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October, 1981


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SAN DIEGO COUNTY HDS Parts & Machine Mr. Parts R.B Auto Service Orange Engine & Parts #1 Mountain Auto Service
A & J Auto & Speed 1960 W. Mission 2919 Sweetwater Rd 11631 Iberia Place 3455 Tustin Ave. 122 N. Mountain
456 W. Mission Blvd. Escondido Spring Valley San Diego Orange Ontario
San Marcos 746-6110 465-0359 487-0213 633-7305 983-2647
744-5074 L & M Tire Mr. Parts Fuller Parts Mart J & B Auto Parts ARIZONA
Alliance Auto Parts 210 S Juniper 7702 Broadway 460 Broadway 1700 N. Tustin Ave Lloyd's Complete Auto Service
140 N. Hwy 101, Escondido Lemon Grove Chula Vista Orange 151 S. Arizona Ave
Encinitas 741-4044 469-6147 426-4440 637-3670 Chandler
436-0311 L & M Tire Mr. Parts ORANGE COUNTY Mark III Auto Service 963-6627
Auto Parts Mart 16560 Bernardo Ctr. Dr. 1034 3rd Ave Alicia Auto Supply Foothill & Garey Metro Auto & Tire Specialists
414 W. San Ysidro Blvd. Rancho Bernardo Chula Vista 24001 Alicia Pky #501 Pomona 2751 West North Lane
San Ysidro 485-7000 426-6500 Mission Viejo 593-7515 Phoenix
Broadway Auto Parts #1 L & M Tire Mr. Parts 830-0940 Dean's Auto Service 242-4291
1034 Broadway 9662 Wintergarden 9225 Mira Mesa Blvd El Toro Auto Service 5584 Riverside Mac's Auto Parts
E! Cajon Lakeside San Diego 23635 El Toro Rd. Chino 1913 W. Union Hills Dr.
442-0684 561-3050 578-1600 El Toro 627-7613 Phoenix
Broadway Auto Parts #3 Masters Auto Supply Mr. Parts 830-0950 Bill's Auto Service 866-0750
799 El Cajon Blvd 208 S. H II 7105 El Cajon Blvd Circle Auto Service 717 E. Holt Havasu Auto Supply
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M o n r o e Auto Equipment (TENNECO"

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VOLUME 44 NUMBER 9 October, 1981


They Call the Wind, Rocketry of the Desert

Santa Ana by William T. Adams
by Joe Blackstock Robert Goddard was the father
They call the wind by many of rocketry. It was in the town
names. Blackstock tells us the of Roswell, New Mexico that
reasons and the legends. his dreams became reality.
page 12 page 44

The Dust Devil A Tale of Two Birds

by Dr. Sherwood B. Idso by Robert Burroughs
Airy denizens of the desert, Robert Burroughs relates his
dust devils. They live here, experience of two very different
grow here and die here. Idso birds in the desert. The
tells us how and why. Gossamer Penguin and the
page 18 Columbia space shuttle share
the same proving grounds.
Hot-Air Hoedown page 46
by Diane Williams Hlava
Join us for the Albuquerque Portrait of an
International Balloon Fiesta. Aeronaut
The desert is an excellent site, by David G. Evans
and Albuquerque has the James Caldwell is an aeronaut.
grandest ballooning of all. This is the balloonist's story-
page 22 why and how he does what he
Albuquerque's First page 56
Balloon Ascensions
by Byron A. Johnson and
Robert K. Danner
A history of ballooning in
Albuquerque. This sport goes Departments
back almost 100 years, and it
looks like there's much more to 4 Editorial
come. 5 Our Desert Heritage
page 28
6 Letters to the Editor
Ballooning Canyon de
8 Living Desert
by Virginia Greene 10 Chuck Wagon Cookin'
Virginia Greene takes us to the
quiet side of flight. No crowds, 15 Traces in the Sand
just the clouds above and the 52 Desert Calendar
earth below, as the stillness of
the desert pervades. 54 Desert Rockhound
page 32
60 Trading Post
Feathers, Flight and
by Andrew Steuer III
Andrew Steuer's birds have
graced our pages before. Here Cover: Quite a spectacle, the
you'll learn his motivations and A Ibuquerque International Balloon
feelings in capturing these free Fiesta. The Desert magazine
spirits. staff will be there. Please join us.
page 38 Photo by Cradoc Bagshaw.
page 46
Associate Editors
Editorial Intern
Art Director
Associate Art Director

On The Road Again Design Consultant

Advertising Designer
Desert to see if our writers got that ex- GITTA PFAHL
perience across. Subscription Manager
I know I will love the gathered hordes JUDI PERSKY
of balloons, ground crews and specta- Contributors:
tors, but that's not what makes me itch. STELLA HUGHES, KAREN SAUSMAN,
What makes me restless in my chair, SUSAN DURR NIX, DAVID MUENCH,
and anxious to close the office, is the WAYNE P. ARMSTRONG, JEFF GNASS,
getting there and the getting back—the JAMES R. MITCHELL
moving across the land. I want to be out Director of Advertising
there again, where the sky is 180 degrees KEVIN ANDERSEN
or more of the landscape. I will stop by Advertising Sales

I am the Desert magazine reader. I the road, 40 miles west of Albuquerque, BILL SCHAUL
do not live daily in the space, the just to watch the sunrise over Sandia JOHN MORRISON
silence and the grandeur of the Peaks. If I'm lucky, maybe a thunder- Advertising Coordinator
desert, but I go to it when I can. storm will chug through and give the TERRI BIANCO
Perhaps I wouldn't live there even if I sky texture and depth. I don't expect to Media Consultant
could, but I love it. see anyone in particular, but it will be SCOTT CHATFIELD
I am content and entertained by the nice to know that I am in the land that Circulation Director
vicarious experience of the words and Georgia O'Keefe and Elliot Porter have TERRY WILLIAMS
photos of others. Then I go out with my chosen for their homes.
Financial Consultant
camera and journal, and do it one better I have been looking over the maps of LIZ FERGUSON
— for myself. the Southwest, and I came across Pie
This month will not be vicarious. Town and Cheechilgeetho. I know JULIE BRAZEAU
This month, the thrills are mine. I will nothing about them, in fact, have never
Chairman of the Board
be going to the Albuquerque Interna- heard of them—and that is as good a
tional Balloon Fiesta to enjoy it, and to reason as any to go there. The great,
promote the magazine. I have heard a sweet and fat Pacific will be nowhere in ABC MEMBERSHIP APPLIED FOR 8/19/80
Advertising Information: See Current SRDS, Sec. 30A
lot about the wonder of mass ascensions sight, and knowing how cluttered its
in the still morning air. I look forward edges can be, I will be happy to be in the Desert Magazine ISSN 0194-3405, is published monthly by
Desert Communication Corporation. Editorial Office: P.O. Box
to experiencing that — then I will read desert. I'll look for you there. 1318, Palm Desert, CA 92261. Telephone: (714) 568-2781.
Business Office: 121 West F. Street, Encinitas, CA 92024.
Telephone: (714) 436-4218. Second Class Postage paid at En-
cinitas, California and ai additional offices. Copyright 1981 by
Desert Magazine. All rights reserved. No par! of this publication
may be reproduced in any manner without written permission
from the Publisher. Subscription rates for U.S. and its posses-
sions, Canada and Mexico: 1 year, $15. Elsewhere: Add $4 per
year surface, $20 per year air mail (U.S. currency). To Subscribe,
Renew or Change Address: Write Desert Magazine, 121 West
E St., Encinitas, CA 92024. Please allow six weeks for processing
and include, where applicable, the address label from your most re-
cent copy. Exact zip codes are required by the Post Office. Donors
of gift subscriptions should include their own name and address as
well as those of the recipient(s). POSTMASTER: SEND
tributions: The Editor welcomes unsolicited manuscripts and
photographs, but they can be returned only if accompanied by
S.A.S.E. or international exchange coupons. While we treat sub-
missions with care, we cannot assume responsibility for loss or
damage. Payment is upon acceptance. Writers Guide free with
S.A.S.E.; Sample copy, $2.00. Photographers: Please include
technical data with each photograph submitted.

Press Run: 40,000

Paid Subscriptions as of 7/31/81; 27,822

Our archives yield another beauty. Seen through a natural frame, this is Canyon de
Chelly, circa 1947. Though 34 years have brought changes (see page 32), the beauty of
the canyon remains vivid. If you look closely, you can see the etched, timeworn figures
amid the beautiful striping of the rocks.
These are our forefathers and how they lived. They brought us here; forged the path.
They lived their lives in the foreground of this immense sandstone sculpture. These
crude buildings were their mansions, the horse and wagon were their four-wheel-drive
trucks. It was through their dreams that we received our realities.
This 'ranch' is probably gone (if you know its fate, please write to us), but trie-pur-
pose and spirit that put it there live on; echoed in the splendor of this canyon.

Truth about the Time Machine Noonan, a professor at MIT listened to the Clarion section. I think it is very in-
The stuff of which legends are made tapes made by myself of Van Tassel ex- teresting, and provides some different
is interesting, to say the least. I refer to plaining how the Integratron would angles on desert news.
your story, George W. Van Tassel and work someday, and he dubbed the theory Also, I am curious about what you
His Anti-Gravity Time Machine, in the impossible on the approach taken. mean by "the celebration of life on the
May, 1981 issue. No, the time machine will not work. desert." Is it some sort of fiesta or what?
While I cannot fault the author, who Whatever the motive (financial gain or R.S. Lix
may well be simply parroting what Van sincere effort), it has gone with its Sacramento, California
Tassel's followers have related, I do feel creator to the grave.
that I should relate what I know to be George Van Tassel opened up to me You bet it's a fiesta — day and night we
true. and my cameras because as he put it, I are blessed with the excellence of the
I am referring to just three of many er- "was the only member of the press that Southwest. I celebrate that!!
roneous statements in the article. They didn't ridicule him." Over the many
are, "No one doubted his (Van Tassel's) years I knew Van Tassel to always be
claim to have hosted visitors from outer good for a story, a true desert rat and a Beautiful Human Beings
space,"; "The friendship between the good friend. When I think about it, The photograph of the Indian girl on
two men (Frank Kritzer and Van that's quite a bit. the cover of your July (1981) issue of
Tassel) was deep," and "No one except Buddy Noonan Desert impressed me more than any
its (the Integratron's) builders has ever Sierra Vista, Arizona picture I have ever seen on the cover of a
been inside." magazine.
In 1955, I attended a press junket The warmth of the colors and hues
hosted by Van Tassel at his newly ac- Clarion C o m m e n t s are brilliant. Mr. Jacka has caught the
quired Giant Rock near Landers, I was stunned to read in the July issue gentle strength and beauty of the girl in
California. According to him, visitors that the Clarion section was to be a most convincing form.
from outer space in flying saucers eliminated from one of my favorite It makes you want to say more than
wanted their appearance documented by magazines. "what a beautiful girl," you want to say,
earthlings at high noon. There were I have boasted to my friends that this "what a beautiful human being."
several hundred of us present as the ap- was the greatest improvement Desert has Wes Matthews
pointed time came and went with no made under the new ownership. I Glendale, Arizona
visitation by beings from other worlds. always turn to this informative and
You couldn't have convinced any of that timely section first when I get my copy
media that George had ever had an en- from the mailbox. Thanks for the Welcome!
counter of the third kind. My son who lives in Twain Harte also Your editorial of self-introduction is
In 1965, while filming and producing does the same thing. We both find the refreshing. Please turn out to be as fine
episodes of The Happy Wanderers and mining news most interesting, and the a person as you appear to be. We Desert
Roving Kind (travel television shows), I Clarion has really become our favorite readers need you!
asked Van Tassel about the origin of part of the magazine. Desert magazine has been part of my
Giant Rock's underground room. He I enjoy Desert immensely, but I am life for many years, but recently I have
took credit for it, but after I produced a sure the majority of your readers would felt negative about the editorial tone of
copy of The American Weekly (1941) agree with me that the loss of that sec- the publication, yet I couldn't say con-
which documented Frank Kritzer as a tion can only detract from the enjoy- cisely why I no longer felt good about
suspected Nazi and creater of the ment of this unusual publication. the magazine. Some of your published
subterranean room, he changed his story Please reconsider this decision! Letters (August 1981) bring my vague
and gave Kritzer partial credit. He made Thomas H. Core feelings into focus now. Desert has been
it clear that he had never known Big Bear City, California slanted toward the monied interests, the
Kritzer. off-roaders, and other forces of ultimate
On all occasions, including the last It is my belief that the space allotted to the desert destruction!
one in 1975, 'Doctor' Van Tassel hosted Clarion will serve the Desert reader better It was most gratifying that both you
me to a tour of the Integratron's (time- if it is filled with clear first person and one, Tom Wright (in August Let-
machine) inner workings. Documenta- experiential writing and excellent ters), referred kindly to Edward Abbey.
tion of that was first seen on KMIR- photographs, rather than newspaper clip- MacDonald's Critique (??) of Abbey's
NBC television news in Palm Springs pings. I welcome suggestions for ways in Desert Solitaire was outrageous — far-
and later picked up by The Today Show which we can be of greater service to our fetched and out of context. That nearly
nationally. Then, as now, the time readers. unglued me; as I, too, am an admirer of
machine did not function. Abbey.
My brother Dr. Thomas Wyatt Sorry to note that you are dropping You are restoring my faith and in-

/8\ caste! R E S O R T * ' HOTEL

terest in Desert. If Randall Henderson is

truly your model, you must be on the
right track. Long may you prosper!!
Anne Lorensen
Los Alamitos, California

Having subscribed to Desert for many

years and being a former rockhound, at
71 years of age, my desert travel is now
mostly done through your splendid
I look forward each month to the
magazine and so much enjoy your ar-
ticles and pictures of many places that I Get away to the other MEXICO Come to San Felipe, Baja
California, and enjoy a
have visited. I once lived at Desert 120 air conditioned rooms fully carpeted, wonderful stay at
Center, and worked for the great Steve with telephone and bath. Coffee shop,
Ragsdale. I often wondered what had
become of him and now know through
weekend discotheque, bar, swimming pool,
tennis ,\m\ gift shop.
your articles.
Your change in the August issue is Information and Reservations:
great! More like the issues of former Call your Travel Agent or: Mexican Hotels, Inc., 7488 La |olla Blvd., La ]olla, CA 92038:
years. Good luck to you in your new job Tel. (714) 459-0251, California, Toll Free (800) 542-6078, Nationwide (800) 854-2026,
as editor, please keep up the good work. Telex: 695444.

I really look forward eagerly to each

new issue as the desert is one of my • ^^H mmm MOB B M • • § • ^^m • • ^mm mmmm ^ B « KMM ^ ^ H ^MM MKI •

great loves. God really knew what He

was doing when He created it for special
i Speak Spanish
Dorothy I. Clark
Monrovia, California like a diplomat!
What sort of people need to learn a The FSI's Programmatic Spanish
foreign language as quickly and effec- Course comes in two volumes. You
tively as possible? Foreign Service per- may order one or both courses:
Bear Meets Girl sonnel, that's who. Members of • Volume I, Basic.
This letter is to call your attention to America's diplomatic corps are assign- (12 cassettes, 17 hours), instructor's
the famous shadow on Lone Pine Peak, ed to U.S. embassies abroad, where manual and 464-page text, $115
they must be able to converse fluently
Bear Meets Girl on Lone Pine Peak in every situation. • Volume II, Intermediate.
[June, 1981, page 58]. We are enclosing Now you can learn to speak Spanish (8 cassettes, 11V2 hours), instruc-
just as these diplomatic personnel do- tor's manual and 614 page text, $98
the postcard the Lone Pine Chamber of with the Foreign Service Insti- (New York residents add sales tax.)
Commerce has made. You were lucky to tute's Programmatic Spanish Course. Your cassettes are shipped to you in
catch this shadow as it is only visible in The U.S. Department of State has handsome library binders.
November and December. Your articles spent tens of thousands of dollars de- TO ORDER, JUST CLIP THIS AD and
veloping this course. It's by far the mail with your name and address, and a
on our area were great — it is a great most effective way to learn Spanish at check or money order. Or, charge to
country. your own convenience and at your own your credit card (American Express,
pace. VISA, Master Charge, Diners Club) by
Elsie L. Ayers The Programmatic Spanish Course enclosing card number, expiration
Lone Pine, California consists of a series of tape cassettes date, and your signature.
and an accompanying textbook. You The Foreign Service Institute's
simply follow the spoken and written Spanish course is unconditionally
instructions, listening and repeating. guaranteed. Try it for three weeks. If
By the end of the course, you'll find you're not convinced it's the fastest,
yourself learning and speaking entirely easiest, most painless way to learn
in Spanish! Spanish, return it and we'll refund
This course turns your cassette every penny you paid! Order today!
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its unique "programmatic" learning also available. Write us
method, you set your own pace-
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145 East 49th St.
New York, N.Y. 10017

