar


1 cup bread crumbs
Vi cup shredded cheese
salt and pepper to taste
Heat tomatoes in large skillet until boil-
ing. Add corn, green pepper, onions, but-
ter, sugar, salt and pepper; mix well.
Simmer about 15 minutes. Place one-

Magazines! third of vegetable mixture in a lightly


greased l-'h quart casserole; top with
one-third of bread crumbs. Repeat layers
twice. Sprinkle cheese over top. Bake at
375 or 400 degrees for about 20 minutes.
Serves 6.

Cowboy Salad
6 ripe tomatoes, diced
2 med. onions, chopped
2 or 3 green chiles, chopped
2 or 3 yellow banana chiles, chopped
2 or 3 cloves garlic, diced
1 tablespoon sugar
1 teaspoon salt
2 cups vinegar
Place all ingredients in covered jar and
chill for one or two days before serving.
Serve with beans, barbecued beef, chile
con came or as a side dish with grilled
steaks.

Old-Fashioned Tomato
Pudding
Back issues of DESERT MAGAZINE are available. 5 or 6 pounds ripe tomatoes, peeled and
chopped
To get your copies, write: 1 cup butter or margarine, melted
1 cup dark brown sugar
Susan Golden 1 6-ounce can tomato paste
Desert Magazine Librarian 1 teaspoon salt
P.O. Box 1318, Palm Desert, CA 92261 6 to 8 slices white bread, cut into 1-inch
cubes
List the month and the year of the magazine(s) you In 3-quart saucepan over medium heat,
bring tomatoes to a boil, then reduce heat
desire and enclose a check (see price list below). to low; cover and simmer until tomatoes
Make checks payable to DESERT MAGAZINE. are soft. Uncover saucepan and cook
about 15 minutes longer, until tomatoes
1970-present 1.50 1945-1949 7.50 are slightly thickened, stirring often. Stir
in brown sugar, tomato paste and salt.
1960-1969 2.50 1937-1944* Arrange bread cubes in 3-quart casserole.
1950-1959 5.00 Pour melted butter over bread cubes; top
with tomato mixture. Bake at 375 de-
*For issues from 1937-1944 contact Susan Golden for availability and price.
grees for about 40 minutes. Makes about
10 servings. 0
48 JUNE, 1981
FUN IN THE
DESERT...

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However, you can still use the
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order without having to send
payment now — we'll bill you when we mail your first copy photographs to start you dreaming or planning your next
expedition.
There are a million things to do and see in our Desert,
and each month we will send you a great deal of Don't miss this opportunity! Save your $9.00 by sending
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Petroglyphs
Sampling of Coso petroglyphs, top to bottom, shows
atlatls isolated on a single rock; costumed figures
with bizarre headdress; sheep depicted by both
pecked and abraded techniques; fragile desert
varnish worn away by human footsteps, destroying
petroglyphs.
of the
Coso Range
by ANNE DUFFIELD
Photographs by JAMES SEITZ

