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Intriguing Integers

Why do they do what they do?

And, what do they do?

Deb Bradley

UNCC –MAED 5040

Fall 2009

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Table of Contents

General

Information………………………………………………………………

…

Unit

Goals………………………………………………………………………

……….

Desired

Results……………………………………………………………………

…

Acceptable

Evidence………………………………………………………………

Scope and

Sequencing…………………………………………………………..

Instructional

Resources………………………………………………………….

Lesson

Plans………………………………………………………………………

…

Reflection…………………………………………………………………

…………..

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General Information

Intriguing Integers

Why do they do what they do?

And, what do they do?

**This is a mathematics unit for a 7th grade math class.
**

Class Composition: 18 students

Boys/Girls: 6 boys/12 girls

Racial profile: 3 Black students

2 Hispanic students

13 White Students

Education profile: This in a lower/middle performing math

class. One child is repeating the class and on a behavioral

IEP. Two other students are on IEP for mathematical

learning disabilities.

**The class periods are 80 minutes long. This unit will cover 7
**

days.

3

Unit designer: Deb Bradley

Unit Goals

**This unit teaches students to compare, order, add, subtract,
**

multiply, and divide integers. Students will learn to graph

ordered pairs and solve one step equations with integers.

**This unit specifically addresses North Carolina Standard
**

Course of Study

Competency Goal 1:

1.02 Develop fluency in addition, subtraction, multiplication, and

division of rational numbers.

**a. Analyze computational strategies.
**

b. Describe the effect of operations on size.

c. Estimate the results of computations.

d. Judge the reasonableness of solutions.

1.3 Develop flexibility in solving problems by selecting strategies

and using mental computation, estimation, calculators or

computers, and paper and pencil.

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http://www.ncpublicschools.org/curriculum/mathematics/scos/2003/k-

8/35grade7

**The National Teachers Council for Mathematics states that
**

by the end of middle school students need to be able to

develop meaning for integers and represent and be able to

compare quantities with them.

**Content specific learning outcomes:
**

• Students will be able to compare and order integers

• Students will be able to add, subtract, multiply, and

divide integers

• Students will be able to identify and graph ordered

pairs on a coordinate plane

• Students will be able to solve one step equations with

integers

Prior Knowledge:

• Students must know how to add, subtract, multiply, and

divide whole numbers.

• Students need to know vocabulary words: whole

number, expression, graph, solve, equation, order

• Students should understand the Order of Operations

• Students should be able to evaluate expressions with

variables

• Students should be able to use inverse operations to

solve equations

• Students should know the words for operations such as

sum, difference, and product

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Desired Understandings

Essential Question:

What numbers are less than zero and how do we compute

with them?

Enduring Understandings:

1. How does one work with negative integers?

2. How are positive and negative integers alike?

Different?

3. Do the Commutative and Associative Properties

work the same with integers as they did with

whole numbers?

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4. Where do we see negative integers in the world

and how are they used?

Determining Acceptable Evidence

**Diagnostic: Students will be evaluated to determine what
**

they know prior to the unit. This information will be used to

direct the instruction in the class as well as to individual

learners.

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Formative: Students will be evaluated in the classroom as

they work independently and in small groups. They will play

games to demonstrate concepts, keep journals, solve

puzzles, and work on a banking project. Homework

assignments will be used to determine where additional time

on instruction needs to be spent.

Summative: There will be a unit test at the end of the unit.

Scope and Sequence

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Day 1: Introduce integers and absolute value. Be able to

put integers on a number line. Be able to evaluate integers

and determine what numbers are larger than others.

**Day 2: Introduce a coordinate plane, quadrants, and
**

ordered pairs. Have students graph ordered pairs on a

coordinate plane. In class have students use a coordinate

plane as a grid for a map of their neighborhood.

**Day 3: Teach students how to add integers (Lesson Plan
**

attached)

**Day 4: Teach students how to subtract integers (Lesson
**

plan attached)

Day 5: Teach students how to multiply and divide integers

**Day 6: Teach students how to solve equations containing
**

integers

**Day 7: Review unit. Students work in class on checkbook
**

project using webquest

Day 8: Summative Unit test

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Instructional Resources:

"Grade 7." North Carolina Public Schools. Web. 12 Nov. 2009.

<http://www.ncpublicschools.org/curriculum/mathematics/scos/2

003/k-8/35grade7>.

Holt Middle School Math Course 2. Austin: Holt, Rinehart and Winston,

2004. Print.

"Number and Operations." National Council of Teachers of

Mathematics. Web. 13 Nov. 2009.

<http://www.nctm.org/standards/content.aspx?id=7564>.