by Susan Durr Nix

On the Wing
ait! In the interest of knowledge,
don't swat that fly! Tolerate him
long enough to take a good look
at his wings, preferably against a win-
dow. Wait until he lands—at 200 beats
per second, his wings are only a blur in
flight. (He'll stop that maddening buzz
as soon as his legs make contact with the
pane.) Now approach cautiously; hairs
on his wings are sensitive to the slightest
shift in air currents.
See how nearly transparent they are?
Look at the delicate vein pattern; it's the
fingerprint of his species. Notice how
many more veins run lengthwise than
crosswise, and how the leading edge of
the wing is braced by clustered, longi-
tudinal veins. Pay attention to the posi-
tion of the resting wings. Do you see
how they overlap over the abdomen and
behind the hairy thorax? O.K., now go
ahead and swat.
The housefly and his two-winged
relatives are nature's most advanced
fliers. They have wings that are no more
than a network of hollow veins sand-
wiched between two sheets of plastic
wrap. There isn't the slightest sugges-
tion of muscle, certainly not one capable
of 200 contractions a second, and no
auxiliary structures like feathers. Yet
with such inadequate tools, insects have
been airborne longer than any other
• creature—some 300 million years.
Fifty million years before birds were
making their first halting takeoffs, in- This dragonfly exhibits the complicated network oj flight apparatus.
sects were colonizing new habitats, fin-
ding food, eluding predators, courting
mates and signaling each other with four The only other creatures capable of the common fried chicken wing is
equally developed, independently- true flight—birds and later, b a t s - typical bird equipment.
powered wings that stuck straight out invaded insect airspace with funda- Sired by scaly reptiles an estimated
from the thorax. They shimmered mentally different kinds of wings. 180 million years ago, birds emphasized
through the sunlight using direct flight Whereas insects grew new structures to buoyancy, strength, balance and
muscles, housed inside the thorax, that take to the air, birds and bats followed sleekness in their evolution. These traits
alternately pushed and pulled on the the evolutionary course of modifying ex- were further enhanced by the develop-
fore and hind wings. It was a simple, ef- isting limbs. Bat wings are nothing ment of a new structural material: the
fective system that survives today in the more than elastic membrane stretched feather. Light but strong, feathers
ancient dragonfly family. It might have between elongated fingers of a hand, streamline, insulate, waterproof,
served more insects if the challenge of much like our own. Bird wings depend camouflage and decorate their owners.
new, airborne predators and com- for support on their forearms, fused They combine rigidity with flexibility;
petitors hadn't necessitated modifica- wrists and hand bones, which are attach- unlike bat membrane and insect cuticle,
tions for faster, more efficient flight. ed to powerful muscles. Except for size, they are versatile, readily repaired and

replaceable. or zip (wasps and bees). Concurrently,
Without the complex organization of the direct muscles inside the thorax 20-MULE TEAM DAYS IN DEATH VALLEY by
feathers and the long, stiff, quill-like tail were replaced by complex, indirect ones Harold O. Weight. Specialists and critics praise
this account of the great borax wagons of the
and wing feathers, birds would be that automatically synchronized 1880s, the drivers and mules, the trail to Mojave.
clumsy fliers at best. The long, hollow wingbeats for greater flight control. Story of Borax Smith, Wm. T. Coleman, Death
central shaft projects hundreds of The speed and coordination of the Valley pioneers, Harmony Borax Works. First-
hand stories. Includes reprint of Henry G. Hawks'
parallel barbs that mesh together into housefly was impossible, however, report on Death Valley 1883. Pb., 48 pgs., 33
webs or vanes. The web on one side of without an altogether new power historic and modern photos, map. 5th ed. $1.00.
the shaft is always broader than the source. The answer was resilin—the
other, making feathers asymmetrical. most elastic substance ever produced by and Mildred Fischer. Two cookbooks in one. The
The narrow side, like the reinforced living organisms. Resilin powers the first portion describes the best of chili cookery,
from mild to fiery, with recipes for some of the
edge of the insect's wing, takes most of buzzers and whiners, the insects whose best. The second part gives a variety of taste-
the punishment in flight. The barbs are wings beat so rapidly they hum through tempting foods made from chili peppers with many
held together by projecting, overlapping the air. Contracting and relaxing almost suggestions on use and preparation. Spiral bound.
Pb., 128 pgs. $3.00.
barbules. In turn, each barbule has simultaneously inside the thorax, resilin
minute hooks that interlock with sur- produces a mosquito wingbeat frequen- SCOTTY'S CASTLE by Dorothy Shally and
prising strength. As a result, single cy of 600 per second and an incredible William Bolton. The sumptuousness of the castle,
its history, construction, and design of the
feathers do not readily split apart to rate of 1000 per second in some midges. buildings are told by the authors, both National
allow air through, and when they do, Among the buzzers and whiners, the Park Service employees who have been associated
with the maintenance and interpretation of the
they easily zip back together. Further true flies took the evolution of wing property since the government acquired title in
control is exerted by other hooks that overlap and hook-up to its logical con- 1970. Pb., large format, profusely illus., $2.00.
link groups of feathers together, and by clusion: they lost their hind wings
individual muscles at the base of each altogether. In return, they not only gain- Southern California's Last Frontier by Horace
shaft. These muscles move the feathers ed the most dynamic wing, but the Parker, revised by George and Jean Leetch, A clas-
together and apart for gliding, soaring greatest maneuverability to be found in sic reference to America's largest desert park,
originally published in 1957 and now updated,
and flapping flight. the animal world. The hind wing stubs, enlarged and improved by the "dean of desert
Dragonflies have the most completely or halteres, function as automatic rangers" and his wife. With excellent logs, maps,
and photographs brought up to 1979 standards.
developed flight muscles of any insect stabilizers—they maintain a fly's Pb., 154 pgs., two maps, many photos, $6.95.
group, and consequently, had sufficient equilibrium, come hell or fly swatter.
agility and power to survive unchanged, Flight depends on a wing design that HIGH MOUNTAINS AND DEEP VALLEYS by
Lew and Ginny Clark, with photographs by Edwin
while evolutionary pressures drastically compensates for gravity and drag, and C. Rockwell. A history and general guide book to
altered their contemporaries. Speed, takes advantage of lift and thrust to the vast lands east of the High Sierra, south of the
Comstock Lode, north of the Mojave Desert, and
deception, avoidance and resistance move up. It's a problem that has ob- west of Death Valley, by oldtimers who know the
were the basic adaptive alternatives for sessed mankind for thousands of years, yet area. Pb., 192 pgs., 250 photographs, and many
other insects. Nature innovated a wide for all our technical prowess, we are still maps. $6.95
variety of body and wing shapes, and ex- neophytes in the air. Next to an eagle's
perimented endlessly with size and wing, our most advanced aeroplane is
function. Wings hardened into protec- unsophisticated; compared to a house- Desert Book Shop
tive armor, fanned out, folded under, fly, we have barely left the ground. That Name
puckered into accordion pleats, shrank, we did so at all is a tribute to our own Address
atrophied, frayed, faded, colored and evolutionary progress. We developed City _5tate. .Zip.
otherwise changed beyond recognition. mind, not wings. 0 I enclose $
Amid the chaos were strong trends away Check, money order or charge
from the elaborate cross-veining typical MY CHARGE D M . C. • VISA
Susan Dun Nix is
Credit Card No.
of dragonfly wings, and toward a con- Development Co-
Expiration Date
vergent or overlapping configuration, as ordinator at the Liv- Month/Year
in the wings of a butterfly. ing Desert Reserve, a Signature „
Overlapping reduced two pairs of 1,000-acre desert in-
wings to a single, far more efficient terpretation and con-
flight unit. More advanced insects ex- servation facility in
ploited this advantage by developing Palm Desert, Cali-
mechanisms to link the trailing edge of fornia. She shares her enthusiasm for the California residents add 6% sales tax
Postage/handling $1.50
the fore wing to the leading edge of the natural world not only in articles and pub-
hind wing. Some work like velcro lications, but in educational programs for
Mail today to:
(moths), other actually hook (butterflies) visitors to the reserve. Desert Book Shop P.O. Box 296, Goleta, CA 93117

by Stella Hughes

Game Birds

C ity dwellers tend to think of

hunting wild game as something
their ancestors did a long time
ago—for food, because bringing home
meat for the pot was essential; or for
sport, because there wasn't a heck of a
lot of anything else to do for
amusement. Today, more men and
women are taking to the field during
hunting season than ever before. Like
our ancestors, they intend to eat what
they bag, and if they bag more than they
can eat, they share their bounty with
friends and neighbors.
The season on game birds opens with
a bang. Grouse, partridge, quail,
pigeons, doves, ducks, geese and wild
turkey may end up in your kitchen
without a formal introduction. One of
the most frustrating days of my life was
spent trying to pluck three wild geese,
given to me by a friend on his way home
from the hill. I thought that by scalding
the geese, their feathers would slip off
by handfuls, exactly like the rooster I
had dressed for last Sunday's dinner.
Was I ever wrong! The unwritten law
among hunters, "Them that shoots 'em,
dresses 'em," was broken by my former
friend. Broken also were the mandatory
rules of gutting game birds on the spot,
and taking care in keeping the fowls
Besides ruining my day, all three
geese were soured by the time I'd
finished plucking them, and were a total
Game birds offer a wide variety of
delicious wild meat. Wild turkey, that
have been feeding on acorns and pinon Liza Kamps, our Editorial Intern, with her Twice-Cooked Quail.
nuts, head the list, in my estimation. A
young turkey, roasted in the usual way, Quail seem to be plentiful almost tain that it's worth the trouble of
and stuffed with sausage dressing makes everywhere in the Southwest, and plucking and singeing them to conserve
the domestic turkey seem bland and hunters agree that the quail may be the extra bit of flavor and moisture the
flavorless in comparison. either plucked or skinned. Most main- skin affords.
10 OCTOBER, 1981
There is GOLD in
them 'thar hills!
a n d it is
b e i n g found
with the
help of . . .

There are several ways to prepare game birds, like quail or doves, should Over 6,000 square feet of
quail or other game birds: breaded with be cooked whole. Larger birds, such as the most complete stock
cornmeal; browned and braised; grouse, pheasants and prairie chickens of supplies for the professional
roasted with sausage stuffing; casseroles should be split down the middle. Season or beginner — plus, expert
with vegetables and mushrooms in and fry in Dutch oven in oil or butter, guidance in the use and
white wine; and southern fried. then add wine and cook over low heat.
selection of your equipment.
Allow 1 cup of wine for 8 servings of
Twice-Cooked Quail meat, keeping in mind that each pound
12 to 14 quail, dressed of unboned bird makes 1 to IV2 • Gold Dredges • Wet Suits
1 large onion, chopped servings. Add other liquids; lemon
• Metal Detectors
2 tart apples, cored and chopped juice, tomato sauce, bouillon or what-
(do not peel) ever appeals to your taste: about V2 cup • Dry Washers • Sluices
12 to 14 bacon slices for each pound of bird. Cover and cook • Gold • Pans • Tools
1 cup dry white wine slowly for about 2 hours. • Topo Maps
IVi-inch-thick slice of onion • Laboratory Apparatus
1 bay leaf Creamed Casserole • Mineral Lights
salt and pepper This is a way to utilize the finest meat
• Gold Scales
from a game bird; the breast. To figure
Stuff birds loosely with a mixture of the amount of meat needed: Three • Lapidary Equipment
chopped onion and apple, lightly salted. breasts from sage chicken, grouse or • Books • Magazines
Fasten body cavities with thread or pheasant makes 6 servings. Split the • And Much, Much More!
toothpick. Sprinkle with salt and pepper breast in two, remove the bone, and cut
and then wrap each bird in a slice of each half in two. If using quail or doves,
bacon. Place the birds on a grill, and remove the bone, and leave in one piece. Over 1,600 different
cook over charcoal or hardwood coals Slice the breast meat about '/2-inch publications in stock. Back
for 30 minutes, turning frequently. thick. Fry until brown in V2 cup butter issues of magazines
Remove birds to a baking pan or and oil mixed, taking care not to burn including Desert!
casserole dish. Add wine, onion slice the oil while cooking. Place breasts in
and bay leaf. Bake at 300 degrees for 45 baking dish. In the remaining oil, "If we don't have it in stock
minutes, basting frequently with pan simmer Vi-cup Madeira wine and 1 can . . . chances are you don't
juices. Serve with wild rice or spoon of mushrooms for 5 minutes. Heat 1 cup need it."
bread. Serves about six, depending on cream and add. Bring mixture to a boil,
the size of the quail. pour over breasts, and bake 15 to 20

Barbecue Quail
To barbecue quail, wrap each bird in a
minutes more. @
slice of bacon or thinly sliced salt pork.
Season with salt, pepper and oregano.
Brush birds with olive oil. Place birds Stella Hughes has
Sales, Service and Rentals
on grill over medium hot coals and turn written articles for since 1969
frequently. Baste occasionally with a many western mag-
mixture of water, salt, lemon juice and azines, and is a reg- Visit our showroom located 5
butter. Have ready a mixture of cracker ular contributor to miles east of Disneyland, IV2
crumbs and Cream of Wheat: If you Desert magazine. blocks south of Katella Avenue
sprinkle this over the birds, it will She lives 46 miles (east of Orange Freeway, Rte 57)
adhere to the skin and keep the meat from Clifton, Ari-
from drying out. zona, near Eagle 966 North Main Street
Creek. She learned how to camp-cook Orange, California 92667
Dutch Oven Quail many years ago, out of self-defense, and Phone (714) 637-8824
Preparing game birds in a heavy Dutch many of her experiences have been related
Store Hours: Weekdays, 10-6;
oven is like cooking a pot roast. Small in her book, Chuck Wagon Cookin'.
Saturdays, 10-3.
The notoriety of a Santa Ana wind
was difficult to hide. Despite the
creative journalism and expansive
talk of early Southern California
papers and leaders the legend of the
devil wind continued to spread.
by Joe Blackstock

12 OCTOBER, 1981
r he inhabitants of Pasadena,
California must have been a bit
confused when they opened
their newspapers one December
morning in 1891.
Their city and many parts of South-
character of our buildings is not such as
to resist such a strong blow." In the
same article, the writer praised the
wind's assistance to growers—it had
knocked off only the defective fruit from
San Gabriel Valley trees.
informed sources agree the name likely
comes from Santa Ana Canyon, through
which the wind often strongly blows
between Corona and Orange County.
As early as the 1860s, there are
references to the name "Santa Ana" for
ern California lay covered in debris after This bit of journalistic creativity came the wind, but that notoriety has never
a strong Santa Ana wind blew down in a different era, when promoters jeal- set well among residents of that city.
buildings, denuded trees of their fruit, ously protected the good name of Calif- Problems first began in the 1880s
and piled sand and dirt everywhere. ornia. To say anything detrimental to when Los Angeles newspapers, showing
The Pasadena Star, however, had a the rest of the world, even if true, was a their regional leanings, published
quite different version. heresy not to be tolerated. accounts of the damage caused by the
The event had been a disaster for The Santa Ana wind recognizes no Santa Anas to Orange County territory,
everyone, but especially for land boundary or economic motive. When often taunting their neighbors by gloat-
developers and Chamber of Commerce the strong winter wind blows dirt and ing how their own area was relatively
leaders then engaged in a world-wide leaves all over Southern California, the free of such zephyrs.
campaign of promoting turn-of-the- best intentions of men, even armed with These stories only served to anger the
century California as a West Coast typewriters and imagination, cannot equally provincial Santa Ana editor
paradise. That day the paper did stop it. James Alonzo Waite, who struck back
everything in its printed power to undo But men have tried... with articles about the damage caused
the damage. Of all the Santa Ana wind's attributes, by the Santa Ana in Los Angeles.
In an article about the windstorm, the the most galling to those in what is now "Properly, they are Riverside Winds,"
paper noted it really wasn't that strong Orange County, has been its name. The he concluded in one article, "and if the
at all, but the damage was "because the exact origin is unclear, but most truth really be told, Los Angeles suffers
Guthrie, 40 years ago, banning from our
news columns. . . Santa Ana to describe
1880s: Los Angeles a strong north wind," wrote columnist
newspapers published Earl Buie of the San Bernardino Sun- Santa Ana, Santana, devil
Telegram in 1967. "As I recalled the
accounts of the damaging circumstances, Mr. Guthrie acted after wind, Camulos Swell,
Santa Anas in the Orange Orange County interests protested the Sundowner and nor'easter
use of the word Santa Ana in referring —all names for a wind that
County area—gloating how to the windstorms after a severe storm
they were relatively free of had received national publicity. It had sweeps in from the desert
such zephyrs. been described in the news columns and then out to sea.
everywhere as a Santa Ana."
Santa Ana is by no means the only
name given the wind during the last two
more from them than we do." centuries, beginning with the novelist Raymond Chandler glorified
These battles over custody of the "nor'easter," described by Richard the wind, and its name, in a Philip
wind made Orange County officials all Henry Dana in 1836 in Two Years Marlowe short story, The Red Wind:
the more sensitive when a 1901 Assoc- Before the Mast. But none of the other "There was a desert wind blowing
iated Press story from Santa Ana told names has stuck as much as a word that that night. It was one of those hot, dry
the nation of a particular windstorm appeared just after the turn of the Santa Anas that comes down through
that hit the area just after Christmas. century: Santana. That name (actually the mountain passes and curls your hair
A man named Ott, a renowned prank- it's the way Santa Ana is pronounced in and makes your nerves jump and your
ster, was serving as telegraph operator Spanish) was immediately embraced by skin itch. On nights like that every
in Santa Ana that windy night. Bored Orange County interests as the correct booze party ends up in a fight. Meek
with the lack of activity, he tapped out a name of the wind. little wives feel the edge of the carving
dispatch to the Associated Press about knife and study their husbands' necks.
the Santa Ana wind howling outside. Anything can happen. . ."
The more he wrote, the better it got. In the last few decades, the regional
"In this city, the sand blew in from
The Santa Ana wind
irritation over the use of the name Santa
the desert in pillars reaching as high as recognizes no boundary or Ana wind has mellowed. Orange
30 feet. . .," he wrote. Ott described, economic motive. When County, like all of Southern California,
with considerable embellishment, rail- has grown rapidly in spite of the best
road near-accidents, devastated orchards
the strong winter wind work of the Santa Ana wind. The name?
and the houses and public utilities blows dirt and leaves all Well, you still see an occasional news
damaged. In summary, he estimated over Southern California, reference to "devil winds" when some
damage at a mere $3,000 (another blow winter Santa Ana whips up a disasterous
to the city's pride). the best intentions of men, brush fire. Even Santana hangs on in
When the story was published in Los even armed with infrequent mentions by some un-
Angeles newspapers the next day, Santa typewriters and informed newsman or a long-time resid-
Ana residents were livid with rage. ent influenced by events of the past.
More than 200 community members imagination, cannot stop it. The names the wind has been given-
held a stormy meeting, passing a resolu- Santa Ana, Santana, devil wind, River-
tion demanding retractions for the side wind, Camulos Swell (Ventura),
slander perpetrated upon their city. Santana, a far more romantic name for Sundowner (Santa Barbara), nor'easter
They issued a dispatch of their own the wind, remains in the vocabulary of —are numerous but they all mean the
explaining the incident and telling the Southern California even today, though same thing: the humidity drops, the
real story—as they saw it. its historical background lies mainly in temperature rises and the smog that
As for Ott, he was escorted to the train the imagination of its promoters. Ori- settles interminably along the moun-
depot, according to one account, and ginally, Chamber of Commerce officials tains and valleys and even into the
unceremoniously put on the next train spread the story that the wind should be deserts, is blown far out to sea.
out of town. called Santana, which, they said, was an And, no matter what you call it,
After this blow to their civic esteem, Indian word meaning big wind. A nobody complains about that.B
Orange County people began a sus- search, however, of all dialects in the
tained campaign to disassociate the Southwest has turned up no such refer- Joe Blackstock, 33,
wind from their area. Writer Terry ence. is sports editor and
Stephenson remembered his days Another claim is that Santana is outdoor columnist
working for Santa Ana and Los Angeles derived from the phrase "Satan's for the San Gabriel
newspapers, when specific instructions wind," while a third meaning Valley Daily Tri-
were given him never to use the name, sometimes cited is that it was named for bune in West Co-
Santa Ana, when writing about the Mexican General Santa Anna, whom vina, California.
wind. Mistakes in this regard were met the source had erroneously believed He has worked in
with stinging rebukes from the spent time marching through Southern newspapers for 13
Chamber of Commerce. California. years. He has contributed two previous
Other papers got the message, too. "I In spite of their efforts, however, the articles to Desert. He has a master's
recall—and vividly, too—a ruling by last hope for the anti-Santa Ana forces degree in American studies from Calif-
(our) managing editor, James T. was finally lost in the late 1930s when ornia State University at Los Angeles.
14 OCTOBER, 1981

