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Lindsay Kaye Ohlert, Andrew Dwyer, Susan Samaha, Maria Matlashewski and Greta Krier

EdHD 5001
Traditional Assessment

Assessment for Chapter 7 of Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms (8th
edition)
Carefully read each question and circle the correct answer. There is one best answer for each question.

1. The memory store that briefly holds incoming stimuli from the environment until they can be processed
is:
a. Sensory memory
b. Working memory
c. Central executive

The correct answer is a, and this is from page 199. This is a knowledge level question because it
only requires recalling verbatim memorization of a definition.

2. The process of mentally combining separate items into larger more meaningful units is:
a. Grouping
b. Chunking
c. Dual processing

The correct answer is b, and this is from page 201. This is another knowledge question because
it only requires recalling a verbatim memorization of a definition.

3. Which of these is NOT an example of metacognition?
a. Meta-attention
b. Meta-realization
c. Meta-memory

The correct answer is b, and this comes from page 217. This question is comprehension-level
because it requires identifying examples by applying knowledge.

4. Give an example of a mnemonic device:
a. a CAT scanner
b. Every Good Boy Does Fine
c. Scholastic Aptitude Test

The correct answer is b, and this comes from page 213. This question is comprehension-level
because it requires not only memorizing the definition of “mnemonic device,” but being able to
identify examples of the concept.

5. Timmy answers the phone because his mother is in the bathroom. The caller asks him to tell his mother
that Mrs. Vygotsky called. Since Timmy doesn’t know how to spell her name to write it down, he
repeats “Mrs. Vygotsky, Mrs. Vygotsky, Mrs. Vygotsky” to himself himself until his mother returns.
Timmy is using:
a. a phonological loop
b. his cognitive load
c. chunking
Lindsay Kaye Ohlert, Andrew Dwyer, Susan Samaha, Maria Matlashewski and Greta Krier
EdHD 5001
Traditional Assessment

The correct answer is a, and this question comes from page 199. This question is application
level, as it requires the test-taker to apply their knowledge in order to understand what is
occurring in a scenario.

6. In high school, Kwan studied Spanish. He is now in college and he is studying French. We he tries to
write a sentence in French, he applies Spanish verb conjugations to French verbs. This is an example of:
a. retroactive interference
b. retrieval failure
c. proactive interference

The correct answer is c, and this question is from page 214. This question is application level as
it requires the test-taker to apply theoretical knowledge to a specific situation.

7. Which of these statements is true about both working memory and long-term memory?
a. Information from both, once lost, is lost forever.
b. Both have finite capacity.
c. Both are necessary for permanent storage of information.

The correct answer is c, and this question is from page 198. This is an analysis-level question
because it requires comparing and contrasting information about two different concepts.

8. Which of the following is a FALSE statement about the phonological loop and the visual-spatial sketch
pad?
a. They are both related to the central executive.
b. They both retain information through maintenance and rehearsal.
c. Each works independently of the other.

The correct answer is b, and this question is from page 199. This question is analysis-level
because it requires making connections between two related but distinct concepts.

Match the definitions to the corresponding terms. There is one extra term which will not be used.

9. _____ The process of consciously focusing on the a. Encoding
stimulus (pg. 207, b) b. Attention
10. _____ Knowledge of facts, definitions, procedures and c. Perception
rules (pg. 202, g) d. Semantic
11. _____ Memory for concepts, principals and the memory
relationships among them (pg. 202, d) e. Episodic
12. _____ A process of representing information in long- memory
term memory (pg. 209, a) f. Conditional
13. _____ The process people use to find meaning in knowledge
stimuli (pg. 208, c) g. Declarative
14. _____ Memory for personal experiences (pg. 202, e) knowledge

All these matching questions are knowledge level, as they are simple matching of
memorized definitions.
Lindsay Kaye Ohlert, Andrew Dwyer, Susan Samaha, Maria Matlashewski and Greta Krier
EdHD 5001
Traditional Assessment

Answer the questions below. Responses should be three to five sentences long.

15. Using at least two examples, explain how schema activation can be used in
classroom teaching, and tell why it is effective.

Answer: Schemas can be activated in the classroom by having students recall their
relevant prior knowledge prior to introducing additional information. Ways of doing this
include asking students what they already know, recapping previous lessons, and asking
students for related personal anecdotes. This is effective because it aids students in
forming “conceptual bridges” between their prior knowledge and the information. This
makes the lesson more meaningful and aids the process of long-term memory encoding.

This is from pg. 212. The question is synthesis-level because it requires the student to put
different ideas (schemas and methods of pedagogy) together to form a plan.