O
NE OF THE MOST spectacular collections of
petroglyphs in North America is found in and
around the Coso Range, which lies just south of
Owens Valley in California, tucked between the Argus
Range and the Sierra Nevada. Thousands of carvings are
scattered over only about 250 square miles. Random ex-
amples appear throughout the area, but the greatest concen-
trations are found in the canyons that slash their way
through the flat, boulder-strewn high desert plains that
slope away toward the southwest from the volcanic peaks of
the Cosos.
Rediscovered in the 1920s, the petroglyphs were locked
away inside the fences surrounding the China Lake Naval
Weapons Center in 1943, which hid them from the public,
but also protected these fragile treasures from the van-
dalism and thievery suffered by so many other rock art
sites. To its credit, the Navy makes special efforts to be
sure that the weapons testing program will not damage the
petroglyphs.
Featured in Desert Magazine in 1944, word of the Coso
petroglyphs gradually spread in spite of the fences. In 1964,
the two canyons boasting the largest number and best ex-
amples of Coso rock art were dedicated as a National Land-
mark. One of these, Little Petroglyph Canyon (called
Renegade Canyon on the U.S. Geological Survey contour
maps) can now be visited, under certain conditions (see
box).
A path leads visitors into the canyon from the parking
area. The canyon walls are a jumble of basalt blocks, here
vertical cliffs from 10 to about 60 feet high, there broken
over the years into a tumbled pile. The basalt has
weathered to a fine desert varnish, and this shiny brown-
black patina provided the canvas for the ancient artists.
They chipped or scraped the patina away, revealing the
lighter, unweathered rock beneath, so that the petroglyphs
appear as light figures on the dark background. Fragments
of colored pigment cling in a few places, hinting that
perhaps some were once painted as well.
The sheer number of carvings is overwhelming. A short
few miles of Little Petroglyph Canyon alone displays more
than 6,000 by one actual count, while nearly 15,000 have
been recorded in the entire Coso area. Far and away the
most popular subject was sheep. Sheep are everywhere. Big
sheep, some nearly life-sized, and little sheep. Stick-figure
sheep, round-bodied sheep, and others with flat backs and
There occasionally are whimsical, purely abstract Two men face each other with bows and arrows in
shapes at Coso that defy identification. one of the few "warfare" scenes at Coso.

round bellies, all balancing on skinny stick-like legs and climate, population pressures and thinning game herds
carrying long, curling horns. Sheep march in lines, graze forced them to move. The uniqueness of their art suggests
quietly or, more often, run frantically, chased by hunters they lived in some isolation, in which their distinctive style
and impaled by spears and arrows. Sheep appear inside evolved. Comparative ages among the carvings, determined
other sheep (pregnancy?) or occasionally with a head on by relative weathering and changes in style and sophistica-
each end. Still more sheep are symbolized by scattered sets tion, further suggests a society that was stable over a long
of bodiless horns. A rare antlered deer, squiggling lizard or period, while the great numbers of carvings also indicates a
bird joins the herds, but mostly, there are sheep. There are large population or a long time period, or both.
reported to be more sheep pictured here at Coso than in all Whoever they were, they were gone by the time the first
other North American sites combined. Clearly the sheep, white explorers appeared in the 1830s. The few Indians liv-
thought to be the desert bighorn, were of obsessive impor- ing at Coso then could only say that the pictures had been
tance to the artists. left by the "ancient ones." They knew nothing of their
Human figures do appear. Simple stick figures brandish origin, or their purpose.
weapons or attack the sheep. Knee-length robes covered Their age is just as uncertain. Obviously finished long
with elaborate designs costume the boxy bodies of others. before the white explorers arrived and asked about them,
Like the sheep, these costumed figures have kept their skin- they are possibly thousands of years old. Human groups are
ny arms and legs, and the head is a featureless ball perched believed to have inhabited the area for at least 8,000 years,
on a thin neck, often displaying fanciful headdresses or but it is unlikely that the art we see today is that old. The
hairstyles. Matching designs on each side of some heads desert varnish in which the petroglyphs were carved has
suggest earrings, and often dwarf the head itself. Many been shown to be very fragile, requiring specific weather
figures have fingers and toes painstakingly drawn, but and climatic conditions both for its formation and survival.
sometimes the artist seems to have lost count, and produced This means that the present patina probably formed since
three-toed feet or sunburst six-fingered hands. the last "wet" period, about 3,000 to 4,000 years ago. The
Fox-like animals thought to be dogs are pictured too, petroglyphs carved in it, then, must be younger still.
chasing and biting the fleeing sheep. Indian groups in the The weapons pictured provide dating clues, too. The
1800s were observed using dogs to drive game animals. atlatl, a primitive spear or dart-throwing device, appears in
Here we see their ancestors doing the same. great numbers, and to the exclusion of any other weapons
More mysterious are groups of abstract patterns enclosed in many scenes. Since the more efficient bow and arrow is
in circles of ovals. Like snowflakes, no two seem the same. believed to have been adopted in Southern California
Family crests, perhaps? Records of long-ago events, little around 1 A.D., the picturing of the atlatl alone suggests
histories we cannot read? that the artists were at work well before then. The bow and
More familiar are sack-like shapes, often elaborately arrow in other scenes would indicate that work continued
fringed, resembling the medicine bags used by many after 1 A.D. as well. This is not a precise dating tool,
historic Indian groups to carry sacred or magical objects. though, for Spanish priests recorded the atlatl in use by
Then, here and there are a few abstract designs that defy isolated groups in Baja as late as the mid-1700s.
explanation. Unlike other nearby sites, though, abstracts are Why did they draw these pictures? We can only
rare at Coso. Most drawings, with the help of just a little speculate. It must have been of great importance, both to
imagination, can be identified. the artist and to the society he lived in, to have justified the
hours, perhaps days, of slow patient work that would have

