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VOLUME 48, NO.

3
JUNE - JULY 1984
ISSN 0194 - 3405
i. -;

I- ?

i •
I •
Quercus chrysolopis

: This mountain Live oak in favorable situations is an impos-


ingly handsome tree, wide-domed and symmetrical. To see it

£» you must follow up the canyons or climb the slopes far up into
' • •

•. -
j i the Pinyon belt of the higher desert mountain ranges. It is ex-
tremely variable in habit of growth, shape of leaf and acorns,
and adapts itself to varied conditions of location, being found
almost throughout California from the coastal to desert ranges.

^ <^
Sometimes it takes a shrubby, or irregular form; often it is a
W . . ,! well-shaped tree 20 to 60 feet high, with a short trunk and
horizontal branches that form a broad, rounding, densely-leafy
crown. Young twigs are hoary with soft wooly hairs and the
new leaves are bronzy or light yellow-green, fuzzy beneath. The
thick leathery older leaves, 1 to 2 inches long, are blue-green
and polished above, paler and felted underneath with yellow-
ish powdery hairs. The leaf shape varies from broad ovate to
oblanceolate, with all gradations between, the margin entire or
ivy sharply-toothed, often on the same twig. The slender yellowish
• • staminate catkins droop from the axils of the season's growth,
the pistillate flowers solitary or few in a cluster. The acorns ma-
r.
F<-. ture the second autumn, the nut being ovate, or oblong, about
one inch long, and the broad, thick cup fits over it like a fuzzy
1 yellow turban. The wood is one of the most valuable of the
western oaks, used chiefly for agricultural implements and
wagons.
In the Providence mountains you reach the first oaks at about
6000 feet where the canyon walls are steep. There the trees are
inclined to be rather shrubby or irregular. Farther up where the
The Canyon oak, found in the Pinyon pine belt o\ the walls spread out into slopes reaching to the top ridges and peaks,
higher desert ranges, varies in size from a shrub to a 60- the oaks find better footing and more head-room, developing
foot tree. Both toothed and entire leaves are seen on the into splendid domes of bright green leafage. I'll never forget
branch pictured here. Beal photo. my first sight of one of those tree masterpieces, near the top of a
long ridge far above me. I couldn't believe my eyes, but it
loomed up conspicuously long before I reached the heights of
Oak Iteel on the first outpost of the Canyon oaks. One canyon that slashes
into the heart of the range, bends around between the high
peaks and broadens into a wide bowl where the oaks are dom-
inant, both shrubby and more stately trees. Its reported loca-
1/elatt Mountdln6 tions include northern Mexico and Arizona.
Similar to some of the phases of the Canyon oak, and for-
By MARY BEAL merly listed as a variety of it, is the Palmer oak,
Quercus palmeri
/ y LTHOUGH oak trees belong to one of the most im- An evergreen, rigidly-branched small tree or shrub 6 to 15
T—7 portant and widely distributed genera in the northern feet high, the stiff, leathery, grey-green leaves elliptic to round-
hemisphere, it is surprising to find so many species na- ish, spinose-toothed and undulate, paler and hairy-felted be-
tive to the desert mountains. neath, an inch more or less long. The acorn's cup is shallow and
The background of the oak's distinction reaches to antiquity thinnish but covered with a dense golden wool, the ovoid nut
when it was prominent in legend and mythological lore. The tapering to a point. Locally abundant, often forming thickets,
Druids held it sacred, together with the mistletoe growing on from the chaparral hillsides up to 7000 feet in Arizona, the
its branches. Oak groves were their temples of worship. The ranges bordering the Colorado desert on the west, and into
huge Yule log burned during the ancient Yule festival was Lower California. Arizona has some noble oak forests, especial-
always of oak, brought in on Christmas Eve with special cere- ly in the southeastern part. The species that dominates those
mony. open park-like forests is the Emory oak,
Its religious significance has faded but the oak's importance
continues in its useful contributions to domestic life and indus- Quercus emoryi
trial development. It supplies valuable timber, the hard close- Very drouth-resistant, the Blackjack or Bellota (everyday
grained wood having superior durability and strength. Its acorns names of Emory oak) grows up to 50 feet, a beautiful upright
provide an excellent food for both wild and domestic animals tree with one main dark-barked trunk and rather small branches
and were a staple for the Indian, being rich in fats and oils. spreading out horizontally, or occasionally shrubby. The sharp-
To prepare them for human consumption, the Indian women pointed leaves are green above and below, broadly-lanceolate,
ground them in a stone mortar to a powdery meal, leaching out with a few teeth at apex or entire. The acorns mature in 2 years.
the tannin by filtering water through the meal until no bitter- The Bellota extends east through southern New Mexico into
ness remained. It was eaten as mush, bread or soup. Charles western Texas, and northern Mexico. Also common in the same
Francis Saunders in his Useful Wild Plants gives an interesting general areas is another large evergreen oak, the Arizona White
account of this preparation and of the gathering of the autumn oak.
harvest of acorns, celebrated by ceremonial dances and songs. Quercus arizonica
The Western oaks have marked differences from those of Usually a shapely -tree, up to 60 feet high, with light-grey,
the East and Middle West but the acorn, with its nut set in a ridged bark and crooked branches, the trunk sometimes 3 feet
scaly cup, identifies them as Quercus, the botanical label of the in diameter, sometimes a large shrub. The dull leaves are ob-
genus. The desert oak that I know best is the Canyon oak, Gold- lanceolate to obovate, cordate at base, the veins prominent be-
en-Cup oak, or Maul oak. neath. The acorns mature the first season.

THE DESERT MAGAZINE


DW GRANTHAM, Editor
M. BANDINI, Photo Editor
P. RICHARDS, Circulation
L. GARNETT, Advertising

Volume 48, No. 3


June-July 1984
ISSN 0194-3405

C O N T N T S
COYOTE FRONT COVER Desert Staff
OAK TREES ON DESERT MOUNTAINS 2 Mary Beal
JUST B E M E N YOU AND ME 4 The Editor
DESERT VISITS JOSHUA TREE NATIONAL MONUMENT 6 DW Grantham
20 NEVADA GHOST TOWNS TO VISIT 11 Desert Staff
UTAH'S NATIONAL PARKS 15 Lawrence Gamett
NEW MEXICO'S PUEBLO INDIAN TOWNS 19 Leslie Marples
THE LOST PICACHO POKE 21 Dr. David Redd
MINES AND MINING 25 Desert Staff
MY FAVORITE ARIZONA GHOST TOWNS 26 Michael Bandini
THE PONY EXPRESS-PARTII 31 Bandini and Loeb
FWTBLING ON ROCKS - PETRIFIED
WOOD ON THE CALIFORNIA DESERT 38 Desert Staff
CALENDAR OF WESTERN EVENTS 40 Desert Staff
BOOKS FOR DESERT READERS 42 The Desert Bookstore
THE SCHOOLHOUSE, CALICO, CALIFORNIA REAR COVER Desert Staff

DESERT MAGAZINE (USPS 535230) is published every other (even numbered)


month. Second Class Postage paid at Desert Hot Springs, California
92240. CIRCULATION AND ADVERTISING offices are located at 11213 Palm
Drive, Desert Hot Springs, California, Telephone (619) 251-1150.
Editorial office located at 6373 Elwood, Joshua Tree, Cal. Telephone
(619) 366-3344. Please address all mail to Post Office Box 1318,
Palm Desert, Cal. 92261. Subscription rates: $15.00 USA, $18.00
foreign, per year. See subscription form in this issue. POSTMASTER:
Send change of address by Form 3579 to DESERT MAGAZINE, P.O. Box 1318,
Palm Desert, Cal. 92261. Copyright 1984 by DESERT MAGAZINE. All
rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in
any manner without securing written permission from the publisher.
CONTRIBUTIONS: The editor welcomes unsolicited manuscripts and
photographs but they can be returned ONLY if accompanied by a fully
postage paid return envelope. While we treat submissions with loving
care, we do not assume responsibility for loss or damage. Writers
Guide is free with large S.A.S.E., with sample copy of magazine, $2.00.
Please have a nice day.
jSetuseen If on and Met
-v

BY: D.W. GRANTHAM

The last 2 issues of Desert were a little late in mailing. We apologize for this
but it was out of our control. Regretfully, our printer filed for receivership and
went out of business. This was done without any warning to their customers and put
some of them in a very bad position. As it stands, they locked the front door, let
most of their employees go, and simply closed down. We were unable to obtain a re-
turn of our printing plates and artwork.
We hope this problem has been solved with the retention of a new printer. The
next issue should reach each of you more quickly.
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

I would like to hear from our readers regarding their favorite subjects. If we
know there is a large group that enjoy ghost town stories, for example, then we will
try to feature more of them.
In the future, we will have Rambling on Rocks as a steady feature. This column
will feature articles on rock collecting, minerals, etc.
We also welcome a new contributor, Dr. David Redd. Dr. Redd states that has
hobby is lost mines and treasure and he promises us a series of stories that will
stir up our curiosity.
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Our next issue will feature a return to color photography-.^ This is an advance-
ment we have been working toward for a long time. As our list of subscribers grows,
so will our color photography. If you know of a relative or friend that would like
to read Desert Magazine, ask them to subscribe. The more subscribers we have, the
better the magazine will be.
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Immediately after this issue is mailed, we will be moving our offices from Desert
Hot Springs to Joshua Tree. This move will enable us to serve everyone better as we
are getting a larger facility. Over the summer months, we will be working on im-
proving our new location. When cooler weather arrives, we hope to have several new
features available for our visitors—a small museum type display of historical arti-
facts, a larger bookstore, some outdoor displays (would you believe one of them will
be a trolley car!), with more to come.

