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As we continued this assignment, it is basically about the responsibility of the parties
involved to improve the solid waste collection system and disposal method for residential,
commercial or industrial building towards environmental friendly. This assignment is inter-
related with the previous assignment which is to concern about waste collected and disposal
method in Putrajaya city which is under the observation of Perbadanan Putrajaya.
There are some responsibilities of the parties in managing the solid waste collection
system and disposal method in Putrajaya that we have determined for the task. Besides, we also
have discussed about the actions that need to be taken by the parties to execute the suggestion for
improving solid waste collection system and disposal method in Putrajaya. Finally, we also have
prepare formwork to show detailing of the actions need to be taken by the parties involved in
Putrajaya for the assignment.
Furthermore, we also have use several books which is Industrial Wastewater
Management Treatment and Disposal and Practical Management of Chemicals and Hazardous
Wastes as our reference to guide and give us the idea to do the assignment.


QUESTION 1: The responsibility of the parties involved in managing the solid waste collection
system and disposal method for residential, commercial or industrial building.

Solid waste collection system
Once solid have been generated and separated from wastewater, the typically must be
further processed before disposal. Further processing is often necessary to reduce volume for
disposal or reuse, to modify the solids to be less odorous and to kill pathogenic organisms prior
to disposal. Processes may include thickening, stabilization, conditioning, dewatering, heat
drying and volume reduction.
Conditioning is typically required to improve an industrial sludge's thickening and
dewatering performance. There are basically two types of chemical sludge conditioner: inorganic
coagulants and synthetic organic polyelectrolyte. Inorganic coagulants attract colloidal sludge
particles and form an organic matrix in organic sludge, making it easier to dewater. However,
they substantially increase the solids volume. Synthetic polyelectrolyte, which are typically used
in smaller does, may increase the solids particle size, thereby improving thickening and
Thickening processes are typically used on dilute solid streams, say 0.5-3% solids by
weight. Typical thickening techniques include gravity thickening, dissolved air flotation (daf)
thickening, centrifugal thickening, rotary drum and gravity belt thickening. The output of a
thickening process is typically 2 to 8% solids, depending upon influent solids concentration,
chemical conditioning, the nature of the solids and the process used.


Dewatering process are typically used on more concentrated solid streams, often after
thickening, at say 5 to 15% solids by weight. Typical dewatering techniques include pressure
filtration, belt filtration, centrifugation, vacuum filters, screw presses, container filters,
geotextiles, sand bed drying and drying lagoons. Although performance depends on the industry
and specific technology involved, dewatering processes should yield an effluent that contains
from 10 to 18% solids up to as high as 50 to 60% solids.
The two major sludge-drying methods are direct-fired convection and indirect heat. In
direct-fired convection, heated air or flue gas is passed over the sludge to evaporate water. The
resulting gas-vapor mixture the is discharged to the atmosphere or scrubbed or condensed and
returned to the wastewater treatment system. Its include rotary-driven, flash, tray, fluid-bed and
belt. In indirect heat drying, a heat exchanger and a heat source are used. The heat source does
not directly touch the sludge. Indirect dryers include thin-film, screw, paddle, and disc. A thin-
film drying system, for example uses a two-stage dryer. Dewatered sludge is pumped to the first
stage, where it is dried to 40 to 65% dry solids in typically 5 to 10 minutes. Then, the sludge is
sent to the second stage, which turns the materials into pellets or granules in approximately 1 to 2
hours. The water evaporated from the sludge is condensed and returned to the wastewater
treatment process.
Composting typically is used for solids generated in the food, pharmaceutical and pulp
and paper industries. In this process, dewatered sludge is mixed with a bulking agent and
allowed to further decompose. Composting is an aerobic biological process requiring a
continuous supply of oxygen, provide either by frequent turning or mechanical blowers. The
bulking agent enables air to flow uniformly through the pile. The common types of composting
systems are enclosed mechanical systems, windrows and aerated static piles.