W
HO WERE THESE rock artists? They left little been necessary to create these pictures with simple stone
other than their pictures behind, and we don't tools. The work is careful and precise, although not always
know for sure. They were probably members of completed, and often very sophisticated. These were not
the large Shoshonean-speaking population that occupied aimless doodles.
much of Southern California for centuries, and finally The great numbers of sheep and hunting scenes im-
began drifting away about 1,000 years ago as the drying mediately suggest a hunting ritual—perhaps in advance of
DESERT 51
long accepted by archaeologists. The bow and glasses and discovered one more panel,
The Moab arrow was not supposed to have been used in
the west farther back than 2,000 years ago,
directly across the nearby Colorado River
on the west wall of the canyon, in front of
Mastodon while the mastodon was supposed to have
died out in this area 10,000 years ago. Yet,
the elephant's trunk. We drove around for a
closer look.
Text and Photos by Art Foran these story pictures involve both the bow and The fourth panel is of a bear. Figures at-
arrow and the mastodon.The people who tacking the bear with bow and arrow are in-
carved these stories obviously were quite cluded. Bears were used to show battle, as
familiar with both.

T HE MOAB area of Utah is filled bears are fighting creatures, while goats, for
with stories in stone. La Van Mar- The first panel we studied has the most example, were used to show action, as more
tineau, a Paiute from the San Carlos complete account, including information can be shown with four feet and antlers
Reservation, is one of the few people who can about a time of famine. This could bring the than with human stick figures.
read the inscriptions and, what is more, prove story even closer to our time. The elephant is Now a story at least 1,000 years old
his interpretations. He showed me a collection shown with water at his feet. A horizontal line began to come alive. The mastodon rock
of panels and interpreted each. He explains with vertical lines below it is the sign for rain- had been used during sieges: Water on top
his method in his book, The Rocks Begin to water. Water is also indicated at the elephant's made lengthy perching on top feasible, and
Speak.* I found it simple'to read some panels feet in the third panel by deep, drop-like the defenders had the advantage of throw-
after studying this book. pecking. ing rocks and other weapons down at the
When you begin to read rock writing, you The second panel in this series is a attacking enemy. The account of this action
will find that you are discovering things no locator panel. Included in a longer story is was inscribed in much the same intent that
one has bothered to look for before. You will one image that tells the reader to look we put up instructional signs in air raid
locate waterholes, hidden panels, abandoned elsewhere for the rest of the story. It says to shelters.
trails and caves. Occasionally, you will be able climb out of the canyon by the river and Martineau thinks the desert varnish is no
to relive adventures forgotten for a millenium. turn north. A trail lies near the panel. older than dated panels he had located in
Few will agree with your findings, because An oval is used to signify a canyon; a line Africa, which are 2,000 years old. Consider-
such things are not taught in schools. below the river and two marks at the top of ing that Hannibal crossed the Sahara on
The rocks near Moab tell a story of the rising line indicate a north turn after elephants, the implication is interesting.
mastodons or elephants, whichever you will. climbing from the canyon by the river. We The Southwest is filled with rock writing
We know such animals lived in the area found another mastodon panel by following telling similar stories. Once you understand
10,000 years ago, but this story indicates they these directions. a few of the symbols and know something
may still have been alive 2,000 years ago, long The mastodon pictured was using his of the locations, the game of panel reading
after the retreat of the ice from the tops of the trunk to toss water on his head. The panel is as fascinating as a treasure hunt.
Rocky Mountains. faces a great rock that is shaped much like You may unravel the unknown. Our
You won't find many panels as fascinating an elephant. We walked over to the foot of awareness of the first Americans holds more
as the elephant set. These writings are as alive the rock and found water pockets, full from mystery than knowledge. Reading what
as the discoverer who takes the time to read recent rains. Martineau mentioned that this they considered worth writing in stone can
them. They cannot be read from pictures in rain water was prized by Indians and used make anyone a discoverer.
books: The story is as much in the place for ceremonial purposes, in preference to Some archaeologists think rock writings
where it was written as it is in the images creek water. have little real meaning, while others are
themselves. The front of the rock is impossible to still struggling with interpretations. Both
Each of the four panels involving the climb; walking around it, we found the only camps tend to discount LaVan Martineau's
mastodon has much more to tell than can be way up, at the north side, or its back. On interpretations, because he is not a scientist.
understood, but the mastodon aspect is clear top of the head, we found a large, filled Well, okay. He's not a scientist—he's an
and engrossing, because it challenges dates waterpocket. Rain runs into the depression Indian, he learned the language of rock
off the elephant's back; it holds hundreds of writing from previous generations of In-
gallons. dians. They pass on their knowledge to
*K.C. Publications, Las Vegas, 1973 Martineau studied the area through field their own, but not necessarily to scientists.