We at Desert Magazine feel that there is a lack of preservation of the history of


the Desert and are going to try to save and display some of our fast disappearing
past.
MOVING ANNOUNCEMENT
E F F E C T I V E JULY 1 , 1984,

T H E D E S E R T B O O K S T O R E

AND
T H E D E S E R T M A G A Z I N E

WILL BE MOVING TO A NEW LOCATION AND LARGER FACILITIES AT:


6373 ELWOOD
JOSHUA TREE
(619) 366-3344
PLEASE NOTE CAREFULLY THAT OUR MAILING ADDRESS WILL REMAIN THE SAME

DESERT MAGAZINE BOOK SHOP


DEATH VALLEY'S VICTIMS A PECULIAR PIECE OF DESERT
by by
Daniel Cronkhite Lulu Rasmussen O'Neal
A descriptive chronology of The only history we know of that
the deaths, disasters, etc. of covers the story of California's
the Death Valley region from Morongo Basin and towns of Morongo
1849-1980. Has a photographic Valley, Yucca Valley, 29 Palms, etc.
section with some graphic ill- Has chapter on the mines, geology,
ustrations of the harsh results flora and fauna, much more.
of a mistake in Death Valley
and a good number of photo's of Paperback 208 pages $12.00
Death Valley personalities
Scotty, Dad Fairbanks, Shorty PLACE NAMES OF THE
Harris, etc. DEATH VALLEY REGION
77 pages, paperback $10.00 by
THE 20 MDLE TEAM AND ITS T.S. Palmer
FAMOUS DRIVER, BORAX BILL A paperback reprint of a very
A reprint of an original book- scarse book. The original print-
let (43sB x 6") by the Pacific ing was limited to 200 copies.
Coast Borax Company. Feature a Lists names of people, places,
picture of Borax Bill, 20 Mule things, etc. for the region, gives
Team in Death Valley. location, origin of name, earliest
known source. A valuable reference
Shipping on this booklet only 75$ work for the Death Valley fan.
$1.50 $7.50

bookstore order blank is on page 43


DESERT VISITS

JOSHUA
TREE
NATIONAL MONUMENT
This month, DESERT'S trip is She wanted to know from whence
to the Joshua Tree National Monu- came the cactus, who had author-
ment, located in the High Desert ized its removal, and where it
of San Bernardino County, just was going. She went so far as to
north of Palm Springs. criticize the driver for vanda-
lizing the desert landscape. Na-
During the early 1920's, truck- ture, she said, had spent ages
loads of cacti, yuccas, and other creating the desert plants. They
shrubs of the desert were being belonged to the desert, and no
stripped from their native habitat one should disturb them.
on the Southern California Desert
and hauled to Los Angeles where But she learned that the man
dealers were selling them for or- was within his rights. There was
namental purposes. It became quite no law at that time to protect
a f a d — t o have rock and cactus Desert vegetation.
gardens planted with desert spe- The woman whose indignation
ies. Cactus gardens are still pop- had been aroused was Minerva
ular, but today they are supplied Hamilton Hoyt, a social and civic
largely with plants grown by nur- worker of South Pasadena. A
serymen. I remember some of these natural leader, with a deep sense
gardens well as my father and mo- of justice. Mrs. Hoyt was an in-
ther had one in the front of defatigable worker when there
their residence in Santa Monica. were wrongs she felt should be
It was during this early period corrected.
that the great bajada at the base Born on a cotton plantation
of the little San Bernardino Moun- near Druan, Mississippi, on March
tains in Riverside County (west of 27, 1866, Mrs. Hoyt grew up in
Desert Hot Springs), known as the the environment of southern Aris-
Devil's Garden, was virtually tocracy. Her family was active in
stripped of its luxuriant growth defense of the south during the
of Yucca, Bisnaga, and Ocotillo. Civil war, and her father was a
The area has never recovered from member of the Mississippi State
the devastation of that period. Senate for many years. After com-
One day one of the truck drivers pleting her advanced schooling at
with a load of barrel cactus was Ward's Seminary in Nashville,
stopped by an attractive, stylish- Tennessee. She studied music in
ly dressed woman who asked many the conservatories in Cincinnati
questions. and Boston.
She was married on
September 5, 1891 to
Albert Sherman Hoyt
of New York. He was a
physician and financier.
In 1898, the Hoyts
moved to Pasadena, and
Mrs. Hoyt immediately
became active in social
and civic affairs. She
was a leader in many
cultural movements and
organized music and art
groups in Pasadena. She
was also president of
the Los Angeles Symph-
ony Orchestra. She and
her husband became ac-
quainted with the de-
sert, and there they
found peace and rest
from the arduous in-
terests at home.
Her attachment for
the desert was such
that she referred to
it constantly in her
lectures, and it was a
line often repeated on
the lecture platform
that the Joshua Tree
Club Women selected as
an inscription for a
memorial plaque to her
in the Monument: "I
stood and looked—all Mrs. Albert Sherman Hoyt. Her love for the desert lead eventually to the
presidential decree setting aside 840,000 acres of desert wilderness as the
was peaceful; it rest- Joshua Tree National Monument.
ed me "
tive forest of Joshua Trees and other Upper
Out of the incident Sonoran Zone vegetation growing among some
with the truck driver fantastic rock formations.
and other similar oc-
curances came the de- Thus was born the idea of this months
termination to do some- trip, the Joshua Tree National Monument.
thing about this wilful Mrs. Hoyt organized the international Desert
removal and destruction Conservation League.
of desert flora. The purpose of the league was to arouse
It was too late to interest in the values of the desert all
save the Devil's Garden over the world, and to conserve them. She
but to the north, on an prepared exhibits of the flora and fauna
expansive plateau fring- and scenic rock formation of the desert and
ed with mountains, and largely at her own expense arranged for the
still inaccessible(then) showing of these exhibits in New York, Wash-
to all but the hardiest xngton D.C., Boston, Mexico City, and even
of travelers, was a na- London.
The Joshua Tree forests and the Wonderland of Rocks within the area set aside as
Joshua Tree National Monument are now accessible with good roads and equipped
with spacious camp grounds for visitors.

Mrs. Hoyt have lectures when- the desire of mining interests


ever she had the opportunity, and owners of land within the
using illustrated slides to proposed Monument.
show the natural beauty of the
area she was seeking to pre- What Mrs. Hoyt and her Inter-
serve- She was awarded medals national Desert Conservation
and citation, and her work at- League did was to succeed in pre-
tracted widespread interest. serving one of the last and best
areas of natural desert vegeta-
In 1935, she took her cru- tion and enviornment.
sade to Washington D.C. to
secure the setting aside of To visit the monument today,
830,000 acres to be known as take Interstate 10 East from
the Joshua Tree National Mon- Los Angeles to its junction with
ument. It was largely through Highway 62 (approximately 7 miles
her personal efforts, and the North of Palm Springs). Turn
interest she aroused, that, Northeast on 62 and proceed about
on August 10, 1936, President 25 miles to Park Blvd. in Joshua
Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Tree, Cal. A right turn, a few
the order establishing the miles, and you are at the western
Monument. The area was later entrance to the Monument. We
reduced to its present day decided to use this entrance be-
size of 557,000 acres, due to cause we planned to return by
Interstate 10.

8
JOSHUA TREE NATIONAL MONUMENT
V,
DISTANCES FROM HEADQUARTERS
CALIFORNIA
INDIAN COVE 9 MILES
Note: All distances are from Headquarters
SPUT ROCK AREA 13 MILES
SALTON VIEW 26 MILES
X
HIDDEN VALLEY 22 MILES SOFT SAND ^ / \ '
CHOLLA CACTUS GARDEN 20 MILES
COTTONWOOD SPRING 42 MILES

Th. 4
Pipei '•

c
San Jacinto ft.
10831II

LEGEND
— Park Boundary
— Paved Road
— Improved Road
= Secondary Road
— Unimproved Road
A Campground
- Trail
0 3 6 MILES
Saltoo Sea
SCALE -241ft. Revised JunelHS NM JT-7021A
We stopped briefly at the Lost Returning to the main highway,
Horse Ranger Station to seek in- we again turn right (east) and
formation and obtain handout ma- head towards Jumbo Rocks. This is
terial. Leaving the ranger sta- a campground with many opportuni-
tion, we returned to the main ties for hiking, photographing,
road and proceeded south. or painting.
We stopped at the entrance to Next, our group arrived at
Hidden Valley and proceeded to Split Rock. This is a former In-
follow a self-guided nature dian Campright at a giant split
trail for a while. This area is boulder.
a very senic jumble of rocks.
According to local folklore, For the more adventuresome,
the valley was previously used before Jumbo rocks a road leads
as a hideout by cattle rustlers. off to the South. About 7 miles
It is a movie perfect Box Canyon. down this road is the Gold Coin
It is part of the Wonderland of Mine. The road proceeds south
Rocks. This area presents many from here through Berdoo Canyon,
opportunities for the more ex- pasts its Ghost Town and enters
perienced hiker backpacker. Dillon Road, 9 miles from Indio.
This road is recommended for 4
Again proceeding south, we wheelers.
came to a junction. We turned on
this road (to the right). Quick- Our group now must make a
ly we came to the Cap Rock Na- choice. We are at an intersection,
ture Trail. This is a short, but called the Pinto Wye (this is part
most interesting, self-guiding of the Pinto Basin). Here, we can
nature trail that features a turn north and visit the head-
good cross section of high desert quarters of the monument and its
vegetation. exhibits or proceed south to the
Interstate Highway. Since it is
Two miles down the road, we spring and we are looking for
reached the grave of John Lang. flowers, we decided to turn south.
Lang was an early day prospec-
tor who once owned the Lost Quickly, we passed a side road
Horse Mine. He is buried near to Belle Campground, named for an
the spot where his body was early mining development. Almost
found rather than at the mine. 2 miles south of Belle Campground
The Lost Horse Mine site is is the White Tanks Campground and
well worth a visit. Near John Natural Arch Hiking Trail. Those
Lang's grave is a side road to with camera's will want to visit
the mine. The Lost Horse Mine and explore here.
was worked intermittently from Five miles further south is a
the 1880's to the 1930's. somewhat rough side road that
Further down the road is leads up to two abandoned mines,
Salton View. From this lofty Golden Bell and El Dorado. This
(5185 ft.) vantage point, 2 of road is recommended for high cen-
Southern California's highest tered four-wheel drive vehicles
peaks. Mount San Jacinto(10831 only.
ft.) and Mount San Gorgonio Another two miles of road and
(11502 ft.) can be seen. Below we reached the Cholla Garden.
you is the Evergreen Coachella This is a fairly large natural
Valley with Indio at one end and cactus garden. As this spring was
Palm Springs at the other. By a fairly dry year, the wildflowers
looking up and over the Coachella were not out in large numbers. But
Valley, one can see the Salton a number of blooming cactus made
Sea. up for this.

