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August 2014

Modern
STEEL CONSTRUCTION
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4 AUGUST 2014
MODERN STEEL CONSTRUCTION (Volume 54, Number 8) ISSN (print) 0026-8445: ISSN (online) 1945-0737. Published monthly by the American Institute of Steel
Construction (AISC), One E. Wacker Dr., Suite 700, Chicago, IL 60601. Subscriptions: Within the U.S.single issues $6.00; 1 year, $44. Outside the U.S. (Canada
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August 2014
ON THE COVER: Hanging out on the Glacier Skywalk in Canadas Jasper National Park, p. 53. (Photo: Robert Lemermeyer)
steelwise
17

A High Tolerance for Accuracy
EDITED BY LARRY S. MUIR, P.E.
This months SteelWise features answers to common
questions on mill production and tolerances.
business issues
22

The Fabricator Knows Best
BY JOHN CROSS, P.E., AND ROSS ALLBRITTON
Want to put a finger on the pulse of the construction
industry? Dont just rely on reports or speculation;
ask those who are in the thick of things.
columns
25
At the Top of Their Game
BY TASHA WEISS
The University of California, Davis improves upon last
years third-place performance to take the top spot at
this years National Student Steel Bridge Competition.
28
Galvanizing Illustrated
BY GEOFF WEISENBERGER
A look at the ins and outs of the hot-dip galvanizing
process.
37
Picking up the Pace
BY REBECCA HASULAK AND CHASE
SEBASTIAN
A new system allows rooftop penetration framing to
come together faster and more economically.
41
Whats Cool in Steel
Cool structural steel stuff from around the globe.
features
departments
6 EDITORS NOTE
9 STEEL INTERCHANGE
12 STEEL QUIZ
59 NEW PRODUCTS
60 NEWS & EVENTS
66 STRUCTURALLY SOUND
resources
64 MARKETPLACE
65 EMPLOYMENT
in every issue
41
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6 AUGUST 2014
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editors note
SCOTT MELNICK
EDITOR
SOME THINGS ARE EASY TO AGREE ON. Ice cream tastes great. Sitting by the lake is
wonderfully relaxing. Watching your kids play soccer is exciting.
And some things are easy to argue about.
Politics and religion. Yankees vs. Mets. Star
Wars or Star Trek.
But seriously, folks, why are we continu-
ously fretting over transportation funding?
Is there really anyone out there who doesnt
think we need to keep our roads, bridges and
rail lines in good repair? (Well, anyone out-
side of Congress?)
Why do I get emails from the American
Road and Transportation Builders Association
(ARTBA) warning that highway work is about
to creep to a snails pace because the U.S. De-
partment of Transportation is about to slow re-
imbursements to state highway departments?
And why are they warning that if no revenue
action is taken by October 1, therell be no
federal funding for any new highway or transit
projects in any state during 2015? This means
that, on average, state DOTs will lose 52% of
their budget for these capital projects.
According to Lital Shair, a market re-
search associate with ARTBA, Uncertainty
surrounding the future of the Highway Trust
Fund (HTF) continues to have ripple effects
on state transportation planning. The Florida
Department of Transportation (FDOT) on
June 26 became the 23rd state to express un-
certainty about the future of major projects if
Congress does not stabilize highway funding
before the current surface transportation bill
expires October 1.
Arkansas has already halted work on 10
projects totaling $60 million. Louisiana has a
backlog of $12 billion for necessary mainte-
nance and modernization of the states roads,
bridges and highways. Texas has a $16 billion
gap in funding the repair and modernization
of its transportation infrastructure. Massachu-
setts needs an additional $1 billion annually.
The list goes on and on. According to former
President Bill Clinton, U.S. public infrastruc-
ture spending, as a percentage of GDP, stands
at 1.7%a 20-year low.
I urge you to contact your representatives
and demand action on highway transportation
funding. You can visit www.aisc.org/action
and send a note to your congressperson or
senator. Or better yet, visit their local offce.
Sit down with them and ask why this isnt
their priority. Lets get transportation funding
rolling.
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Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 9
Backing for Seismic Moment Connections to
the Weak Axis of Columns
This question is about designing a moment connec-
tion between a beam and a column web for an ordinary
moment frame, where the beam flanges are welded to
stiffeners that extend beyond the column flanges. If these
welds are subjected to seismic demands and considered
demand-critical, must the backing be removed? If the
backing is left in place, must a fillet weld be applied
between the backing and the flange or stiffener?
This topic is not directly addressed anywhere, so I will offer
my opinion along with some rationale.
Fully restrained connections in an ordinary moment frame
can be designed using option (a), (b) or (c) of Section E1.6b
of the AISC Seismic Provisions. Option (c) is not applicable to
weak-axis connections. Options (a) and (b) do not explicitly
require that backing be removed or that an additional fillet be
applied. There is likely to be little benefit from the removal
(or further welding) of backing at a moment connection
between a beam and a column web. For both of these reasons,
the backing should be left in place.
The November 2008 SteelWise (available at www.
modernsteel.com) stated: When steel backing is used in tee
joints, typical of beam-to-column connections in special moment
frames (SMF), the lateral forces will cause bending moments,
which impose tensile stresses on these connections, particularly
on the bottom beam flange connection in this case. The notch-
like condition created by backing left in place in tee joints can
serve as a stress concentrator and crack initiator. To eliminate
this condition, for the bottom beam flange-to-column flange
connection the steel backing is removed and the root pass is
gouged to sound weld metalFor top beam flange-to-column
flange welds the backing can be left in place with the addition of a
reinforcing fillet weld between the backing and column.
The key here is that the article refers to tee joints. A tee
joint does not exist at the beam end of a moment connection
to the weak axis of a column. The field weld occurs at a butt
joint. The stress flow will be different and the backing does
not represent as great a concernand the backing can remain
without the reinforcing fillet.
The more critical variable relative to a moment connection
to the weak axis of a column is the length and contouring of the
plate attached to the column web. Figure 12-14 in the AISC
Steel Construction Manual provides details and their ductility
ratios. Details A and A2 appear to provide a good bit of ductility
and are the details I have seen used most commonly.
Larry S. Muir, P.E.
Tension in Bolted Connections with
Multiple Lines of Bolts
Do you have any information for the design of unstiffened
bolted end-plate hanger connections that have multiple
bolt rows (e.g., an HSS welded to an end plate that has
two rows of two bolts on each side of the HSS)? I would
generally assume that the entire load, including prying, is
taken by the first bolt rows and the outer bolts are inef-
fective. But if the plate is thick enough to eliminate pry-
ing at the first bolt row, is it reasonable to use a portion of
the outer rows?
The Guide to Design Criteria for Bolted and Riveted Joints by
Kulak, Fisher and Struik states that more than two gage lines
of fasteners are not appreciably effective (page 283). However,
it also references a paper by Munse, which indicates that the
outer row is not entirely ineffective and that the effectiveness
of the outer row of bolts is indeed dependent on the thickness
of the joined parts. I am not, however, aware of any published
guidance related to determining the participation of the outer
bolts, so you would have to determine this based on your own
judgment. It is common practice to simply neglect the outer
bolts as suggested by Kulak, Fisher and Struik.
Reference:
W.H. Munse, K.S. Peterson and E. Chesson, Jr.,
Strength of Rivets and Bolts in Tension, Journal of the
Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 85, ST3, March 1959.
Carlo Lini, P.E.
Column Web Subjected to
Out-of-Plane Loading
I am connecting a brace to the web of a wide-flange col-
umn using a gusset plate. There is no beam at this loca-
tion. Section J10 in the AISC Specification only deals with
member local checks for forces applied on flanges. What
local checks apply for this condition?
The weak-axis flexural strength of the web can be determined
using a yield line analysis. Punching shear is also a
consideration. It can be calculated as the shear strength of the
web assuming an effective length equal to the perimeter of the
gusset plate at its connection to the web.
In addition to strength, deformation may also be
a consideration. The arrangement you describe will
possess little stiffness and therefore may allow significant
deformation. If this is a concern, then you may want to
consider some other configuration.
Carlo Lini, P.E.
steel
interchange
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10 AUGUST 2014
Beam-Column Restrained at One Flange
If one flange of a column is restrained by a diaphragm,
what are the unbraced length and effective length factors
to be considered in the minor direction for the compres-
sion check? What is the unbraced length of the column
for the bending check?
The diaphragm will provide some resistance to flexural
buckling and lateral-torsional buckling. Lets start with flexural
buckling under compression axial loading. If the diaphragm
provides adequate shear strength and stiffness, it will force
the member to buckle in a flexural-torsional mode about
the centroid of the plate. This constrained-axis buckling
is discussed on page 36 of AISC Design Guide 25 (a free
download for members at www.aisc.org). The theory behind
the equation is from the classic book by Timoshenko and Gere
(1961). Design examples and tables were developed by Liu
et al. (2013) to aid in the design of wide-flange compression
members constrained about one flange.
For flexure, if the compression flange is attached to the
diaphragm, the plate will act as a lateral brace, preventing
lateral-torsional buckling. If the tension flange is attached to
the plate, most design engineers neglect the bracing effect
of the plate when calculating the lateral-torsional buckling
strength of the beam. This is conservative, because the plate
provides some lateral and torsional bracing to the beam.
A more refined calculation is usually not justified for the
small strength increase typically realized for these members.
However, if you are interested in a rigorous solution, Trahair
(1993) is a great resource.
References:
Liu, D., Davis, B., Arber, L. and Sabelli, R. (2013),
Torsional and Constrained-Axis Flexural-Torsional
Buckling Tables for Steel W-Shapes in Compression,
Engineering Journal, AISC, Fourth Quarter.
Timoshenko, S.P. and Gere, J.M. (1961), Theory of Elastic
Stability, McGraw-Hill.
Trahair, N.S. (1993), Flexural-Torsional Buckling of
Structures, CRC Press.
Bo Dowswell, P.E., Ph.D.
Base Plate Washers
Do washer plates need to be field welded to the column
base plate?
For a typical gravity load-only column, there is no need to
weld anchor rod plate washers to the base plate. For a column
that is also subject to lateral loads, it depends on what load
path you are anticipating to get the lateral loads from the
column to the foundation. If you are planning to transfer the
column shear into the foundation through the anchor rods,
then I recommend the washers for those columns be welded.
Section 3.5.3 of AISC Design Guide 1 has a fairly detailed
discussion on the pros and cons of this approach. The authors
of the design guide recommend using no more than two anchor
rods to transfer shear unless you provide a means to ensure
all anchor rods are loaded equally. This recommendation is
based on the assumption that the washers are not welded, in
which case the base plate would likely have to slip until it bears
directly on a couple anchor rods. Since I am not generally a fan
of letting my structural members slip and slide, my preference is
to provide welds at washers any time I am designing the anchor
rods to transfer the column shear. The Design Guide provides
other approaches for transferring the shear that may eliminate
the need to weld the washers.
Another thought: I typically require that the washers be
welded when the holes have to be enlarged due to mislocated
anchor rods and the distance between the edge of the base
plate and the edge of the hole gets to be small.
Susan Burmeister, P.E.
Fillet Weld Limitations
In the design of welded connections in building structures,
how do the limitations on the maximum and minimum
sizes of fillet welds differ for two-sided fillet welds?
The minimum weld sizes provided in Table J2.4 of the AISC
Specification (a free download at www.aisc.org/2010spec)
are intended to ensure that there is enough heat input during
welding to maintain the soundness of the weld. There is
assumed to be no interaction in this regard between weld
elements, so there is no change allowed in the minimum weld
size for two-sided welds.
The maximum fillet weld size provided in Section J2.2b
is not a general requirement, but instead applies to only a
specific situation as illustrated in Commentary Figure C-J2.1.
It is possible for this requirement to apply to only one of a pair
of fillet welds.
Larry S. Muir, P.E.
steel interchange
Larry Muir is director of technical assistance and Carlo Lini is staff engineertechnical
assistance, both with AISC. Bo Dowswell and Susan Burmeister are consultants to AISC.
Steel Interchange is a forum to exchange useful and practical professional ideas and
information on all phases of steel building and bridge construction. Opinions and
suggestions are welcome on any subject covered in this magazine.
The opinions expressed in Steel Interchange do not necessarily represent an official position of
the American Institute of Steel Construction and have not been reviewed. It is recognized that the
design of structures is within the scope and expertise of a competent licensed structural engineer,
architect or other licensed professional for the application of principles to a particular structure.
If you have a question or problem that your fellow readers might help you solve, please
forward it to us. At the same time, feel free to respond to any of the questions that you
have read here. Contact Steel Interchange via AISCs Steel Solutions Center:
1 E Wacker Dr., Ste. 700, Chicago, IL 60601
tel: 866.ASK.AISC fax: 312.803.4709
solutions@aisc.org
The complete collection of Steel Interchange questions and answers is available online.
Find questions and answers related to just about any topic by using our full-text search
capability. Visit Steel Interchange online at www.modernsteel.com.
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12 AUGUST 2014
1 Using the design tables located in Parts 1 through
15 of the 14th Edition AISC Manual, determine the
compression strength of a W1422 column with an
unbraced length of 10 ft. Use LRFD.
2 Determine the strong-axis bending strength of a W1253
with an unbraced length equal to 26 ft using Table 6-1.
Use LRFD.
3 Select the lightest
W1 4 c o l u mn
based on t he
criteria shown in
Fig. 1. Use ASD
and Table 6-1.
4 Select a W16 drag strut beam using Table 6-1 based on
the following criteria: unbraced length of 10 ft with a
strong axis bending moment of 200 kip-ft and an axial
compressive load of 25 kips. Use LRFD.
5 Size a W14 hanger
shown in Fig. 2 using
Table 6-1. Use ASD.
This months Steel Quiz looks at the use of design tables in the AISC
Steel Construction Manual. steel quiz
TURN TO PAGE 14 FOR ANSWERS
In particular, the use of the tables in Part 6 is demonstrated. Though Part 6 is titled Design
of Members Subject to Combined Forces, Table 6-1 is the Swiss Army knife of member
design and can be used to design beams, columns and tension membersand beam-columns
essentially serving the same purpose as the tables contained in Parts 3 through 5 of the Manual.
P
a
= 2000 kips
M
a-x
= 250 kip-ft
L
bx
= L
by
= 14-0
W14 HANGER
P
a
= 200 kips
Figure 2
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14 AUGUST 2014
ANSWERS steel quiz
1 A W1422 shape si ze i s not
provided in Table 4-1. However,
Table 6-1 can be used to determine
the strength. The axial compressive
strength is equal to 110 kips.
To i l l ust r at e t he rel at i onshi p
between the tables, use ASD to
calculate the compressive strength
calculated for a W1490 column
with an unbraced length equal to 14
ft using Table 4-1 and Table 6-1.
Per Table 4-1, the axial capacity is
equal to 682 kips.
Per Table 6-1, the axial capacity is
equal to 680 kips. (The difference
is due to rounding.)
2 The strong-axis bending strength
is equal to 198 kips. Note that you
can also determine this value using
Table 3-10.
3 A W14311 is the lightest adequate
W14 shape. Assuming that the
compression load will control the
design, select trail size based on p.
Try a W14283 (p 10
3
=
0.451 < 0.5, b
x
10
3
= 0.657)
By inspection, pP
r
> 0.2
Try a W14311
(p 10
3
= 0.411, b
x
10
3
= 0.591)
4 Assume that pP
r
< 0.2, therefore
adjust b
x
value by (8/9). Calculate
required adjusted b
x
.
Per Table 6-1, try a W1640
(b
x
= 3.88 < 4.44, pP
r
= 2.91)
Use a W1640 beam. Note that
pP
r
= 0.07 < 0.2, and the initial
assumption is verified.
5 Calculate required t
y
and t
r
.
Per Table 6-1, try a W1430 (t
y
=
3.77 < 5 and t
r
= 4.64 < 5), dont let
the inverse trip you up. The value
calculated above is a maximum, not
a minimumi.e., a t
y
or t
r
less than
5 refers to a column with a strength
greater than 200 kips.
Tension Yield Strength
Tension Rupture Strength
Use a W1430 hanger. Note that
Table 6-1 assumes a 25% reduction
in gross area when checking the
tension rupture strengthassuming
the connection detail is not known
at the time of member selection and
that most details can be configured
to develop an effective area equal
to 0.75A
g
. This assumption must be
checked in practice.
Anyone is welcome to submit questions and
answers for Steel Quiz. If you are interested
in submitting one question or an entire quiz,
contact AISCs Steel Solutions Center at
866.ASK.AISC or at solutions@aisc.org.
1