The wind, grass and shadows leave their own traces in the sand. Photograph taken in White Sands, New Mexico.

"The What and the Why of Desert Country"

Joseph Wood Krutch
We grow strong against the pressure of a difficulty, and ingenious by solving problems. Individuality
and character are developed by challenge. We tend to admire trees, as well as men, who bear the stamp of
their successful struggles with a certain amount of adversity. People who have not had too easy a time of
it develop flavor. And there is no doubt about the fact that desert life has character. Plants and animals
are so obviously and visibly what they are because of the problems they have solved. They are part of
some whole. They belong. Animals and plants, as well as men, become especially interesting when they
do fit their environment, when to some extent they reveal what their response to it has been. And
nowhere more than in the desert do they reveal it.

(excerpted from The Voice of the Desert 1955 by Joseph Wood Krutch.)

Desert Posters

C. A creosote bush witnesses the dawn, with the moon

setting, over the dunes at Death Valley National
Monument in California—Jeff Gnass

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There under the searing
rays of the midday sun, I
seek a rendezvous with one
of nature's most inspiring
phenomena—the desert
dust devil.

18 OCTOBER, 1981
It's swirling updrafts lift body and soul of man and bird alike.

The Dust Devil
Airy Denizen of the Desert
been put in the fire. Coals were blown

ome people think I'm crazy, that Greece show acanthus leaves violently
I'm a glutton for punishment. twisted about by their actions. Even all over the cave and their blankets set
Perhaps I am. But on the hottest Aristotle and Pliny spoke at length of ablaze. Fortunately, one of the men
of our hot summer days, when others their movements and mechanics. But remembered that a particular stone that
gingerly retreat to the shelter of their air nowhere has the dust devil been more lay nearby was supposed to have power
conditioned habitats, or wistfully slip respected and revered than it has by the to extinguish the fire and stop the whirl-
into the cooling waters of their backyard native inhabitants of the American wind. Placing the talisman on the fire
pools, I pack up my camera and head for southwest. served this purpose and saved them
the open desert. There under the There is a small cave in the eastern from a wet retreat.
searing rays of the midday sun, I seek a face of a 300-yard-long spur of the E.W. Haury, who led the team that
rendezvous with one of nature's most Castle Mountains, 10 miles west of the conducted the research work at the site,
inspiring phenomena, the desert dust village of Santa Rosa, Arizona. This noted that there was a good basis for the
devil. cave is known to the Papagos Indians as Papago's beliefs about the cave. He
Born of the battle between sun and the Whirlwind House or Home of the observed that there were air currents
sand, the dust devil is a rapidly rotating Dust Devil. In the old days, Wind lived moving through it that would increase
column of warm boundary-layer air that in this cave, from which small dust in size as they neared its mouth,
has wrapped itself around a rising devils were often seen to emerge. As the commenting that "a fire in the 'wrong
thermal. Providing lift that may propel little whirlwinds marched down the spot' might easily set up a draft to give
1,000-pound glider planes upward at slope, they would gradually grow in the story a basis. The distribution of the
speeds of several hundred to several size, finally becoming tall columns that wood ash in the inner part of the upper
thousand feet per minute, this fair- traveled for miles across the desert. cave is supporting evidence. One area
weather funnel is actively sought by This cave—Hewultki, as the Indians about two meters square was practically
soaring enthusiasts as a major means of called it—was sacred and there was what ash free, whereas nearby, said to be
gaining rapid altitude, taking their cue the Indians called a 'wrong spot' in it, outside the 'hexed' region, ash was
from birds of prey that have exploited such that if any fire was built upon it, a abundant."
its virtues for eons. whirlwind would spring up that would Julian D. Hayden, who directed much
Dust devils lift the spirit as well, and blow your head off. of the actual digging at the cave,
have long been objects of fascination for In 1934, two workmen for an archeo- enlarges somewhat upon the
the human mind. Marcus Lucanus logical expedition camped in the cave phenomenon: "When we started work,
recorded that Roman soldiers marveled during a rainy spell. Forgetting the tiny whirls of dust would start up in the
at them in the Libyan desert. The warning, they built a fire on the rear of the cave, increase in size as they
capitals of columns of the Byzantine forbidden spot. The result of this approached the mouth of the cave, and
Church of Hagia Sophia in Salonika, transgression was as if dynamite had by the time they reached the top of the

Text and photography by Dr. Sherwood B. Idso

Idso captures a dust devil in mid-flight.

talus, they were powerful enough to take Benjamin Franklin. Spurred to thought rarified; and the warm air will flow from
our wheelbarrows and planking with by an observation he made while all points to this column, where the several
them. We could watch them for miles in galloping through a tiny whirlwind of currents meeting, and joining to rise, a
their progress across the desert to the leaves in Maryland, he wrote the whirl is naturally formed, in the same
east, rising to several hundred feet." following in a letter to a Mr. John manner as a whirl is formed in the tub of
Even more active in their relationship Perkins from his residence in water, by the descending fluid flowing
with dust devils were the Apache Philadelphia on February 4, 1753. from all sides of the tub to the hole in the
Indians, who deliberately created them "Whirlwinds generally arise after calms center.
by setting fire to the spines of large and great heats.. .Now let us suppose a "And as the several currents arrive at
cacti. Nowadays, other large vortices are tract of land. . . is violently heated, this central rising column with a
commonly set in motion very similarly together with the lower region of air in considerable degree of horizontal motion,
when Indians of the area burn stubble contact with it, so that the said lower air they cannot suddenly change it to a
remaining on their fields after harvest. I becomes specifically lighter than the vertical motion, therefore.. .they ascend
have observed one such whirlwind that superincumbent higher region of the by a spiral motion in the same manner as
stretched a full mile into the sky and atmosphere... The consequence of this the water descends spirally through the
was as wide across as a football field. should be, as I imagine, that the heated, hole in the tub before mentioned."
These are the exceptions, the lighted air, being pressed on all sides, must In concluding his treatise, Franklin
anomalies. How does the standard ascend, and the heavier descend; and as ended with a comment that is as well
garden variety dust devil form? What this rising cannot be in all parts, or the taken today as it was intended then. "If
are its characteristics? Let us begin an whole area of the tract at once, for that my hypothesis is not the truth itself it is
investigation of the first of these would leave too extensive a vacuum, the at least as naked: For I have not, with
questions with a quotation from that rising will begin precisely in that column some of our learned moderns, disguised
most eminent of American thinkers, that happens to be the lightest, or most by nonsense in Greek, clothed it in
20 OCTOBER, 1981
algebra, or adorned it with fluxions. narrow, contorted structures called, in form at the leading edges of the great
You have it in puris naturalibus." the case of tornadoes, rope clouds. Dust haboob duststorms that sweep up the
Perhaps in the spirit of Franklin I devils at this stage may extend a full Santa Cruz Valley between Tucson and
could add just one other simple dust thousand feet into the air and yet be no Phoenix, Arizona. There have been
devil analogy to that of his bathtub wider across than the shoulders of a reports of sailplane pilots riding the
swirl, and that is the case of the twirling man. My children have often charged crest of the updraft that prevails just
figure skater. As she pulls in her arms into the bases of such dust devils and ahead of these great density currents;
and legs to a contracted central position, greatly hastened their demise. In the but it is risky business. The danger is
her rate of rotation greatly increases, case of larger ones, more drastic heightened when such surges of cool,
due to the principle of conservation of measures are required. For instance, a moist air flow across topographic
angular momentum. In like manner, so dust devil in Mexico once formed over a disturbances such as hills or isolated
also does the spiraling flow of air railroad embankment where it removed mountains. In such instances, eddies
increase in rotational speed as it approximately a cubic yard of sand may form in the How downwind of the
approaches the core of a developing dust every hour for four hours. Its erosive disturbance; and if the density current
devil. action could not be stopped until a happens to overrun a surface layer of
The chief ingredients for a good dust bulldozer was finally driven into it. much warmer air, such an eddy can be
devil, then, are clear skies and bright intensified by the rising of this air.
sun, together with a dry surface that can When a vortex reaches from ground to
become very hot. Loose surface dust cloud, then you've got real trouble.
and debris are helpful to make the dust For the most part, though, dust devils
devil visible; but they are not essential are rather innocuous. They can be
to either its creation or continued For the most part, dust annoying to city dwellers when they
existence. Many times my children and devils are rather innocuous breach their backyard sanctuaries,
I have detected invisible dust devils over —they do little damage and blasting barbecues with sand and grit.
soil, encrusted from a previous rain, that There is reason to believe that they may
allowed no soil particles to become are an important spread the spores of the fungus respon-
airborn. By injecting colored smoke into component of the desert sible for the debilitating Valley Fever.
their bases, we have artifically But on the whole, they do little damage
illuminated their forms and shown them
ecosystem. and are an important component of the
to be just like their naturally visible desert ecosystem. Great birds waft
brothers. skyward almost effortlessly upon
This brings us to the dust devil's buoyant updrafts, and those who would
notorious cousin—the tornado. like to join their ranks find the dust
Although the latter term strikes terror Since dust devils generally form on devil's companionship most helpful. To
into the hearts of many, few people are fine clear days, while tornadoes are the simply stand beside one, alone, and
aware that a strong dust devil can be offspring of inclement weather, there is watch the silent majesty of primeval
more powerful than over a quarter of all usually no difficulty in telling them forces raise up the lifeless dust of the
of the tornadoes that occur in the world. apart. In the environment of the desert, earth into an almost living entity is a
Indeed, they regularly overturn house however, this is not always so. Consider thrill that is difficult to describe. Yes,
trailers and there have been reports that the El Mirage Labor Day tornadoes of you might say that I am crazy—about
they have moved automobiles. One 1976: About 5:40 p.m., Harry Baldwin the desert! 0
particularly strong dust devil was riding the thermals in his sailplane
demolished a chapel that was under when he spotted what looked like three
construction in Tucson, Arizona. The dust devils. Now this was not unusual,
following morning local newspapers had for practically every afternoon during Sherwood B. Idso is
a field day, headlining the story with the summer, stable marine air rushes a research physicist
"Devil Destroys Church!" from mountain passes south and west of with the USDA's
The comparison of dust devils to the El Mirage field; and as it spreads Agricultural Re-
tornadoes goes far beyond that of outward, a line of dust devils often search Service at the
relative strengths, for they share many marks its leading edge. This time, the United States
other common characteristics. One vortices formed by the updrafts of warm Water Conserva-
striking similarity is the existence of air were undercut by denser maritime tion Laboratory in
small but extremely intense mini- air and given rotary motion by the wind Phoenix, Arizona.
funnels which are often embedded shear. They extended all the way to the He also holds adjunct professorships in the
within the flow field of the primary base of some rapidly growing thunder- Departments of Geology and Geography
vortex. In tornadoes, these subsidiary heads. Joining forces, these vortices of at Arizona State University and is
swirls are believed to be the cause of dust devils soon became transformed founder and President of the Institute for
most of the damage and the reason why into full-fledged tornadoes; obtaining Biospheric Research, Inc. of Tempe,
one house will be completely flattened additional energy from the condensation Arizona. He has conducted basic research
while its next door neighbor is left of water vapor. Although no damage in a wide variety of environmental areas
almost unscathed. One was hit by a was done, an inquisitive pilot in a Super and has published over 200 articles in
suction vortex, as the mini-funnels are Cub aircraft was almost sucked into the professional science journals. Dr. Idso was
called, while the other was missed. adopted parent cloud as he circled the honored in 1977 to receive the United
Dust devils also mimic tornadoes funnels and encountered lift of almost States' Arthur S. Flemming Award as one
when they dissipate. Frequently, their 6,000 feet per minute. of five outstanding scientists under age 40
funnels will be stretched into very long, Similar tornadic dust devils often in the Federal Service.
Hot~Air Hoedown
At Albuquerque's 10th International Balloon Fiesta,
the enthusiasm of pioneer balloonists lives on amidst a flourish of color and a rush of air.

P hileas Fogg would be delighted,

so would the Montgolfier
brothers, P.A. Van Tassel,
Joseph Blondin, Roy Stamm and other
pioneer balloonists. So, too, are the
men entertained onlookers with their
unfettered flights, establishing
Albuquerque's place in the history of
ballooning. Ascending for Fourth of
July festivities in 1882, P. A. Van Tassel
Association—AAAA—was formed in
1971, the number of entries increased
from 138 to nearly 400 in 1979.
Entrants come from all over the United
States and from several foreign
hundreds of thousands of spectators floated to a height of more than 14,000 countries to compete, and in 1980 an
who attend Albuquerque's annual feet before returning to earth. In 1907, estimated 500,000 spectators attended
International Balloon Fiesta. A Joseph Blondin provided captive flights the Fiesta. Open to pilots licensed by
colorwashed spectacle of propane-fired, to visitors during five days of the New the Federal Aviation Administration,
hot-air and gas-filled balloons that fill Mexico Territorial Fair. His popular the Albuquerque International Balloon
the New Mexico skies for nine days attraction culminated with a free flight Fiesta offers would-be balloonists who
every October, this light-hearted event that took him 18 miles up the Rio are not licensed a taste of the action by
reaffirms the pleasures of motorless Grande Valley. At the 1909 Territorial allowing them to serve as members of
flight and continues Albuquerque's love Fair, Blondin and Stamm piloted a ground crews, chase crews or pack
affair with ballooning. balloon that traveled more than 90 miles stuffer crews.
When Joseph and Jacques Etienne east of Albuquerque—a record distance The word is out, among both aero-
Montgolfier made the first successful in 1909—before they descended near the nauts and spectators, that some of the
balloon flight in 1783, they did not Pedernal Mountains. After this last best ballooning in the world takes place
realize that their achievement would flight, the popularity of ballooning de- in Albuquerque. This year's lift-off is
provide the impetus for one of the clined in Albuquerque until the early scheduled for the first weekend of the
fastest growing sports in the United 1970s. Fiesta, October 3 and 4. Competitive
States in the 1970s and 1980s. Interest in ballooning is now, excuse events, such as the popular Roadrunner-
Capturing the fancy of daredevils the expression, soaring. Albuquerque is Coyote Race, the Marker Drop and
throughout Europe and the United hosting the 10th International Balloon Blackjack take place October 5 through
States in the years following the Mont- Fiesta, October 3 through 11. A larger 9. The last weekend of the festival,
golfiers' first flight, ballooning was launch site than previous years at Cutter October 10 and 11, there will be another
confined to those with enough time and Field, near the West Frontage Road of spectator ascent of all 1,000 balloons.
money to pursue this eccentric hobby. Interstate 25 between Osuna Road and One of the most exciting competitive
Blessed with clear skies and variable Los Angeles Avenue, will make it events, the Roadrunner-Coyote Race,
winds, Albuquerque is an ideal location possible to launch 1,000 balloons. Since
for ballooning. As early as 1882, and the first balloon association, the Launch time is near, and the crowd comes
following in 1907 and 1909, three bold Albuquerque Aerostat Ascension out to witness the ascension.