10 Continued on Page 43
o

SHOOT TOWN HOPPING


No matter what route you travel in Ne-
vada, a ghost town's sure to lurk nearby. To-
day they are haunted more with spirit than relic,
but there's still something for everyone if you know
where and how to look • Bottle diggers prefer sites to
actual ruins, as their loot often lies underground in an-
cient dumps. Camera bugs and historians search for pictur-
esque ruins, and treasure seekers, carrying metal detectors,
might turn up anything, anyplace. A recent ghost-chaser found
a |50 gold piece in the dust of a Hamilton street • Although the
20 towns listed opposite are a mere fillip to the hundreds scattered
throughout Nevada, any traveler off to an early start will pass close
enough to at least one of them to perhaps turn up a treasure of his own.
1. Dayton, at the mouth of Gold camps bears comment. Populated
Canyon, was one of the Comstock's by 10,000 people in 1862, it
first settlements and a busy rivaled Virginia City in import-
shipping point. Once known as ance. Lots sold for $8,000 each
Chinatown because of the number and more stock swindles were
of coolies brought in to dig a consummated here than anywhere
water ditch, Caucasian residents else in Nevada. Gold discovered
rebelled and changed the name to by a pony express driver who
Dayton in honor of John Day, a didn't know what it was, initiat-
leading citizen. The Onion Hotel ed the Reese River Rush. Stokes
boasted the first piano in Nevada. Castle, one mile to the south,
By-passed by U.S. 50, Dayton re- is an oddity commemorating an era
mains a well-preserved early Ne- when people built such monuments
vada community. to themselves.
2. Candalaria is located in an an- 5. Belmont. In 1876 an optimistic
cient seabottom off of U.S. 95 legislature approved the fanci-
between Tonopah and Mina. Among est courthouse in all Nevada to
a cluster of ghost camps, it may be built in Belmont. Empty and
be reached by following route 10 haunted, it still stands. Fairly
west at Rhodes for 8 miles and well-preserved, Belmont remains
then turning east at Belleville one of the most interesting of
(one of the seven other ghost the lesser-known Nevada ghost
towns.) Discovered in 1864 by towns. After several ups and
Mexicans and named for a Cath- downs, the town appeared quite
olic Mass Day, Candalaria became dead until 1809 when turquoise
Esmeralda County's largest comm- was discovered. This produced a
unity, with about 30 business brief revival, but after those
establishments, including 2 livery veins ran out, the town slumped
stables and a smithy. back into oblivion.
3. Aurora earned distinction be- 6. Amador was completely deserted
cause it acted simultaneously as by 1869, although it once con-
the county seat of Mono County, tained 1500 people. Only seven
California and Esmeralda County, miles north of Austin. It once
Nevada. A survey in 1863 finally competed with its mother city for
placed it in Nevada. It was named the county seat. Nothing remains
for the "Goddess of Dawn" by J.M. above ground of Amador, but it
Corey who discovered gold there in might be a good spot to launch a
1860. At its peak, population rose treasure hunt.
to 6000. The town's 761 dwellings 7. Manhattan was established in
were of stone and brick. It began 1905. Although placer mining con-
to decline after 1870, and now tained until about 1950, the town
there is little left to see other remained small with a constant
than the cemetery. shifting of inhabitants. There
4. Austin is too much alive to be isn't much to see here, but it's
classed as a ghost town, but its a good site for purple glass hun-
geographical location in the cen- ters.
ter of the state as well as the 8. cortez was discovered in 1863 by
hub of a series of adjacent ghost a Dr. I. Hatch. Here George Hearst
12
invested heavily and founded his 12. Dun Glen'settled in 1862, was named
fortune- The peak population of by a nostalgic Scotsman named J.A. Dun,
Cortez reached 1000, made up Twenty-eight miles northeast of Union-
mostly of Mexicans and Chinese. ville, it was the rowdiest of the Hum-
Burros were imported at one time boldt circle of towns. Surrounded by
to form a continuous string towering mountains sparsely forested
three miles long to transport with stunted cedar, it had a population
water from the nearest spring. of 250 people who lived in houses of
Only a cemetery and a few pic- adobe and wood. Industrial interests
turesque mill ruins remain. shifted from mining to stockraising.
9. Unionville is the town Mark Twain One distinctive feature about Dun d e n
described in "Roughing It." The in spite of its raucous reputation, it
community at first consisted of was the only toun in Nevada to stop
two settlements so close together vrork on Sundays or maybe it was be-
that they were called Arabia and cause of! Very little remains today,
were believed to be the richest but there should be many bottles.
silver mines in the world. Later 13. Tuscarora was one of the most
the name was changed to Dixie. prosperous of early Nevada towns.
And then, still later, Onion men Founded in 1867 by men searching
arrived and won a local war thus for placer mines, it was named
raising the Union Jack and chang- by a sailor who had once served
ing the name once again to Union- on the U.S. Tuscarora. Treasure
ville. The community consisted of hunters should note that the
a two-mile long Main Street lined original town was 2*s miles south-
with adobe and stone buildings. east of its present location,
Population reached 1500 before the but was moved in 1875. The pre-
mines closed in 1861. The oldest sent location had 3000 inhabit-
schoolhouse in Nevada still stands ants in 1876. Indians gave the
here. residents much trouble and a
10. star city was the center of a dis- fort was built in 1868 to afford
trict organized in 1860 about 10 protection. Nearby was a hot
ipiles north of Unionville in a deep spring, once of great curiosity.
canyon below lofty Star Peak. It was Although the prototype of a
a particularly elegant town for its Western stage set in its day,
time and in 1865 was populated by Tuscarora was unique in that its
1200 residents. However, by 1881 it citizenry behaved so well they
was already a ghost town. Only a few made do with a lock-up rather
abandoned shacks and a chimney re- than a jail. The town also boast-
mains but it should turn up some in- ed an opera house with a tilting
teresting relics underground. floor that could be leveled for
dancing or tipped to form a
ll.Huraboldt city was established after stage. After the mines closed in
Indians sent white men into the area 1884, thrifty Chinese employed
searching for gold and silver. By 1863 by the Central Pacific R.R. re-
500 people resided in 200 houses. The moved a $100,000,000 of over-
town was particularly noted for its looked gold. The mines were
nice gardens and a babbling brook that never thoroughly worked out and
ran along every street. There were two now only await pumps to boom a-
fashionable hotels and the usual amount gain.
of saloons and stores, some remaining
in fairly good condition today. 14. Cornucopia, 65 miles north of
Carlin was the center of a dis-
discovered in 1872 by Mart Durfee.

13
In 1874 the town set a lively The town burned down in 1885. It may
pace and contained 1000 inha- be reached by turning south from U.S.
bitants who polled 400 votes. 50 on a gravel road 38 miles west of
There were 5 stores and many Ely.
other buildings, among them a 17. Aurum , largest of the Schell
30-room hotel and $8000 saloon Creek group of towns, was promoted
erected by L.I. Hogle. Hopes by a Dr. Brooks. Its original
ran high, but were soon shatt- buildings were buried in a snow
ered when the mines produced slide down the canyon, but many were
barely $1,000,000. Cornucopia rebuilt. Soon ranching became more
may be reached by 4-wheel profitable than mining. Aurum was
drive only via Route 11 to not a rowdy camp, by ghost town
Deep Creek 68 miles north of standards, so bottle collectors
Elko, then over 8 miles of would do better elsewhere, but there
steep trail into the Bull might still be some spoils of house-
Run Mountains. Because the hold relics where the original
rich minerals lay on the buildings were buried. Only a few
surface of the ground only, broken foundations remain to mark
the town collapsed after six the town.
years. It remains quite well
preserved due €o its diffi- 18. Reveille, discovered in 1866,
cult location. was more a camp than a town, since
water had to be hauled 12 miles
15. Mountain City, originally to run the mine. A mill was built
known as Cope Town, was in- at the water source in 1869, but
stituted when a tired mule the veins ran out in the "70s and
driver stopped to rest and tall hopes died. The site of
happened to pan for gold Reveille may be reached by turn-
in the Owyhee River. At ing onto Route 25 at Warm Springs
one time the town held many for about 26 miles, but it will
buildings, but some were take a dedicated ghost to find any
subsequently moved and by signs of the old town.
1881 only one of the 12 19. Eldorado represented a mining dis-
hotels continued in busi- trict on the Colorado River which
ness. In the late '70s its was worked by the Spanish a century
population reached 2500. before Ft. Mohave soldiers dis-
Since its original demise, covered its mines. There were 1500
the town has revived three residents there in 1863. Most of
times—with placer gold, a the houses were built of stone.
silver ledge, and later, The center of the district now is
copper discoveries. It now a pleasant town named Nelson, but
caters to sportsmen for abandoned mines are all around the
hunting and fishing and may countryside.
be reached 83 miles north
of Elko on Route 43. 20. Potosi is a Spanish word that means
"great wealth." Early Mormons learned of
16. Hamilton was the center of this mining district from the Indians and
a cluster of towns and had worked it for lead, but some believe the
a population of 15,000. It Spanish worked it prior to that. The Po-
once boasted of 101 saloons, tosi canp died and revived several times
59 general stores, and the until scarcity of water and supplies fin-
finest hotel of its day which ally forced it into oblivion and it be-
was constructed of dressed came Nevada's first ghost camp. Only a
stone imported from England few stones mark the gmaii town that once
and hauled around the Horn to existed here. Goodsprings, nearby, is
San Francisco. another fading remnant of the district.