c
P
n
p =
1
p

c
P
n
= = = 110 kips
1
9.08 10
-3
P
n

c
= = 680 kips
1
1.47 10
-3
F
y
A
g
1.67
= 1000 = 265 kips
1
3.77 8
9
b
M
nx
b
x
=
8
9b
x

b
M
nx
= = =198 kip-ft
8
9 4.5 10
-3
1
2000
p 10
3
= 10
3
= 0.5
0.451 2000 kips
1000
+ =1.07 >1.0 (NG)
0.657 250 k-ft
1000
0.411 2000 kips
1000
+ = 0.97< 1.0 (OK)
0.591 250 k-ft
1000
b
x
= 10
3
= 4.44
( )
8
9
1
200 k-ft
( )
8
9
( )
( )
1
2
+
2.91 25kips
1000
9
8
( )
3.88 200
1000
t
y
= t
r
= 10
3
= 5
1
200 kips
(0.75 A
g
) F
u
2.0
= 1000
1
4.64
= 0.91 < 1.0
= 215 kips
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Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 17
AISC IS UPDATING the Frequently Asked Questions
section of its website (www.aisc.org). As these updates are
created, selected sections will be published as SteelWise ar-
ticles. This months installment covers mill production and
tolerances.
1. Mill Production and Tolerances
ASTM A6/A6M covers mill requirements for structural
steel, including dimensional tolerances on the cross section
of structural shapes, the quality requirements and the type of
mill conditioning permitted. ASTM A500 and A53 have sim-
ilar requirements for HSS and steel pipe. The FAQs in this
section include a discussion of portions of these provisions
and the work required either when supplied material does
not meet the tolerances specifed or when more restrictive
tolerances are specifed. Note that several ASTM standards
are referenced in the discussions. Much of the most com-
monly used information is also reproduced in Part 1 of the
AISC Steel Construction Manual.
1.1. Cross-Sectional and Straightness Tolerances
1.1.1. Where are the (mill) dimensional tolerances for
structural shapes and plates given?
Permissible variations for structural shapes and plates as re-
ceived from the mill are established in ASTM A6/A6M Section
12. These historically developed standard tolerances defne the
acceptable limits of variation from theoretical dimension for the
cross-sectional area, fatness, straightness, camber and sweep for
rolled sections. It should be noted that cross-sectional tolerances
are expressed as a percentage of weight or area, not as tolerances
on dimensions such as the fange and web thicknesses.
Generally, standard fabrication practices accommodate
these structurally acceptable variations. In special cases, such
as high-rise construction, the accumulation of mill tolerances
may require consideration in design by the structural engineer
of record. If more restrictive tolerances are required, they must
be specifed in the contract documents.
1.1.2. Where are the dimensional tolerances for HSS
and steel pipe given?
ASTM A500 Section 11 and ASTM A53 Section 10 provide
this information.
1.2. Surface Condition
1.2.1. Where are the permissible variations in surface
condition for structural shapes defned?
ASTM A6/A6M-Section 9 defines the permissible varia-
tions in the surface condition for structural shapes and
plates in the as-rolled condition. It should be recognized
that surface imperfections, such as seams and scabs, within
these specified limits may be present on material received
at the fabrication shopparticularly on heavyweight sec-
tions because of higher finishing temperatures and produc-
tion difficulties. Certain steel chemistries, such as that for
ASTM A588, will also exhibit a higher incidence of surface
imperfections.
Special surface condition requirements must be specifed
in the contract documents. Material purchased to meet the re-
quirements of ASTM A6/A6M is usually subject to acceptance
or rejection based upon visual inspection both at the rolling
mill and at the time of receipt by the fabricator, although
more extensive inspection methods may be used. This in-
spection is important because mills normally limit their con-
tractual liability to replacement or credit. Because occasional
surface imperfections may be discovered after the fabricators
acceptance of mill material, particularly after blast cleaning,
any requirements for remedial work should also be specifed
in the contract documents.
Similar information is provided in ASTM A500/A500M
Section 16 for HSS and ASTM A53/53M Section 12 for
steel pipe.
A HIGH
TOLERANCE
FOR ACCURACY
EDITED BY LARRY S. MUIR, P.E.
steelwise
This months SteelWise features
answers to common questions on mill
production and tolerances.
Larry Muir (muir@aisc.org)
is AISCs director of technical
assistance.
18 AUGUST 2014
1.2.2. What corrective procedures are available to the
mill when variations in surface condition do not meet
specifed tolerances?
ASTM A6/A6M Section 9 specifes limited conditioning that
the mill may perform when as-rolled material does not meet
specifed tolerances. Note that it further states that condition-
ing of imperfections beyond the [specifed] limits... may be per-
formed by [the fabricator] at the discretion of [the fabricator].
Unless required in the contract documents, code-compliant
surface imperfections generally need not be repaired or removed if
they are not detrimental to the strength of the member. When re-
quired, they may be repaired by grinding or welding. The respon-
sibility for any required repairs should be assigned in the contract
documents so that it is clearly understood by all parties involved,
including the owners designated representative for construction
(usually the general contractor), fabricator, erector and painter.
1.2.3. How should edge discontinuities in mill material
be treated?
Non-injurious edge discontinuities in statically loaded
structures need not be removed or repaired unless otherwise
specifed in the contract documents. Injurious defects should
be repaired. Repairs may be by grinding and if necessary to
restore material, via welding. The provisions of AWS D1.1:
Clause 5.15.1.1 for edges that are to be welded are appropriate
for non-welded edges, except that:
Discontinuities need not be explored to a depth greater
than 1 in. When the depth of a discontinuity exceeds 1
in., the discontinuity should be gouged out to a depth
of 1 in. beyond its intersection with the surface and re-
paired by the deposition of weld metal as indicated in
AWS D1.1: Clause 5.15.1.1.
For discontinuities over 1 in. long, with depth exceeding
1
8 in. but not greater than 1 in., the discontinuity must be
removed and repaired, but no single repair should exceed
20% of the length of the edge repaired.
Requirements for treatment of such edge discontinuities
more stringent than this should be specifed in the contract
documents, and the repair procedure should be approved by
the structural engineer of record.
1.3. Ordering Steel
1.3.1. What information is required to be reported in a
material test report (MTR)?
The information required to be reported in an MTR is as
given in ASTM A6/A6M-Section 14 for hot-rolled shapes and
plates. This includes but is not limited to the steel grade and
nominal sizes supplied and tension test results. This document
may be in written form or, per ASTM A6/A6M-Section 14.8,
transmitted electronically.
ASTM A500/A500M Section 18 addresses this for HSS.
ASTM A53/A53M Section 20 addresses this for steel pipe.
1.3.2. What are domestic purchasing requirements?
Two Modern Steel articles, Made in America? (02/09)
and The Buy American Act and the Structural Steel Industry
(10/11), discuss this issue in detail. (Both are available at (www.
modernsteel.com)
1.3.3. When a project is subject to a metric design re-
quirement, what shapes are available?
ASTM A6/A6M covers the metric series of hot-rolled struc-
tural shapes used in the United States. Because it is a soft metric
conversion, the metric series is physically identical to the U.S.
Customary-unit shape series. The dimensions are given in mil-
limeters (mm) with mass expressed in kilograms (kg); note that
the mass must be multiplied by the acceleration of gravity 9.81
m/s
2
to obtain kiloNewtons (kN). The same is true for HSS
and steel pipe.
Note: A soft conversion is made by directly converting the
U.S. customary unit value to a metric equivalente.g., 1 in.
equals 25.4 mm. Conversely, a hard conversion is made by se-
lecting new values in round metric increments, such as replac-
ing 1 in. with 25 mm.
1.3.4. To which ASTM specifcations are hollow struc-
tural sections (HSS) ordered?
ASTM A500 Grade C is most common when specifying
square, rectangular and round HSS. These specifcations cover
cold-formed production of both welded and seamless HSS;
ASTM A847 offers atmospheric corrosion resistance properties
similar to that of ASTM A588 for W-shapes. Pipe-size rounds
(P, PX and PXX) are also available in ASTM A53 Grade B ma-
terial. See FAQs 1.4.6 through 1.4.8 for additional information
on HSS and pipe section designations and material grades.
ASTM A1085 is a new specifcation for HSS. It offers im-
proved material properties and design wall thickness equal to
nominal wall thickness, among other desirable characteristics.
For more information see www.aisc.org/a1085.
1.3.5. What is ASTM A992?
ASTM A992 (F
y
= 50 ksi, F
u
= 65 ksi) is the preferred material
specifcation for wide-fange shapes. Material ductility is well
defned for A992 since a maximum yield-to-tensile strength
ratio of 0.85 is specifed. Additionally, weldability is improved
steelwise
The Steel Tube Institute initiated the change from tube
to HSS in 1997 to conform to their designation practices.
Thus, TS is simply an outdated way to specify HSS.