Solid waste disposal method
Suspended solids removal methods are chosen based on the initial concentration of solids
in the wastewater; and the particles' size, settleability, thickening characteristics, and discrete or
flocculent nature. The techniques typically used to remove suspended material from waste
streams with TSS concentration less than 1% include straining, gravity separation and filtration.
Coarse or fine are used to strain solids from a waste stream. The most commonly used
coarse screen are bar screens, which are typically used to protect downstream equipment from
damage or reduced efficiency because of large floating solids, wood, rags, stone, etc. Industries
that typically use bar screens include food processors, pharmaceutical manufacturers, pulp and
paper manufacturers, tanneries, chemical manufacturers, and textile manufactures. Commonly
used fine screens include static screens, rotary drum screens, tangential screens and vibratory
screens. They remove fine non-flocculent and non-colloidal particles.
Gravity Separation
Suspended solids may also be removed via gravity. This method relies on the natural
tendency of solid particles to settle or rise under quiescent conditions, depending on their
specific gravity. Those solids with a specific gravity. Those solids with a specific gravity higher
than the liquid settle; those having a lower specific gravity will float.
Filtration removes suspended solids from a waste stream. industrial wastewater typically
are filtered as part of a pretreatment system that includes neutralization or precipitation of heavy
metals, biological treatment to decrease BOD and TSS levels, and solids removal before onsite
biological treatment or discharge to the POTW. the filtration system is used to polish suspended
solids from effluent before discharging it to downstream processes or the POTW. filtration used
to capture the metal hydroxide or sulfide solids that escaped the sedimentation process.


QUESTION 2: Discuss and justify the actions and need to be taken by the parties to execute the
suggestion for improving the solid waste system and disposal method.

PARTIES INVOLVED: Alam Flora Sdn Bhd,, Waste Corporation Organization and Public
Cleansing (PPSPPA).

SUGGESTION: Every Solid Waste Such as plastic, bottles, and uncompose materials should be
dried up, meanings for each solid items are free from any moisture. Purposses are to make sure
every dried item can be easily separated through its type. PPSPA shall do a reprocessing the
rotten food/vegetable into a fertilisers uses for the plantation among the putrajaya botanical

ADVANTAGES: Do not promotes any habitats for dangerous insects (example. Mosquitoes,
cockroaches and rats) to breed. Environment are free from dangerous diseases. Simplify the
process of solid waste rearrangement for every types. Save cost on buying chemical fertilisers
instead using the organic fertilisers. Trash are light in weight plus are likely are more
compressable in the landfill.

PARTIES INVOLVED: Alam Flora Sdn Bhd, Waste Corporation Organization and Public
Cleansing (PPSPPA), Perbadanan Putrajaya.

SUGGESTION: Specifically towards every individual, Foster the aspect of recycling for daily
habit. Solid Waste Such as Paper, bottle, Glass, Plastic. Every building should provide 3

separates recycling bin, Trash or Rubbish can be easily collected. Every Trash vehicles should be
separated into sub-divided component so that the trash are not mix up during the waste
ADVANTAGES: Save time on collecting waste. Waste are Compressable besides can carry
much trash/day. Less Smell, no water spills out during the waste collection. Save Budget, recycle
waste are easily process as soon arrived at recycling centre.

PARTIES INVOLVED: Alam Flora Sdn Bhd, Waste Corporation Organization and Public
Cleansing (PPSPPA).

SUGGESTION: Divide the truck to a certain compartment, purposed to easily put the solid
waste into its place without mixing them up, for wet and food waste like put in a place to be
process into new organic fertilisers. Alam Flora centre should provide a small factory to create
new potential item such as tray (from Mc Donald are one of the recycled product). Art Product
Form can be created from recycled item.

ADVANTAGES: Save cost. Save time, can be used as a potential economical fund raiser. As a
form of Art. Can produces new clothes and such.

PARTIES INVOLVED: Alam Flora Sdn Bhd, Perbadanan Putrajaya, Waste Corporation
Organization and Public Cleansing (PPSPPA).