14
UTAH'S NATIONAL PARKS
BY LAWRENCE GARNETT
When you sit down with your Capitol Reef National Park is
family to plan this year's va- filled with massive gorges, cathe-
cation don't overlook one of the drals, pinnacles and scarps. The
greatest masterpieces Mother park is named for its domed for-
Nature ever created Utah. mations, which, capped with white
The Beehive State offers an sandstone resemble the nation's
unequalled variety of scenic capitol building. The domes are
beauty and recreational oppor- part of Waterpocket Folo, a 100-
tunities throughout the state. mile long bulge in the earth's
Utah is a land of contrasts. crust which contains pockets that
Throughout the state snow- catch thousands of gallons of
capped peaks stand out against water with each rainfall. The
arid deserts, and brillant park is the site of many Pre-
wildflowers speckle mountain Columbian Indian ruins and marked
meadows and colorful canyons. trails lead to ancient petroglyphs
But Southern Utah is a scenic and artifacts.
wonderland, displaying some Zion National Park is one of
of the most rugged and delicate the nation's oldest and combines
attractions in the world. With- some of the most colorful, deep
in a two-hundred mile circle and narrow canyons, sheer rock
lie five National Parks, which walls and unique formations found
preserve this natural beauty anywhere. For millions of years,
for your enjoyment. Part of the wind, rain, frost and the
this area is known as Utah's Virgin River have shaped the Nava-
Dixie, an obvious reference. jo sandstone creating thousands
Arches National Park lies of layers of multicolored sheets
in a region of desert sand- of rock placed in many different
stone, deep canyons and un- directions. In the winter, there
usual plant life. Wind, water are traces of snow against the
and time have carved the red rock with green pine trees
world's largest concentration sparcely decorating the tall cliffs.
of stone arches within the Zion is massive and overbearing;
115 square-mile park. The the whole canyon seems to be frozen
most well-known attraction. in time. A road has been cut thro-
Delicate Arch, stands 45 feet ugh part of the mountain to in-
high and frames the LaSal clude a one-and-a-half mile tunnel
Mountains and the Colorado that looks like the inside of a
River. Many of the arches can medieval castle. The stream flow-
be seen from the road, but ing along the canyon floor creates
well-marked trails lead to the a contrast with the green and gold
more obscure ones. Every sun- trees and shrubs below and the
rise and sunset the features striking colors of the rocks a-
turn many shades of color and bove. Most of Zion's main forma-
never really appear the same. tions can be seen from the paved
road which winds through the park.

15
SOUTHERN UTAH IS THE "ARCH" CAPITAL OF THE WORLD, ABOVE IS A
LARGE ARCH LOCATED IN MONUMENT CANYON, UTAH. FOR A COMPARISON
AS TO SIZE, NOTE THE PERSON STANDING ON THE MESA IN THE CENTER
OF THIS PICTURE, JUST BELOW THE LINE OF THE ARCH. ARCHES NATIONAL
PARK OFFERS A LARGE NUMBER OF SITES FOR YOUR ENJOYMENT. CAMPING
IN THE PARK IS ONE OF THE BEST WAYS TO ENJOY ITS BEAUTY. B E SURE
TO LEAVE SUFFICENT TIME TO VISIT THIS SCENIC AREA.
16
Bryce Canyon is one of the most delicate and colorful of all the
National Parks. Bryce is technically not a canyon but a series of
"breaks" in the earth's surface. Within these breaks are twelve large
amphitheatres. The breaks plunge down a thousand feet through multi-
colored limestone. The canyon is full of burnt orange and red rocks,
shaped like spires to resemble mountain castles. Pine trees and sage-
brush are mixed in, and in the winter, a trace of snow lies in the
cracks and crevices of the formations. Thunderstorms will rearrange
sediments and the location of the sun will change the brillant colors
from one moment to the next. Time appears to have stood still leaving
the park untouched by civilization. Hiking down into the park is the
best way to view the delicate columns, spires and windows which are a
maze of reds, pinks and creams.
17
Canyonlands National Park is a result of the Colorado and Green Rivers cutting
almost 1,500 feet into the earth's surface. The many spectacular formations in-
clude eroded arches, needles, spires and standing rocks, and cover 257,640 acres.
One of the best ways to see the park is by river. Cataract Canyon, uhere the
Colorado and Green Rivers meet, is one of the wildest rivers for rafting in the
United States. Other ways to explore this rugged wilderness are by hiking, jeep-
ing or scenic flights. Paved state roads also allow access to the park.
Utah's five National Parks are open year-round. The climate is mild enough to
enjoy the parks in any season. Whether you plan to bike, camp, or just explore,
the parks offer the visitor a rare opportunity to experience the beauty and di-
versity that 1-iw has created. For those desiring more information, wrxte the
Utah Travel Council, Council Hall, Salt Lake City, Utah 84114.

18
NEW MEXICO'S INDIAN PUEBLO TOWNS
BY: LESLIE MARPLES

To the casual observer, all Indians are the same. Nothing could be
further from the truth however. America has many distinctly different
tribes and sub-tribes. A number of these tribes pride themselves on
thexr heritage. An Indian is not an Indian, they are Cherokee, Fox or
Navajo. It is a heritage they guard and hold close to.
In New Mexico, it can-be very easy to catagorize all Indians as
Pueblo Indxans. The Pueblo system, however, is a lot like our county
and cxty system—each pueblo is a separate and distinct city, a self-
governxng unit with its own governor, and a division of a larger coun-
ty but xn thxs case the county would be considered a linguistic qroup
Thxs means that the Pueblo's are separate entities by themselves and
some are related by the language their citizens speak.
There are 3 major linguis- handicrafts as pottery making,
tic groups and one of these weaving, basketry, jewelry mak-
groups has 3 divisions. They ing, and leatherwork. The tou-
are: rist provides a ready market for
1. ZUNIAN their handicrafts and in so do-
2. KERESAN ing helps them to preserve their
3. TANOAN native crafts.
a) TEWA Most of the pueblo towns are
b) TIWA located in New Mexico's Rio
c) TOWA Grande Valley in the Northern
Some of these languages are half of the state.
so dissimilar that geographi-
cally close Pueblo's have Listed below are the Pueblo
found it easier to speak to towns, their languistic group,
lack other in English or size of reservation, and a guess
Spanish. at how long the area has been
occupied by the entity. A visit
The New- Mexican Pueblo In- to one of these pueblo town's is
dians are farmers, hearders of a valuable insight to another cul-
sheep, and grazers of cattle. ture, one largely ignored in to-
They are very skilled in such day's world.

Linguistic Reservation Reservation Estimated


Group Name Area In Period Of
Acres Occupation
Zunian Zuni 400,000 290
Keresan Acoma 248,000 1000
Keresan Cochiti 26,500 700
Keresan Laguna 412,000 280
Keresan San Felipe 49,000 270
Keresan Santa Ana 20,000 280
Keresan Santo Domingo 67,000 280
Keresan Zia 90,000 680
TANOAN:
Tewa Nambe 19,000 670
Tewa Pojoaque 12,000 20
Tewa San Ilde Fonso 26,000 680
Tewa San Juan 13,000 680
Tewa Santa Clara 46,000 620
Tewa Tesugue 17,000 680
Tiwa Isleta 210,450 420
Tiwa Picuris 15,000 780
Tiwa Sandia 23,000 630
Tiwa Taos 47,000 280

87.000 420

20
THE LOST PICACHO POKE
BY DR. REDD
Lost treasure stories, as they Officials in Spanish Colonial
go, usually are difficult to lo- times kept careful records of al-
cate and harder to pin down with most every happening under their
this story, we have a number of jurisdiction. But the mission—
easy to determine elements—the pueblos on the Colorado were des-
locale, the mine, the treasure, troyed by the Indians less than
how it got there, why it was a year after they were establish-
there, all but exactally where ed and it is possible that re-
the lost poke is hidden. ports of activities there were
This tale takes place rather lost at that time. If so, no
recently, in the 1940*s or 1950's documentary evidence of the dis-
depending on your source. The covery of gold there could exist
location is at the Old Picacho today. But present-day members
Mine near the Colorado River in of the Quechan or Yuma tribe have
Eastern Imperial County, Calif- a legend that their ancestors
ornia . were forced to dig gold "for the
padres" until they revolted,
I am certain that somewhere killed the Spaniards and threw
in this region lies the site the gold back into the river.
of the first discovery of gold
within the present boundaries Circumstantial evidence sup-
of California—that it was ports the legend. As Fray Sal-
mined in the Cargo Muchacho- meron wrote in an offical re-
Pica-cho-Potholes area nearly port in 1629, Spaniards of the
three-quarters of a century Southwestern frontier "out of
before Marshall found nuggets greed for silver and gold would
in the tail-race of Sutter's enter hell itself to get them."
_mill and long before Don Fran- On February 16, 1775, Father
cisco Lopez found the previous Francisco Garces, adventurous
metal clinging to the roots of Franciscan missionary-explorer
the wild onions in Southern who was camped for the night a-
California's Placeritas Canyon bout 17 miles north and west of
in 1842. J. Ross Browne and - present Yuma, wrote in his diary:
William P. Blake, early author- "The old interpreter whom I have
ities on mineral matters, be- brought is versed in mines, and
lieved that gold was known a- told me this land indicated much
long the Colorado river in the gold, for there was much tepu-
1770s. Paul C. Henshaw, in the stete de color."
California Journal of Mines
and Geology for April 1942, This tepustete or tepostete-
writes that mining first was was the specular iron ore which
carried on in the Cargo Mucha- had been found in the gold pla-
chos and at TUaguna Potholes in cers of Sonora, considered by
1780-81 with the founding of Mexican miners of the period as
Spanish settlements on the a sure sign of the presence of
Colorado. gold. So possibly the interpreter
21
made a lucky guess when he said community.
this was gold country. But it
was was a guess which would In 1898, the Picacho Golden
have been remembered five years Dream Mining Company was incorpor-
later when Garces and three ated and started to work the
other missionaries with sold- Golden Dream Mine a little down-
iers and settlers came to set stream from Picacho. The company
up two mission-pueblos on the built a 10 stamp mill and report-
river. And when we know that edly had 106 men on its payroll.
one of the missions San The site was known as Golden Dream
Pedro y San Pablo de Bicuner City.
was actually built upon To develop the Picacho mine
the rich gold gravels of the site. The California King Gold
Potholes, it is difficult to Mines Company was incorporated on
believe the colonists were January 2, 1899 in Arizona. This
ignorant of the values under- company built a 4*j mile railroad
foot. And if the colonists and 1000 ton cyanide plant at the
were forcing the Indians to site. As the mine contained a
work in the placers, it would large amount of low grade goldore,
help explain the violence of economics dictated that a large
the revolt of July 17, 1781, volume of ore had to be brought
when Garces and his fellow down to the mill and processed
missionaries and many of the each day. The mill was located 4%
soldiers and colonists were railroad miles from the mine due
killed and the remaining to the large amounts of water need-
settlers made captive. ed in the milling process.
Ed Rochester was an ex- The company existed until July
pert on the old Indian trails 30, 1904 when torrential rains
in this part of the desert. flooded most of the town and
At one time or another, he washed out the railroad. The
has traced most of them out company closed down shortly there-
and has gathered all the in- after.
formation he could about
them from his Quechan friends. In 1906, the property was sold
The main trail up the river, by the sheriff to a group of bond-
Ed told us, followed up No holders from New York and Phila-
Name Wash, went just north delphia. Some of them organized a
of Picacho Peak, crossed new company the Picacho Basin Min-
over to Bear Wash and then ing Company in 1906. They moved
entered Indian Pass. This the mill to the mine and opened
route, providing we allow for the Diablo Shaft 750 feet to the
a little compass error, seems Southwest of the Glory Hole. In-
to meet all requirements of stead of bringing the ore to the
the course Garces followed, mill by the river water was pump-
and permits him to pass"near ed to the millsite at the mine.
the Penon de la Campana The company closed operations
(Picacho Peak). in September 1910 and the mill was
History aside, mining in dismantled in 1926. Placer opera-
this area had been going on tions have been conducted from
for many years. In 1878, time to time until World War II
David Neahr of Yuma erected a and part of the town and original
mill to process ore from the landing has been inundated by
area. However, even with this backwater from the Imperial Dam.
development. Pica cho remained A part of this area has become the
a small, not well known mining Picacho State Recreation Area.