Text by Diane Williams Hlava Photography by Cradoc Bagshaw

22 OCTOBER, 1981
challenges pilots' skill in maneuvering degrees Fahrenheit, the balloon rises.
their balloons in unpredictable winds. Once aloft, control of the balloon is Balloon Bible
This race pits the roadrunner balloons achieved through finding and riding Dr. Will Hayes
against the pursuing coyote balloons. wind currents at different altitudes. To
change course or speed, a pilot must
change altitude to find a current
blowing in the direction he wishes to go.
A balloon will stay airborne as long as
A colorwashed spectacle of the air inside the envelope remains
propane-fired, hot-air and warm enough to support the weight of
gas-filled balloons fill the the balloon; usually one to two hours.
Twenty to 40 gallons of propane fuel,
New Mexico skies. carried on board in tanks, is used to
warm the air during flight. Fuel used in-
flight generally runs about $15 an hour.
Another type of balloon uses lighter-
The roadrunner takes off, flies a than-air gas to ascend and fly. When
distance and lands. The coyotes give inflated with helium or hydrogen, gas-
chase attempting to land as near to the filled balloons stay up longer than the
roadrunner as possible, which is diffi- hot-air type. The cost of fuel is high,
cult considering that balloons cannot be however, which limits their practicality.
steered, only maneuvered vertically in Depending on the size of the balloon
the air currents. One of the Fiesta's and the type of gas used, it is not "The Balloon Digest was
main attractions, this race has had as unusual for the cost to range between developed by balloonists and for
many as 10 roadrunners and 600 coyotes $2,000 and $4,000 per flight. balloonists, for the advancement of
participating in a single day. Another A third kind of balloon, designed and the sport we all love."
event is the Marker Drop. In this com- tested in Albuquerque, is called the Dr. Will Hayes, Author
petition pilots maneuver their Sunstat. It is solar-powered and has
balloons—one at a time—as close to the flown for more than four hours on a test In 1973, Dr. Will Hayes was asked by
chosen target as possible and drop their the Federal Aviation Administration to
flight. If the technology needed to make
markers. A similar event is a type of organize and direct a balloon seminar, in
use of the sun to heat the air in the which regulations and procedures could
Blackjack, or 21, played above a num- envelope is perfected, ballooning will be discussed, and balloon flying skills up-
bered grid. Pilots attempt to drop become even more popular than it is dated. The seminar was a resounding suc-
markers on numbered squares in order today. Albuquerque's balloonists will be cess. Out of it came the Balloon Digest.
to score 21. staunch supporters of solar-powered "It's used throughout the world as an in-
Guiding these lighter-than-air, 50 to flight. 0 structional manual in balloon schools,"
60-foot-tall balloons while trying to For more information about the Fiesta, says Hayes. "Since there is no other
master these events is not easy. Launch- contact the Albuquerque International book of a similar nature, this is probably
ing and maneuvering is difficult when Balloon Fiesta, P.O. Box 8486, why."
winds reach more than 10 miles an The Digest covers practically
Albuquerque, NM 87198, (505) 256-9401.
everything, including ballooning history,
hour. Please join us. flight theory and practice, weather signs,
Made of polyester or nylon fabric safety, repair procedures, certification
coated with porosity-reducing poly- and terminology. Hayes acknowledges
urethane, most balloons in the A Los Angeles- the help he received from the experts, but
Albuquerque Fiesta are the hot-air type: based-writer, Diane he is eminently qualified. He holds
the AX-6 or AX-7 class. The AX-6, a Williams Hlava balloon, glider and fixed-wing ratings
smaller balloon with an air capacity of frequently reports with the FAA, has been flving since 1945
56,000 cubic feet, can carry two or three on Southwestern and has recorded more than 1,000
passengers in its gondola; the AX-7 lifestyles and events. accident-free hours. He is contributing
holds 77,000 cubic feet of air and can editor for Flight Handbook, FAA Acci-
Her appreciation
dent Prevention Counselor, Chairman of
carry three or four people aloft. When for the skies of New Mexico and their the liaison committee of the Balloon
the fabric envelope, as it is called, is colorful balloons, from a confirmed Federation of America and Safety Chair-
filled with propane-heated air that has ground-dweller's viewpoint, motivated this man of the Soaring Society of America.
reached a temperature of 180 to 225 report. The list goes on and on.
Balloon Digest is available by writing to
Preceding Pages: Ground crews hold the balloons down as they ready for flight. Top Left:
Balloons from the inside out. Here, a crew member inside the envelope. Bottom Left: A ground
P.O. Box 6006, Santa Barbara, CA
crew member monitors the forcing of warmed air into the envelope during final preparation.
93111, or calling (805) 967-2222.

An historical account of the first lighter-than-air flights in
the Southwest.

First Balloon Ascensions

I ! IP

June 3, 1882, P.A. Van Tassel makes Albuquerque's first balloon ascension in a balloon filled with coal gas.

T he colorful Balloon Fiestas and

internationally acclaimed
voyages of the Double Eagle II
and Kittyhawk have made Albuquerque
famous as a center for the sport of
foot races and a balloon ascension. "Pro-
fessor" P.A. Van Tassel, a bartender in
a local saloon, had purchased a 30,000-
cubic-foot balloon called the City of
Albuquerque, which could allegedly lift
three-quarters of a ton, from
"Professor" F.F. Martin of San
ballooning. However, few realize that
"My entire voyage Francisco. He intended to make a free
the city had a reputation for sponsoring extended only 18 miles up flight with a newspaper reporter "under
lighter-than-air flight as early as the the Rio Grande Valley, but the direct patronage of the people of
1880 s. Three daring free ascensions in Albuquerque" to entertain the public.
1882, 1907 and 1909 by local residents
this short jump was About 5 p.m. on July 3rd, Van Tassel
aroused interest and excitement among punctuated by 8 attempts brought his balloon to a vacant lot near
southwesterners, and impressed a at murder." the city illuminating gas plant on
President. Second Street between Railroad (now
In June of 1882, local papers began to Joseph Blondin, 1907 Central) and Gold Avenues. He hooked
carry ads for Fourth of July festivities the envelope up to a special line and
including a baseball game, horse races, began to fill the bag with a coal gas, a

By Byron A. Johnson, Curator of History, and Robert K.

Danner, Photo Archivist, both of The Albuquerque Museum.
28 OCTOBER, 1981
ordinarily is a whiskey shnger in one of
the musical palaces under my window,
stepped in the basket and after one false
start, cut the ropes that held him down,
and the immense dome softly and easily
mounted into the air... Higher and
higher it went, the Professor industriously
waving the flag of his country and scatter-
ing advertisements. I wonder if there ever
was a balloon or balloonist that went up
without waving the conventional flag.
After the gas was shut off, Van Tassel
attempted to lift off with J. Moore, an
Albuquerque Morning Journal reporter.
The envelope was only two-thirds full of
gas, but it would not lift with the
combined weight, so Moore reluctantly
left the basket. Van Tassel pared his

"As I neared the earth I

threw out my anchor,
which caught in a ditch
and held the balloon
settled, and I got out with
everything in good order."
P.A. Van Tassel, 1882

ballast to 45 pounds, but still the

balloon would not rise. He finally
emptied one of the ballast bags over the
side, inadvertently striking a spectator
who later filed a claim, and the balloon
rose. Another paper, The Evening
Review, recorded the pilot's own des-
cription of the flight:
After rising above the housetops, the
balloon rose rapidly, taking a southerly
course, and the people faded away until
October 19, 1909, Stamm and Blondin using the remaining hydrogen gas to make a free flight. they seemed one black mass of humanity.
Here, they pause for a final portrait. The balloon continued its course until it
hung over the Rio Grande river, which
mixture of hydrogen, methane and gas needed for inflation. Hours came appeared like a tiny silver thread. An alti-
carbon dioxide produced by burning and went, and soon after 2 p.m. the tude of 11,000 feet above sea level had
coal in a low oxygen environment. It onlookers lost interest and boarded been reached. The airship then remained
was normally used for indoor lighting horsedrawn streetcars for Old Town to stationary for a few minutes until it
and has a low-to-medium lifting power. take in other events at the Territorial struck a current of air that bore it rapidly
Van Tassel expected the inflation of the Fairgrounds. toward the west end (Old Town). After
bag to take only a few hours, so he ad- Shortly after 5:30 p.m. word was tele- traveling in that direction two miles, I
vertised the ascension for 10 a.m. the phoned to the fairgrounds and an thought I would go up higher and emptied
following morning. announcement was made that the the contents of one bag of ballast over the
Several thousand people gathered ascension would take place at 6:15 p.m. side; in a few moments the barometer
near the site at the appointed time, Most of the crowd reboarded the street- registered 14,207 feet high.. . I was just
severely taxing the 10 peace officers de- cars and headed for New Albuquerque. over the fairgrounds then, as the balloon
tailed to keep them away from the flam- William B. Lyon, a young doctor with began going down rapidly I shut the valve,
mable balloon. The envelope was a long an office near the ascension site, but had to throw out my coat, basket of
way from being filled due to the pre- described the events in a letter to his lunch, bottles of water, etc., to keep from
Fourth celebrations in nearby saloons fiance: going down too fast. As I neared the earth
which kept the gaslights burning all Finally everything was arranged and the I threw out my anchor which caught in a
night, drawing heavily on the supply of renowned Professor Van Tassel, who ditch and held the balloon settled, and I
Roy Stamm and Joseph Blondin's balloon, Albuquerque, being filled for captive flights in October of 1909. To the right is their hydrogen

got out with everything in good order. Fifth Cavalry was asked to detail 25 of soldiers walked the balloon to the gas
Albuquerque's first balloon flight his men to walk the balloon to the city plant. The wind rose several times to a
ended unceremoniously in a cornfield in illuminating gas plant near the railroad level which made it seem as though the
back of the fairgrounds, near present- yards, to be filled with coal gas. balloon would "carry a select group of
day Rio Grande Boulevard and Central Although the bag was not buoyant soldiers into McKinley County," and
Avenue. By 9 p.m., Van Tassel had- when they reached the railroad yards,
loaded his balloon and basket into a the men had to clear a path by muscling
wagon and was enjoying the acclaim and boxcars out of the way. Disgruntled
hospitality of New Albuquerque, this Santa Fe Railroad employees refused to
time from the front side of a bar. "A few more strides help.
The next attempt at ballooning took through the air and we Once at the gas plant, the balloon was
place during the New Mexico hooked up to a "booster" and filled with
Territorial Fair of 1907. Joseph were down. By the time I coal gas. The next morning at 11:55
Blondin, a 28-year-old musician turned had deflated the bag, some a.m., Blondin cast off with a mere 20'
aeronaut, convinced officials that what of my erstwhile would-be pounds of sand ballast, and the balloon
the fair needed was a balloon in which rose sluggishly. The intrepid pilot later
captive rides could be given followed by assassins drove up, very described his flight for the Aero Digest
a free flight. Roy A. Stamm, fair excited, and somewhat of May, 1930:
secretary, convinced the board to front A native rancher over whose place I was
money for the ascensions, and to loan
abashed to find a man slowly drifting, ran into his house and re-
Blondin an obsolete sprinkler wagon to already in charge of the appeared with a rifle, which barked and
use as a makeshift hydrogen generating animal they thought they spat a ring of smoke straight up at me.
plant. Stamm was to regret his support My precious twenty pounds of ballast on
of the scheme. had shot down." which I had been counting for safe landing
From October 7 through 11, Blondin Joseph Blondin, 1907 had to be dropped then and there. The
struggled to make his generator turn out entire voyage extended only eighteen miles
enough hydrogen to fill the envelope, up the Rio Grande Valley, but this short
but the leaky sprinkler wagon was not jump was punctuated by eight attempts at
up to the task. In an effort to salvage a murder. I don't blame those natives; they
respectable free flight from the debacle, enough for flight, it was inflated to the never before had seen a balloon and
Colonel A.P. Hunter of the visiting point where transport was difficult. The possibly had never heard of one. Their
30 OCTOBER, 1981
perfectly natural reaction against the Stamm threw himself on the tank and crossed over into the Estancia Valley.
unknown was to consider it an enemy. was sent several feet in the air on a They hit an altitude of 12,792 feet and
Sunset brought my balloon down with a geyser of water and sulphuric acid. sighted Chilili, Moriarty and Estancia.
rush, to a landing over which I had no Fortunately he was not hurt, and The flight ended at 1:25 p.m. at the
control and no defense, except the good investigators found that he made the base of the Pedernal Mountains, 10
fortune of a flat unobstructed mesa-land to mistake of pumping water into sulphur- miles southeast of Clines Corners and
receive us.. . A few more strides through ic acid, instead of the reverse. over 90 miles from Albuquerque.
the air and we were down, finally, without After 26 to 30 hours, enough Cowboys from the McGillvray ranch
any damage to myself or the basket. By hydrogen was pumped into the envelope welcomed the balloonists on their
the time I had deflated the bag some of my to insure success, so newspapers broke descent, and they arrived back in town
erstwhile would-be assassins drove up, the story that captive ascensions would the following day. Blondin duly
very excited, and somewhat abashed to soon be available at one dollar for a 15 recorded affadavits from McGillvray
find a man already in charge of the minute ride. A steam windlass was ranch employees and Albuquerque
animal they thought they had shot down. connected to the basket with a residents, and submitted them to the
They were very friendly now and assisted 1,200-foot-long, one-inch-thick rope. Aero Club of America for verification.
me to get back to Albuquerque, to drive the During the next few days, the pilots From then on, few balloon flights
last few blocks to a most exciting and carried scores of passengers, though few were made in the city, perhaps because
enthusiastic reception. wanted to stay up longer than 10 it seemed that Blondin and Stamm's
Blondin spent three hours in the air, minutes at 500 feet, and most came record would never be broken. A few
followed a course parallel with Fourth down slightly "white around the gills." traveling companies passed through
Street to the Corrales Bridge, and President Taft did see the balloon from with parachute drops from balloons, but
descended on the mesa four miles north- the window of his railroad car and the Wright brothers flight in 1903
west of the present village of Corrales. allegedly congratulated Stamm and focused all attention upon heavier-than-
Chagrined over his part in the affair, Blondin on the endeavor. air flight. Stamm went on to become a
Stamm, the fair secretary, bought and Albuquerque's honor was preserved. prosperous business man and writer on
stored the silk balloon and wicker The following day Blondin and early Albuquerque, and Blondin
basket. He did not dream that two years Stamm prepared the balloon for the free became an airplane engineer and builder
later he and his balloon would be called flight by packing provisions including of the none-too-popular Blondin
upon to save the honor of Albuquerque. food for a long voyage, two desert water Mallard airplane. It was to be more than
When the 29th Territorial Fair was bags, a small camera with universal 50 years before ballooning was again
organized in 1909, arrangements were focus, a Thermos bottle, small electric popular in Albuquerque, this time with
made with Charles Stroebel for a small flashlight, six-shooter, sheath knife to safer and more colorful hot-air balloons.
exhibition dirigible and pilot to fly cut the ropes in case of emergency,
during the exposition. Stroebel owned a statometer to judge whether the balloon
small fleet of barnstorming airships, was rising or falling, aneroid barometer Bob Danner is a
each powered by a bicycle connected to to determine the altitude, a thermo- graduate of Bradley
a propeller underneath the gas bag. Pre- meter, a compass and two United States University in Peo-
sident Taft was scheduled to arrive in flags. The balloon was named the ria, Illinois, and
Albuquerque sometime during the fair, Albuquerque. has been involved
and local people looked forward to The Stamm family has wisely pre- with photography
impressing him with their modern flair. served the log of the flight and several of his entire life. He is
However, a few days before the fair the photographs taken from the ground currently Photo-
opened, Stroebel wired the authorities during the ascension. On the morning archivist/Photo-
that his only dirigible capable of lifting of the ascension, the envelope showed grapher for the Albuquerque Museum, and
off at Albuquerque's 5,000-foot altitude less than two-thirds full of gas. As there co-author of Old Town, Albuquerque,
had crashed. Faced with the prospect of was no sulphuric acid to make more, it New Mexico: A Guide to its History
acute embarrassment when President was necessary to leave coats and some and Architecture and Early Albuquer-
Taft arrived, the fair committee wired provisions behind. They intended to que-1870-1918.
Roy Stamm, then out of town on carry 400 pounds of ballast, but only
business, "For Albuquerque's sake, 100 pounds made it on board. The
Stamm, get up your balloon." camera (unfortunately), revolver and Byron A. Johnson
Stamm dusted off his balloon and some food were also discarded. is Curator of
basket, and contacted Blondin to help At 10:55 a.m. on October the 19th, History with the
him prepare it for captive and free the balloon lifted off from Sixth and Albuquerque
flights. To avoid any further Central, and headed directly toward Museum, a division
disappointment, the men kept quiet neighboring high voltage power lines of the Cultural
about the plan until the balloon was for the electric trolley car system. Services Depart-
hauled to a vacant lot at Sixth Street and Stamm quickly emptied some of the ment of the City of
Central Avenue. Blondin supervised the precious ballast, they cleared the lines, Albuquerque. He is
construction of a hydrogen generator, and the wind blew them in a north- a graduate of the University of Arizona
consisting of a large wooden tank in westerly course over Old Town. After and Texas Tech University. He is co-
which sulphuric acid was mixed with 10 minutes, a southeasterly breeze author of two books for the Albuquerque
iron filings to form hydrogen, and the picked up, which drove the balloon Museum: Old Town, Albuquerque,
resulting gas washed in a spray of cold toward Tijeras Canyon. New Mexico: A Guide to its History
water and lime. When a water-seal The balloon managed to clear the tops and Architecture and Early Albuquer-
threatened to give way at one point, of the mountains by 1,000 feet and que-1870-1918.
A silent flight through Canyon de Chelly,
a sandstone masterpiece of time.