SUGGESTION: Waste such as food, could be manage by reprocessing it into a new form of
food. Example of new processes food can be fed to farm animals, zoo and such. Pallets form
food can be made out of food waste from human. For example the un-edible part of livestock
waste (chicken head, urinary animal part, unwanted fish part) these part of animal cant process
into a new form of food for the pets and even for the animals.

ADVANTAGES: Increase the economic potential. Less smell. Still in form of reuse, recycle and
reduce, Product form is in organic state. Safe for the animals and edible.

PARTIES INVOLVED: Alam Flora Sdn Bhd, Worldwide Landfill Sdn Bhd

SUGGESTION: Every dumpsite should have a recycle section. Specialised for the collected
trash to be easily dump and process in an instant. Consist of three small mini factory each of it is
to reprocess for the glass, paper and plastic. For every processes item could be sold out as a new
form of item such as souvenir, action figure toys or even for industrial purpose. Things produced
could be less in price plus high in quality.

ADVANTAGES: Dumpsite landfill could be less in size. Increase the government/Sector
income. New form product produce. Saved the ecosystem and the most important it can be used
for a long term (Elan, 2010).


QUESTION 3: Actions need to be taken by the parties involved in managing the solid waste
collection system and disposal method for residential, commercial or industrial building.



Provide sufficient recycle bin.
Make sure all the rubbish are dried so that it can separated
Make sure Alam Flora's do their work correctly.
Find the best way to improve the solid waste system such
as reprocessing rotten food or vegetable into fertilizer.
Provide 3 seperate recycling bin for trash easily to be collected.
Trash vehicles should seperated into sub-divided component.
Make sure the recreational park always clean and the time of waste collected
are punctual.
Make an observation to make sure the Alam Flora do their works.
Take an action if the Alam Flora does not complete or do their works.
Can take out a summons.
Provide enough finance.
See the report from PPSPPA.




Divide the truck to a certain compartment such as for the
recycle items and non-recycle items.
Make sure the number of trash vehicle are sufficient.
Create a small factory to produce new item such as tray.
Find the best way to make the trash vehicle more
Solid waste from foodcourt and market can be reprocessing to form
a fertilizer or pallets for animals.
Can be reuse for the all garden inside Putrajaya.
Make sure the fertilizer that had be produce is environment friendly.
Make the inspection at the food waste composting to observe the
maintanence and condition of the machine.
Make sure all the trash vehicle that operated put their rubbish in this
area only.
Make a time table for the trash vehicle to come to this place to prevent
traffic jam occur.
Make sure road for the trash vehicle in good condition.
Make sure the landfill are environment friendly.
Do a maintanence in the landfill.



We could conclude that the systems of Perbadanan Putrajaya managing their waste
disposal are systematic. As a planned city, Putrajaya should be an example towards the other
states in Malaysia to improve the cleanliness of the city. This is because the way they organizes
their waste is systematic and very efficient in controlling the cleanliness of Putrajaya. Besides,
there is no much to improvise in the city of Putrajaya on the waste disposal collection. They have
been introducing a several campaign for example Program Bumi Hijau, Putrajaya Floria 2014,
Recycling Program, Landscaping Putrajaya and many more. The objectives of the activities are
to change the mentality and attitude citizen of Putrajaya especially the young generation that will
preserve national treasure. There are many positive impacts from these activities that contributes
to the country, one of it is the tourist will attract towards clean country such as Singapore,
Australia, Japan, Germany and the other developed country.

Perbadanan Putrajaya always alert with the comments and complaints from the residents
about the waste collecting management in the city. Perbadanan Putrajaya always observed and
monitors the movement of Alam Flora in Putrajaya through Waste Corporation Organization and
Public Cleansing






Richard, L. (2008). Malaysia Developing A Solid Waste Management, Model For Penang,
United Nations Development Programme.
Elan. (2010, January 23). Tanjung 12 sanitary landfill in operation. Retrieved February 23,
2014, from
Lee, W, K. (1999, July 20). Practical Management of Chemicals and Hazardous Wastes.
Stadler Burgess Pub Co.
Industrial Wastewater Management, Treatment and Disposal. (2008, June 17). McGraw-Hill