22
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1, a - PRESENT ROAD ON RW GRADE e TO BI

c- OLD WAGON ROAO 0 MINE


^"'™

With a predetermin-
ed plan, they cached a
supply of food and be-
gan their operation.
It had to be a dry-pan-
ning operation, so be-
forehand a dry-panner
was built and taken in-
to the mine through the
old caved-in section
which is familiar to
anybody who has ever
visited the mine. Thus
they often worked a-
round the clock, some-
times one man, some-
times two, while the
third either slept or
-: TO GILA BEND
stood guard against
surprise.

During the 1940's or 1950's, three men Some days they re-
conducted an "illegal bootleg" operation. covered as little as
My best source says this was in the early an ounce and other
1950's. Anyway, they located some of the days their production
richer ore in the tunnels in Old Picacho would run much higher.
Mine(Glory Hole?) and started to work the Their theory was that
diggings in a bootleg manner. all of this gold must
be taken.
23
completely off of the property and that the project was almost
in the event that they were over. They had struck another rich
caught or run off the property vein and their recovery had run high.
so once or twice or three times
a week, as required, one would To give a little forelight on
slip out at night with as many what later happened, it must be ex-
pokes of gold as had been pro- plained that the area around the
duced and take it to his secret Picacho mine is an upheaval of rocks
depository and then return to like so much of the West and the
the mine the next night. Once mine is situated in a deposit that
every two weeks, and sometimes appears to be sedimentary. While
once a week, they would all there are rock formations all a-
three haul out and go to Yuma, round for as far as the eye can see
Tecolote, or to Mexicali for the gold is actually recovered from
some rest. On these occasions, dirt. So, the operation of these
they would take along 10 or three men was merely that of follow-
15 ounces of gold to finance ing the underground tunnels and
their sorte and to pay for digging and working the dirt through
provisions they brought back. a dry-washer. Apparently, in pur-
suit of this gold, they had thrown
After nearly 6 months of caution to the winds and excavated
this highly profitable opera- indiscriminately as they followed
tion, there began to appear rich veins.
little scenes of discontent and
distrust among the three, and Sometime late in July or early
their production would rise in August, 1954, while one of them
and fall from the general atti- was standing watch near the en-
tude of one or all. On one oc- trance, he felt a tremble in the
casion, one of them slipped earth, then a whoosh of air and a
out of the mine loaded down with dull thud. That was all. As he made
nearly 600 ounces of dust, that's his way back to their diggings, he
practically 50 pounds of gold, learned the inevitable. The entire
and when he failed to return on tunnel had caved in right above
the second night. Another sus- their operations. He rushed up to
pected that he had absconded the caretaker's shack, but he was
with the whole caboodle and left gone. He went back to the mine and
the mine to search through Yuma realized that the situation was
and Winterhaven for him. When hopeless. Thereupon, he picked up
the first miner returned on the about 100 ounces of gold and a water
fourth night and explained that bag and headed for their old truck
the caretaker of the mining which was parked about 5 miles a-
property had visitors and that way.
he was afraid of being caught The truck was gone so he started
returning, this was accepted as walking toward Winterhaven. Along
an honest explanation and they the way he was picked up by a pros-
proceeded to dry-wash more dirt pector and given a ride to Yuma.
and wonder about the second Pooped and scared, he bought a
miner. A week later, he returned bottle of wine and rented a unit in
in a refreshed condition and an old motel and drank himself to
things settled back to normal sleep. When he finally awoke, he
again. was afraid to report the matter to
the authorities for fear of in-
Finally, around the 1st of criminating himself in the gold
July, 1954, the bookkeeper an- operation, so he went to Durango
nounced that according to his (Mexico).
figures, they had taken out a
little over 3,000 ounces of gold

24 Continued on Page 43
and
CASA GRANDE, ARIZONA. CLIMAX MINE REOPENS
ASARCO Inc. closed the Sacaton Golden, Colorado—The Climax Mine,
open pit copper mine as of located near Leadville, Colorado,
March 31. The closure has been reopened molybdenum mining opera-
anticipated for some time, and tions on a limited basis as of
results from the exhaustion of April 18, 1984.
accessible ore reserves mina-
ble by open pit mining methods. "We will reopen the mine and
operate at production rates which
Development work on a nearby are responsive to market conditions.
underground copper ore body at The Climax and Henderson Mines are
Sacaton was suspended in 1981, among the most cost-efficient pri-
due to the low copper prices. mary sources of molybdenum in the
The surface milling facilities world," a company spokesman stated.
at the site will be mothballed. GETCHELL MINE TO REOPEN
Approximately 190 employees will Winnemucca, Nevada—First Mississ-
be affected by the closure. The ippi Corporation has purchased the
open pit mine at Sacaton began Getchell Mine from Conoco Inc. for
production in 1974, and normally nearly $5 million, and the company
produced about 21,000 tons of says it will give top priority to
copper in concentrates per year. developing the mine. The property
is located a few miles northeast
SANTA FE, NEW MEXICO of Winnemucca, in Humboldt County,
Quintana Minerals Corp. was un- Nevada.
able to find a buyer for its "A work program to evaluate re-
Copper Flats mine and mill near serves and determine mine and mill
Hillsboro, so the project has economics is underway," a First
been taken over by two banks that Mississippi spokesman said, "Re-
had loaned money for the project. serves appear to exceed 750,000
R.E. Lee, executive vice pre- ounces of gold," the company said.
sident of Quintana, said the mine The gold mine had been operated
and mill had operated well,"and from the 1930s until its closure
all was fine, but the price of in 1967. Conoco has completed
copper was so low we could not feasibility studies on reopening
carry the facility. We closed it the mining operation, including
down and waited for things to get the reprocessing of old waste
better, but, unfortunately for us dumps and tailings on the proper-
things got worse instead. It was ty. Immediately after it was pur-
a good resource and a fine mill, chased by the DuPont Company,
but you can't run something like Conoco had announced that it would
that at these copper prices. be selling all of their mineral
They can make copper cheaper in properties and be getting out of
Chile than we can in the United the minerals business.
States."

25
MY FAVORITE ARIZONA GHOST TOWNS
BY MICHAEL BANDINI

AUSTERLITZ, Arizona: Located CHARLESTON, Arizona: Located


about 7 miles south of Arivaca, 8 miles southwest of Tombstone,
or 30 miles west of Nogales. or 4 miles south of Fairbank,
Once a booming, wild border on the bank of the San Pedro
mining camp; now in ruins. river. Ruins remain of build-
ings and the famous old Tomb-
BLUEBELL, Arizona: Located stone Mining and Milling Com-
4 miles off of Highway 69 pany stamp mills.
south of Prescott. Ruins of
the old Bluebell Mine and CHLORIDE, Arizona: Located
tramway are visible. Near- 20 miles northwest of Kingman
by copper and silver smelt- on Highway 93, and then about
ery is in ruins. A few re- 4 miles northeast on Highway
sidents remain. 62. Buildings remain, old
mines, and diggings.
BRADSHAW CITY, Arizona:
Located south of Prescott on CONGRESS, Arizona: Located
the side of Mt. Wasson in a short distance from the junc-
the Bradshaw Mountains. Once tion of Highways 71 and 89, 16
a city of 5,000; now a ghost. miles north of Wickenburg.
Ruins of the Crown King mine Ruins of the old Congress Mine,
are nearby. the camp, and lots of diggings
remain.
CALABASAS, Arizona: Locat-
ed off Highway 89 and just 6 CONTENTION CITY, Arizona:
miles from Nogales. A town Located about 2 miles north of
with a truly fabulous history. Highway 82 and about 5 miles
Deposits were discovered and from Tombstone. A few diggings
worked as early as 1770s by remain and the ruins of the
Spaniards, then Mexicans and Contention Mine mill. Inquire
Indians. During Civil War it at Tombstone or Fairbanks.
blossomed into a riotous
town. Ruins throughout the DUSQUESNE, Arizona: Located
area and old Fort Mason ruins about 19 miles east of Nogales
are nearby. on the Bisbee - Nogales border
road. Once a riotous city with
CERRO COLORADO, Arizona: more than 1,000 permanent citi-
Located about 60 miles south- zens. Now ruins and shells of
west of Tucson, or 30 miles buildings remain.
northwest of Nogales. This
internationally famous town EHRENBERG, Arizona: Located
was headquarters for the e- just north of Interstate 10 on
qually famous Heintzelman the Colorado River. One*; a
Mine interests and was once supply center and river port;
known by that name. now adobe ruins.