Clockwise front top left, mastodon


with water marks at feet and figure on
back; locator panel directing viewer to
climb above this point to something of
interest; mastodon spraying water on
head, this panel facing the mastodon
rock; and across the Colorado from the
mastodon, the account of a battle.
52 JUNE, 1981
A sheep within a sheep could be an attempt to depict Artistic license even in petroglyphs shows in these
pregnancy. unusual rounded sheep.

the hunt in hopeful prayer, or after, in joyful thanksgiving


for, or boasting of, success. Or perhaps a young man drew How To Visit Coso Range
a picture orr the occasion of his first hunt, or upon coming The weapons testing program at China Lake means
of age—or any combination of these events. that visits to the petroglyph site must be strictly con-
The elaborately costumed human figures, abstract shapes trolled, and you'll have to plan ahead. If you happen to
and unidentified objects also hint at ritual. We see no know an employee of the Naval Weapons Center who
domestic scenes, little that could be interpreted as warfare, will sponsor and escort you, special visits can be
and very few female figures. This was a world of men, and arranged. Contact your friend for details.
the sheep hunt. All other visitors must join a prescheduled, guided
The picturing of so many sheep, and few of the other tour such as those sponsored by the Maturango
game animals that must have been hunted as well, suggests Museum. For details, dates, and application forms, con-
a cult. Sheep, and the successful sheep hunt, may have tact the Maturango Museum, P.O. Box 1776,
been the key to success or failure for the people at Coso. Ridgecrest, CA 93555. Tours are scheduled on
This idea is supported by observations of other hunting weekends only, spring and fall. The area is closed com-
socieities around the world, where the wary, difficult to pletely during July-August and January-February. Tour
catch or highly prized game is pictured and becomes the group size is limited, and groups often fill up well in ad-
object of cult worship, while the easy to catch beasts re- vance. The museum, incidentally, is open daily, and
quire no magic, and go unrecorded. This would certainly displays the natural history of the Upper Mojave Desert.
seem appropriate for a people dependent on the wily bighorn. For more expanded reading on the Coso petroglyphs,
Another feature of the canyons invites speculation. Some see Rock Drawings of the Coso Range by Campbell
rocks are more favored than others. Two blocks, side by Grant, James W. Baird and J. Kenneth Pringle, pub-
side, appear identical to our eyes, but one is nearly blank, lished by the Maturango Museum.
while its neighbor is covered with pictures. Every square
inch has been used, and re-used as newer pictures were
superimposed over earlier work. Did one rock possess more
magic than the other? Did the owner of Rock A have such
greater success to record than that of Rock B? Or did the
unsuccessful hunter frantically draw picture after picture?
Or perhaps everyone flocked to make his mark on a "prov-
DEATH
en" rock? Or—we can only guess. VALLEY
It is interesting, though, that the greatest number of NAT'L
MONUMENT
petroglyphs at Coso are found in these canyons, which
would have been ideal for driving past waiting hunters. It is
easy to imagine, as you walk the canyon floor, the poised
hunter waiting just around the next bend, weapon in hand.
Speared sheep are pictured with the projectile sticking ver-
tically in their backs, hinting that they were attacked from
above.
Whatever the meaning of the Coso petroglyphs to the
long-ago people who created them, they are a delight to see
today, and a wonderful springboard for a lively imagina-
tion. In addition to admiring their artistry, there is the
fascinating mystery surrounding the people themselves,
how they lived, what they thought, and why they carved
their pictures on the rocks. 0
DESERT 53
MARY AUSTIN'S LAND OF LITTLE RAIN