(Banyon de 6(icily
Text by Virginia Greene
Photography by Alan Benoit

O n Tuesday night, the cold front
moved in, chasing summer's
thrush from distant peaks, and
coyotes graphed a song of mournful
harmony beyond the canyon rim.
The balloon, an AX-7 Raven, became
a dash of color against'the gray morning
as it was unpacked and stretched out
near the canyon rim at Spider Rock
Overlook, almost 22 miles from the
fill the balloon. Prevailing winds from
the east caught us and we were moved
into an inner world of dramatic history
and archeological speculation, of
modern peoples guided through their
On Wednesday morning, light snow mouth. Red, yellow and black folds of daily lives by shamans and ancient
freckled the land as clouds thundered ritual, of art treasures and adobe walls of
low and fast across the high plateau. Ice- sandstone, masterpieces thousands of
decorated pinon and juniper and rows of years old.
cottonwoods, recently turned golden by Canyon de Chelly may be thought of
capricious temperatures, stood leaf-
Six stories of 20th-century as a towering sandstone art gallery
heavy in the early-morning quiet. multicolored ingenuity was crammed with some of man's most
Fall had come to Canyon de Chelly rapidly unfolding on a lip precious masterpieces. Call it a Louvre
(d'Shay). With it was the silence of anti- of the high plateau. Call it a living
cipation, of change. It was that silence of earth overlooking one of museum of farmers and silver craftsmen
that occurs when man watches and North America's oldest living in the shadow of the Anasazi—the
listens, then internalizes what he sees sites of continuing ancient ones—guarding the old ways
and hears. Gravel crunches underfoot and the old secrets. They carry on a
and is loud to the senses. A jay settles on civilization. culture in the small but overwhelmingly
a branch of pinon, snow sifts to the beautiful canyon where the legendary
ground and the blur is brilliant, even Spider Woman crouches high astride
against a backdrop of pale skies. her red spire 800 feet above the canyon
We had arrived two days ago, fresh nylon lay across the dun-colored sand- floor, and primroses grow in the fine
from the city, spirits high, ready for stone, awaiting the wind. The men sand of the riverbed.
something new. The change had talked quietly as they worked, quickly The canyon itself is a work of art,
occurred as subtly and quietly as snow attaching lines, the propane burners, the with vermillion monoliths of wind-
had fallen during the night. We could brown wicker basket. sculpted rock and sheer walls brushed
blame it on any number of things: the Rosetta LaFont spoke of her life in with surrealistic streaks of desert patina.
long drive, the different altitude, the this place, of her grandparents' small Painted in a burst of colors bellowing
experience of being among strangers on farm on the canyon floor, and of events copper and gold, all the reds and the
the Navajo Indian reservation. We which punctuated 2,000 years of Indian tender blaze of pinks ranging to orange;
recognized a hard reality, an elusive history in Canyon de Chelly. the titian landscape subtly changes with
mystique which seems to permeate We walked to the rim, skirting cholla the shadows each day.
some places remote on the southwestern and prickly pear encircled by narrow Carved by winds, eroded by ancient
landscape. rims of snow. Dried rabbitbrush left a seas, polished by windblown sands, the
Canyon de Chelly is such a place. It dull residue on our boots. canyon walls house gigantic caves which
moves in a cycle of seasons. Its ponder- It was 6 a.m. and the winds were supported human life and an on-going
ous silences and immutable tranquility calm—perfect for flying, Roland said. culture before AD 200. The ruins, well
contain both the peace and the violence Behind us, the great balloon was taking preserved in the dry, desert-like climate,
found in such cycles. embryonic shape. As we watched, are there. Huge rock and adobe pueblos,
We had been here before, to this great 22,000-BTU dual propane burners, dwarfed by the massive concave cliffs
slash deep in the earth of the Defiance loaded with 40 gallons of fuel good for a above and below them, bring both
Mesa in eastern Arizona, had toured the little over three hours aloft, filled the reality and mystique to the silence of the
canyon, and read its history. A few Sheepherder (our balloon) closer to its inner canyon. Pictographs and petro-
months earlier, Roland LaFont, 77,500-cubic-foot capacity. Six stories glyphs decorate the red walls with
dispenser of western hospitality at of 20th-century multicolored ingenuity larger-than-life-sized figures, giving
Justin's historical Thunderbird Lodge was rapidly unfolding on a lip of earth mute testimony to the complex lives of
and Trading Post in Chinle, had overlooking one of North America's those ancient ones.
casually suggested a hot-air balloon ride oldest sites of continuing civilization. Below, on the canyon floor, modern
through the canyon sometime. It was The comparison between the ancient Navajos tend their sheep, weave their
October and we had returned to accept and the modern was striking. It seemed rugs, pound their silver into shapes
the offer—not as casually as it had been fitting to experience the great canyon imitating the figures on the walls above
extended. from Sheepherder's swaying basket, for them. During winter months, the
the silence of the canyon is perpetuated canyon is deserted by its human
by the silence of balloon-flying. The inhabitants who move to the upper
Cast on the canyon, far below, the balloon's sense of privacy inherent in this place levels of the plateau where wood is
shadow. Inset: The Sheepherder being in- demands not to be violated. plentiful, leaving the summer hogans
flated on the canyon floor. Fifteen minutes was enough time to and garden plots until the following
year. Once again the spirits of the past contained community, and we quietly low growl of tour trucks making the
may claim their place. reconstructed the daily lifestyle of those once-daily trip up the canyon toward
Rosetta had talked about those ancient men and women of a few centuries ago. Spider Rock. The drivers, Navajos in
ancestors who had a genius for building We spoke of the buildings hunched in broad-brimmed stetsons, can always be
straight walls without instruments, for the caves and under the overhangs and counted on to toss a few Tootsie Pop
hewing wood with nothing but a stone how those ancient folks tilled the small suckers as the trucks struggle through
tool; for plastering walls of kivas with as fields, grew their corn, beans, pumpkins the deep sand of the riverbed.
many as six coats, finishing with and cotton along the narrow fringes of The canyon had become more and
turquoise; for weaving fine cloth of land hugging the cliff-bases next to the more shallow as we moved west, the
feather, fiber and fur with bone needles; flood channel. morning sun was full upon us, and we
for making pottery of simple beauty, drifted toward the trading post a mile
shaping it with deft, brown hands. She and a half away. Still, the silence
spoke of beads and ornaments of shell prompted by the quiet of the balloon, by
and turquoise mosaic made with only the canyon walls that alternately closed
the crudest of stone knives and drills. The canyon itself is a work in to a few hundred feet, then widened
Sheepherder moved slowly past Spider of art, with vermillion to several hundred yards, remained taut.
Rock and Speaking Rock. About 1,000 monoliths of wind-sculpted The whisper of moccasins in the sand is
feet below are several small Navajo augmented by spirits of the ancient ones
structures; other ruins of prehistoric rock and sheer walls who haunt the north walls of sandstone.
times are located across the canyon in brushed with surrealistic We made a turn over the trading post
alcoves and on ledges. On the horizon is at the mouth of Canyon de Chelly and
the prominent peak of Black Rock, a
streaks of desert patina. began a drift north toward Many Farms,
volcanic plug serving as a surprising that small community some 10 miles
landmark on the flat plateau. north of Chinle. We would be picked up
We swung west, past Sliding Rock there.
Ruin, pointing silently to old hogans, an Roland reached a gloved hand and The Defiance Plateau receded
occasional horse, an occasional flap of pulled a chain. A great "WHOOSH" beneath us, the "WHOOSH" of the
huge wings catching the currents above. roared above us as propane forced more butane burners sent us higher and
The silence was complete. Alan Benoit's hot air into the multicolored shrouds. Canyon de Chelly was left to twist and
camera made a smooth "click," and our Our balloon rose quickly past layer flow in its centuries-old patterns. The
few murmured words were hollow in upon layer of rose-hued sandstone buff- whisper of moccasins, the smell of sun-
the cold morning. ed and softened by Frost and moisture, warmed peaches, the brilliance of
The sound of bells drew our attention winds and blowing sand. woven wool were once again in the
to the canyon floor where deep shadows We topped the rim and drifted west, shadow of undisturbed ages.BJ
lay across the sands, stretched before the again in silence, moving toward Junc-
day's light which struggled through tion Overlook and Tsegi—a deep-carved Virginia Greene, na-
clouds thinning beyond the Chuska summer paradise where the clans of tive Arizonan, adopt-
Mountains in the east. Navajos who have used it for genera- ed Californian, has
"Sheep. Over there. See?" tions still come to plant corn, squash, spent much of her
They had moved out of shadow, a melons and beans in the tiny rincons lifetime exploring the
small white band of sheep and goats, under the spell of a warm summer sun. deserts, mountains,
clinging to an indiscernable path cut Junction Ruin, nine miles from our canyonlands and waterways of the South-
into the sheer wall of rock, and made departure point at Spider Rock, marks west. Three years ago, she marked the last
their way slowly toward the rim. The the junction of Canyon del Muerto and of the English theme papers, turned in the
herder's rattle—pebbles shaken in an old Canyon de Chelly. Canyon del Muerto, final grade report and moved with her
aluminum can—was a dry counterpoint an important tributary of Canyon de husband from Palm Springs to Pacific
against the flat tinkle of sheep bells. Chelly, houses famous Antelope House Grove, California, where she works as a
Six miles down the canyon from our Ruins, Mummy Cave, Massacre Cave, novelist and free-lance writer.
launch at Spider Rock, White House and the dramatic Standing Cow Ruin.
Ruin seemed to melt dramatically into a We passed above Navajo Fortress and Alan Benoit re-
deep recess in the long, sloping wall of drifted almost a mile toward Tsegi, ceived his B.F.A. in
coral-hued sandstone; mute testimony following the riverbed. Rosetta's grand- Photography from
of more than 1,000 souls who made their parents have a hogan at Tsegi where Arizona State Uni-
homes there 800 years ago. Alan photo- water is brought in precarious ditches to versity. For the last
graphed what had once been a self- huddled peach orchards and where seven years, he has
women sit in the shade to weave made his home in Tempe, Arizona. His
blankets after the planting and weeding work has been published in Arizona High-
Evidence of the past, Indian dwelling set in is done. Scrawny ponies ignore anything ways, Desert magazine and Rocky Moun-
beneath the cliffs. Inset: Roland LaFont with beyond their own cropping of coarse tain magazine, as well as other magazines
the Sheepherder. grasses, and small children listen for the and books.
Feathers, Flight
and Fascination

A wildlife painter considers birds,

flight and his work.
Paintings and Essay
By Andrew Steuer

38 OCTOBER, 1981
GREAT HORNED OWL (Bubo virginianus)
The great horned owl is one of the largest and most powerful winged predators of the
desert. This adaptable owl is not restricted to the Southwest: It ranges from the Arc-
tic to the tip of South America. Owls have great night vision and keen hearing—quite
unusual in birds—which helps them zero in on their prey in nearly total darkness.
CANYON WREN (Catherpes mexicanus)
Wrens are small, dull brown birds. However, with their tails cocked over their backs,
their gushing songs and boundless energy, they make up for the lack of color with
personality. The canyon wren is well named; it's a common resident of canyons and
found only in the West.
40 OCTOBER, 1981
ROADRUNNER (Geococcyx californianus)
No other bird is so strongly associated with the Southwest as the roadrunner. This ec-
centric cuckoo spends most of its time on the ground where it runs down prey
(lizards, insects and even snakes). The roadrunner is one of our most unique
desert dwellers.
POOR-WILL {Phalaenoptilus nuttallii)
The tiny beak of the poor-will belies its gaping mouth which serves as an airborne in-
sect trap. Poor-wills hawk flying insects on the wing at night. Their facial bristles
help funnel the insects into the mouth. The poor-will rests on the ground by day,
concealed by its cryptic pattern. It is the only bird known to hibernate.
42 OCTOBER, 1981
've been painting birds for years, Why do I paint birds? Birds are strikes a responsive chord in most of us;
but until now I haven't given active, colorful and endlessly varied. portraying these qualities in a painting
much thought as to why. In When I'm hiking in the mountains, by is the real challenge. If I'm to succeed in
thinking about my motivation, it occurs the ocean or in the desert, where I live, making my experience accessible to the
to me that many of the things I find birds are what I'm most likely to see. viewer, I've got to imbue my subject
compelling about birds lead back to During the hot daytime hours, the with not only the attributes of the bird,
flight. kangaroo rat, sidewinder and scorpion but with a good measure of my own
are waiting for the cooler temperatures feelings and enthusiasm.
and cover of darkness before venturing
forth. Most birds however, aside from a
few night-timers such as owls, share our
I hope to communicate the waking hours.
act of experiencing the bird The reasons birds are so active, If I'm to succeed in making
—making my encounter the colorful and often the most conspicuous my experience accessible to
animals we see, brings us back to flight.
viewer's encounter. Birds as a class are geared toward flight, the viewer, I've got to
and show the adaptations associated imbue my subject with not
with the demands of flying. The co- only the attributes of the
ordination and stamina necessary for
The power of flight has captured flight makes every bird a natural athlete; bird, but with a good
everyone's imagination, and for some- this along with their high body tempera- measure of my own
one who has more than a passing inter- ture (usually well over 100 degrees
est in wild things, birds provide an end- Farenheit) explains why birds are so
feelings and enthusiasm.
less fascination. active. The reason birds are so colorful
My artistic ability furnishes me with a can also be explained by considering
means to express this fascination. I also another aid in flying: visual acuity.
hope to communicate the act of exper- Birds have sharp eyes, and it's only My motivations in painting birds are
iencing the bird—making my encounter natural that this emphasis on vision has several: As a painter, birds are colorful
the viewer's encounter. If a painting had its influence on birds' appearances. and challenging subjects; as an out-
succeeds in this respect, it gives me a Most birds are vision-oriented, and doorsman, birds provide a constant
sense of accomplishment and justifies visual clues are important in specie source of wonder; and finally aside from
all the hard work. recognition and courtship display. all that, I guess I just like the critters. @
To me, painting has an edge over Mammals, in contrast, are less colorful.
photography in portraying birds. I'm an Most mammals are color-blind, relying Andrew Steuer III began drawing and
avid photographer, but I prefer the on keenly developed senses of smell and painting birds in grade school, combining
paintbrush when it comes to rendering hearing rather than sharp eyesight. This an interest in art with that of nature. In
wildlife. When I take a landscape photo- difference in sensory approaches ex- 1973 he received a B.A. in Psychology
graph, I look for the dramatic moment, plains why many mammals are from La Salle College, but his parents gave
the exceptional instant, a fleeting visual nocturnal, and most birds are diurnal. him a 35 mm camera as a graduation pre-
event to be frozen on film. My approach The birds in my paintings crouch, sent and he's been pursuing a career in
to painting is quite different. I strive to perch, sit, walk, run and yes; one's even photography ever since. He is self-taught
invest my cumulative firsthand flying. No matter what they're doing, in both art and photography. As an out-
experience in the subject. The hoped- they have been shaped physically and door photographer and wildlife painter, he
for result is a kind of visual editorial; a behaviorally by the rigors of life in the concentrates mainly on the Southwest. He
composite of personal encounters which aerial element. I feel that the resulting and his wife, Diane, live in Tucson,
goes beyond the static image. vitality, beauty and diversity of birds Arizona.