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steelwise
since a maximum carbon equivalent value of 0.45 (0.47 for
shapes with fange thickness over 2 in.) is required. ASTM A992
is written to cover all hot-rolled shapes but it is predominantly
used for W-shapes.
1.3.6. Are there any differences between steel grades
ASTM A572 Grade 50 and ASTM A992?
There are differences, although the two materials are
similar. ASTM A992 should be specifed for all W-shapes
used today. It is like ASTM A572 Grade 50, but has better
controls on chemistry and mechanical properties. It includes
minimum values for yield and tensile strengths, a maximum
ratio for yield strength to tensile strength and a maximum
carbon equivalent value (also see FAQ 1.3.5).
1.3.7. What is a multi-certifed material?
There is overlap in the chemical, mechanical and other re-
quirements in many ASTM specifcations. For example, there
is a range of chemistry, yield strength, tensile strength and
other characteristics that is entirely within the requirements of
ASTM A992, A572 Grade 50 and A36. Material with character-
istics within this range of overlap is sometimes multi-certifed
by the producerlabeled with all ASTM material specifca-
tions it meets. Historically, this practice was most common for
wide-fange material that was specifed to ASTM A572 Grade
50. While the ASTM A572 specifcation was met, all of the re-
quirements of the ASTM A36 specifcation were also met. The
producers would then sell the material as either ASTM A36
or A572 Grade 50. With the shift to ASTM A992 as the base
material for design and construction with wide-fange shapes,
multi-certifcation is perhaps more of a historical note.
1.3.8. How can shape availability be determined?
AISC has producer listings at www.aisc.org/steelavailability
for hot-rolled shapes and HSS of various sizes and weights. Shapes
producers have the ability to update these lists on a real-time
basis. Contact information for many shapes producers is given
on the website.
1.4 Other General Information
1.4.1. Color combinations are commonly used to indi-
cate various steel grades. Where are these color combina-
tions established?
Colors that identify the various grades of structural steel
used to be established in ASTM A6/A6M.The requirement for
color coding has been eliminated and is no longer required.
1.4.2. Where are chemistry requirements for structural
steel specifed?
Chemistry limitations and requirements are specifed in cer-
tain ASTM specifcations for structural steels, such as ASTM
A36, A572, A588, A992, etc. Steel producers are required to re-
port steel chemistry for each heat of steel produced on an MTR
(see FAQ 1.3.1).
1.4.3. Structurally, is there a difference between a 4
bar and a 4 plate?
Structurally, no. Furthermore, plate is becoming a
universally applied term. However, the historical classifcation
system for such structural material would suggest the following
physical difference: All four sides of a 4 bar would be rolled
edgesi.e., the mill rolled it to that thickness and width. A
4 plate will have been cut from a -in. plate of greater width
either by shearing or fame cutting.
1.4.4. What are the common length limits on structural
steel members as ordered from the mill?
Common mill lengths range from 30 ft to 65 ft in 5-ft in-
crements. However, because individual mill practices and stan-
dards vary, it is best to consult with individual mills directly.
When steel is purchased from a service center, the selection
of available lengths may be further limited. Additionally, the
method of shipment may also limit the available length.
1.4.5. What are the sizes of fllets for W-shapes?
Per Section 12.3.1 of ASTM A6, fllet radii are an unspecifed
dimension. As such, they are manufacturer-specifc. Contact an
individual manufacturer directly for additional information.
AISC performs a periodic survey of producers practices to
determine the minimum and maximum fllets used in shape
production. The results of that survey are used to establish val-
ues in the AISC Manual, such as T, k
des
, k
det
and k
1
, which are de-
tailing values. T, k
det
and k
1
are based upon the largest reported
fllet radius, which ensures that potentially large fllet radii will
not lead to ft-up problems. k
des
is a design value based upon the
smallest reported fllet, which ensures that the strength will not
be overestimated in a design calculation no matter what the
fllet size.
1.4.6. What is the difference between a round HSS
and a pipe?
Round HSS are intended to be used as structural mem-
bers. Pipe, though sometimes used as structural members,
is intended to be used for mechanical and pressure applica-
tions. As used in the AISC Steel Construction Manual, steel pipe
and round HSS are manufactured to meet different ASTM
standards. Steel pipe is made to requirements in ASTM A53
Grade B (F
y
= 35 ksi).
Pipes up to and including NPS 12 are designated by the
term Pipe, nominal diameter (in.) and weight class (Std., x-
Strong, xx-Strong). NPS stands for nominal pipe size. For
example, Pipe 5 Std. denotes a pipe with a 5-in. nominal di-
ameter and a 0.258-in. wall thickness, which corresponds to
the standard weight series. Pipes with wall thicknesses that
do not correspond to the foregoing weight classes are desig-
nated by the term Pipe, outside diameter (in.) and wall thick-
ness (in.), with both expressed to three decimal places. For
example, Pipe 14.0000.375 and Pipe 5.5630.500 are proper
designations.
Round HSS are usually ASTM A500 Grade C (F
y
= 46 ksi).
They are available in cross sections matching each of the cross
sections for ASTM A53 Grade B steel pipe. For example, an
HSS 6.6250.280 has the same dimensional properties as a
Pipe 6 Std. Additionally, ASTM A500 HSS can be obtained in
many more sizes with periphery not exceeding 64 in. and wall
thickness not exceeding
5
8 in.
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 21
steelwise
One important difference, especially from an architectural
perspective, is that round HSS will have an outside diameter
equal to the nominal diameter, but the outside diameter of a
pipe will vary depending on its thickness. The tolerances on
A500 HSS also tend to be tighter than those on A53. For ex-
ample A53 requires only that the pipe be reasonably straight,
where A500 places a specifc tolerance on straightness. Also,
A53 specifcally allows dents with depths up to the lesser of 10%
of the pipe diameter or in.
1.4.7. What is the difference between a tube shape (TS)
and HSS?
Structurally, there is no difference. The Steel Tube Insti-
tute, an organization representing the manufacturers of hollow
structural sections, initiated the change from tube to HSS
in 1997 to conform to their designation practices. Thus, TS
is simply an outdated way to specify HSS.
1.4.8. What is the appropriate call-out for HSS?
Rectangular HSS are designated by the mark HSS, overall
outside dimensions (in.) and wall thickness (in.), with all
dimensions expressed as fractional numbers. For example, a
square HSS should be designated as HSS88
3
8 (instead of
the old TS88
3
8). A rectangular HSS should be designated
as HSS53
3
8 (instead of the old TS53
3
8). Round HSS are
designated by the term HSS, nominal outside diameter (in.)
and wall thickness (in.) with both dimensions expressed to three
decimal places. For example, a round HSS should be designated
as HSS5.5630.258.
Note that ASTM A53 steel pipe designations (e.g., Pipe 5
Std., Pipe 5 x-strong, etc.) are designated differently than round
ASTM A500 HSS.
1.4.9. What is COR-TEN steel?
COR-TEN is a U.S. Steel trade name for ASTM A588
weathering steel. The most common weathering material is
ASTM A588 Grade A. The proper specifcation of weathering
steel is by ASTM designation, not the U.S. Steel trade name.
1.4.10. Is structural steel recycled?
The structural steel industry is the world leader in the use
of recycled material and end-of-life recycling. Structural steel
beams and columns produced in U.S. mills have an industry av-
erage recycled content of 93% and a recycling rate of 98%.

22 AUGUST 2014
IN THE 1983 MOVIE Never Cry Wolf, government biologist
Tyler Smith is sent to the wilderness of Alaska to study the
declining caribou population. The government agency backing
the study has already spent signifcant funds and reached the
conclusion that the decline has been caused by wolves killing
off large portions of the caribou herd. Yet no one has visited
Alaska or actually seen a wolf kill a caribou.
Against the backdrop of his experiences in the wilderness
(which include befriending a local wolf pack by playing the
bassoon), Tyler meets a local Inuit who shares with him that
nothing unusual is happening; the size of the caribou herd has
always been cyclical and the wolves are not the problem. Dur-
ing the summer migration, Tyler is then able to verify that the
wolves are not ruthless, savage and indiscriminate killers, but
rather natures way of keeping the caribou population strong by
culling sick and injured animals from the herd.
The lesson to be learned is that the best way to get good
information isnt to sit in an offce and speculate, but rather to
go into the feld and ask the people who know best. The answer
of what was happening to the caribou didnt require a govern-
ment study; all that was required was to ask a local Inuit.
When it comes to the construction market, the same is
true. We can look at GDP growth rates, employment lev-
els, economic projections and government projections to
predict construction growth, but the best way to measure
construction activity is to ask those most directly engaged
in the construction of buildings and bridges.
AISC does that through our quarterly AISC Business
Barometer. The fabricator members of AISC are surveyed
relative to their perception of both the condition of the current
market and where they see the market heading over the next
quarter. This survey takes into account a variety of factors such
as general business conditions, tonnage sold, tonnage shipped,
bidding activity, order backlog, proft levels, lead time on
fabricated steel, lead time on purchased steel and material costs.
The most recent survey, for the 2nd quarter of 2014, shows
that even after a diffcult winter there is a continuing upward
trend in overall business conditions (a composite evaluation of
the factors listed above). How accurate has this indicator been
in the past? The below chart tracks this composite trend since
1996 and shows a very positive correlation between the index
and overall economic trends. It should be noted that the com-
posite index is a qualitative look at the marketplace, not a quan-
titative evaluation. We cannot extrapolate the rate of growth
from this data, but we can identify the direction of the mar-
ket. Those closest to the construction market in general and
the structural steel fabrication market specifcally are seeing a
rebound in the market and are optimistic about the future.
THE FABRICATOR
KNOWS BEST
BY JOHN CROSS, P.E., AND
ROSS ALLBRITTON
business issues Want to put a fnger on the pulse of the
construction industry? Dont just rely on
reports or speculation; ask those who are in the
thick of things.
John Cross (cross@aisc.org) is an AISC vice president and
Ross Allbritton (allbritton@aisc.org) is AISCs industry
mobilization manager.
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1
Q
1
4
B
u
s
i
n
e
s
s