The Country of
Lost Borders
An Appreciation by Desert is the name it wears upon the whom she adored, died. Her only
Jon Wesley Sering maps, but the Indian's is the better word. escape was in her enjoyment of books
Desert is a loose term to indicate land and writing.
that supports no man; whether the land The Land of Little Rain is an elo-
can be bitted and broken to that purpose quent series of essays which capture
is not proven. Void of life it never is, time and lifestyle within the Country
however dry the air and villainous the of Lost Borders. Austin's essays
soil. describe her passion for the natural
world and those who chose to inhabit

r
this land on nature's terms! She writes
HUS BEGINS Mary Hunter of Seyavi, a Paiute Indian mother and
Austin's now classic work, The basketmaker who, though blind, still
Land of Little Rain. * Written in "saw" through the experiences of her
1903, it is a book "east away from the memory. She met and wrote of the
Sierras, south from Panamint and Pocket Hunter, a prospector who
If one is inclined to wonder at first Amargosa, east and south many an un- searched for a small body, or pocket, of
how so many dwellers came to be in counted mile" of a vast land known to rich mineral ore. But, it is the way of
the Indian as the Country of Lost life, the open free spaces, not the occa-
the loneliest land that ever came out Borders. sional pockets of riches, which tend to
of God's hands, what they do there Mary Austin, author of approximate- shape that man's destiny.
ly 30 books and more than 250 articles, Mary Austin spent hours hiking and
and why stay, one does not wonder wrote on Indian folklore and an- riding the desert trails and made
so much after having lived there. thropology as well as women's rights copious notes on the plants and
and the arts. Unquestionably, the most animals. Although she was criticized
None other than this long brown successful and deeply penetrating ex- and called "peculiar" by her white
land lays such a hold on the position of her passion for the earth is neighbors in Independence, California,
The Land of Little Rain. she had a deep, spiritual tie with the
affections. The rainbow hills, the Born in Carlinville, Illinois, in 1868, Indian:
tender bluish mists, the luminous Mary Austin lived a very stormy, in-
tense childhood and youth. Her father, This is the sense of the desert hills, that
radiance of the spring, have the lotus
George Hunter, was a learned man there is room enough and time enough.
charm. whose health had been severely im- Trees grow to consummate domes; every
paired during service in the Civil War. plant has its perfect work. Live long
Susanna, Mary's mother, was deeply enough with an Indian, and he or the
bothered by the incipient lameness of wild things will show you a use for
James, their two-year-old son, and everything that grows in these borders.
troubled by financial difficulties. The
birth of Mary was greeted with bitter After graduating from Blackburn
resentment. College with a degree in science at the
Mary the child, hurt by the lack of age of 20, Mary moved west with her
her mother's love, surrogated nature, a mother and 12-year-old brother
substitution which formed the founda- George. They lived together on land
tion of her perceptions and writings. her older brother James owned near
By the time she was seven years of age, Bakersfield, California. Upon arrival,
she knew she would be a writer. Mary entered a dramatically new en-
Three years later, however, her vironment. Soon, her intense zeal for
world turned bleak and barren. Within the exploration and study of it became
two months of each other, her younger insatiable. Of her new awareness she
sister Jennie and her father, both of wrote:

*Houghton Miflflin Co., Boston, 1903; Univ. of Out west, the west of the mesas and the
New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1974. unpatented hills, there is more sky than
54 JUNE, 1981
DAVID MUENCH

Owens Valley, California (above);


Sierra Nevada eastside, California.

DESERT 55
JEFF GNASS
JEFFGNASS

JEFF GNASS
(Previous page) Sunrise, Alabama
Hills; (above) Lone Pine Peak from
Owens Valley, California; (right)
Sierra Nevada crest across Owens
Valley from White Mountains,
California.

58 JUNE, 1981
any place in the world. It does not sit associated with writers such as James
flatly on the rim of earth, but begins Hopper and Jack London, and promis-
somewhere out in the space in which the ing poets like George Sterling. While
earth is poised, hollows more, and is full in Europe for her health, she met
of clean winey winds. There are some H. G. Wells and the young Herbert
odors, too, that get into the blood. . . . Hoover. Cured of her illness, she
There is the palpable smell of the bitter returned to the United States with new
dust that comes up from the alkali flats confidence and a public following.
at the end of the dry seasons, and the For almost 15 years she lived in New
smell of rain from the wide-mouthed can- York City until, by chance, she met
yons. And last the smell of the salt grass Daniel Trembly MacDougal, a
country, which is the beginning of other distinguished scientist with the
things that are the end of the mesa trail. Carnegie Institution of Washington's
Department of Botanical Research.
In 1889, Mary Austin began MacDougal was in charge of both its
teaching in a Kern County school 10 Coastal Laboratory in Carmel and its
miles from Bakersfield. Shortly Desert Laboratory in Tucson. In 1919,
thereafter, she met and married Staf- with MacDougal's encouragement,
ford Wallace Austin. Before their mar- Mary Austin visited and experienced
riage failed, Mary gave birth to a the Arizona desert. With a surge of ex-
daughter, Ruth, who was mentally citement from the return to the arid
retarded. It was during her marriage landscape of her love, she wrote a se-
that Mary Austin moved to the Owens quel to The Land of Little Rain entitled
Valley east of the Sierra Nevada. Soon, The Land of Journey's Ending. Of all its inhabitants it has the least
Mary began recording her mystical and In a pilgrimage to Inscription Rock concern for man.
sensitive impressions of the arid land- at El Morro National Monument in
scape, the source for The Land of Little New Mexico, Mary Austin strongly
Rain. identified with the spirit of this
Of her love of the desert and the massive sandstone monolith. In The
night skies she wrote: Land of Journey's Ending* she
prophesied: I like that name the Indians give to
For all the toll the desert takes of a man the mountain of Lone Pine, and
it gives compensations, deep breaths, deep . . . you, of a hundred years from now, if
sleep, and the communion of the stars. It when you visit the Rock, you see the find it pertinent to my subject—
is hard to escape the sense of mastery as cupped silken wings of the argemone Oppapago, The Weeper. It sits east-
the stars move in the wide clear heavens burst and float apart when there is no
to risings and settings unobscured. They wind; or if, when all around is still, a ward and solitary from the lordliest
look large and near and palpitant, as if sudden stir in the short-leaved pines, or ranks of the Sierras, and above a
they moved on some stately service not fresh eagle feathers blown upon the
needful to declare. Wheeling to their sta-
range of little, old, blunt hills, and
shrine, that will be I, making known in
tions in the sky, they make the poor such fashion as I may the land's undying has a bowed, grave aspect as of some
world-fret of no account. Of no account quality. woman you might have known,
you who lie out there watching, nor the
lean coyote that stands off in the scrub Mary Austin died in her sleep at her looking out across the grassy
from you and howls and howls. home in Santa Fe in 1934. At the sum- barrows of her dead.
mit of Mount Picacho, on the edge of
Mary Austin also explored the the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, her
eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada, the ashes mingle with the rugged boulders
source of the streams which flow into overlooking her Country of Lost
the sandy Owens Valley basin. These Borders. And every spring the strong
stream courses are the "threads" of the westerly winds continue to blow
"streets of the mountains." toward the El Morro country, to the
The Owens Valley was Mary land of little rain.
Austin's home for 14 years. After
publishing The Land of Little Rain, . . . you may reach my country and find
three books followed in as many years: or not find, as it lieth in you, much that
The Basket Woman, a children's book is set down here . . . The earth is no
of Indian stories, Isidro, a novel set in wanton to give up all her best to every
early Monterey, California; and The comer, but keeps a sweet separate in-
Flock, a book about sheep and timacy for each. But if you do not find it
sheepherders. With the money from all as I write, think me not less depend-
the sale of her books, Mary placed her able nor yourself less clever. @
daughter in a private institution and
moved to Carmel on the coast of
California. *Century Co., London and New York, 1924;
In Carmel she became closely AMS Press, 1969.