As a young boy, he dream-
ed of sending arrows to the
moon. Robert Hutchings
I n the desert near Roswell, New
Mexico, Robert Hutchings God-
dard, together with his wife,
Esther and four assistants, set up a
rocket research laboratory and launch-
Goddard graduated from Worcester
Polytechnic Institute and received his
Masters and Ph.D. degrees in physics
from Clark University in Worcester. He
was then offered a research fellowship at
Goddard's lifetime aspira- ing tower. It was July, 1930. By Decem- Princeton in 1912. The long hours he
tion and brilliant work has ber of that year, Goddard's unique, spent in ceaseless study and laboratory
transformed his dreams into liquid-fueled rocket—the only one in the work resulted in tuberculosis of both
world—had streaked to the amazing lungs. One lung was removed, and he
our realities. height of 2,000 feet and attained a top was given two weeks to live.
speed of 500 miles an hour! Doctor Goddard fought back and sur-
Text by William T. Adams Who was this tall, lanky professor vived; but he faced long months in bed.
with one lung? Referring to the meticulous diaries he
Doctor Goddard was born in 1882 in had kept since he was a boy, his notes
Above: Goddard (center) and colleagues Worcester, Massachusetts. As a lad, ly- and sketches, he completed plans and
collected all the pieces after one test ing on the grass shooting arrows into the filed for United States patents on a
flight. Later, this rocket was reassembled air, young Goddard said to his friend, system to deliver fuel to a rocket's com-
and flown. Right: Robert Goddard in Chester Haynes, "If I could only find a bustion chamber, and exhaust nozzle to
the laboratory at Roswell, New Mexico, way to give each arrow an extra push as handle escaping gases, and his very ad-
1936. it begins to lose speed, it might go to the vanced theories for multi-stage rockets.
moon." The patents were granted to him a year
An intense curiosity drove Goddard later.
to investigate all kinds of mechanical By 1914, Goddard was able to return
and chemical devices. He took apart to teaching at Clark University. The
clocks and his mother's sewing following year, he conducted a very
machine, turned the attic of his home significant experiment. By firing a pistol
into a chemistry laboratory, and nearly in a vacuum chamber, he proved that a
blew the roof off trying to make artificial missile could travel in the vacuum of
diamonds. His father, who owned a outer space even more easily and faster
machine tool company, helped him at than it could through the earth's atmos-
every step by providing oil paints, draw- phere. If he could give a rocket that ex-
ing materials, tools, machines, a tele- tra push into space, what would keep it
scope and even a phonograph. from reaching the moon?
One day Goddard climbed a cherry Realizing that he needed more money
tree in his grandmother's orchard. The to continue this research and ex-
sight of the brilliant autumn sky and the periments, Goddard wrote his famous
earth's far horizon encouraged him to report, A Method of Reaching Extreme
make a decision from which he never Altitudes. On the basis of this report, he
wavered. He would devote his life to the received a grant of $5000 from the
exploration of space. He was seventeen. Smithsonian Institute.
A year or so later, Goddard was Then came World War I. Going to
watching a Fourth of July display of work at once for the United States Army
fireworks. Suddenly he thought, Signal Corps, Goddard helped develop
"Could rockets be the answer in supply- a number of military weapons, among
ing that extra push?" He began to study them the forerunner of the famed anti-
everything he could find on rockets. tank bazooka rocket launcher of World
There was precious little. War II.

44 OCTOBER, 1981
After the war and back at Clark
University, Goddard updated his report
to embrace his new theories of the step
or multi-stage rocket. Upon release by
the Smithsonian, this report was seized
on by the media which promptly labeleii
Professor Goddard a moon-struck
crackpot whose ideas were nonsense.
Ignoring these snide innuendos, God-
dard continued his work. During the
years 1920 to 1926, he accomplished a
significant advance in rocketry. Instead
of the solid fuel he had always used in
his rockets, he now devised a way to
combine a mixture of liquid oxygen and
gasoline into a powerful but highly ex-
plosive liquid fuel.
In order to utilize this new fuel, he
designed and built a series of rockets
with liquid fuel motors. Each was
painstakingly tested in the laboratories
at Clark University.
Then it was March 16, 1926—a date
which flight experts assert to be as im-
portant in the history of flight as
December 17, 1903, when the Wright
brothers made their initial flight at Kit-
ty Hawk, North Carolina.
On this cold, raw day with snow on
the ground, Goddard and his crew laun-
ched the world's first liquid-fueled
rocket. The flight lasted only three
seconds and covered a distance of 184
feet. Yet this launch from a farm in
Auburn, Massachusetts, just south of
Worcester, forever established the feasi-
bility of the liquid-fueled rocket.
Three years later, on July 17, 1929, a
fourth rocket was launched—the first to
carry a payload. The nose of the sleek,
11-foot rocket contained a barometer to
record atmospheric pressures, a ther-
mometer to register temperatures, and a
small camera to photograph the
readings on the other two instruments
when the rocket reached the zenith of its
flight. Continued on page 62

The Gossamer Penguin and the Columbia space shuttle; two
very different birds take off in the desert.

I 'm not very good at expressing my

self in words, so it's difficult to
describe the feelings I had when
I was at Edwards Air Force Base
recently to photograph two very
that I could take pictures that would
make others feel about the planes the
way I did; that these were beautiful
machines, almost flying sculptures.
The Gossamer Penguin deserves its
different flying machines. name: It is light and airy looking with
I have been a freelance photographer clear plastic wings and body. I thought
for seven years, working for various it looked ungainly with the solar panel
local and national publications. I never stuck on top, by what appeared to be a
know what an editor is going to ask me couple of two-by-fours. The panel
to photograph when the phone rings. It rotates so it can be turned to face toward
has ranged from politicians and sports or away from the sun. I wondered if the
to machines and landscapes. The plane was too top-heavy to fly.
constant variety is what keeps me going Because the flight was scheduled for 7
through the low side of the feast or a.m. — before the sun got too high, the
famine cycles. air too hot and the wind too brisk — I
In August, 1980, I received a call drove up the night before, warming to
from a science magazine asking me to the job ahead as the day was being
photograph the flight of the solar- warmed by the sunrise across the high
powered Gossamer Penguin. At the time, desert.
this was the latest plane to emerge from My excitement builds before I begin a
the dreams of Dr. Paul MacCready, the job: I don't know what I am going to see
man from Pasadena who invented the when I get there. I have to be prepared
human-powered Gossamer Condor and for anything. I was carrying several
Gossamer Albatross. I was glad to get the cameras and lenses and a bag full of
assignment because I had been inspired film. I'm unusually quiet, preparing
by MacCready's earlier achievements: myself for whatever is ahead, mentally
succeeding with human-powered flight reviewing my equipment and beginning
where so many others had failed. The to formulate pictures in my mind as I
planes were beautiful both in flight and see the countryside the Penguin would
on the ground, so I welcomed the be flying through.
opportunity to see one up close. I hoped The flight was planned by NASA as a

Text and Photography by Robert Burroughs

46 OCTOBER, 1981
Above: The Gossamer Penguin, low and slow in flight. Below: The Columbia space shuttle (a blurred image due to
distance and heat), in its first contact with earth.

I almost expected to see
the wings fluttering, as if
to help keep it aloft.

Janice Brown, the 95-pound pilot, turn-

ed a switch and the small 'A horsepower
motor began to turn the large white pro-
peller. I watched through my camera as
she floated along only 10 or 15 feet
above the ground: low enough to talk to
a bicyclist riding alongside. At one
point, she dipped the plane and touched
the ground before lifting up again. The
Paul MacCready, father of the Gossamer Penguin. Penguin was going so slow I almost ex-
pected to see the wings fluttering, as if
media event, to show the possibilities of to help keep it aloft.
solar-powered flight. An assortment of I photographed constantly, not
reporters, photographers and television knowing how long the flight would last,
cameramen were gathered in the heat at hoping to get a sharp picture in the
the edge of Rogers Dry Lake. lurching truck.
I enjoy working in a group like that, Two miles later she touched down,
meeting friends, being in the crowd and skidding to a stop amid the cheers and
competing for a better shot or a different hugs of the support crew. This was the
angle, trying to get the best picture. longest flight of a human-piloted, totally
The Penguin was waiting, tucked into solar-powered airplane.
the corner of a huge hangar. I thought I felt the distance then that I usually
Dr. MacCready was like a mother hen, feel at this type of event, wanting to
sticking close to his own little bird, cheer for them, tell them "Good work,
fretting over it so no harm could come guys"; but instead staying back, doing
to it. He and his crew guided it out of my job, getting the pictures.
the hangar, warning people away from The wind was too brisk for another
the guy wires holding the wings taut. flight; the plane was walked the two
The solar panel was facing west, away miles back to the hangar, dismantled
from the rapidly rising sun. The and put into a trailer for the ride home.
Penguin was steadied at the wingtips I rode back on the flatbed truck with
and hooked to a rope to be towed aloft MacCready and a couple of other
Janice Brown, the 95-pound pilot. reporters; the rest had opted for an air-
conditioned bus. MacCready talked
by a bicycle. I clambered onto a flatbed quietly about the project; he didn't
truck that was to carry reporters and make any grandiose statements about
The solar panel was turned photographers along the route the the future of solar-powered airplanes.
to face the sun, the bike Penguin was flying. At least three dozen He admitted the purpose of the Penguin
of us were crowded onto the right side was to interest the public in the
started, the rope stretched of the truck; like tourists on an excur- possibilities of alternate energy sources.
and it was up! sion boat, cameras ready. My last image was of Paul
The solar panel was turned to face the MacCready standing in the desert,
sun, the bike started, the rope stretched, taking a picture of the trailer with his
and it was up! The rope dropped away; plane safely tucked inside.-*•

48 OCTOBER, 1981
Life On The Pacific Edge
The Seacoast experience:
You know it . . . you live it.
Celebrate this experience with us each
month; subscribe to Seacoast magazine.
Send in the attached card or phone
(714) 455-9384
50 OCTOBER, 1981
TWO BIRDS that. There is so much enthusiasm,
small hardships fade away; people
become part of a small community.
After parking in the middle of one of
the endless rows, I walked off to look at
NASA invited anyone who this instant city in the desert. The Air Down it came in a long,
wanted to come, and they Force had set up a rock disco and a slow s-turn, lower and
country-western dance floor to entertain
did — by the tens of the growing crowd. Television lower, the crowd
thousands. cameramen focused on the loudest screaming, "Go,go!"
parties; t-shirt and soft drink sellers
cleaned up. The headlights of arriving
cars stabbed across the desert long after
Two of us rolled out our sleeping bags
next to the car, the third member of our
In April of this year, I went back to group slept on top of a garbage No contrail streamed after the shuttle; it
Edwards, this time to watch the landing dumpster at the edge of the runway; was in a powerless glide. Down it came
of the space shuttle Columbia. I didn't securing us a spot with an unobstructed in a long, slow s-turn, lower and lower,
have an assignment; I went to see view. the crowd screaming, "Go, go!" "All
history made, a real spaceship coming Everyone awakened at sunrise: That right!" I didn't see it clearly until it was
back to earth, just like the Tom Swift is when the horns started honking. I in front of us, three miles away, but
stories I read as a child. traipsed over to our dumpster lookout plainly visible across the desert. I had a
I liked the similarities between the point three hours before the scheduled hard time finding it with my telephoto
Gossamer Penguin and the Columbia: landing time, setting up tripods, hauling lens, but then I saw it in the viewfinder,
they both make maximum use of up food and water. Thousands lined the jumping about as I tried to hold it
technology. One with a minimum of fence, looking like a crowd at the beach steady. "I see it," I called to my friends.
hardware: plastic and wire, a few except that our shoreline was a It looked so familiar to me. Even though
months of building. The other with a shimmering dry lake bed. Flags and it was what I expected, I was surprised
maximum of hardware: exotic metals telescopes were everywhere: on top of at the quiet satisfaction that welled up in
and tiles, computers and years of work. cars and Winnebagos, hung from the me. "They did it! This thing made it
A spaceship comes back to Earth at the antennas, even draping stepladders. all the way!" It seemed to float slower,
same place the Penguin made its longest One spectator brought his own truck- the landing gear came down at last, then
flight. I'm a child of the space age. I mounted, high-rise ladder to stretch a trail of white dust appeared as the back
grew up with space flights and moon above everyone else. I sat on my wheels touched and rolled across the
landings. For me, the chance to be at the dumpster, photographing the crowds, dirt. The nose wheel touched the
shuttle landing was like being present at staring through the wavy air at the ground and the Columbia slowed more,
the Wright Brother's first flight. hangars and buildings five miles away. disappearing from my sight in the dust
While the Penguin flight had been a It was hot and I was tired, but the and heat waves rising in the morning
media event, this was a people event. anticipation kept me on edge, checking sun. There was clapping and cheering
NASA invited anyone who wanted to the exposure, making sure the camera before the crowd quieted and moved off
come, and they did — by the tens of had enough film to capture a sequence to their cars; lining up to leave a small
thousands. I did another drive in the of the landing. piece of history in the desert. 0
night, this time with a couple of friends As the hour for touchdown
who shared my enthusiasm and approached, the crowd surged to the
excitement. A corner of Rogers Dry fence, shuttle reports echoed across the Robert Burroughs is
Lake was turned into a huge parking lot desert from the hundreds of radios that a freelance photog-
with cars in lines a mile or more long, had on the same program. rapher who lives in
all facing a picket-fence-like barrier that Suddenly two huge sonic booms San Diego, Cali-
separated us from the actual landing rolled across us. People shouted, "What fornia. He normally
site. was that?" It was the shuttle, too high specializes in people.
I like photographing in crowds like above us to see, but announcing its His work has ap-
descent in a loud voice. Then shouts of peared in the San
Left: The Columbia landing brought out "There it is!" My eyes were guided to a Diego Reader, Time
energized patriotism, as exhibited by this tiny white speck high and behind me, magazine and the
bystander. near the contrails of the chase planes. New York Times.
October 1 — October 31

Arizona workshop will be conducted by Ernest Oct. 17: The Fall Value Desert Plant
Oct. 24-26: The 100th Anniversary of Wright and Floy Jarzabek. The pro- Sale will be held at the Living Desert
the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral will be gram consists of lectures, demonstra- Reserve, 47900 South Portola, Palm
celebrated in Tombstone, AZ. tions, discussions, working field ses- Desert. Hours are 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. In-
Festivities will include re-enactments of sions and photo critiques. This session cluded in the sale will be sunloving,
the Gunfight by Tombstone's Wild will be held at Jenks Lake in the San drought-resistant trees, shrubs, cacti,
Bunch, along with Gallery of Gun- Bernardino Mountains. For more infor- succulents and ground cover; many of
fighters from Amador, California, and a mation, contact Floy Jarzabek, 3630 which are difficult or impossible to find
silent bid auction on the 25th for a one- Geary Place, Riverside, CA 92501, or in a normal nursery. Fact/care sheets ac-
of-a-kind commemorative six-gun. For call (714) 683-4366. company most plants. For more infor-
further information, contact the Tomb- Oct. 3-4: The East Bay Mineral Society mation about this sale, call the Living
stone Epitaph, at (602) 457-2211. will present their Annual Festival of Desert Reserve at (714) 346-5694.
Gems and Minerals, at the Scottish Rite Oct. 17-18: Fallbrook Gem and
Temple, 1547 Lakeside Drive, Mineral Tourmaline Gemboree at the
California Oakland. The Festival will be open Fallbrook High School Cafeteria on
Oct. 2-18: The Fresno Gem and from 10 a.m. to 7 p.m. on Saturday, and South Mission Boulevard in Fallbrook.
Mineral Society is holding its annual 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. on Sunday. There will Hours are: Saturday 10 a.m. to 9 p.m.;
show. Events will include exhibits, be displays of hand-crafted jewelry, Sunday 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. For more in-
demonstrations and dealers. It will be hand-cut stones and beautiful minerals. formation, contact Bob Crowell, 3245
held at the Fresno District Fairgrounds T h e r e will also be dealers, Sumac Road, Fallbrook, CA 92028, or
on East Kings Canyon Road at Chance demonstrators and excellent food. For call (714) 728-8554.
Avenue. Hours are 10 a.m. to 10 p.m. more information, contact Aileen Oct. 24-25: The San Diego Mineral
For information, contact Collins Durden, 2506 High Street, Oakland, and Gem Society is sponsoring the San
Combs, 2028 North Palm, Fresno, CA CA 64901. Diego County Rockhound Gemboree at
93728. Oct. 3-4: The Napa Valley Rock & the Scottish Rite Masonic Memorial
Oct. 3-4: The Prospector's Club of Gem Club, Inc. is holding their show, Center, 1895 Camino Del Rio South,
Southern California, Inc. is holding its Nature's Jewel Box, at the Napa Town San Diego. Hours are: Saturday, 10
14th Annual National Prospector & and Country Fairgrounds, 575 Third a.m. to 9 p.m.; Sunday, 10 a.m. to 6
Treasure Hunters Convention. It will Street, Napa. The show will include p.m. For more information, contact
be held at Galileo Hill Park in Califor- dealers, demonstrations, drawings, Show Chairman, Bill Tirk, 3944
nia City, which is approximately 15 hourly door prizes and food. Hours are: Aragon Drive, San Diego, CA 92115.
miles northeast of Mojave. The latest in Saturday, 10 a.m. to 7 p.m.; Sunday, 10
prospecting and treasure hunting equip- a.m. to 5 p.m. For more information,
ment will be displayed and demon- contact Steve Bowen, 122 Andrew New Mexico
strated. Beautiful displays of coins, Road, Vallejo, CA 94590, or call (707) Oct. 3-4: Annual Aspencade Festival
gold, relics, etc. will be exhibited in the 643-6627. and Octoberfest with over 60 Southwest
treasure display competition. The event Oct. 10-11: The World-of-Rockhounds artisans displaying their work; also in-
will also feature prominent speakers, is having their annual meeting near cluded will be food booths at Zenith
championships, activities for the kids Boron, California, at the Security Mine. Park, entertainment and a 15-mile guid-
and many more opportunities. A great Starting early Saturday morning, events ed aspen tour with a naturalist. This
weekend outing for the entire family. planned will include general meeting, will all occur in Cloudcroft, New Mex-
Most displays require advance conducted field trips, informal discus- ico. The day's events conclude with an
reservations, and the deadline is sions, an auction and a campfire. For evening dance at the Fire Hall. For
September 21. For further information, further information, contact Mrs. Ro- more information, contact the Cloud-
contact Bill Smillie, 10501 Ilona berta Gordon, 11962 Magnolia, Garden croft Chamber of Commerce at (505)
Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90064. Grove, CA 92641, or call (714) 682-2733.
Oct. 3-4: A nature photography 638-8733. Oct. 3-4: The 9th Annual Harvest