A
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

I
n
d
e
x
1
Q
1
2
1
Q
1
0
1
Q
0
8
1
Q
0
6
1
Q
0
4
1
Q
0
2
1
Q
0
0
1
Q
9
8
1
Q
9
6
1
Q
1
3
1
Q
1
1
1
Q
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Q
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1
Q
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5
1
Q
0
3
1
Q
0
1
1
Q
9
9
1
Q
9
7
Late 90s
expansion
Volatility
9/11 mini-recession
20062007 boom
The Great
Recession
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 23
Fabricator Business Conditions
If business conditions are improving for
the structural steel industry, the question
becomes how we are preparing for those
improving conditions? Clearly, as an indus-
try we have been through this cycle before
and we have responded well. Coming out
of those cycles the industry has improved
productivity through the use of technology,
expanded capacity, brought in and trained
new staff, created innovative solutions using
structural steel, provided better tools and
support for those who design and build
with structural steel and become even more
responsive to the needs of the construction
market. Those things are happening today.
However, there is one element of respond-
ing to the recovery that the industry must
be careful not to overlook. After several very
trying years, every individual working within
the structural steel industry needs to recog-
nize their value within the steel supply chain.
The effort of every worker is integral to the
contribution that structural steel makes to
our country and economy.
To help address this human aspect of
the recovery, AISC has initiated the Steel
Proud campaign. This campaign will help
every member of the industry personally
express pride in their role in their indus-
try. That expression will take the form of
the following series of simple statements
accompanied by a visible reminder of being
Steel Proud:
I work in the structural steel industry.
We provide the steel used to build
thousands of buildings and bridges
every year.
Steel framing allows buildings to
have large open spaces with long
spans and small columns.
Buildings and bridges built with
steel are attractive and adaptable for
changing requirements.
Building with steel is fast, safe, dura-
ble, economical, predictable and
green. In fact, steel is the most recy-
cled material in the world.
Our steel is produced at steel mills
in the United States by American
workers and stocked throughout the
country at steel service centers.
We detail, cut, drill and weld that steel
to high-quality standards in fabrica-
tion shops throughout America to
meet the specifc design require-
ments of each project.
We lead the construction indus-
try in meeting Americas need
for new buildings and bridges
through the use of advanced
technology, computer modeling
and American expertise.
Im proud to work in todays 21st
century structural steel industry.
The next time you see a member of
the structural steel industry, ask them
why they are Steel Proud.

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Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 25
The University of California, Davis
improves upon last years third-place performance to take the top spot
at this years National Student Steel Bridge Competition.
THE UNIVERSITY OF AKRONS athletic teams are
known as the Zips. And engineering students from all over
the country certainly brought some zip of their own to the
school over Memorial Day weekend, as Akron played host to
the 23rd annual ASCE/AISC National Student Steel Bridge
Competition (NSSBC).
After fnishing third in the competition last year, the
University of California, Davis (UC Davis) elevated its game
and earned the overall title at this years competition, which
took place in Akrons John S. Knight Center. For the third
consecutive year, second place went to the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology. The University of California, Berkeley
took third place this year (this is the exact reverse order of the
top three overall winners last year.)
For the 600 students from 47 participating colleges and
universitiesnarrowed down from 18 regional competitions
throughout the springthe goal was to design, fabricate and
construct their own one-tenth-scale steel bridge in the short-
est time and under specifc building constraints. The competi-
tion is an exciting visual display of students structural design
and analysis skills at work. Not only does it give them the op-
portunity to further expand upon their technical knowledge
learned in the classroom, but it also provides them valuable
experience in practical areas like communication, teamwork
and project management.
At the Top of
THEIR GAME
BY TASHA WEISS
Tasha Weiss (weiss@aisc.org) is
Modern Steels associate editor.
AISC
This years competition, hosted by the University of Akron,
took place at Akrons John S. Knight Center.
And each year, the NSSBC Rules Committee creates a new
set of rules that refect real-life structural specifcations and con-
struction regulations. This year, students were challenged with
designing a steel bridge that was to replace an 80-year-old de-
teriorated timber trestle. The bridge had to span a 17-ft-wide
river but not exceed 19 ft overall. And in order to accommodate
extreme high water, the maximum construction depth below the
bridge deck was to be no more than 9 in. Working within this
particular constraint resulted in a wide variety of bridge designs.

Spanning the 17-ft-wide river.


Loading up during the stiffness competition, which involves the
incremental addition of 2,500 lb.
Making the Podium
While every team dreams of putting up the best overall performance, the competitions six categories provide
opportunities for victory as well. The top three winners in each category of the 2014 competition were:
The complete rankings, overall and by category, are available at www.nssbc.info. More photos from this years competition
can be found on AISCs Facebook page (www.facebook.com/AISCdotORG) in the NSSBC 2014 photo album.
Construction Speed
1. Clemson University
2. New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
3. University of Missouri Science and Technology
Stiffness
1. University of Hawaii at Manoa
2. Lafayette College
3. University of Florida
Lightness
1. University of California, Davis
2. California Polytechnic State University,
San Luis Obispo
3. University of California, Berkeley
Economy
1. Clemson University
2. University of Missouri Science and Technology
3. New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
Display
1. Youngstown State University
2. Lakehead University
3. Georgia Institute of Technology
Efciency
1. University of California, Davis
2. University of Florida
3. University of Wisconsin Madison

Cal Polys team, working against the clock. UC Davis, the overall winners.

AISC
AISC Matt McCreary
Matt McCreary
26 AUGUST 2014
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 27
While rules and specifcations change from year to year, the
competitions categories tend to stay the same: construction
speed, stiffness, lightness, economy, display and effciency. The
teams with the best combined rankings across all categories
earn the top overall spots. This is the second time UC Davis
has won the national championship in the competitions his-
tory; their frst win was in 2005.
We were thrilled to come in frst place, said Quincy Dahm,
one of the team captains of the 20-member UC Davis steel
bridge team. It had been too long since our last victory, and we
wanted to leave a mark this year. A few people were determined
to make that happen and thats what drove us to successa lot
of hours from a handful of students.
Dahm also credited the teams win to their bridges extreme-
ly lightweight design. At 79 lb, the bridge was 12 lb lighter than
the second lightest bridge, which allowed them to sit back at
sixth and ninth place for stiffness and construction economy,
respectively. Of course, those categories required plenty of ef-
fort as well. We practiced building the bridge nearly every day,
and fabrication demanded precision to keep defection under
control, he said. If we slacked at all in any area, I doubt we
would have gotten frst place.
It has been a challenging year, and the student team worked
extremely hard since the very beginning, added Dawn Cheng,
Ph.D., faculty advisor for the UC Davis steel bridge team and
associate professor in UC Davis Department of Civil and Envi-
ronmental Engineering. This well-deserved achievement takes
dedication, hard work and perfection in engineering and leader-
ship skills. Winning is not the fnal goal of the competition; being
part of such a great lifetime experience is what matters.
Throughout the academic year, student teams work for
months perfecting the design, fabrication and construction of
their bridges. To reach the national event, each team must place
among the top schools in one of the regional competitions.
This year, approximately 200 college and university teams from
around the U.S., Canada and Mexico participated in the re-
gional competitions.
Its exciting to watch the next generation of structural en-
gineers come together and work with such passion and enthu-
siasm, said Nancy Gavlin, AISCs director of education. The
competition poses real-world challenges that the students face
with ingenuity and professionalism.
There is also a signifcant amount of preparation for the
host school, and AISC provides fnancial and advisory assitance
throughout the process. According to Gavlin, planning consists
of registering hundreds of competitors, fundraising, providing
meals and making housing arrangements for all competitors
for the two-day event, fnding and training more than 100
event volunteers, arranging a judges lunch meeting for 60
people, organizing the display competition for almost 50
bridges, hosting a captains meeting for 100 people, laying out
the competition boundary lines, organizing the logistics for the
12-hour main bridge competition day itselfwhich consists of
fve simultaneously operating build stations, nine load stations, a
weigh station and a scoring stationcoordinating and helping
to develop the loading and displacement measuring devices and
then topping it all off with a banquet for 750 people.
We worked very closely with Nancy and with John Parucki,
the national head judge, and they visited UA several times over
the months leading up to the competition, said David Roke,
Ph.D., assistant professor at the University of Akron and fac-
ulty advisor for both the 2014 NSSBC Hosting Committee and
the schools steel bridge team. The breadth and depth of what
they asked for and helped us to arrange was staggering; there
is so much to consider, from the fne details like a specifc load-
ing procedure to the broader task of arranging the fow of the
competition itself.
Advising the student steel bridge team was actually a very
fun experience for me, Roke continued. Its something that
I wish I had been involved with as an undergraduate student,
so Im more than happy to be involved now as a faculty advi-
sor. The best part about it is the interaction with the students.
They put in a lot of time outside of the classroom to apply
concepts they learned in class, extend their knowledge beyond
what is taught and work together to solve complex engineering
problems. The steel bridge competition is an excellent training
ground for tomorrows engineers, and Im proud to be a small
part of it here at UA.

Next years NSSBC will be held May 22-23 at the University of


Missouri-Kansas City. To learn more about the competition, visit
www.aisc.org/nssbc or www.nssbc.info. NSSBC is sponsored by
AISC in cooperation with the American Society of Civil Engineers
and is cosponsored by Bentley, DS SolidWorks, Nucor, the Ameri-
can Iron and Steel Institute, the National Steel Bridge Alliance, the
James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, the Canadian Institute of
Steel Construction, the Steel Structures Education Foundation and
the American Galvanizers Association.

Each bridge must meet specic requirements, such as limiting


below-deck construction to only 9 in., but each has its own style.

Judging the lateral stiffness, with 50 lb of weight applied.


AISC AISC
28 AUGUST 2014
A look at the ins and outs of the hot-dip galvanizing process.
HOT-DIP GALVANIZED STEEL, known for its silver-gray
hue, sports a protective zinc coating that prevents oxidization.
Zinc and iron react to one another through a diffusion process,
creating a four-layer zinc iron alloy. This layer of protection is
particularly suitable for steel that must withstand harsh, out-
door environments where it is exposed to the elements. And it
can be used on myriad types of steel, not just structural.
But how does the hot-dip galvanizing process work? Follow-
ing is a photo tour of AISC member AZZ Galvanizings Goodyear,
Ariz., plant. By the end, youll have a better understanding of how
steel goes from uncoated to zinc-encased and ready to ship.

Geoff Weisenberger
(weisenberger@aisc.org) is
Modern Steels senior editor.
GALVANIZING
IllustratedBY GEOFF WEISENBERGER
The galvanizing process was discovered in the 1700s and
the basics havent changed much since. The mixture that
the steel is dipped in is 99% pure zinc, along with a small
amount of aluminum (which gives it a shine) and other
proprietary chemicals.

Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 29

Zinc arrives at the facility in approximately 2,400-lb pieces


and is added to the kettles regularly as the levels get low;
the operators keep the level 2 in. to 3 in. below the lip of the
kettle to prevent spillage when elements are dipped. This
facility has three kettles in two different buildings, as well as
a decommissioned kettle. The two longest kettles43.5 ft
long and 36 ft longare both 6 ft wide and 9 ft deep, while
the third kettle is 23 ft long, 3 ft wide and 6.5 ft deep.
Steel comes into the facility in various stages of cleanliness; the
Goodyear facility has a sandblasting building for steel that needs
to be blasted. All steel batches go through a series of tanks
or baths. From the staging area at the beginning end of the
plant, the steel takes its first bath in a high-pH (above 13) caustic
dip, which removes oil, grease and dirt. Sodium hydroxide is
the primary chemical in the dip, which also includes proprietary
emulsifiers and surfactants. The metal rests in the caustic bath for
10 minutes to an hour, depending on its condition. After the batch
is dipped in the caustic fluid, it must be neutralized, so the second
bath it takes is in water.
Speaking of water, venting is a crucial step for steel elements that
will be put through the galvanizing process, particularly with hol-
low pieces. When moisture trapped inside an element becomes
super-heated, it can generate 3,800 psi of pressure and blow a
steel piece apart. AZZ makes sure to check steel for proper vent-
ing before putting it through the process. And in cases where steel
isnt vented properly, they contact the fabricator and either have
them add venting holes or perform the work themselves on-site
using torching or drilling, charging the fabricator accordingly.
The third tank is an acid bath, which removes any oxidization.
Either sulfuric or hydrochloric acid is used for this pickling pro-
cess; the Goodyear facility uses sulfuric acid. The two acids attack
oxide in different ways. Sulfuric finds fissures in the oxide layer,
penetrates next to the base metal and removes the oxide layer.
Hydrochloric acid is a bit more forgiving on the base metal in that
it simply dissolves the oxide layer. The acid bath lasts between 7
and 30 minutes, depending on the metals rust condition. Metal
with heavy oxides might stay in for up to 45 minutes.

From the pickling tank, the batch goes into another water
bath to rinse off the acid. The next and final bath before
the actual zinc dip is a low-pH zinc ammonium chloride
mixture, which acts as a fluxing agent. It also contains a
chlorine salt that encapsulates the metal and prevents it
from oxidizing again.
30 AUGUST 2014

To maximize productivity, the Goodyear plant lines up


jobs so that while one batch is in one bath, another
batch is in the bath preceding it, and so on. It also
bundles its steel orders together to maximize crane
capacity. In addition, there are two lifts for the zinc
kettle, one at the front and one at the back, so two
batches can be hot-dipped simultaneously.
The zinc in the kettle is kept at 835 F. Once
the base metal reaches the 835 F mark, which
usually takes about 3 minutes, the reaction is
complete.
The zinc kettle is the most highly skilled posi-
tion in the shop and operators finesse the
batchesraising and lowering them into the
kettle to make sure the zinc gets into all of the
nooks and crannies, tapping them as necessary
to remove excess zinc and skimming the top of
the tank to make sure that no detritus adheres to
the steel as it is brought out of the dip.
Operators move each batch
from kettle to kettle via wired
remote control.
Following the flux, its time
for the zinc. The batch is
dipped in a kettle that holds,
in the case of the largest
kettle at the facility, around
1.1 million lb of molten zinc.
A blast shield is lowered
for the initial dip to prevent
splatter on the operators.
The number of times the batch
is raised and lowered into the
tank (to completely remove
trapped skimmings) depends
on its geometry, but each
batch eventually emerges with
a shimmering silver coat.
There is no cure time, but each
batch is typically dipped in a
vat of water for cooling.

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32 AUGUST 2014
The smaller building employs
7.5-ton cranes while the larger
building uses 10-ton cranes to
move steel batches down the
line. Each batch is tagged for
tracking purposes, but the tag
is attached high enough so
that it is not submerged in
any of the tanks or kettles.
Once the steel is galvanized, quality control is essentially built in,
as defects or voids in the coating are visible to the naked eye.
Deburring is performed outside as necessary.
If there are significant defects in the coating, the steel can be put
through the entire process again. The plant also performs various
touchup processes as necessary, and there is an outdoor area
designated for zinc-rich painting and metallizing (where zinc is
sprayed onto the steel) operations.

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Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 33
Some structural steel
elements include por-
tions of the surface
that are not to be
galvanized. These are
covered via a special
paint that comes off
during the galvanizing
process but stays zinc-
free when it emerges
from the zinc kettle.
A third type of touchup work involves the applica-
tion of additional zinc via a zinc stick. This can be
done immediately after the dipping and cooling
process when the steel is still warm enough for the
zinc to be melted on.

Smaller elements, such as bolts, go through the


galvanizing process in special spinner baskets in the
23-ft tank. After the zinc dip, the baskets are spun in
a special machine to remove the excess zinc.
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34 AUGUST 2014
All zinc used at the plant is 100% recyclable.
AZZ removes a slag material called dross
from the kettles about every two weeks. Dross
is created from small particles of iron coming
off the steel being dipped; the iron particles
are encapsulated by zinc, and because theyre
heavier than zinc, fall to the bottom of the kettle.
The dross is compressed into blocks and sold to
a company that separates the zinc from the iron,
then sells the zinc back to the galvanizer.
In addition, zinc oxide that forms during the
galvanizing process is ladled off the top of
the kettle and processed in a machine that
separates the zinc from the zinc oxide. The
zinc is returned to the kettle and the zinc oxide
material is sold to the same company that
recycles the zinc from the remaining skimmings.
From there, the zinc oxide can be used in a
number of applications, including health-care
products, cosmetics, animal feed and paint.
Zinc kettles are typically used for about seven years before requiring replacement.

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Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 35
The turnaround time for a galvanizing job, from the time it arrives from
the fabricator to when it is ready to be shipped to a project site or
service center, is typically five days.

ICC-ES has published Evaluation Report ESR-3330 for designing Hollo-Bolt


connections to LRFD and ASD methods. This assures both building officials
and the wider building industry that Lindapters Original Expansion Bolt for
Structural Steel meets I-Code requirements.
Visit www.LindapterUSA.com to download the full Evaluation Report today.
Hollo-Bolt

by
ICC-ES approved
for compliance with the International Building Code

Exclusive Hollo-Bolt features include:


4 Highest resistance to tensile loading in accordance
with AC437
4 Use in Seismic Design Categories (SDC) A, B and C
4 Standard HDG product at standard pricing
4 Available off-the-shelf in sizes
5
/16 -
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/4
from your local distributor
4 Patented High Clamping Force design
(sizes
5
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3
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ICC-ES Evaluation Reports are not to be construed as representing aesthetics or any other attributes not specifically addressed, nor are they to be construed
as an endorsement of the subject of the report or a recommendation for its use. There is no warranty by ICC Evaluation Service, LLC, express or implied, as
to any finding or other matter in this report, or as to any product covered by the report.
Copyright 2014 Page 1 of 6
1000
ICC-ES Evaluation Report ESR-3330
Issued March 1, 2014
This report is subject to renewal March 1, 2015.
www.icc-es.org | (800) 423-6587 | (562) 699-0543 A Subsidiary of the International Code Council
DIVISION: 05 00 00METALS
Section: 05 05 02METAL FASTENINGS
REPORT HOLDER:
LINDAPTER
LINDSAY HOUSE, BRACKENBECK ROAD
BRADFORD, WEST YORKSHIRE
BD7 2NF
UNITED KINGDOM
44 (0) 1274 521444
www.lindapter.com
www.lindapterusa.com
EVALUATION SUBJECT:
HOLLO-BOLT 3 PART AND HOLLO-BOLT 5 PART
FASTENERS
1.0 EVALUATION SCOPE
Compliance with the following code:
2009 International Building Code (IBC)
Property evaluated:
Structural
2.0 USES
Hollo-Bolt Fasteners are designed for connecting
structural steel to hollow structural section (HSS) steel
members and other structural steel elements where
access is difficult or restricted to one side only. Hollo-Bolt
fasteners are intended for use with rectangular or square
HSS members and are recognized for resisting static
tension and shear loads in bearing-type connections. The
fasteners are alternatives to bolts described in Section J3
of AISC 360, which is referenced in Section 2205.1 of the
IBC, for bearing-type connections.
The Hollo-Bolt Fasteners may be used to resist wind
loads, and seismic loads in Seismic Design Categories
A, B and C.
3.0 DESCRIPTION
3.1 General:
Hollo-Bolt 3 Part Fasteners are assembled from three
components, consisting of the core bolt, the body (sleeve)
including the shoulder (collar), and the cone. The steel
core bolt features a threaded shank and hexagonal head.
The body is a steel segmented hollow cylinder, with four
slits 90 degrees from each other. The collar is a circular
element having two flat surfaces (to accommodate
an open-ended wrench) with a circular hole integral with
the sleeve. The cone is a steel circular internally
threaded nut with grooves on the outer surface.
Nominal Hollo-Bolt sizes include 5/16 inch (M8), 3/8 inch
(M10), 1/2 inch (M12), 5/8 inch (M16), and 3/4 inch (M20),
with each size of bolt available in three lengths.
The Hollo-Bolt 5 Part Fasteners are similar, except that
they include a nitrile rubber washer and separate collar.
Figure 1 provides a picture of the Hollo-Bolt 3 Part and
Hollo-Bolt 5 Part. Table 1 provides part codes, design
strengths, and installation information.
3.2 Materials:
3.2.1 Set Screw: The core bolt is manufactured
from steel complying with EN ISO 898-1, Class 8.8,
having a specified Fu of 116,030 psi (800 MPa).
3.2.2 Body (sleeve) with Integral Collar, Body (sleeve
without collar), Collar and Cone: The parts are
manufactured from free cutting carbon steel Grade
11SMn30 or 11SMnPb30, conforming to BS EN 10087,
having a minimum tensile strength of 62,400 psi
(430N/mm2) (sizes up to LHB16) or 56,500 psi
(390N/mm2) (size LHB20); or cold drawn steel AISI
C10B21, having a minimum tensile strength of
68,000 psi (470N/mm2).
3.2.3 Rubber Washer: The shore hardness is
measured on the A scale 80-90.
3.2.4 Finish Coating: All components, except the
rubber washer, are hot dipped galvanized/high
temperature galvanized to BS EN ISO 1461, as
described in the quality documentation.
4.0 DESIGN AND INSTALLATION
4.1 Design:
The fasteners are alternatives to bolts described in
Section J3 of AISC 360, which is referenced in Section
2205.1 of the IBC, for bearing-type connections. The
design of the Hollo-Bolt Fasteners must comply with this
report, Section J3 of AISC 360 and the strength design
information for the Hollo-Bolt provided in Table 1 of this
report. The load-carrying capacity of the assembly
depends on the fasteners, the type of elements
connected, such as a HSS and its their cross
ICC
Once a year the caustic tank solution is pumped over
to a rinse tank, and the sludge is removed from the
tank, treated and sent to a landfill as a non-hazardous
waste. The solution is pumped back over to the
caustic tank and rebuilt to operational specifications.
The acid is recycled and reused. The Goodyear plants
acid recovery system keeps the tanks free of zinc and
iron (contaminants that can contaminate the pickling
tank), and the acid tanks are replenished with fresh
acid, typically on a daily basis. Water from the caustic
rinse and acid rinse tanks is used to build new caustic
and acid solutions. The preflux solution and tank go
through the same cleaning and recycling process used
for the caustic solution and tank.

Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 37


A new system allows
rooftop penetration framing to come together faster and more economically.
YOU MAY KNOW THEM as rooftop frames, roof
penetration frames or structural supports for roof openings.
Whatever you call them, you probably know their purpose.
These steel framing assemblies are used to bear the weight
of commercial rooftop HVAC units, evaporative coolers, roof
turbines, skylights, roof drains and other rooftop-mounted
equipment.
The main issue with these openings occurs when their
orientation is changed or doesnt account for potential
changes in joist spacing, which can result in redesign as well
as lost time and money. Jay Soyko, a former steel erector, had
encountered this problem far too many times, and he went
on to invent an adjustable, cost-effcient, welding-free roof
frame. Called QuickFrames, the assemblies can be installed
in a few steps:
1. Align the joist hangers fush to the end of the main rails.
2. Slide the rails open until theyre fush to the joist and se-
cured together.
3. Install angle brackets to the rails and tighten them
by hand.
4. Extend the cross rails open between the main rails and
secure them, then tighten them by hand when attaching
them to each angle bracket (after which the length of each
side rail is adjusted accordingly).
Rebecca Hasulak (rebecca@quotablepr.com) is an account
manager with Quotable PR. Chase Sebastian (chases@
soykoindustries.com) is director of inuence with QuickFrames.

Picking up the
PACE
BY REBECCA HASULAK AND
CHASE SEBASTIAN
A traditional welded roof penetration system.
5. Secure the cross rails to the angle brackets and tighten
all the nuts.
Quick Fix
AISC member fabricator Able Steel Fabricators, Inc.,
Mesa, Ariz., had been using standard, welded-in roof
frames on their job sites for decades. But they were in-
trigued by QuickFrames and decided to employ the solu-
tion on a project with 565 roof frames. A monumental
design error was discovered midway through the project:
The way in which the skylights had been drawn presented
a problem, and the orientation of the supporting roof
frames had to be switched. This meant having to stop and
start over.
The speed saved the project, said Mark Fultz, general
manager with Able Steel. We were anxious about trying
something so new, but we couldnt be happier that we did. The
fexibility of these frames gave us the freedom to move and
adjust them as necessary, which translated into enormous cost
and time savings.