DESERT 59
Te'll all agree there's nothing like enthusiasm and surprising productivity
the great outdoors, whether it be a walk of the weekend prospector. All profiles
down that gorgeous desert drywash, are unique, but always highlight What
hiking up a mountain trail, or stalling to look for, Where to go to find it, and
along the beach. But what most people How to bring it back. Sample articles
don't know is that just below the sur- include recovering gold, dating bottles,
face of that dry wash is gold—precious getting the most from your detector,
metal that can be recovered easily, and collecting and preserving surface
cheaply, and with no damage to the Indian relics and Civil War artifacts.
environment. Few hikers realize that Last but not least, you'll find docu-
that rusty can laying on the trail could mented leads on caches from coast to
be the key to finding old bottles nearby, coast—the countless hoards that still
many worth hundreds of dollars each. await discovery. So take advantage of
And the most accessible riches are the this special subscription offer today,
untold gold and silver rings, coins, and enter the fascinating world of
chains and assorted jewelry laying just treasure hunting!
under those beach sands, waiting to be
found!
Sound exciting? IT IS, and for the
whole family too! Where does TREA-
SURE MAGAZINE come in? Written
and edited by experts, it has been the
undisputed leader in the field forovera
decade. A typical issue contains in-
depth product reports on the latest
metal detectors, drywashers, sluices
and gold pans. Alternatively, regular
reports show how to build your own
low-cost equipment. You'll read inter-
views with people who have literally
struck it rich; world-famous treasure

8ft
hunters who take on the big ones, from LJ Enclosed find $11.00 for a one year sub-
the Lost Dutchman mine, to the Egyp- scription (12 Issues) to TREASURE magazine,
tian pyramids. And you'll share the at a savings of $7.00 off the regular newsstand
price. Send to:
NAME
Send to: TREASURE MAGAZINE ADDRESS
P.O. BOX 28816 CITY
SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA 92128 STATE ZIP
PRODUCT OF THE MONTH