26
GALEYVTLLE, Arizona: Located MAMMOTH, Arizona: Located on
about 5 miles south of Paradise Highway 77 about 44 miles north-
and often called Rustler's Park east of Tucson. Town was named
and shown as such on some maps. after famous Mammoth mine. Town
Several unsuccessful mining o- is still populated, but many a-
perations established the town dobe ruins are evident and other
and it later became the head- ghost camps are nearby.
quarters for rustling activi-
ties for outlaws. Historic MCMILLEN, Arizona: Located 15
ruins in the immediate area. miles northeast of Globe, 1 mile
northwest of highway. A rich
GILA CITY, Arizona: Located silver camp. Discovered in March
about 25 miles east of Yuma on 1876 by Charlie McMillen. Some
the Gila river. Once a boom- ore was worth $1900 per ton. Had
ing town of over 1,000 people about 300 residents and a 10
who worked the rich placer de- stamp mill.
posits. Now a few footings
and traces of the placers re- MOWRY, Arizona: Located about
main. 18 miles south of Patagonia on
the old trail road. A rich sil-
JEROME, Arizona: Located on ver and lead mining center. Or-
Highway 89 between Flagstaff ginally called the Patagonia
and Prescott. Perched pre- mine but changed to Mowry when
cariously on the side of a bought in 1859 by Lt. Sylvester
mountain. Some residents re- Mowry. Mowry lost the mine when
main to keep alive this for- jailed in June 1862 as a southern
mer boom city of 15,000 souls. sympathizer. Some say the mine
Homes, stores, hospital, and was an old Mexican discovery and
other facilities stand idle was just rediscovered by Americans.
and falling into ruins.
OATMAN, Arizona: Located about
KOFA, Arizona: Located a- 17 miles north of Topock on old
bout 17 miles east of Highway Highway 66 road. Mines closed
95. Turn off Highway 95 is 1942. Numerous local residents
about 25 miles south of Quart- are giving this town a new shot
zite. Camp is in ruins. of life. Today it is an active
Buildings and tramways of western town. Weekends are best
famous King of Arizona mine to visit. Lords say it is the
are well preserved. "liveliest ghost town in Arizona".
Site is well worth a side trip.
LA PAZ, Arizona: Located
on the Colorado river 10 miles PARADISE, Arizona: Located a-
north of Ehrenberg. Once had bout 35 miles south of the San
a population of over 5,000 Simon-Highway 86 junction, or 15
and was considered as site for miles northwest of Rodeo, New
capitol of the West. Now in Mexico(Highway 80). Town was es-
ruins. tablished to supply unsuccessful
mining operations and was taken
LOS GDIJAS, Arizona: Locat- over by outlaws and rustlers.
ed about 65 miles southwest of Several dilapidated buildings and
Tucson, or 7 miles west of a few residents remain to keep
Cerro Colorado on old road. the town alive.
Famous Ft^rnstrom Mill ruins
are visible. Once a booming PEARCE, Arizona: Located off
border mining town; now re- Highway 181 about 50 miles north-
duced to ruins. west of Douglas. During the
27
TO TUCSON-46 Ml.
Tubaetc*

•'inTUMACACORI
1 \ \NAT'L. MON.

Historic photo of present Tumacacori


Mission.

Map of Tubac Area

WICKENBURG'i.

Rich Hill and Surrounding Towns


28
1880's and 90"s a booming gold namesake in Wales. The old mill
and silver town that produced is the largest ruin here. See it
upward of $30,000,000 in gold before the vandals finish.
alone. The mine closed in
1918 due to water flooding TIP TOP, Arizona: Located se-
the shaft. Some good mineral veral miles off Black Canyon High-
samples can be found in the way at Table Top Mesa offramp
area. across the Agua Fria River. Four
wheel drive country. Mine was
PLANET, Arizona: Located discovered in 1875 and worked un-
about 15 miles northeast of til the 1890's. The town had 2
Parker on the Bill Williams general stores, 6 saloons, 2 rest-
River. Location of Arizona's aurants, a laundry, feedyard, as-
first copper mine. It boomed say office, and post office. Some
briefly, then died. A few ruins remain in a picturesque set-
ruins remain. ting. Mine ruins are above the
townsite on the hill.
RICH HILLS, Arizona: Lo-
cated about 12 miles north TOTALWRECK, Arizona: A hard to
of Wickenberg on an old get to locale, 24 miles east of
mountain road. A rip-roar- Tucson on Interstate 10 and then
ing gold camp in the 1860's. about an hour in 4 wheel drive.
Named when a Mexican youth Some ruins remain. Was as success-
climbed the mountain east of ful silver camp from 1879 to 1890.
the gulch and found nugget Had about 50 houses, a business
gold barely beneath the district, and 300 residents at its
earth's surface. Unsubstan- height. Numerous mines also dot
tiated reports claim that the area.
men used knives to gouge
$100,000 in nugget gold with- TOBAC, Arizona: Located on High-
in 3 months of discovery. A way 89 only 22 miles south of
few buildings remain in addi- Tucson. The first Spanish presidio
tion to ruins and an unusual was established here in 1752. De
cemetery. Anza assembled the colonists who
established San Francisco here in
SASCO, Arizona: Off Inter- 1775. About 100 residents remain,
state 10 at Red Rock, then but numerous spectacular ruins re-
west for seven miles. Named main, some dating back to 1752.
for Southern Arizona Smelting
Company Town was served by WASHINGTON, Arizona: Located a
Arizona Southern Railroad. few miles east of Nogales on the
Many ruins remain, especially Mexican border and Santa Cruz River,
at the Smelter furnace. More Mining activity dates back to pre-
remains are here than at many historic times and diggings, found-
larger ghost towns. dations, and ruins of famous West-
inghouse tramway may be seen.
SWANSEA, Arizona: A copper
mining ghost situated 25 miles WHITE HILLS, Arizona: Located 7
north east of Bouse. Many miles east of Highway 93 near
ruins are located here due to Squaw Peak. Old road from Highway
the recent nature of the town. 93-466 ends at the town. Several
Mines were active from 1908- abandoned buildings remain. Silver
1930. Was served by a branch camp in the northwest corner of
railroad from Bouse. Many con- the state. This area is best to
crete buildings and ruins are visit in the cooler part of the
here. Town was named for its year, summer temperature can be
excessive.
29
Weathered Cabin at White Hills

Rock Wall Ruins at Rich Hill

30
V/i--*/''''// / / / / '

The PONY EXPRESS

C O N T I N U E D FROM T H E A P R I L ISSUE

It is doubtful whether many animal, was dressed in miniature


of the men lived up to their flags. He proceeded before four
pledge, particularly, swearing o'clock to the Sacramento boat
and fighting, but there was and was loudly cheered by the
never any question as to their crowd as he started. We had for-
loyalty to the firm that em- gotten to say that the rider's
ployed them. Finally after name was James Randall, an old
months of winter work it was hand at the business and evident-
announced that a pony would ly quite at home as a rider,
start from St. Joseph, Missouri thought he did get up on the
and at San Francisco, California wrong side in his excitement.
simultaneously, on April 3, 1860. The express matter amounted
to 85 letters which at $5 per
The following is the time letter gave a total receipt of
table which was adopted from $425. In nine days the news by
St. Joseph, Missouri to San this express is expected to
Francisco, California: reach New York."
Marysville 12 hours James Randall took the pony
Fort Kearney 34 hours as far as Sacramento. Harry
Fort Laramie 80 hours Roff was the pony rider out of
Fort Bridger 108 hours Sacramento Eastward. The mail
Salt Lake 124 hours reached Placerville at 6:40 AM
Camp Floyd 128 hours the next day and Carson City
Carson City 188 hours 8:30PM a distance of 144 miles
Placerville 226 hours from Sacramento.
Sacramento 232 hours
San Francisco 240 hours It took seventy-five ponies
From the Alta California, of to make the trip from Missouri
April 4, 1860, we find the to California in ten days.
following:
Time Made by the Pony.
"The first Pony Express"
Left St. Joseph. Mo April 3d. 1860.
started yesterday afternoon from Arrived. Salt Lake City " 9th, 6:30 P. M.
the office of the Alta Telegraph Carson City " 12th, 3:30 "
Company on Montgomery Street. Strawberry Valley " 13th, 4:35 A.M.
" Placerville " " 2:00 P. M.
The saddle bags were duly letter- " Sacramento " •' 5:30 "
ed "Overland Pony Express" and San Francisco " 14th. 12:.18 A. M.
the horse, a wirely little

31
Sam Hamilton was the rider who Mr. Holladay informed the press
entered Sacramento. The mail was that it cost the Company no less
carried to San Francisco on the than $70,000 to start the Pony
steamer Antelope. Express and the monthly expense
would be $5,000 at least.
The arrival of the first Pony
at Sacramento caused great excite- Eighty riders were in the
ment. Owing to the poor condition saddle all the time. The aver-
of the roads and the snow in the age run of each rider was about
mountains it was thought impossi- seventy-five miles.
ble to make regular trips by Pony
or any other means of transporta- Occasionally long runs were
tion. After the Pony arrived at made without rest. On one
Sacramento all doubt as to the occasion during the Indian dis-
feasibility of travel through the turbance in Utah. Robert Haslam,
mountains was dispelled and there- better known as "Pony Bob Haslam,"
after regular trips were made, rode one hundred eighty-five
generally on time. miles without rest, only changing
horses as they became exhausted.
An article in the Alta Calif- After nine hours rest, he made a
ornia dated April 14th, 1860, return trip, only to find that
says that "the Pony Express mail the Indians had killed or driven
arrived in San Francisco twenty- off the men from several of the
two minutes before one o'clock stations along the route. On
with sixty letters, the Alta this trip he rode three hundred
having a good share of them and a eighty miles, resting only
little bill of $65 to pay for eleven hours.
their carriage." In other words,
the newspaper received thirteen
letters out of the sixty deliver-
ed to San Francisco. Probably
fifteen to twenty letters were
left at Sacramento. Pony Express Notice,
FOB THE

Pony Express Notice, Service Commencing July 1, 1861.


HHM

Service Commencing July 1, 1S6L MESSRS. W1H3, FARGO & GO,


WILL RUN JL
PLACERVILLEjrOST. J0SEP1.
OVJOtLAWD MAIL OOMPAJnr* ....BKTWKKK...
POKT XXTSESH" win be di»g»»b«d r«fful«rly FH0M
OITIOl OF THKIK AQEKCtTlT PLi.CK*VILL»,
9m the Jkrrl-wml o f th« SAN FRANCISCO AND PLACERVILLE,
r B I N L1AT1N6 " * FKAJfCIiCO
oa
Wednesday and Saturday
0 7 XAOH WXKE. ^Wednesday and Saturday,
LKTTJCE8 n u t b« wstoMd la t«n-owrt a«Tena»«t
• n p ^ d aanrtfepw.
tf and pei*!d, »»t tto nt«af OM dollarfar« c h OF EACH WBEK,
tl thereof
fcdP-oaaM or any traetloa thereof. L«*TtDg their offic* at 3 : 4 5 P . M., cs th-iad*y«, and
ConncctliE with the Overland Mall Company'*
y j t y W - W X L U , F A B Q Q A OO. SLUTS
Pony ExpreM at Plaeervlll*.
*Jkf*H -1 pynTJTKP 1GBKTB, aad Mten will Marroatod LETTER? MUST BE B.VCLOSKD IK OUR TWENTY
«•* ddJrwd at iMr otteat. CENT GOVERNMENT FRANKED ENVELOPES, and
V I I X U M BUCKJUEX, Otarees FROM PLACERVILT.E PREPAID AT THE RVIK
SnparlnMtdant O. M. Oa. OF ONE HOLLAR FOR EACH UALFOUNOE, OR ANT
FRACTION THEREOF.
Notice of the Overland Mail by Pony F r o m g-j~ All lettora not enrloMd an above will be charged at the
Plaeerville to St. Joseph. rat* nt 25 oeuts meh.
K 6 :: W E L L 8 , F A R S O J t CO.
32
"PONY BOB"—from a painting by H. H. Cross
The rider is pictured as carrying the news of Lincoln's election as President, riding 120 miles, in 8 hours, 10
minutes using 13 relays of horses. He was ambushed by Indians, shot with flint-head arrows through the
lower jaw, fracturing it on both sides and knocking out 5 teeth.