See page 38 for cost comparisons between traditional roof


penetration frame systems and QuickFrames. You can contact the
company at www.quickframes.us.
38 AUGUST 2014
Cost Comparison
Able Steel Fabricators developed two sample cost comparisons between traditional, welded frames and QuickFrames.
The rst comparison is for a new construction project with 100 rooftop frames using two different gauges of steel.
Frame Type
12-gauge QuickFrames 16-gauge QuickFrames
Traditional QuickFrames Traditional QuickFrames
100 frames
4 in. 4 in. in. angles at
$309 per frame
100 QuickFrames
$288 per frame ($213 per
frame + $75 per install)
100 frames
4 in. 4 in. in.
angles at $309 per frame
100 QuickFrames
$270 per frame ($195 per
frame + $75 per install)
Total $30,900 $28,800 $30,900 $27,000
Savings $2,100 $3,900
The second comparison is the same as the rst, except that it is for a renovation/improvement project and includes additional labor costs.
Frame Type
12-gauge QuickFrames 16-gauge QuickFrames
Traditional QuickFrames Traditional QuickFrames
100 frames
4 in. 4 in. in. angles
at $509 per frame ($309 per
frame + $200 labor per frame)
100 QuickFrames
$288 per frame ($213 per
frame + $75 per install)
100 frames
4 in. 4 in. in.
angles at $509 per frame
100 QuickFrames
$270 per frame ($195 per
frame + $75 per install)
Total $50,900 $28,800 $50,900 $27,000
Savings $22,100 $23,900
Total
Installation
Time
400 hours 100 hours 400 hours 100 hours
Savings 300 hours 300 hours
Note: These comparisons assume that all the frames are installed in the correct locations and information was received before deck installation.
Setting a New Bar
A recent project for Prologis, an owner/operator/developer of industrial real estate, involved a 500,000-sq.-ft industrial
space in Arizona with 113 mechanical units (most requiring multiple frames), 348 4-ft 8-ft smoke hatches and 60 roof
drains, for a total of 676 roof frames. The projects fabricator, Triad Steel Services, Inc., Phoenix (an AISC member)
estimated the roof framing cost for traditional frames at approximately $185,000 (around $273 per frame). Their esti-
mated cost for doing the job with QuickFrames was $115,000 (around $170 each)a $70,000 savings over traditional
rooftop penetration framingand elected this option instead. Doing so also allowed them to perform a job that would
typically take four to six weeks, in just two weeks.
A QuickFrame roof penetration before deck installation... ...and after.
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Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 41 Joe Fletcher Photography
42 AUGUST 2014
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Whats Cool
in
COOL CONVERSION
Flipping for the Better
BY ANNE FOUGERON, FOUGERON ARCHITECTURE
Some buildings just don't jibe with their surroundings.
Like many San Francisco homes, the Potrero Hill home that
eventually became the Flip House poorly integrated its many
levels with each other and failed to do justice to its sloping
topography. The foor plan felt enclosed despite its size. Not
only that, but a bedroom blocked the unbelievable city view and
there was only one miniscule deck (hardly enough for even the
most modest of grills).
The challenge was redesigning this disjointed home with a
new modern aesthetic, but doing so without completely tearing
down the existing envelope. Light was the driving motivation
for the project, which was designed by Fougeron Architecture.
In order for the interiors potential to be maximized, its exposure
to the outside had to be completely reconsidered. This meant
recasting the solar orientation of the home and reconnecting it
to its striking landscape. The new primary faade has faceted,
Photos: Joe Fletcher Photography
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 43
custom-built glass walls divided into three vertical panels made
of HSS. These sections push in and out, creating a dynamic
prism, exploiting and animating natural light as well as the
spectacular views. The HSS, measuring only 2 in. 3 in., were
custom-made for the project, cut and welded into one-story
pieces in the shop, then assembled on-site. Glazing was applied
over the HSS and custom steel stops to cover the joints and
provide complete waterproofng.
The interior of the home also needed functional circula-
tion, not only for the homeowners but also for natural light.
While creating an open foor plan was intrinsic to making a
more useable, more fowing space, design cannot forget how
foors interact with each other. The pivot point had to be the
transition from the various foors, which meant creating one
rear staircase that smoothly linked all three levels and the gar-
den below. The staircase uses a central piece of round steel as
the stringer, giving the stairs an almost foating quality. The
treads and risers were made of perforated steel, which pro-
vides a great deal of transparency by allowing light from the
back of the home to shine through.
Above all, what steel offered in this home was fexibility
fexibility to design a faade that can harness available and abun-
dant natural light, and fexibility to create a structured staircase
that does not dominate the space but instead blends in with it.
44 AUGUST 2014
The idea of an observation wheel as a tourist draw dates back
to 1893 when the frst wheel, designed and built by George
Ferris, Jr., wowed attendees at the Chicago Worlds Fair. Since
that time, the scale and sophistication of observation wheels
have steadily grown, with landmark structures in London
(London Eye), China (Star of Nanchang), Singapore (Singa-
pore Flyer) and Las Vegas (High Roller).
And now Washington, D.C., has a wheel of its own. At
175 ft, the Capital Wheel boasts some of the most iconic
vantage points imaginable, offering views of the White
House, the U.S. Capitol, the National Mall and Arlington
National Cemetery. Its location, in National Harbora 300-
acre multi-use waterfront development in Prince George's
County, Md., just south of Washingtonwas a large part
of the reason AISC member fabricator Cianbro headed up
the project, according to Aric Dreher, the companys project
manager.
Work on the Capital Wheel started with the installation of
a 150-ton steel grid base structure. Fabricated by Cianbro at its
Baltimore yard, the individual components for the base were
sent by barge to the Potomac River site. While that ultimately
proved to be the best method for transporting the assemblies,
there was a point when the decision to do so looked sketchy at
best, said Dreher.
Shortly after kicking off the project in January, we had
everything for the base loaded onto the barges and ready to
go, he recalled. We were only waiting for a few beams to
arrive from the galvanizer. But right after we loaded them, the
temperatures plummeted, Chesapeake Bay froze over and the
Coast Guard put shipping restrictions in place. It was three
weeks before we were allowed to transport again, which threw
a wrench in the schedule. But as soon as the weather broke,
we were moving again and attacked the schedule aggressively.
With construction of the base completed, the structures
tower legs were erected, followed by installation of other ride
components such as the axle, spokes, ring beams and lights.
That predetermined construction sequenceas well as being
located at the end of a 600-ft pieressentially dictated the
manner in which the balance of the project could proceed.
While the actual height of the tower legs and components to
be assembled could typically be reached using one of Cian-
bros existing standard-sized booms, access at this site was
another matter entirely, said Dreher.
If we were putting this up on land under normal circum-
stances, wed have no issues accessing the axle and spoke con-
nections with a standard 85-ft boom lift, he explained. But
because we are on a pier and had to frst install the base steel
structure, we were left with only two spots from which a boom
could operate in order to have access to both sides of the
wheel. And on one of those sides, we were set back more than
85 ft and needed to reach 90 ft into the air over the top and in
between the tower legs.
What we call the Monster Lift [a Genie lift with a 180-ft
boom] has nicely flled that gap between what our 135-ft lift
can and cant reach, Dreher said. It was instrumental in the
assembly of the tower legs themselves, but one of the most
crucial areas of the construction involves setting the wheels
spokes into the hub or axle. The lift allowed us to get up and
over the tower legs and then reach in to the axle area to do
each connection.
The Capital Wheel opened in time for Memorial Day
weekend of this year.
COOL RIDE
Capital Idea
Photos: Genie
Cotillion Park in Dallas now has a clear-cut focal point.
Commissioned by the Dallas Parks and Recreation Depart-
ment, the new Cotillion Pavilion shade structure appears to
foat in the middle of the park, bridging the gap between two
groups of trees at a natural gathering place. The composition of
steel components abstracts and mimics the surrounding trees
to produce similar dappled shade. The suns movement ani-
mates the structure, catching direct light, casting shadows and
creating dynamic fgure-ground shapes against the sky. Long
concrete benches not only defne the outdoor room under
the translucent roof, but also stretch out beyond to extend the
usable area into and under the surrounding shade trees.
The program called for a 650-sq.-ft pavilion that would be
maintenance-free, immune to vandals and protected from sun
and rain. The design and construction team was able to deliver an
even larger area of usable space, and within the budget (the total
project cost was $277,785). Designed by architect Mell Lawrence
Architects, structural engineer Architectural Engineers Collab-
orative and artisan Lars Stanley Metalworks, the steel and poly-
carbonate roof structure covers 1,200 sq. ft of tables, benches and
open space, and the concrete benches that extend into the land-
scape provide an additional 2,600 sq.-ft of seating area.
When viewed from a distance, the pavilion has a light-
weight, ephemeral quality. At times it appears to merge with
the surrounding tree canopy, but a closer inspection of the
structure reveals a delicate screen wall of horizontal steel angles
suspended outside of a steel frame. Eight steel columns support
the canopy above a concrete slab, and board-formed concrete
benches defne the edges.
Not only does the weathered steel composition provide
shelter, it also creates a sense of playfulness through the use of
shape and pattern in concert with the sun. Throughout the day,
a series of shadows project onto the ground tracking the suns
motion silhouetted against a bright sky. After sunset, discreetly
placed energy effcient LED light fxtures transform the struc-
ture into a glowing lantern within the park, a feature that allows
the pavilion to also be used in the evening.
Steel was the natural choice as a building material for a
structure that was aesthetically driven, crisp in delineation and
minimal in form. Hollow structural sections (HSS), structural
tees and angles comprise the vocabulary of shapes used in the
pavilion. Small HSS55 columns and beams are welded at all
intersections to form the moment frame of the primary struc-
ture. The integrity of the frame, fxed to the foundation, enables
columns that seem impossibly small to delicately support the
rectangular form of the canopy above.
The canopy is composed of horizontally spaced 1-in.-by-
1-in. angles supported on a framework of HSS31 members.
The rectangular form elegantly drapes the primary frame. A
roof structure made of structural tees supports the translucent
roof. The tees frame to a central spine, a built-up shape with
a suspended L66 angle. Rainwater is channeled to the spine
beam and into the trough of the angle below. The angle leaves
the spine to cantilever beyond the structure, allowing rainwater
to freefall to a basin in the pavement.
The structure is left unpainted and allowed to rust to a natural
patina in the Texas environment. Originally, weathering steel was
specifed to limit deterioration of the structure from rust. How-
ever, a minimal budget and multiple steel shapes led to the practi-
cal decision to use standard steel materials, increasing each mem-
bers thickness suffciently to allow for reasonable deterioration.
The suspended mobile is also an exceptional piece of steelwork.
Architect and artisan Lars Stanley constructed the elliptical mobile
from matching forged steel discs that were welded together and
fnished at the perimeter. The mobile, hung from a single spindle,
turns slowly with the wind, belying its true size and mass.
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COOL PAVILION
Made in the Shade
BY MELL LAWRENCE, FAIA, MELL LAWRENCE ARCHITECTS, AND
CHUCK NAEVE, P.E., ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERS COLLABORATIVE
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 45
Photos: Mell Lawrence
On a clear day you can see forever.
Located on the 94th foor of the John Hancock
Center, 360 CHICAGO (formerly the John Hancock
Observatory) provides visitors with a panoramic view
of Lake Michigan and four Midwestern states. To
enhance their experience, the owner, Montparnasse
56 Group, hired Thornton Tomasetti to design Tilt,
an operable steel and glass structure that inclines out
of the south side of the building and allows patrons to
hover 1,000 ft above the ground, providing a birds-eye
view of the cityscape. Up to eight people are able to
stand in partitions along the platform and look down
through the structural glass panels. Thornton Toma-
setti designed the steel mechanism and retroftted the
steel framing of the 1960s building to support it.
An earlier concept design by Lawrence Allen, S.E.,
P.E., at ASE ENGINEERING was used as the basis
of the project, but was modifed to be more sympa-
thetic to the iconic John Hancock tower. Thornton
Tomasetti engineers engaged the Boundary Layer
Wind Tunnel Laboratory to conduct a wind tunnel
test of the steel-framed Tilt mechanism in both the
open and closed position. The fndings of this inves-
tigation were used to better understand the design
loads on the framing and glass, accounting for the
COOL ANGLE
Hanging Out
BY JOHN PERONTO, S.E., P.E., AND CHRISTIAN
DEFAZIO, P.E., THORNTON TOMASETTI
46 AUGUST 2014
Thornton Tomasetti PixelPool
PixelPool
PixelPool
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 47
high elevation in the tower. Such an oper-
able steel structure in a high-rise is unique,
and all steel and glass materials were under
high scrutiny, especially the fatigue-life
design considerations of the steel elements.
Tilts mechanism is a two-part system
composed of a stationary base structure and
a movable viewing platform constructed of
standard and custom built-up steel sec-
tions. The stationary base is supported
and directly connected to the existing steel
structure. The 26-ft-wide platform rotates
on one axis and is supported at three pri-
mary locations by the fxed structure.
Three overhead hydraulic actuators extend
to rotate the platform 30 beyond the face
of the building. Tilt uses roughly 15 tons
of steel in all and is composed of W625,
W828 and built-up sections using mostly
-in.-thick A572 Grade 50 plates.
The viewing windows are composed of
three layers of reinforced, fully tempered,
laminated glass panels. All loads can be safely
supported by just two layers of laminate glass,
with the third layer added as a redundancy.
A similar system of layered reinforced glass
forms a partial roof to prevent weather and
debris from entering and exiting the space.
Patrons stand in one of eight individual par-
titions along the length of the platform, and
handrails on each side and a waistband pro-
vide additional support.
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48 AUGUST 2014
Some sculptures are thought-provoking by chance, others by design.
In the latter category is the Idea Tree, an interactive sculpture
commissioned by the City of San Jose Public Art Program to reside
outside of the recently renovated San Jose Convention Center. It
was conceived by architect and public artist Soo-in Yang, principal
of Lifethings, with Arup acting as the structural engineer of record.
A competition was held seeking an artist to design an artwork
that would refect the bold thinking and vision that characterizes
San Joses place as the Capital of Silicon Valley and hub of one of
the worlds most innovative regions. Based on his past work, Yang
was commissioned to develop a site-specifc design. The project
that developed, the Idea Tree, is an energetic and multifaceted
concept that combines a shading canopy with an interactive audi-
tory experience described as a self-sustaining ecology of ideas.
The interactive aspect comprises two parts. As visitors pass the
8-ft cast bronze pod or Seed, audible questions encourage them to
record their thoughts into the Seed. These messages are coalesced
and played back through a directional speaker and evolves based on
their reaction. Messages that garner a positive response are built
upon in the ecology of ideas while messages that are ignored lose
their literal content and transform into ambient soundscape.
Structurally, the 40-ft-wide canopy consists of three pairs of
interconnected steel hoops fabricated from rolled 4.5-in.-diameter
A500 Grade B round HSS. Each pair of hoops is laced together
with
3
8-in.-diameter stainless cables (240 total) supporting trans-
lucent polycarbonate leaves. Preloading in each cable removes
unsightly sag but results in signifcant compressive load in the
perimeter hoops. This added complication warranted careful
consideration of the installation sequence to ensure the canopys
strength was not exceeded by unanticipated loading conditions.
The canopy is supported 20 ft above ground by three column
trees each comprising three doubly curved 4.5-in.-diameter
circular HSS. The lower column sections are stiffened with
interconnecting tubes inspired by the tropical strangler fg tree.
The complex geometry resulted in atypical connections at
the canopy nodes where multiple hoops would partially over-
lap and pass through one another. These nodes were justifed
using detailed localized fnite element models, which were
incrementally loaded until their capacity was reached. Once the
node strength was determined, this could be compared to the
demands seen in the global analytical model.
As San Jose is a seismically active area, the team undertook a
response spectra analysis, which also captured the vertical exci-
tation of the cantilevering rings. We also determined it was
conceivable that dedicated guests could climb the structure and
fnd themselves hanging from the outer rings, so we considered
vandal loads in addition to the standard load combinations
defned in ASCE 7.
Before being shipped to San Jose, Demiurge undertook a trial
assembly of the completed canopy and columns to ensure that
the tight tolerances could be assured at the connections to be site
welded. The completed sections were then separated into smaller
sections to allow for transportation. Once on-site the columns
were installed on their reinforced concrete pad footings, and the
canopy was reassembled and lifted into its fnal position with a
single lift, with the cables installed with a nominal preload. After
completion of the steel superstructure the cables were given their
fnal prestress and the interactive aspect was commissioned. The
Idea Tree offcially opened to the public last October during a
Community Day Celebration.