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Day 3 Lesson Plan

Adding Positive and Negative Integers

**ACTIVATE: One day lesson: The lesson will begin with the teacher
**

verbally throwing out simple addition problems for the students to

answer. (Examples are 4+5=, 2+8=, 3+6=) She will ask the class

to define the words: Whole numbers, Integers, Associative and

Commutative Properties. If a student does not know the definitions of

these terms or can not give an example the student will be asked to

record the term in their “Personal Mathematics Vocabulary

Journal” (An outline of this journal is attached) This allows each

individual learner to determine their needs as the students who are

already comfortable with this information do not need to record the

definitions. However, as the teacher I would encourage most students

to record these definitions to study later.

**The teacher will then throw out a problem with a negative number and
**

ask if such a problem could exist and how one could solve it. She will

write this problem on the smart board. (Example 4 + (-3) =)

**ACQUIRE: Using a Think, Pair, Share activity the teacher will ask the
**

students to think quietly to themselves about how such a problem

could be solved. She will then ask groups of three to share their ideas

quietly together. These groups will be selected randomly as they will

simply be the three students sitting closest together. There will be 6

groups total. The teacher will then ask each group what their answer

was and how they arrived at that answer. Each answer will be written

on the smart board. Without giving the correct answer she will ask

each group to share how they arrived at the answer and record that

using a mathematical representation on the board. She will ask the

class as a whole which answer they think is correct. She will then

review how the groups with the correct answer arrived at their answer.

There will be a class discussion on ways to solve addition problems

with negative integers.

**The teacher will introduce Absolute Value (student will be encouraged
**

to write this in their Personal Mathematics Vocabulary Journal) and

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show what his means using a number line. She will demonstrate

adding positive and negative integers using a number line to show

what is happening as we perform this operation. Additive Inverse will

be defined at this time.

**Again randomly the class will be divided into 9 groups of 2 students.
**

The students will be given a worksheet (attached) and red and black

counters. They will be told that red represents negative numbers and

black represents positive numbers. The students will be asked to work

with their partner to solve the problems on the worksheet. They can

use the strategies discussed previously or they can solve the problems

using the counters to help if they wish. They will not be told how to

use the counters allowing them to come up with their own strategies

for solving these addition problems. The teacher will walk around the

room observing the methods used to solve the problems and

redirecting if necessary. She will note students who seem to be

struggling and those who obviously understand the concept.

**Once most of the groups are done with the worksheet the class will go
**

over the problems on the smart board with each group getting an

opportunity to work at the smart board to explain their method of

working a problem. The teacher will ask for questions or observations.

**APPLY AND ADJUST: The teacher will now select groups based on
**

her observations of the understanding of each student of the concept

being taught.

Group 1 (lower learners) will work with the teacher with the red

and black counters on more addition problems using the Beat Me to

the Top exercise.

Group 2 (middle learners) will work with a friend in their group or

alone to solve the Beat Me to the Top exercise

Group 3 (High level learners) will work in pairs or individually to

solve the Sum Fun puzzles. When they are done with those puzzles or

if they feel they need more of a challenge, they can work on the

Addition Integer Logic Puzzle.

**As a wrap up we will discuss how this is applicable to our lives. The
**

teacher will ask for ideas about where we see this type of math

everyday. These applications will be listed on the smart board.

**The final activity will be for the students to use their math journal to
**

solve a checkbook problem and write about how they solved the

problem. Each student will be given a copy of a check book page and

a list of five transactions to record. They will be asked to find the final

balance in the checkbook and explain how they arrived at the balance

in their journal. Students who are still struggling with this concept will

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be given whole dollar amounts on their assignment so that they can

concentrate on the concept and worry less about the math. The rest of

the students will be given more realistic numbers. This will be

homework if not completed in class.

**ASSESS: Learning will be assessed by teacher observations,
**

classroom activities and puzzles, and the final checkbook journal

activity. This plan teaches to three levels of learners by allowing time

for the teacher to re-teach the necessary concepts to the lower

learners while the middle and upper level learners are challenged

through other activities and puzzles. The Addition Integer Logic Puzzle

in particular is challenging.

**The final checkbook activity will allow the teacher to see how each
**

student is working on these problems while showing the students a

real world application. By commenting in the journals the teacher can

continue to direct the learning of each student.

**Day 4 Lesson Plan
**

Objective: Subtracting Positive and Negative Integers

**ACTIVATE: Class will start with a review of adding positive and
**

negative integers that was taught the previous day. This will be done

as a warm up on the smart board. Teacher will write problems on the

board for students to solve in their Math Journal.

1. -2+6=

2. -3+(-4)=

3. 7+(-5)=

4. 3+(-4)=

5. -6+(-1)=

6. -6+1=

**Teacher will then ask students how to subtract a greater number from
**

a lesser number. Is it possible? We will relate this to borrowing

money. If you want to buy something for $8.00 but only have $5.00

you would have to borrow $3.00. The mathematical representation

would be written on the board. 5-8=-3. Now if we were to pay back

$2.00 we are actually subtracting a -2. So now our debt is -1.