William F. Cody, later better In the latter part of May,1860


known as "Buffalo Bill," was the it was feared that the Pony
youngest rider of the Pony Express would have to discontinue
Express. He made a record run its services on account of the
of three hundred twenty-two attacks by Indians in Western
miles without rest. Utah. The route ran through the
country inhabited by the Pah-ute
The cost of maintaining the and Shoshone tribes, who were
Pony Express was enormous. Extra very hostile to the invaders of
horses had to be kept at each their territory. Many of the
station and feed had to be haul- Pony Express stations, on the
ed, in some cases, hundreds of eastern slope of the Sierra were
miles. Judge Green Majors, son destroyed, agents killed and the
of Alexander Majors, a director stock run off. Mr. Finney, the
of the Central California Over- western agent, was sent to Carson
land & Pike's Peak Express Com- Valley to inspect the hostile
pany, informs me that hay and region, to ascertain the chances
grain had to be freighted by of keeping the Express moving.
horse and ox teams, at a cost of He urged General Clarke to fur-
twenty-five cents per pound for nish troops to protect the mail
transportation alone; the feed line, but was unable to get re-
itself costing about as much lief because of the lack of
more. The employees were housed soldiers stationed in that vici-
and fed at the Company's expense. nity."
All food was very high on the
frontier, as it often had excess-
ive freight charges against it. The following appeal was sent
Add to the above the amount of out by Mr. Finney on June 6,1860:
property destroyed and stolen by "Will Sacramento help the Pony in
Indians and you will have some its difficulty? We have conferr-
idea of the many hardships under ed some benefits, have asked but
which the Pony Express was little, and perhaps the people
operated. will assist.

33
Can anything be done in your city Everyone was agreeably surprised
towards paying expenses to fur- when regular trips were made,
nish arms and provisions for even under winter conditions.
twenty-five men to go through
with me to Salt Lake to take and In December a new winter
bring on the Express? schedule went into effect.
Eleven days between telegraph
I will be responsible for the stations, the telegraph now
return of the arms, will have the being built as far as Fort
transportation of my own, and can Kearney. The Fort is about four
get men here. What is wanted is hundred miles from St. Joseph,
$1,000 for the pay of the men, Missouri. Fifteen days from
$500 for provisions and Twenty- St. Joseph to San Francisco was
five Sharp's rifles and as many now allowed for this trip.
dragoon pistols. I will guarantee
to keep the Pony alive a while In the Sacramento Daily Union,
longer." dated November 24, 1860, we
find the following:
In response to this reason- "The Pony still continues his
able request the people of usual gallop and not withstand-
Sacramento immediately subscrib- ing the storms of approaching
ed the $1,500. winter, makes pretty good time.
The first of the past week,
Through the efforts of Senator being made in three days twenty
Milton S. Latham, who brought hours from Sacramento to Salt
pressure to bear in Washington, Lake City, about three hundred
troops were finally ordered to miles, not very bad time when we
protect the Pony Express route. consider that a quarter of the
They were promptly ordered from distance was galloped through
Camp Floyd and scattered along snow three inches deep."
the mail trail. It was stated in
Washington that the cause of the
present promptness was a sugges- The boosters of the Pacific
tion from Senator Latham that Railroads and the Telegraph
"unless the troops were ordered, eagerly watched the running time
the California delegation, late of the Pony Express during the
of Charleston, would vote for winter months, and the regular
Douglas." time made, greatly influenced
the building of these two great
enterprises.
Delivery of mail from East
to West, and vice versa, was now The Pony Express was very
somewhat slower due to the fact sparingly patronized by the
that the Pony riders had to be Eastern business houses and
escorted by troops for about two private correspondence, because
hundred miles. By the 7th of of its high carrying charges.
July trips were again made on Over two-thirds of the messages
regular schedule. carried were sent by newspapers.
It is said that the weekly mail
During the latter part of out of St. Louis amounted to
September 1860, the opinion of about $100 per week, and a little
the public was that the Pony more from New York. Letters from
Express would have to discon- the Departments at Washington
tinue its regular service on also helped a little;free letters
account of the poor roads and were occasionally sent, although
deep snow in the mountains. against the rules of the Company.

34
Envelope Containing News of Lincoln's Election
The balance of the mail from East This was the fastest news ever
to West was only a trifle. The received in California from the
mail from California exceeded the East.
Eastern mail more than double.
On November 19,1861, accord-
Perhaps the greatest event ing to the early newspapers, "a
since the starting of the Pony little pony trotted unnoticed
Express was the coming election from the foot of Broadway to the
between Lincoln and Douglas. Alta Telegraph office, bringing
Special arrangements were made by dispatches eight days later from
the Company to carry the election the East," (election news).
news to California in record time.
Mr. W. H. Russell gave orders to A duplicate of the election
the Division Superintendent to news was also dispatched over
have an extra rider ready at Fort the Southern Route in the event
Kearney. Picked men, who feared that the Pony rider did not
nothing, were chosen for the dan- arrive on time or was killed by
gerous parts of the journey. Indians.
The news was telegraphed from It will be clearly seen that
St. Louis, Missouri on the after- Wells, Fargo & Company ran their
noon of November 7,1861, to Fort own Pony Express from San Francis-
Kearney, a distance of 330 miles. co to Placerville and then connect-
On that day a special pony left ed with the Overland Mail Company's
Fort Kearney at 1PM with the news Pony. I assume the Pony Express
that Abraham Lincoln was elected from Placerville east, was still
President of the United States. the original Central Overland
The news was carried to Fort Pony Express Company. No doubt
Churchill November 14th at 1AM, arrangements were made between
and from that point was telegraph- the Overland Mail Company and the
ed to California. The trip by Pony Central Overland Pony Express
was made in six and one-half days, Company, whereby the Pony Express
between Fort Kearney and Fort Company was to carry the mail
Churchill. from Placerville east.

35
with the Overland Mail Company.
A new road was discovered from
Provo, Utah, to Denver City,
PONY EXPRESS NOTICE Colorado, which would save a-
bout two hundred miles. This
OKDUU HATIN6 BEEN S I C E I V E O
f,omW H. RI/93KLL. Pre*ld«it Pjny Expr««t Compsny, enabled the Overland Mail Com-
I h»r»by trawler th« LIBJ»*U<1 «verjthing »pp*ft»lalag Ihertto, pany to deliver letters to
loMrtiu. WelU, Fargo 1 Co. All l t t t t . t n be UrwtrdMlbr California, via Denver City, a
Fooy Kxpraw n u t b« d«Uv«r«d »t ibelr cflo*, corner California day and a half earlier then
•ad Uoutgoisary «lr*«t*.
J. W. BROWN. A«fnt Pooy E i p i w C o . formerly.
By the latter part of August
Pony Express Notice! 1861, the distance traveled by
Pony was one thousand one hund-
red fifty-nine miles: six hund-
REDUCED RATES. red eighty miles of telegraph
having been built so far as the
Eastern and Western ends com-
bined.
TBE RATES FOR LETTERS,
During the latter part of
Fer Pony Express, 1861, much difficulty was ex-
perienced in sending news to
UNTIL FIRST JULY NEXT, California through Missouri.
....WILL B l . . . The secessionists tore down
telegraph wires, cut down the
For H a l f Oaaee and under &* poles, burned bridges and gen-
For e » e * *ddtttoaal H n l f Ounce or fraction erally made things very un-
tberoof •'•!
pleasant for the telegraph
Lattmnuat b* *uclo»»d lu Teu i.'rat (i.vcruraeut £uralov*>. people, the railroads, and the
tod Tooy I'ostag* prrpaiU Pony Express. The route was
TUe Exprata will be Jeapaohetl from our odicaoa
finally changed to the Miss-
W E D N B I D A T AMU H.VTI KJDAV issippi River and by stage a-
Or c*oh w*ah. cross Iowa to Omaha, Nebraska.
WHLL8, I* A R Q O SK OO.,
•pl5-lw!p The telegraph was completed
almost to Salt Lake by Septem-
ber 18th, and news was received
The Government compelled the from the East by Pony in six
Overland Mail Company to maintain days. On September 24th the
a Pony Express until a more rapid Pony delivered news to California
means of transportation was esta- in four days, due to the steady
blished. Perhaps, rather than advance of the telegraph. By
organize their own Pony Express, October 18th,1861, the Eastern
which necessitated the purchase of end of the telegraph was com-
the Central Overland Pony Express pleted from Salt Lake City to
Company, the Overland Mail Company Omaha, Nebraska, and on the 24th
made arrangements with the original the Eastern end of the line was
Pony Express Company to handle such completed and connected up with
mail matter that required rapid New York.
transportation.
There was no further use for
On August 17,1861, an explor- the Pony Express as far as the
ing party was sent out by the California newspapers were con-
Central Overland California & Pike's cerned, although much trouble,
Peak Express Company to find a short- due to storms, quite often de-
er route to connect the Pony Express layed the news several days.