In the Heart of Beautiful Coachella Valley

Sands Hotel of Indian Wells

(1/4 mile east of Palm Desert]

•:• Open Year-Round

Children Welcome
: • 48 rooms & suites
(kitchens available)
• Large Heated Pool
Color Television
Individual Air
$0$ proved
Moderate Rates
Festival at El Rancho de las Golon- RESERVATIONS
drinas, an authentic Spanish colonial
village and living museum in Santa Fe.
Featured will be exhibits, demonstra-
tions, food and entertainment. Admis-
sion is $2 for adults; $.50 for children.
Hours: 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. For further in-
formation, call (505) 471-2261.
Oct. 3-11: 10th Annual International
Hot-Air Balloon Fiesta will be held in SIDLES MFG.CO.,INC.
Albuquerque. More than 400 balloon P. O. BOX 3537 D
* entrants are expected, and will par- 75-188Highway 111, TEMPLE, TEXAS 76501
ticipate in sunrise mass ascensions. For Indian Wells, Calif. 92260
more information, call (505) 256-9401, Phone (714) 346-8113
and see the feature elsewhere in the
Oct. 9-11: The 59th Annual '49ers
Celebration is being held in Socorro to Butter Keep
revive the adventurous spirit of gold Keep butter fresh, spreadable
rush days. Events will include a chili and tasty for days—without
cookoff, fiddler's contest, games and
more, with lots of food. It will be an all-
day affair at the New Mexico Institute C A M P I N G FURNITURE & GEAR —
of Mining and Technology Campus. RV A C C E S S O R I E S
Oct. 11-12: 7th Annual Columbus Day
celebration will be sponsored by the
Colonial Infantry of Albuquerque.
Featured will be costumes and armor of
1492 A.D., pageants, music, dancing,
speakers and continuous free entertain-
ment from noon to 8 p.m. both days. It Cool tap water, placed in the attractive, PLUS.'
will be held at Old Town Plaza in Albu- handcrafted stoneware "keep." will setyou EVERY ON-OFF ROAD TIRE KNOWN TO MAN!
querque. free from refrigerator-hardened and sun- OFF-ROAD LIGHTS - WARN HUBS &
melted butter or margarine. An ideal gift. WINCHES - ROUGH COUNTRY SHOCKS
5302 Tweedy Blvd.
The Desert Calendar is a service for our DeptD

readers. We want to let them know what South Gate, CA. 90280
is happening on the desert. If you are hav- ! (213) 566-5171
ing an event, or even a year-round activi-
ty, that you think they would like to hear CANADIAN & FOREIGN REQUESTS
about, let us know. There is no charge for 5 2. U.S. CURRENCY
items listed in the Calendar. We only ask Well-priced at only $ 1 2 . 5 0 .
that you submit it to us at least two Satisfaction guaranteed or your money back. Address
months prior to the event. We (and our To order, mail only $12.50 to: I City _
readers) want to hear from you. BUTTER KEEP. TOLUCA TRADING CO.
P.O. Box 341. Garden Grove. CA 92642 IState , -Zip.
by Rick Mitchell

Collecting Sites will find this a most productive collect- O'Gold.

Nice orbicular rhyolite can be found ing spot. Remember that it is a desert Swest has also introduced Rey Pearl
throughout the southern slopes of Calif- location and gets quite hot during the Cleaner, to be used for cleaning pearls
ornia's Ord Mountains. The unusual summer. I advise this as a fall or spring and soft stones. It does not contain any
spherical and paisley patterns found on trip. caustic chemicals and is quite effective
this infrequently encountered cutting in restoring original brilliance to these
material make it a prize among rock- items.
hounds of the Southwest. In addition, on B. Jadow and Sons, Inc. is intro-
some of the nearby mine dumps other ducing an ultrasonic cleaner which is a
minerals can be obtained; these include new version of the Mini Ultrasonic. It is
barite, chalcopyrite, epidote, fluorite, called the Vigor Clean N'Brite,
hematite, azurite, chrysocolla, silver and measures only 5'A" x AVt" x 5" and
even gold. To get to this interesting features solid state circuitry. In jewelry
desert collecting spot, take Highway cleaning applications it will remove oil,
247, east from Lucerne Valley, for wax, lacquer, glue, paint, polish and
approximately five miles. Continue east other blemishing substances. For more
onto Old Woman Springs Road for a information, write to 53 West 23rd
few yards, turning north on Camp Rock Street, New York, New York 10010.
Road. Follow this dirt road, bearing to The Rock Snapper is now available
the right, for approximately thirteen from Paradise Gems, 21724 99th
miles, then head northwest toward the Avenue SE, Snohomish, Washington
mountains. The primary collecting area Opalite is easily found in this area near 98290. This tool is used to make
is centered about three-fourths of a mile Cadiz, California. preforms for cabochons. Simply score a
from the main road. Simply find a good slab, place it in the jaws of the Rock
place to pull off and start walking. Nice transparent opalite can be Snapper, apply pressure and the slab
collected in a concentrated area near the will be cut at the appropriate spot. It is
town of Cadiz, California. To get to this advertised to be able to trim out a 40 x
well-known location, take old Highway 30 blank in about thirty seconds, with
66 to Chamblass or Danby, and follow none of the mess of a trim saw.
the instructions on the accompanying A new rock vise for sawing has been
map. The diggings can be seen at the developed by Alex W. Sova. It is
base of the small hill, south of the road capable of holding even the most
that parallels the railroad tracks. They unusually shaped rocks. The 4 Point
blend in well with the contour of the Sova Rock Vise employs what looks like
surrounding terrain, so be observant. a bicycle chain to follow the contour of
There is a road heading to the site, the stone and grip it firmly. It comes in
which is about one-half mile off the four sizes, allowing rocks from 1-1/8
main dirt road. inches to 7 inches in diameter to be
SPRINGS ROAD ' Once you get there, pieces of opalite held. The rock vice is fully adjustable,
o Yucca can be found everywhere. A variety of and additional information can be
Valley colors and quality can be obtained obtained by writing All Ways Sweet,
Good orbicular rhyolite collecting area simply by scratching through the Alex W. Sova, 20030 Anglin Street,
on the southern slopes of the Ord Moun- surface soil. If you are more ambitious, Detroit, Michigan 48234.
tains. or are seeking larger pieces, it is
necessary to dig. It takes a pick and Schools
The rhyolite can be found in a variety shovel, but nice large chunks can be The International Faceting School,
of colors and qualities. Some are cream, found in a short amount of time. 5800 West 50th Avenue, Denver,
with black "eyes", while others are Colorado, offers four courses in
darker. The eyes range in size from very Equipment faceting. They lead to certificates in
small to nearly one-half inch in dia- Swest, Inc. 10803 Composite Drive, Basic, Intermediate, Master and
meter. Many are deformed, adding to Dallas, Texas 75220, has introduced a Advanced Master Faceting. The cost
the uniqueness of this material. Some new product that helps eliminate the ranges from $436 to $4412, which
pieces contain random circles, while blackening of skin caused by gold or includes equipment and material use.
others are streaked with bands of small silver jewelry. It is applied like hand They require from 30 to 150 hours of
dots and eyes, and produce very nice cream, is not sticky or uncomfortable to instruction, depending upon which
bookends and cabochons. I am sure you wear, has no odor, and is called Touche certificate you seek.
Articles and news items about
prospecting, mines and mining, both
large and small operations. Pictures,
hints, tips, advertisements for ma-
chinery, mines and claims. Published
Publications hand lotion bottle. Fill it with a half and monthly. $5.00 per year. Send for
The Utah Geological and Mineral half mixture of polish and water, shake sample copy.
Survey, 606 Black Hawk Way, Salt well and spray onto the disc. This is one
Lake City, Utah 84108, offers an of the handiest methods of polish
excellent 79-page book titled Rockhound application that I have found, and Western PROSPECTOR & MINER
Dept. D
Guide to Mineral and Fossil Localities in allows you to apply an even amount of Box 146, Tombstone, AZ 85638
Utah, Circular 63. In this valuable compound over the entire polishing
publication, the collecting localities are pad.
assembled according to county. A There is a good way to determine if a
master map, with each site pinpointed, stone you have contains a star. Simply
is included with each section. The text put a few drops of Karo syrup on it and
gives detailed information about each the star, if there is one, will easily be
spot, including travel instructions, what seen. Six
to collect, climate, elevations and It has been suggested to dip polished exhibit halls
needed equipment. This book is a must silver into a lh lacquer and % thinner dedicated to the
for any rockhound planning a trip to horse. From early Greek
solution to help the polish last for long
to modern times.
Utah. It can be ordered through the periods of time and prevent staining of
Survey for only $2.50, plus shipping. the skin. I have not tried this, but have
The Bureau of Economic Geology, at seen sparkling examples of silver treated
the University of Texas, University in this manner.
Station, Box X, Austin, Texas 78712, Another suggestion that I have re-
has a number of booklets of interest to ceived recently is to mix Elmer's Glue
rockhounds heading, for that state. with water. Use in a fifty percent dilu-
Three such publications are Texas tion to form a protective barrier for
Rocks and Minerals, Texas Gemstones fragile fossils. Simply paint the
and Texas Fossils. Each is very well- specimen with the glue solution and the
written and highly recommended, even fossils will look clean and be protected.
if you're not planning a trip to Texas in If necessary, it can be easily washed off.
the near future. The information If your safety goggles have been
included about fossils and minerals is scratched or are foggy, use toothpaste as Original Remingtons • Russell
valuable in itself, with the approximate a polish to remove the undesirable Bronze • One of Four Kachina
Texas localities being an additional blemishes. Place a small amount on a Chess Sets in The World • West-
bonus. Texas Fossils (GB-2) costs $1, soft cloth and rub. If the scratches aren't ern Treasures Valued at
Texas Rocks and Minerals (GB-6) is $2 too deep, they will be easily removed; $1,000,000.
and Texas Gemstones (RI-42) sells for the goggles will be good as new. Fine Indian crafts for sale in the gift shop.
$1. Be sure to include $1 for shipping A method to use for polishing talc is Just 60 miles south of Tucson on S-83
and handling. I am sure you will find given by the Silvery Colorado River in historic Patagonia, Arizona
the small cost to obtain these booklets Rock Club. They suggest to start Open daily 9 to 5
well worth it. sanding with 200 grit paper, followed Your host: Anne Slradling
L.J. Ettinger has published a book on by 400 grit, then smoothing with 000
gold mining called The Idaho steel wool. After this preparation, heat
Prospector's Guide to Gold. It is 30 pages under a strong light or place in an oven
in length and discusses the state's
various gold districts. There are
descriptions on where to look for gold,
mining techniques, geologic and pro-
until warm to the touch. Rub the warm
talc with clear plastic wax and a beauti-
ful shine will be produced. H PI Jeep
"our only business"
duction background and a good biblio- Rick Mitchell has
graphy. It is easy reading and full of been exploring ghost
valuable information for the Idaho gold towns and mines SALES — LEASING
seeker. The booklet can be ordered from and collecting rocks PARTS — SERVICE
L.J. Ettinger, P.O. Box 795, Challis, and fossils through-
Idaho 83226, and costs $4.95. out the Southwest We Service What We Sell
for about 20 years.
Helpful Hints He has visited hun- JOHNSON'S 4WD CENTER
An excellent way to apply polish to a dreds of locations 7590 Cypress Ave. at Van Buren
polishing wheel is to employ an empty during that time. Riverside, Calif. 92503 (714) 785-1330
Port rait of
an Aeronaut
James Michael Caldwell of Aerostatic Rainbow Wagons:
Pilot, promoter, innovator and aeronautical enthusiast.

Text by David G. Evans

I started 10 years ago with one

sport balloon, a viking suit and
a megaphone," admits James
Michael Caldwell, manufacturer of
commercial hot-air balloons and ther-
and down, elevator-like, is a great way
for a five year old to get a first balloon-
ing experience. These performances are
the main focus of the type of advertising
promotion Caldwell sells: a semi-
mal airships in Elfin Forest, near Escon- portable working billboard. Caldwell
dido, California. Just about every aspect makes no bones about the economics of
of Caldwell's business is entirely un- the ride situation. "Giving rides is
conventional. When he introduces simply not cost-effective any longer.
himself on the phone as " . . . M i k e You only reach two people that way. In
Caldwell of Aerostatic Rainbow order to make profits on flights, you
Wagons, purveyor of thermal air- have to maximize the potential and
ships. . ." he invariably faces a blank reach a whole arena of consumers."
silence while the secretary on the other There are some non-technical pro-
end of the line copes with that data. ficiencies required in hot-air balloon
"What we are, here at Aerostatic, is a piloting; frankly, these are skills
balloon company, but what we do is Caldwell excels in. Since between three
advertising and promotion." Caldwell is and six people are usually required for
actually selling visual impact, not the an inflation, organizational diplomacy
experience of ballooning. and the ability to orchestrate the infla-
"We don't give rides; we're not sport tion ballet are of prime importance.
balloonists. When you see San Diego Caldwell will always ask a prospective
Federal flying, when you see PSA, when crew member/employee, "How much
you see Sgt. Pepper on TV; you're see- do you weigh? Are you big? We need
ing Aerostatic working." A tethered big guys who are strong and fast and
flight, where the balloon is roped to fixed don't ask a lot of dumb questions at the
points and flies 150 feet, moving up wrong time." If you're getting the sense
56 OCTOBER, 1981
Left: James Michael Caldwell, the Wizard at
work. Below Left: Aerostatic expertise;
balloons as a method of advertising.

that Caldwell is a big, heavy, intimidat-

ing personality, who will railroad the
speaker on the other end of the phone if
he can't keep up, then you're getting the
true picture. Selling hot-air for fun and
profit; that's his expertise.
"We've flown in the desert a lot.
We've done nature-study photographs
on hawks and other wildlife. We've
filmed ads where a car or something else
is out there with the balloon behind and
the desert and wind blowing. We've
done aeroballistic studies where the
balloon is tethered close to 3,000 feet
and we drop test articles as they photo-
graph the flight path. The landscape is
not exciting from that altitude, but at
dawn, at only 20 feet, the desert is an
unbelievably unique place to fly."
Pilots in the desert can fly for miles
only two or three feet above the ground.
They do it for the challenge of that kind
of craft control and the thrill of move-
ment which only that experience can
provide. Tricky thermal currents are
less of a problem in the desert than else-
where; though high winds can heat up
an otherwise tame flight to a fevered
pitch. Since power lines and population
density are practically non-existent in
the desert, the real beauty, observed
from a slow, low flying balloon, is
revealed as you take off before dawn and
watch the scenery come alive with the
"The desert can be a very hairy place
to fly," says Caldwell, "because of the
heat and all the vegetation. You think,
'It's the desert, I can land anywhere',
but you can't. The desert has cactus, it
has nasty rocks, it has inaccessible areas
which can be even worse.
There's a place near Magdalena
(Baja) which is surrounded by desert.
The only place to land is in mangroves,
little islands of them. As you go further
into the grove, the water gets very
Above and Below: The balloons must be
durable and well-constructed. Close-ups show
the workmanship.