(-3-(-2) =-1)

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At this point the teacher will pass out two different colored pieces of

paper (for simplicity I will use red and blue). She will ask five people

with blue paper to come to the front of the room and stand to the right

of a line. She will ask 8 students with the red paper to come to the

front of the room and stand to the left of the line. The students are to

stand facing the class in a line. We are going to pretend that this is a

tug of war game. Because there are more reds they will be able to pull

the blues over the line one at a time. As the blue is pulled over the

line they will pair up with a red and the pair will return to their seats.

At the end there will be only 3 reds left. We will talk about how this

represents a number line and the center line is zero.

**In groups of 5 the teacher will have the students think about how to
**

apply the same tug of war example above to the next example

problem above (-3-(-2) =-1) Teacher will circulate around the room

and observe and help where needed. After a few minutes the teacher

will ask one group to demonstrate how they worked this problem and

then ask the rest of the class if this is how they acted out the problem.

Through class discussion we will come up with the idea that

subtracting an integer is the same as adding the opposite. We will talk

about how to represent this mathematically.

**Students will be divided into groups of 2 and given a worksheet and
**

red and black counters. They will be told that red represents negative

number and black positive. The students will be asked to work the

problems on the worksheet with their partners. They can use the

strategies discussed previously or they can solve the problems using

the counters to help if they wish. They will not be told how to use the

counters allowing them to come up with their own strategies for

solving these addition problems. The teacher will walk around the

room observing the methods used to solve the problems and

redirecting if necessary. She will note students who seem to be

struggling and those who obviously understand the concept.

**APPLY AND ADJUST: The teacher will not select groups based on her
**

observations of the understanding of each student of the concept

being taught.

Group 1 (lower learners) will work with teacher using red and

black counters to practice more subtraction problems. This group will

also use the Dominos Subtracting Integers activity to reinforce

understanding.

Group 2 (middle learners) In pairs, students will be directed to

play the Dominos Subtracting Integers game

Group 3 (High level learners) Student will play the Dominos

Subtracting Integers Game with a partner or do the Number Tiles

worksheet individually.

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As a wrap up we will discuss how this is applicable to our lives. The

teacher will ask for ideas about where we see this type of math being

used. We will list these applications on the board.

**Students will be assigned a webquest using addition and subtraction of
**

positive and negative integers. They will be allowed to work in pairs.

Time will be given in class to work in the computer lab. Some work will

need to be done outside of the classroom as homework. The webquest

asks the students to explore global warming by looking at minimum

and maximum temperatures from 5 places around the globe over a

period of time. Students are to average these temperatures and

determine if they think the world is getting warmer, staying the same,

or cooling.

Webquest site: http://sites.google.com/site/extremetemps/

**ASSESS: Learning will be assessed by teacher observations,
**

classroom activities and puzzles, and the webquest activity.

Personal Mathematics Vocabulary Journal

Word/Concept Definition Example

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Adding Positive and Negative Integers Worksheet

8+3=

8 + (-3) =

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5 + (-9) =

-4 + -6 =

2 + (-12) =

-5 + 3 =

-7 + (-2) =

-7 + 2 =

6 + (-4) =

9 + (- 12) =

**Beat Me to the Top Activity
**

http://www.dpi.state.nc.us/docs/curriculum/mathematics/middlegrades/

grade07/goal01/objective1.02/1.02-tasks/1.02-beatmetothetop.pdf

**Addition Integer Logic Puzzle
**

http://www.dpi.state.nc.us/docs/curriculum/mathematics/middlegrades/

grade07/goal01/objective1.02/1.02-tasks/1.02-addintegerlogic.pdf

Sum Fun Puzzle

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http://www.dpi.state.nc.us/docs/curriculum/mathematics/middlegrades/

grade07/goal01/objective1.02/1.02-tasks/1.02-sumfun.pdf

**Dominos Subtracting Integers Activity
**

http://www.dpi.state.nc.us/docs/curriculum/mathematics/middlegrades/

grade07/goal01/objective1.02/1.02-tasks/1.02-

dominoessubtractintegers.pdf

**Number Tiles – Integer Operations
**

http://www.dpi.state.nc.us/docs/curriculum/mathematics/middlegrades/

grade07/goal01/objective1.02/1.02-tasks/1.02-

numberintegeroperations.pdf

Reflection

**We use positive and negative numbers everyday in our daily living. In
**

this unit I tried to show the students just how many times we see these

operations. At the same time, adding and especially subtracting

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positive and negative integers can be a very difficult topic to

understand. In my lesson plans I worked to reach all learners. I did

this by using different strategies to present the material. I tried to let

the students get an understanding of the concepts by allowing them to

work out and share ideas about what we were learning. I gave them

activities tailored to their understanding levels that were fun so that

the students could see that learning math is fun. Using the “Personal

Mathematics Vocabulary Journal” gives the students the ability to look

back on the lesson and review the notes and applications that we

discussed.

I hope the students enjoy this unit like I have enjoyed designing it.

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