Question 15 grading rubric:
CATEGORY Superior (3) Good (2) Fair (1)
Understanding terms Uses the term "schema Uses the term which lacks Uses the term in a way
activation" in a way which part (but not all) of the which contradicts the
corresponds with the textbook definition. textbook definition.
textbook definition.
Connecting the cognitive Answers the question Lacks an example OR Uses incorrect examples
process to lesson planning using at least two relevant doesn't connect schema and/or draws an
and describing how the examples, and accurately activation to memory inaccurate connection
cognitive process states schema activation's encoding. between schema activation
facilitates long-term role in memory encoding. and memory encoding.
memory formation

16. Give two or more applicable ways a teacher can use organization to improve
lessons and explain why using organization is important.

Answer: Teachers can use instructional aids such as charts, matrices, hierarchies,
outlines and models. Organization is important in promoting higher-level thinking
because it decreases the cognitive load, freeing up mental resources for more tasks
and more complex tasks. It also helps students form schemas as the information is
encoded in a more organized manner.

This is from page 210. The question is synthesis-level because it requires students to
put multiple concepts (organization and instructional methods) together to form a
plan.
Lindsay Kaye Ohlert, Andrew Dwyer, Susan Samaha, Maria Matlashewski and Greta Krier
EdHD 5001
Traditional Assessment

Question 16 grading rubric:
CATEGORY Superior (3) Good (2) Fair (1)
Understanding terms Uses the term Uses the term which lacks Uses the term in a way
"organization" in a way part (but not all) of the which contradicts the
which corresponds with textbook definition. textbook definition.
the textbook definition.
Applies organization to Gives two or more Lacks an applicable Uses incorrect examples
pedogogy and explains its applicable ways of using instructional method OR and/or an incorrect
role in long-term memory organization in lacks the explanation of explanation of
formation instructional methods organization's role in organization's role in
AND correctly explains memory encoding. memory encoding.
organization's role in
memory encoding.

Please answer the following question in one page or less.

17. Katya immigrates to the US from Russia and enrolls in an ESL class. Initially, when
reading and writing in cursive she confuses the English letter “g” for the Russian letter ,
which makes a “d” sound. Her instructor recommends that she practice English cursive to
the point of automaticity, and that she ceases writing in Russian until she’s mastered
English cursive. Later, as she becomes better at reading and writing in English, she
begins to mistake the Russian letter for the English letter “g”! Explain what
mechanisms are responsible for her language errors, and identify and provide a rationale
for both positive and negative aspects of the instructor’s recommendations. Use your
knowledge of cognitive processes in all parts the essay.

Answer (from pages 214-216):

 Her initial difficulty recognizing the English letter “g” is an example of
proactive interference, because her previous knowledge of a similar-looking
Russian letter resulted in a loss of new information.
 Her later difficulty writing Russian is an example of retroactive interference,
because her new language learning has resulted in her losing her previously
developed skills.
 Possible rationale for disagreeing with the instructor’s actions: Teachers
should connect new learning with prior knowledge and skills, and use the
student’s existing abilities as a jumping-off point for instruction.
 Possible rationale for agreeing with the instructor’s actions: The instructor’s
goal is to teach Katya English, and repetition to the point of automaticity is a
proven way to increase the chance of later retrieval.
Lindsay Kaye Ohlert, Andrew Dwyer, Susan Samaha, Maria Matlashewski and Greta Krier
EdHD 5001
Traditional Assessment

This question is evaluation level because the students need to make a value judgment
about the information provided and support their answers using evidence.

Question 17 grading rubric:
CATEGORY Superior (3) Good (2) Fair (1) Unacceptable (0)
Proactive Connects the Connects the Connects the Does not connect the
Interference student's initial student's initial student's initial student's initial
difficulty to difficulty to difficulty with the difficulty to the
proactive interference, using concept of concept of
interference, using the term as it is used interference, but interference.
the term as it is used in the textbook, but does not use the
in the textbook. does not specifically specific term.
identify PROACTIVE
interference.
Retroactive Connects the Connects the Connects the Does not connect the
Intereference student's later student's later student's later student's later
difficulty to difficulty to difficulty with the difficulty to the
retroactive interference, using concept of concept of
interference, using the term as it is used interference, but interference.
the term as it is used in the textbook, but does not use the
in the textbook. does not specifically specific term.
identify
RETROACTIVE
interference.
Positive rationale Provides a Provides a Provides a Does not provide a
for instructor's justification for the justification for the justification for the justification.
actions instructor's actions instructor's actions instructor's actions,
using specific using cognitive but it is not based on
cognitive processes processes as defined cognitive processes.
as defined in the in the textbook
textbook. WITHOUT ever
stating the specific
terms for the
cognitive processes.
Negative rationale Provides a criticism Provides a criticism Provides a criticism Does not provide a
for instructor's of the instructor's of the instructor's of the instructor's criticism.
actions actions using actions using actions, but it is not
specific cognitive cognitive processes based on cognitive
processes as defined as defined in the processes.
in the textbook. textbook WITHOUT
ever stating the
specific terms for the
cognitive processes.