THE WALLE-HAWK LIFE TOOL


M
ODERN CITY man dons
backpack, sheath knife and
boots after having memorized
his survival manual and ventures forth
for a weekend in the desert. A collec-
tion of gadgets in his pack equip him
to snare small game, skin it, cook it
with solar heat, wash it down with a
sophisticated form of Kool-Aid and
ultimately dispose of it in a sanitary
one-man landfill.
In reality, the gadgets are seldom, if
ever, tested. The survival cycle is snar-
ing canned tuna at the campground
store, washing it down with beer and
disposing of it behind closed doors.
The crisis, if any, centers around the
inadequacy of survival gear, or advice,
when a sealed metal container separates
our hungry, thirsty hero from his
sustenance.
Back at home or at work, money in
the form of cash or credit cards is
substituted for gadgets, despite the fact
that no amount will buy you a new
zipper after the five-and-dime store has
closed.
What obviously is needed is an all-
purpose, pocket-sized tool that will
tighten errant screws, open capped bot-
tles, re-contour split fingernails, splice
wires, comb hair; in short, cope with
any emergency wherever you are.
An approach to filling this need is a and 3/4-inch sizes. Another use for the torially describes many other uses not
3 1/2- x 2 1/4-inch piece of 440-C largest hole is to insert a handle, thus mentioned here. You ask, why the
stainless steel called by its inventor, converting the tool into a miniature name Walle-Hawk? According to in-
one Jessie Morrison, the Walle-Hawk machete or ax. ventor Morrison, it fits in your wallet
Life Tool. The metal is magnetized, so if you and is modern man's counterpart to the
One side of the tool is highly pol- hang it from a thin thread, it will align tomahawk. Write him at Survival Serv-
ished and can serve as a mirror for itself with magnetic north and with the ices, Box 42152, Los Angeles, CA
signalling, lighting fires or personal aid of the compass dial etched on it, 90042 for futher information.
grooming. There is a cutting edge at you can tell where you're going or have — Cliff Nyerges
the bottom for opening packages, skin- been.
ning an animal, peeling apples or slic- There is a second cutting surface on
ing the tread from old tires to make the left upper edge, about the width of
emergency sandals. a small chisel. The lined grooves can Attention Manufacturers and
The tool is no thicker than a quarter, be used as a file or for striking Marketers: Desert Magazine will be
so the angled edge of the upper left matches. Two small holes serve a glad to evaluate your product for in-
corner may be used as a screwdriver. variety of purposes, among them either clusion in this column. We require
Suitable indents and edges are also pro- straightening or creating fish hooks. that it be new, commercially available
vided so that the Walle-Hawk can The triangular cutout at the upper and of specific interest to our readers.
function as a bottle or can opener. right edge is for prying nails or staples. For details, write New Products Edi-
Three rectangular holes serve as both The Walle-Hawk Tool comes in a tor, Desert Magazine, P.O. Box 1318,
finger grips and as wrenches in 3/8, 1/2 plastic case with a booklet that pic- Palm Desert, CA 92261. 0
DESERT 61
PUBLISHER'S NOTEBOOK

On Advertising:

Being of Service
T h e purpose of Desert Magazine is to
support communication about the
experience of life on the desert.

Advertising is an important
communication; at its best it
communicates an experience about how
a product can serve the reader.

This is the Desert advertising policy:


The product must be of service to the reader.
The advertisement must show how the product
serves the reader.
The advertisement itself must be interesting,
informative and fun to read so that the reader
benefits from reading it, whether or not he chooses
to buy the product.
In a word, we want our advertising to be of service.
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with the ships that
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schooners of the millionaires Onassis, Vanderbilf your morning eye opening
and the Duke of Westminster. Bloody Mary or a hot steaming
Now, you can sail them through the mystical cup of coffee, and brace your-
Caribbean. To well-known islands as Nassau, self for a day unlike any on
Antigua and St. Maarten. And to places the 12 story earth. This is the sea.
oceanliners never touch. A special place of rainbows,
To magic islands with iridescent sunsets, living reefs,
names like Saba, Carriacoi, rainbow fish and pink and
Anegada. Bligh's breadfruit white sand beaches.
Now comes the night at
isle. Stevenson's Treasure' sea. The silence broken by the
Island. They are all hefe, throb of steel drums, merangue,
waiting to be
calypso, reggae, all under
discovered agai
an exotic Caribbean moon.
With unforgetta
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picturesque glorious, uncomplicated days
towns and aboard the tall ships. You can
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And get ready to put a lot
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Break bread with a great
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Cap'n Mike, Windjammer 'Barefoot' Cruises. P.O. Box 120, D e p t 1 7 2 1 , Miami Beach, Florida 33139
For Reservations Call TOLL FREE 1-800-327-2600
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