36
On October 22,1861, news was The St. Louis correspondent of
received by telegraph from the Sacramento Union says:
Atchison "that the President of "I suppose, ere this, the read-
the Central Overland California ers of the Union are aware
& Pike's Peak Express Company that our old friend the Pony
had given orders for the sus- is no more. He expired on or
pension of the Pony Express ser- about the 15th of last month
vice as soon as the telegraph (October), I believe, though
was completed to the Pacific. I am not positive, I endea-
By this dispatch it will appear vored to learn the exact time
that William H. Russell, president of his taking off, but could
of the Pony Express Company, still not."
had authority over this important
branch of the California overland On November 18, 1861, a Pony
communication, although it was arrived in Sacramento carrying
repeatedly stated that his com- seventy-eight letters, and still
pany was only working under a another arrived on November 20th,
sub-contract with the Butterfield with one hundred three letters.
Overland Mail Company or Wells,
Fargo & Co., on that section be- As you will note, the last
tween St. Joseph and Salt Lake Pony arrived at Sacramento
City." It was stated in the papers November 20th. Allowing ten to
"that it remained to be seen fifteen days time from St. Joseph
whether Butterfield would consent or four days between telegraph
to abandon the Pony Express. stations, one can readily see
This would raise the question of that this Pony must have started
the contract with the Government for California some time in
to run a Pony Express in connec- November. This would prove that
tion with the Daily Overland Mail the Pony Express service could
Company." not have been discontinued on
It was generally supposed that October 24, when the telegraph
the Pony Express service ended was completed.
with the completion of the tele-
graph on October 24, 1861. On August 1862 it was stated
by Wells, Fargo & Company that
The following was published a Pony Express route was to be
in the Sacramento Union October re-opened between San Francisco,
26, 1861: Carson City and Virginia City
"Wells, Fargo & Company agents and Washoe, Nevada. The rates
of the Pony Express on the Paci- were ten cents per half ounce.
fic side, received yesterday a The rate was later changed to
dispatch from the East directing twenty-five cents per half
the stoppage of the Express from ounce.
this date."
However, an article in the Continued in the Next Issue—
Alta California dated October The Pony Express In Nevada, its
29th says that "there is still stations, route, challenges and
no proof of the stopping of the triumphs.
Pony Express" and states "that
the Company (Wells, Fargo & Co.) k more detailed look at the
is still selling Pony Express historic Pony Express on the
stamps, and that the Express has Nevada Desert and how to visit
not been discontinued. the sites today.

37
R A M B L I N G ON R O C K S

PETRIFIED WOOD ON THE CALIFORNIA DESERT

In the October 1983 issue


of Desert was an article on
the Tonopah and Tidewater
Railroad. This article brought
a number of letters to Desert
asking for more information-
especially on the reported
source of Petrified Wood in
the Tecopa area.
This collecting area is
relatively n e w — i t was dis-
covered in 1957. The area is
known as upper Sperry, Wash-
ington. This country is best
visited in the cooler winter
months. Besides various lo-
cations for the rockhound,
historical sites abound.
Two abandoned railways
are in the area. The Tone— Petrified Wood Slab
pah and Tidewater Railroad
runs north and south to the and comes in several colors includ-
west of the collecting area. ing red, white and black palm fiber;
The ruins of a station, black agatized roots and limb sec-
Sperry, are in the Amargosa tions; orange palm; plus pink and
River Gorge. To the north is tan cycads. Petrified bog, small limb
the roadbed of the Tecopa sections and rootlets are found in
Railroad, a smaller opera- float. Large logs are buried in soft,
tion that connected the Noon- clay-like ash. A steel "prod" bar is
clay Mines with the railhead handy for locating the latter.
at Tecopa.
A considerable amount of wood has
To the south is the Dumont been collected over the past two de-
Sand Dunes, a most interest- cades. Even so, a variety of fine
ing and dangerous place to specimens can still be obtained by
visit. To the north is Tecopa those willing to hike and dig. The
Hot Springs, a good place to various deposits are indicated on
relax and allow the natural the map. Allow ample time for collec-
hot water to soothe the body. ting several days at least. Explore
As to the petrified wood, the areas well away from the main
specimens found indicate this road. Four-wheel drive vehicles can
vast, now extremely arid re- drive up the wash toward the north-
gion was once covered by a ern hills where pink, black and or-
sub-tropical forest of palms, ange wood is to be found. Every flash
tree ferns and cycads. The flood changes the wash and in its
petrified wood is beautiful upper section there are several
Channels.

38
Exploring the eroded hills is necessary. Considerable effort is required
to obtain good material, but the rewards make it all worthwhile.
To get to this collecting area, take the Las Vegas Freeway, Inter-
state 15, north from San Bernardino. At Baker, turn north on Highway
127, the road to Death Valley, 49 miles north of Baker, turn right
southeast on Furnace Creek Road towards Tecopa. From Tecopa, drive
8.4 miles to the turnoff to the Western Talc Mine. This is a graded
road leading down to the entrance to Sperry Wash. It is a bit rough
in places, but rigs with trailers can make it. There are several park-
ing places along dirt tracks- The road going all the way down the
canyon is for 4-wheel drive vehicles.
39
Calendar of Western Events
JUNE 10, 1984 AUGUST 2-4, 1984
California State Gold Panning Cham- Wasatch County Fair, Heber, Utah
pionships will be held at Bass Lake,
California.

JUNE 14-JULY 1 AUGUST 7-12, 1984


San Diego County Fair, Del Mar, Farmers Fair, Hemet, California.
California. Mineral Displays, Small old time fair with exhibits,
Carnival, etc. a corn growing contest pitting
state against state for the great-
est corn crop. Small Carnival.
JULY 3-8, 1984
Prescott Frontier Days, Prescott,
Arizona. AUGUST 9-11, 1984

JULY 4-24, 1984 Washington County Fair, Hurricane,


Utah.
Days of '47 Celebrations, Salt Lake
City, Utah. AUGUST 11, 1984

JULY 7-11, 1984 The Colorado State Gold Panning


Championship, sponsored by Gold
The American Society of Dowsers Prospectors of Colorado will be
Fifth Annual West Coast Conference held along with a mining fair and
will be held at the University of exhibits at Fairplay, Colorado.
California. Porter College, Santa
Cruz, California. The conference
is open to the public.

JULY 15, 1984 AUGUST 20-25, 1984


Gold Fair and Panning Championship, Salt Lake County Fair, Murray,
Auburn, California Utah.

JULY 20, 1984 SEPTEMBER 7-12, 1984


1984 Annual Baker County Mining
Utah State Fair, Salt Lake City,
Jubilee will be held at Baker,
Utah. Lots of exhibits, handi-
Oregon. 15 city blocks are set a-
crafts, fun for the kids.
side for Jubilee activities.
NOVEYEER 3-4, 1984
JULY 22-24, 1984
Yucca Valley Gem and Mineral Society
Show, "It's A Rockhounds World".
Kamas Valley Fiesta, Kamas, Utah
Community Center, Yucca Valley, Cali-
fornia.

40
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41
DESERT MAGAZINE BOOK SHOP
A V A I L A 3LE AT LAST

LOST MINES & BURIED TREASURES LOST MINES OF THE GREAT SOUTHWEST
ALONG THE OLD FRONTIER
by by
John D. Mitchell John D. Mitchell
A reprint of the book originally Contains many stories on lost mines
published by Desert Magazine in 1953. and treasure in the Great American
Features stories on 32 lost mines Southwest. A must for the student of
and treasures of the Desert includ- lost mines and treasures.
ing such topics as Pegleg's Black Paperbound $10.00
Nuggets, Lost Pick Mine, Lost
Breyfogle.
Hardbound. Map on Inside Cover
$12.00
ARIZONA ADVENTURE THE STORY OF INYO
by by
Marshall Trimble Willie A. Chalfant
An action packed collection of A reprint of a 1922 history. One of
true tales of early Arizona includ- the best coverages of early day Inyo
ing lost mines, history, cowboys County by a member of one of the out-
and much more. standing early day families.
$5.00 Over 400 fact filled pages $12.50
CALIFORNIA FAVORITES COOKBOOK
ARIZONA COOKBOOK
Compiled by
Compiled by
AI and Mildred Fischer AI and Mildred Fischer
A collection of more than 400 A collection of over 350 authentic
California inspiral recipes Arizona recipes including Indian Cooking,
covering such topics as Fruits, Mexican, Strictly Western, Cooking with
Early California, Sea Foods, Wine Cactus, and Outdoor cooking.
Cooking and more. *2 50 Spiral bound $3.50
TREASURE HUNTING NEVADA TOWNS AND TALES
by Volume I - North
Harold T. Wilkins
The treasure hunters own book A collection of essays, stories,
of worldwide Land Caches and history, etc. written by many persons
Bullion wrecks. A Rio Grande Press about the Towns, Counties, Events,
reprint of the Classic book on lost people, and such around Northern Nevada.
treasures. Almost 400 pages of hard
to come by information.
Hardbound $15.00 8i x 11" Softbound $9.95
JOSHUA TREE THE LOST PICACHO POKE
Continued from Page 10 Continued from Page 24
We drove another 19 miles Thus, scmeutere within a nights hike
south to the site of Cotton- from the old mine is 3000 ounces of gold
wood Springs and its Camp- a fortune at today's prices. One
ground. This spring has a theory has it that the gold is
very interesting history es- hidden by the old graveyard. A-
peciallyin relation to earth nother has it at a bend in the old
quake activity. Ask for more road. And yet another story says
information at the Ranger that one of the buried miners had
Station. the location written on a map he
carried with him. Anyone who
From the Cottonwood Spring, might find a caved in section of
a hiking trail leads 4 miles tunnel and several bodies would
east to Lost Palms Canyon. be well advised to check their
This Oasis is not visited by possessions very carefully.
many and is well worth the
hike. It is a good place to The one surviving miner never
hike into in the early morn- returned to the mine out of fear.
ing and spend the day observ- His story was supposedly verified
ing the desert and its wild- by a treasure hunter who inter-
life. viewed him in the 1950's but gave
up the search because the area
Our road leads 7 miles was too large. Where the poke is
south from Cottonwood Springs remains anyone's guess.
to the Junction with Inter-
state 10. It is under 3
hours from here to Los Angeles
or an hour to the bright Desert Magazine Book Shop
lights and green golf courses A Gift of Books Will Be Remembered Long After
the Occasion is Forgotten.
of Palm Springs. We all left j Name
with the conclusion that j Address .
I City _State_
Joshua Tree National Monument I enclose $_ _(check. money order or charge)
is a very interesting place MY CHARGE: D
to visit and explore.
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j Desert Magazine Book Shop P.O. Box 1318, Palm Desert, California 92261
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43

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