shallow. You can only take a kayak

there: Well, getting a balloon out in a
kayak is not easy. A couple of times I
flew beyond the mangroves, and here
you're talking about the meanest,
nastiest desert you've ever seen
anywhere in your whole life and the
reason is that it's as dense as the
Hawaiian jungle, only there's nothin'
green. It's spider cacti and ocotillos all
wound and interwoven miles and miles
long—absolutely nowhere to land. If
you did land it would take a helicopter
to pull you out, and there aren't any
helicopters. There are tractors and one
could probably reach you, but you'd be
dead before you got out. (At this point
the photographer and I arc anxious with
suspense. "So what did you do?").
"You hope there's enough wind and
you have enough fuel to reach the other
side. Luckily there was. I made it to
these big green fields at the edge of the
desert where they irrigate.
"Albuquerque is not the most ex-
citing place to fly, but it does have
workable air. It's the ballooning capital
of the world, basically, because a group
of people worked hard to promote it that
way. The city supported them until it
became the permanent site of the Inter-
national Balloon Fiesta. The reason
Albuquerque's good is because it has
what's called the Albuquerque Box."
This box is a topographical feature
which creates fantastic wind currents.
They make it possible for the pilot to
perform intricate maneuvers. "In a
place with normal air currents, you
would have 1,000 balloons wreaking
havoc with each other."
Part of the excitement of ballooning
centers on the immensity of the spec-
tacle, part on the romance and part on
the dangerous difficulty of working with
this kind of aircraft. Here you see pilots
performing as skilled technicians using
58 OCTOBER, 1981
sophisticated machinery and backed by Dorothy Caldwell, Michael's wife, the crown which will cause some terrific
a formidable technology. "The key puts up with constant craziness since convection currents and whip the fabric,
grab," Caldwell mentions, "is extra- the shop is on the Caldwell property. the lines and the crew around in specta-
ordinary evidence of how precise a pilot She handles it in stoic and patient cular fashion. But the purse for 'first
can be." This precision can be seen in fashion having in 10 years seen it all, balloon inflated' at the San Diego
an event where car ignition keys are and by now taking most of Mike's Exposition balloon race this year was
hung on poles. To win the car, the clients' balloon insanity in stride. taken by a pilot with an all-girl crew,
balloonists must grab for them like the Something to do with her being two of whom had never done it before."
brass ring on a merry-go-round. Dorothy and him the Wizard with the "Taking executives up at conventions
Many of the activities at Aerostatic are balloons. is a popular way to utilize the medium,"
unconventional, but actually, most have says Caldwell. "The balloon is display-
never been done before. The most im- ing their logo at the same time. I could
portant quality his ballooning personnel tell you about a two-story-basket that
can have, according to Caldwell, is will hold 35 people. You could fly an
autonomy. Frequently he will be heard
"At dawn, at only 20 feet, entire cocktail party, just like the 747's,
to say or scream, depending on the the desert is an but the Federal Aviation Administration
deadline or client pressure, "Why are unbelievably unique place isn't real happy about alcoholic
you asking me? I'll just have to sit there beverages in the aircraft. The traditional
and figure it out, the same as you do. to fly." champagne toast is about the limit.
Here's the phone, here's the phone Why do balloonists traditionally carry
book. Find out how to do it!" Then he a bottle of champagne with them? This
will return to his desk, chase the kitten custom stems from the time of Mont-
off the warm, high stool with some com- Herb Remmling, the second pilot in golfier, the French Aeronaut who is
ment concerning the mice terrorizing residence at Aerostatic after Caldwell, credited as being the first man airborne
the shop, shake his head and mutter and also the resident pyromaniac, builds and his countrymen who followed him
something about how "It's just like tak- the burners and does all the aloft. Unpredictable and uncontrolled
ing care of kids at the zoo." "plumbing" in the fabricating/flying landings in irate French farmers' fields
At best, Aerostatic combines the operation. Other personnel in sales or necessitated pilots carrying some pacify-
magical romance and mystique of com- sewing may come or go, but Remmling ing device.
plete freedom in flight with the sophisti- has been with Caldwell since '76, and is Here's a toast to great moments soar-
cated professionalism required to use a really the foreman in the background. ing through the open sky, and hoping to
tremendous aircraft in advertising pro- He became a licensed balloon pilot as a see you in Albuquerque in the fall.
motion. "We have done TV commer- direct result of working for Aerostatic. Good sailing! 0
cials for Chrysler automobiles and "Your grandmother could inflate a
Coca-Cola. When you ask about 'non- hot-air balloon if you told her what to David G. Evans is
technical aspects of balloon piloting', do," says Remmling. "You can make it a free lance writer
you're talking about the ability to deal really simple. Sometimes Mike wants to who lives in Car-
with those prestigious corporations on give a client a show, make it exciting diff, California. He
their own level, that diplomacy, that and tense for a while so the client is sure has been involved
credibility and being able to work with he's getting his money's worth. You can with lighter-than-
the film crews and directors." At the wait until the envelope is full of cold air air craft in the fab-
worst, when the winds are impossible, from the inflation fan and then use the rication/flying as-
the client's impatient and the crew's burners slowly to warm and expand that pects (sewing, weav-
tired or tense, it's a cross between, air gently; or you can have the envelope ing baskets, performance flights) and in
"Gosh, Toto, we'll never see Kansas about three quarters full and crack the the sales and promotion aspects. He now
again at this rate," and "Hold onto her, burners for half a minute or so. This works locally doing balloon advertising,
Scotty, she's breaking up!" will send a ball of turbulence toward the writing and advertising copywriting.
Dear Desert Lovers and Travelers: BOOKS AND MAGAZINES
I hope you are pleased with the look of ALWAYS START Before Daylight. A book of
true cowboy stories, guaranteed delivery. $6.60.
Desert magazine. Since our acquisition Claude Farque, 1609 South Louisiana, Crossett,
of the magazine in March, we have been AR 71635.
enthralled with the beauty, history and
WESTERN AMERICANA Books. Used, out-of-
the people who are a part of Desert print & rare. Write for catalog. Mitchell's Book
magazine. Shop, 17 Washington St., Santa Clara, CA 95050.
We have been spreading the word DESERT MAGAZINES. Forty-five odd issues,
about Desert magazine. Our heavy pro- 1941-1966. Make offer. 520 Toyopa Dr., Pacific
motional efforts are paying off, and our Palisades, CA 90272.
circulation throughout the United "MORNIN' ON the Desert". Famous old poem,
States (particularly the Southwest), has long out of print, on beautiful 8" x 10" photo.
increased substantially. Send $2 to P.O. Box 30 Q, Star Route #3,
Goldfield, NV 89103.
The Trading Post in Desert magazine should provide you with better coverage and
better response than at any time in the past. We welcome your classified advertising DE GRAZIA gift books. Illustrated by famed
Arizona artist. Words by Sr. Angela. Hard-bound,
for anything from real estate to lost gold mines! Let me know what you have to sell or 48 pages, "thoroughly charming, sensitive — one
offer, and I will be pleased to run your ad in the Desert Trading Post. of those rare and precious books." Caves and
Our rates for classified advertising in Desert will go up effective this issue. An ad Canyons, $5 each, postage $1. California
residents, 6% sales tax. Order: Benedictines, 3888
running for 1-2 issues will cost $1 /word; 3-5 issues, $0.80/word, and 6 consecutive Paducah Dr., San Diego, CA 92117.
issues, $0.70/word. All classified advertising must be pre-paid and received by us the 1st
of the month, three months prior to issue. PROSPECTING/TREASURE
LOCATE OIL, GAS, water and gold. Amazing
The Desert Trading Post is your opportunity to share what you have with your detector, rugged, sensible, reliable, accurate,
fellow Desert readers. I welcome your participation, and I am professional results. Detectors prepaid. $99.50
each. We make drilling locations and evaluate
At your service,
acreage for oil and gas. Have selective good leases
Terri Bianco to farm out. SCOTT's, Leoti, KS 67861. Phone
Advertising Coordinator (316) 375-2553,(316) 739-4571.

TREASURE—Locate a quarter-mile away with

ultrasensitive locator. Brochure free. Research
YOUR AD could be run on this page at modest cost—$1 per word per issue for Products, Box 270270-BUC, Tampa, FL 33588.
1-2 issues, $0.80 per word per issue for 3-5 issues, and $0.70 per word per issue
FIND GOLD. How, Where. Free information.
for the same ad in 6 consecutive issues. A check or money order must accompany Write: del oeste Press, Box 397-D, Tarzana, CA
all orders. 91356.

Desert Magazine Trading Post FREE 150 PAGE CATALOG. Metal detectors,
gold locators. Complete selection from $49.95.
121 West E Street Low distributor prices to all. DETECTORS,
Encinitas, CA 92024 1443 So. Orlando Ave., Maitland, FL 32751.
Here is my ad.
It is words long (10 words/$10 minimum). FOODS & RECIPES
BEEF JERKY-Best in the West. Make your
I want it to run in the issue(s). own. Send $2 to Jerky Recipe, P.O. Box
Cost: _words x_ times x 23555-M148, San Diego, CA 92123.

BAKERS & LOVERS of fine breads! European

Copy. brick oven flavor with our unglazed stoneware
pans and accessories. Send $1 for brochure. Plan-
ned Pottery, Box 5045-DO81, Eugene, OR


BRING THE DESERT to your home with
cactus as your plant hobby. Healthy nursery-
Name _ grown plants. Catalog 50S. Nichols Cactus
Nursery, Dept. D., 570 South Hughes, Fresno,
Address. CA 93706.
City _State_
Zip ^Telephone ( MISCELLANEOUS
70-110 years old. All states. Stamp for catalog.
Northern Map, Dept. DM, Dunnellon, FL
Examples: P.O. Box 1318 counts as three words: telephone numbers as two words. 32630.
Abbreviations and zip codes are one word.
DRINKING WATER Trailers with/without
pumps. For rent or lease. Aquarius Water
Equipment. Phone (714) 637-0078.
20 LEVEL ACRES near Inyokern. Zoned for SHANGRI-LA LODGE, Big Bear Lake- JEEPS, CARS, trucks available through
homes, mobilehomes. $450 per acre, $1,500 Mountain and high desert adventureland. Private government agencies. Many sell for less than
down, easy terms. Al Sliger, P.O. Box 245, cabins, pool, spa. P.O. Box 2801, Big Bear Lake, $200. Call (602) 941-8014, ext. 1075 for your
Lucerne Valley, CA 92356. CA 92315, (714)866-2415. directory on how to purchase.
60 OCTOBER, 1981
'II all agree there's nothing like enthusiasm and surprising productivity
the great outdoors, whether it be a walk of the weekend prospector. All profiles
down that gorgeous desert drywash, are unique, but always highlight What
hiking up a mountain trail, or stolling to look for, Where to go to find it, and
along the beach. But what most people How to bring it back. Sample articles
don't know is that just below the sur- include recovering gold, dating bottles,
face of that dry wash is gold—precious getting the most from your detector,
metal that can be recovered easily, and collecting and preserving surface
cheaply, and with no damage to the Indian relics and Civil War artifacts.
environment. Few hikers realize that Last but not least, you'll find docu-
that rusty can laying on the trail could mented leads on caches from coast to
be the key to finding old bottles nearby, coast—the countless hoards that still
many worth hundreds of dollars each. await discovery. So take advantage of
And the most accessible riches are the this special subscription offer today,
untold gold and silver rings, coins, and enter the fascinating world of
chains and assorted jewelry laying just treasure hunting!
under those beach sands, waiting to be
Sound exciting? IT IS, and for the
whole family too! Where does TREA-
SURE MAGAZINE come in? Written
and edited by experts, it has been the
undisputed leader in the field forovera
decade. A typical issue contains in-
depth product reports on the latest
metal detectors, drywashers, sluices
and gold pans. Alternatively, regular
reports show how to build your own
low-cost equipment. You'll read inter-
views with people who have literally
struck it rich; world-famous treasure
hunters who take on the big ones, from Enclosed find $11.00 for a one year sub-
the Lost Dutchman mine, to the Egyp- scription (12 Issues) to TREASURE magazine,
tian pyramids. And you'll share the at a savings of $7.00 off the regular newsstand
price. Send to:
P.O. BOX 28816 CITY
Nazis under Hitler. They secured com-
plete details of Goddard's theories and
SAVE 25%
Continued from page 45
It was also the last rocket Goddard
patents by simply writing the United
States Patent Office and enclosing 10
on Walker Mufflers
was to launch in Massachusetts. The cents. Based on his work, they at these
rocket exploded in a tremendous roar developed the deadly V-2 rocket which
from its launching pad, blazed across did terrible damage in Britain during participating
the sky, and plunged to earth—police,
fire trucks and frightened neighbors
World War II.
When the United States finally
Auto Part Stores.
rushed to the scene fearing a plane had entered the war, Goddard again closed
crashed. his laboratory and went to Washington. SAN DIEGO Mr. Parts
COUNTY 7105 El Cajon Blvd
The local press were hot on their heels He began working on a new type of San Diego
.. . and the crackpot professor was back rocket for the Navy, but his health fail- Adams's Auto Parts 463-9377
in the headlines from coast to coast. ed, and he died in 1945 at the age of 63. 3452 Adams Ave
One result: Massachusetts banned the Belatedly, a grateful nation awarded San Diego ORANGE COUNTY
launching of rockets in the state. Doctor Goddard the Congressional Circle Auto Service
Another result: Colonel Charles Lind- Medal of Honor and the Langley Gold Alliance Auto Parts 4616 Los Coyotes Dia
berg read about the flight of the rocket Medal, aviation's highest award. Named 140 N. Hwy 101 Long Beach
and came to Worcester to visit Doctor after him is the great Goddard Space Encinitas 597-8483
Goddard. Center at Greenbelt, Maryland, and the 436-0311
Freeway Auto Service
Goddard Institute of Space Study in Broadway 26242 Avery Pkw.
New York City. Auto Parts *1 Mission Viejo
What happened to Goddard's famous 1034 Broadway 831-1666
desert laboratory? It has been moved in- El Cajon
He needed space to conduct to the Roswell Museum and Art Center
442-0684 Fullerton Motor Parts
140 W. Commonwealt
his flight experiments away in Roswell, New Mexico. Nearby is an Broadway Fullerton
exhibit of the paintings of famed desert Auto Parts #3 871-2341
from interfering people. He artist, Peter Hurd, with whom Goddard 799 El Cajon Blvd
found it on the edge of often shared painting trips. Another El Cajon
H & R Auto Parts
1621 E. Walnut
endless desert: the town of great friend of the Goddards in Roswell Orange
was Paul Horgan, well-known Carlsbad Auto 538-8896
Roswell, New Mexico. southwestern author. 2946 State St.
If you are driving through southern Carlsbad J & B Auto Parts
729-2337 1700 N. Tustin Ave.
New Mexico, perhaps on your way to or Orange
from Carlsbad Caverns, plan a stop at Garnet Auto Parts 637-3670
On Lindberg's recommendation, the the Roswell Museum. To see his very 1559 Qarnet
Guggenheim family offered a large fascinating laboratory gives you some San Diego Orange Engine
idea of the work achieved by the remark- 274-6891 & Parts *2
grant to Goddard to foster his rocket 1911 E. BallRd.
research. Both Lindberg and the able Doctor Robert Goddard. L & M Tire Anaheim
Guggenheims were to back Goddard for You will appreciate that there was a 12619 Poway Rd. 956-0550
many years. man with the intellectual curiosity of a Poway
Realizing that he needed more space scientist and the logic of a disciplined 748-6330 El Toro Auto Parts
23635 El Toro Rd.
in which to conduct his flight ex- physicist. He dreamed of reaching the Masters Auto Service El Toro
periments and to get away from interfer- moon—and, in fact, mankind's first 208 S. Hill St. 830-0950
ing people—and the press—Goddard set giant steps toward a lunar landing were Oceanside
out to search for a suitable location. his. 722-1964 Trio Auto Parts
Someone suggested the town of Roswell, 1031 West
Mr. Parts Orangethorp Ave.
New Mexico, on the edge of endless William T. Adams 2919 Sweetwater Rd. Fullerton
desert. Goddard and his wife took one is a former creative Spring Valley 871-5595
look, noted "its fine dry air, so clear and advertising execu- 465-0359
pure one was glad to breathe," and tive with J. Walter Sarver's Auto Parts
Mr. Parts 2015 W. 17th St.
agreed it was ideal. Thompson Com- 7702 Broadway Santa Ana
Soon they had moved in a freight-car pany. His interest Lemon Grove 542-2386
full of laboratory and launch equipment in rocketry stems 469-6147
over the Santa Fe tracks, and had set up from his work for ARIZONA
Douglas Aircraft Mr. Parts
their laboratory with four assistants in 1034 3rd Ave. Havasu Auto Servio
an old Spanish-style house on Mescalero Company, AiResearch, Northrup, Chula Vista 1601 Industrial Blvc
Ranch. General Dynamics and Teledyne Ryan 426-6500 Lake Havasu City
On May 31, 1935, a Goddard rocket, Aeronautical. He is a freelance writer 855-4117
based in San Diego, California, and a Mr. Parts
under his own gyroscopic controls, 9225 Mira Mesa Blvd
soared to an altitude of 7,500 feet and graduate of Phillips Andover and Dart-
San Diego
the incredible speed of 700 miles an mouth Colleges. His articles on aviation, 578-1600
hour—very close to the speed of sound. the Southwest, Mexico, Japan and
For all his notoriety and success, Doc- Hawaii have appeared in many regional
tor Goddard was ignored by the United and national publications, including the
States War Department: Not so the August, 1981 issue of Desert magazine.
62 OCTOBER, 1981
That's right! 25% off America's best- service station, repair garage or auto
selling mufflers . . . Walker Mufflers. parts store. However, you have to hurry.
25% off wherever you see this quietly Walker's 25% Off Sale only lasts from
handsome face. September 4 to October 31.
Where, you might ask, can you find So get smart and save a quiet 25%
this wonderful face? Very simple! on a new Walker original
At any participating Walker equipment-type muffler. With
Irwin Corey PhD.,S.H.H. any luck you might even
Professor of Quiet sound as smart as
the Professor.

Walker Manufacturing
Division of Tenneco Automotive
IT; 0 0 0


' Gates Rubber
Company has been
making cooling system
parts for more than BO years. We make
more fan belts and coolant hoses than anybody else,
and we know how to make them last longer.
But we can not make them J s t forever. So we invite you
to visit your nearest auto parts store that cares enough
about you to carry Gates V-belts, hoses, thermostats and
radiator caps. Because cooling systems never fail at convenient
times or places. Take good care of your car and your car will take
good care of you. The Gates Rubber Company. We care.

See the complete line of Gag c Doling System products at:

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