COOL TREE
Growing Ideas
BY ADRIAN CROWTHER, P.E., C.ENG., ARUP
Jim Watkins
Demiurge
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 49
Each year the Red Clay School District in Wilmington, Del., challenges
its students to work together on a common project.
Their message to students is that when you work together on a common
goal, you can achieve much more than one can individually. For 2013s proj-
ect, 16,000 students used approximately 500,000 Legos to construct a tower
over 100 ft tall, which was funded by private donations of $15,000.
Structural engineers from Pennoni volunteered their time and devel-
oped the design of an internal steel mast that would provide the lateral
support required to prevent the tower from toppling over. The tower
was required to be freestanding and therefore could not be supported
vertically from the steel mast. However, lateral support of the tower was
required due to wind forces that could easily cause it to collapse. The
steel mast was designed as a series of steel pipes ranging in size from a
6-in.-diameter pipe at the base to a 3-in.-diameter pipe at the top. The
steel pipes were built in 20-ft sections and were engineered to slide into
one another to make erection and disassembly easy. At each section of
pipe, four -in.-diameter tensioned guy-wires were attached to gusset
plates welded to the steel pipes to provide the support for the steel spine.
The steel was fabricated by AISC member fabricator R.C. Fabricators,
Inc., in Wilmington.
Six levels of guy-wires were installed at quarter points to brace the
steel for wind loads in any direction, for a total of 24 guy-wires in all.
Four concrete mass anchors were cast into the ground 60 ft from the
tower base to anchor the guy-wires. A concrete foundation was also cast
at the base of the tower to support both the steel mast and 1,400 lb of
Legos and provided the level surface on which to construct the tower.
The tower was built in sections and placed around the steel mast so that
it did not touch the mast at any location. Voids were left in the tower
at the gusset plate locations to allow the guy-wires to connect to the
steel mast without touching the tower. As wind blows on the tower, the
structure will defect until it makes contact with the steel pipes inside.
These in turn resist the loads caused by the wind and prevent the tower
from toppling. As the wind calms, the tower will restore to its original
shape. The system was designed to withstand hurricane winds up to 90
miles per hour.
A representative with Guinness World Records certifed the districts
112-ft, 11-in.-high tower as the tallest tower constructed of interlocking
toy bricks in 2013, defeating the previous record of 106 ft, 7 in., which was
achieved in Prague, Czech Republic.
COOL TOWER
Building Blocks
BY RICHARD D. ROBERTS, P.E., PENNONI ASSOCIATES
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Photos: Pennoni Associates
50 AUGUST 2014
Sprucing up a dull intersection is one thing. Turning it into an iconic gateway is a whole
other story.
Such was the case with a typical four-point intersection on the outskirts of Eindhoven,
Netherlands, which was transformed with the arrival of the Hovenring, a hovering cyclist
roundabout with a 70-m-high (230 ft) steel pylon and 72-m-diameter (236 ft) deck.
The initial idea for the Hovenring came about when the city council realized that
the existing intersection wouldnt be able to cope with the severe increase in traffc
as a result of nearby urban housing developments. Eindhoven decided a grade-sep-
arated intersection was needed and asked us to look into possible options. Whatever
the solution, it had to clearly portray the intersection as an important entrance to
Eindhoven, Veldhoven and the new Meerhoven estate. Furthermore, the intersec-
tion needed to become a new landmark for the city, beftting both its identity as the
City of Light (a title Eindhoven gained from the presence of the Philips company)
and its motto Leading in technology.
As soon as we came up with the design concept of a suspended cyclist round-
about, we had a very clear view of what the bridge should look like: little more than
a thin circular bridge deck and a powerfully shaped pylon. During the engineering
phase, we made it our goal to stay true to the concept and ensure every detail would
enhance the total appearance of the Hovenring.
The bridge is comprised of a 230-ft-high steel pylon, 24 steel cables, a circular
steel deck and a circular counterweight. The cables are attached to the inner side
of the cyclist deck, right where it connects to the circular counterweight. Concrete
inside both deck and counterweight ensure that the bridge is balanced.
The slimness of the deck is mainly the result of two things. First, the bridge deck
has a multi-cell box structure; with ribs welded onto both upper and bottom steel
plate every 332 mm (13 in.). This allows for the structure to be as slim as possible,
and enables the deck to successfully withstand forces and deformation caused by
nonuniform moving loads. This type of deck does require a large amount of welding
but has signifcant structural benefts.
Sometimes its a matter of building where theres room. NoXX Apartment is
located in a narrow dead end in Cihangir, Istanbul,Turkey. Due to the project's
tight location on a 128-sq.-m site (1,378-sq.-ft) and the short construction time
frame, steel was used to bring it to life. The seven-unit building evokes an indus-
trial sensibility and pays homage to the early 20th century buildings that are
typical of the area; the fats are 66 to 70 sq. m (646 to 753 sq. ft) each.
The underground levels of the building use reinforced concrete while
the upper levels are framed with steel. The framing is left visible on pur-
pose, and no plaster, paint or any cladding materials are used on the inside
or the exterior. The primary beams and columns are HEA 300 and HEB
360, respectively; the secondary beams are IPE 300-IPE 240 and the cross-
system members are 20020010. The project uses 80 tons of steel.
The building is immediately adjacent to an existing building on one side,
and the faade on the other side had to be a blind wall as well, according to
local regulations. This blind faade is composed of steel framing with insula-
tion materials in between and brick walls on both sides. The custom-made
bricks are designed to be placed unevenly on the faade in a natural pattern,
giving different linear shades at different times of day. The front and rear
faades were designed to be as wide as possible to maximize daylighting.
COOL PAD
Tight Quarters
BY CEM SORGU, CM ARCHITECTURE
COOL RING
Elevating the Roundabout
BY CHRISTA VAN DEN BERG, IPV DELFT
Helibeeld.nl
Henk Snaterse
Photos: Cemal Emden
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 51
Second, we designed a freestanding steel structure to support overhead
road signs and also function as a series of anti-collision portals. In case of an
accidental collision, these portals are much easier to replace or repair than the
bridge itself, and at a much lower cost.
To be structurally sound, the bridge needed stabilizing supports. We
wanted those to be as subtle as possible and therefore designed custom-
made M-shaped supports, comprising two slender cigar-shaped compres-
sion rods placed in a V shape and two prestressed tension rods on the out-
side. The compression rods are solid steel because of the signifcant forces
they have to withstand and also because of their relatively greater length.
Their shape is similar to that of the much larger central pylon.
The cable anchorage is another element that we didnt want to detract from
the bridges iconic appearance. At the pylon top, we used conical sockets, which
are partially inside the pylon. As room was limited on the pylon surface, the stay
cables have been attached in two separate rows, allowing room for anchorage
inspection inside the pylon. A similar method was used to attach the cables to
the bridge deck, where a tailor-made cover ensures watertight anchorage.
Both the counterweight and bridge deck were constructed at the Victor
Buyck Steel Construction factory in Belgium in 12 different 16-m (52.5-
m) sections, then transported to Eindhoven by boat; the same went for the
four approach spans. On-site, all sections were assembled on temporary
supports and then welded together. To save time, all sections were welded
simultaneously by several groups of steelworkers.
The pylon was transported to the Hovenring site in two sections,
which were welded together whilst lying horizontally underneath the
circular deck. At that time, the deck was already fully assembled, which
meant the pylon could be anchored to the circular deck and onto its
M-shaped supports right away, after which the temporary supports could
be removed.
The appearance of the Hovenring is further enhanced by an integrated
lighting design. There is LED lighting inside the railings, which illumi-
nates both deck and cyclists. The pylon is carefully illuminated by various
uplighters, and the main lighting element is within the circular deck, in
between the bridge deck and counterweight. Both the top and bottom of
this in-between space are ftted with aluminium lamellas and translucent
sheeting, and the tube lighting inside creates a surface of light.
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Oakland University in Rochester, Mich., recently received a musical new cen-
terpiece. Paid for entirely with a donation from prominent alumni the Elliot
Family, a new Carillon towercomplete with 49 bells cast in the Netherlands,
clocks on four faces and a titanium roofnow anchors the campus.
AISC member erector Ideal Contracting was brought in early to work
directly with construction manager Barton Malow, architect Niagara-
Murano and structural engineer Desai-Nasr. Multiple aspects were taken
into consideration including constructability, modular construction capa-
bility and future bell installation and maintenance. After working through
each of these concerns, the fnal framing plans and elevations met all of
these considerations, and within the original budget.
While the footprint is only 25 ft square, the structure is 150 ft tall; if
ever a project wanted to be modular-built on the ground, this was it. Work-
ing hand in hand with the design team, the steel framing plans and eleva-
tions were all designed with preassembly in mind. With four different steel
foor levels, each was designed accordingly and completely shop assembled.
While each level was delivered on low-boy trailers at a sloping angle, making
for over-wide shipments, the strategy turned out to be very cost-effective.
For the top third of the structure, Ideal assembled posts and vertical
bracing to the foors before hoisting. Installing the bells after the structure
was erected was of major concern to the owner. Install them too early and
later construction damage becomes an issue. Install them too late and the
means-methods become cost-prohibitive; the largest bell weighs 2.5 tons
and is 5 ft in diameter! (The total weight of all the bells is over 15 tons.)
With Ideals participation, the steel elevation bracing design took this
into consideration and used a diamond-shaped vertical bracing layout as
opposed to a traditional X-bracing layout. This made plumbing the struc-
ture a little trickier but allowed for a larger open wall space at the bell
chamber area. Without this consideration taking place in the frst stages of
the project design, bell installation would not have been possible.
The architect and owner really wanted to use something dramatic for
the roof fnishes and decided on titanium shingles. Not only is the material
itself expensive, but the installation labor is very time-consuming. Add in
the fact that it all ends up 150 ft off the ground on a very steep sloped roof,
and ground assembly clearly became the best choice. With Ideals input,
the design team came up with a roof structure that could be a standalone,
preassembled rigid structure, which allowed all the shingles to be attached
on the ground.
The fnal lifting procedure for the roof was also taken into consider-
ation in the early design stages. A few options were considered, including
leaving a small hole through the top peak for rigging attachments or set-
ting it in halves. Ultimately we all decided that lifting from the bottom was
the way to go. Typically its best to rig an object from above its center of
gravity for obvious reasons, so lifting from the bottom becomes an imme-
diate safety concern. In this case, given that the titanium shingles were
$150 per sq. ft and extremely labor-intensive, doing whatever we could to
eliminate all shingle work in the air was very important.
Ideal assembled the steel structure on the ground earlier than needed so
that the specialty roof contractor could install the titanium shingles and fn-
ishes (which took about six weeks). Temporary outrigger attachments at the
bottom of the roof were part of the basic design from the start of the shop
drawing phase. The means-methods of the outrigger removals was as much of
a consideration as anything, to ensure that the shingles wouldn't be damaged.
COOL BELLS
Ringing True
BY MARK BRAEKEVELT, P.E., IDEAL CONTRACTING
52 AUGUST 2014
Photos courtesy of Mark Braekevelt
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 53
Glacier Skywalk is one of those engineering feats that takes
your breath awaymostly because it places you 280 m (919 ft)
above Jasper National Parks (Canada) Sunwapta Valley.
The 30-m (98-ft) curved glass walkway extends 35 m (115 ft)
from the cliff face and features interpretive stations to engage
and educate visitors about the Skywalks glacial home in the
mountains. By cantilevering the structure, prime consultant
and structural engineer Read Jones Christoffersen, Ltd. (RJC),
was able to give owner Brewster Travel Canada (Brewster) the
thrilling experience it wanted for visitors.
Brewster wanted to create an experience that would con-
nect guests with the natural environment and provide them
with an opportunity to view the Sunwapta Falls in Canadas
Rocky Mountains and enjoy the beauty of Jasper National
Park. The site that they provided was the side of a cliff along
the side of a highway, and it was important for the design to
maximize the impact of the site while respecting the natural
environment.
The project teamRJC, Sturgess Architecture and PCL
Construction Managementwanted to push the sense of expo-
sure and therefore decided that the best way to approach this
would be to construct a glass-foored walk area.
When considering the best structural system to use, it was
critical that it could respond to the surrounding environment,
and as such the team opted not to go with a high-tech cable-
stayed system, but rather to cantilever the structure. This
offered the advantage of not having to perform work down
the face of the cliff and also minimized the amount of visible
structure.
When contemplating which materials and construction
methods would be most appropriate, RJC considered the local
site restrictions, the importance of blending the structure into
the natural surroundings, long-term durability and ongoing
maintenance requirements, budgetary considerations and a
rapid construction schedule.
Structural steel was identifed as the best option, provided
that durability and maintenance concerns could be addressed.
Weathering steel was selected because as it rusts, it forms a
protective layer over itself, preventing further corrosion of the
steel. The result is a steel product that can be left exposed to
the elementsand in the case of this project the color of the
weathering steel would blend in naturally with the surround-
ing geology.
The steel for the main structure is further enhanced by the
sensitive addition of a weathering steel plate. These plates give
an irregular, angular appearance to the platform and disguise the
more pragmatic-looking structural girders. The steel sheets serve
to further promote the Skywalk as an extension of the existing
landscape as opposed to an imposition. This theme is carried
along the project length and incorporated into elements along
the cliff-edge walkway and throughout the interpretive stations.
Glacier Skywalk opened to the public on May 1. Visitors
say that the view through the glass foor is amazing and a little
scaryexactly as it was intended to be.
COOL WALKWAY
Living on the Edge
BY TANYA KENNEDY FLOOD, READ JONES CHRISTOFFERSEN
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Photos: Robert Lemermeyer
54 AUGUST 2014
The ribbon pattern consists of nine unique profles
repeated around the structure. Each of the 270 ribbons
is a 10-in.-wide by 24-ft-long strip, cut from -in.-
thick coil stock, with shop-welded stand-offs of pre-
scribed lengths fastened back to the curved horizontal
girts. Fabricated as fat panels, ribbons were warped as
they were erected by hanging each one individually and
progressively bolting the stand-offs to tabs on the wide-
fange girts from the bottom to the top. This allowed all
of the ribbons to be installed in fve days and required no
special rolling or other custom fabrication techniques.
The top of the concrete wall has an inward-pitched
profle that directs any rust-containing runoff from the
weathering steel to the interior face of the wall, prevent-
ing staining of the visible exterior face.
The Capitol Heating and Power Plant in Madison, Wisc., is a typical
plant with an atypical enclosure.
Originally built in 1908 to provide steam and electricity to the State
Capitol, it has undergone numerous renovations and additions over the
past century to increase its capacity and output as other buildings were
brought onto the system. The most recent renovation converted the
plant solely to natural gas, eliminating coal as a fuel source, and included
the addition of a one-million-gallon thermal energy storage (TES) water
tank that stores chilled water generated by electric chillers during off-
peak hours for subsequent distribution and use during peak hours.
Enclosing the TES tank is a 35-ft-tall weathering steel and sand-
blasted concrete wall. In addition to protecting the tank, it also presents
a more attractive appearance to its neighbors than the bare tank would
have provideda major concern to the state, city and adjacent property
owners, all of whom anticipate further development in the area. The
wall was designed by KEE Architecture, Inc., with Miron Construction
acting as the general contractor.
The shape and confguration of the screen wall respond to the
strong round form of the massive TES tank. Its design considers the
history and context of the power plant as well as the surrounding
industrial downtown neighborhood, with visceral and self-fnishing
materials being used in all cases. The design references and echoes the
proportions, composition and materials of the original power plant to
which it is attached. It was also inspired by the rhythmic repetition of
piano keys.
Vertical weathering steel ribbons are supported on a structure of
W21111 columns on the primary radial grid lines, with intermedi-
ate W828 columns carrying the horizontal girts. The girts are rolled
curved W69s at 5-ft vertical spacing. Made from A588 weathering
steelan authentic no-maintenance materialthe wall will grow in
depth and character over time to integrate itself into its industrial con-
text; the naturally rusting metal will develop a patina and color that
relate to the brick and terra cotta materials of the original plant.
COOL ENCLOSURE
Behind the Wall
BY KRISTOFER NONN AND DAVID EWANOWSKI, AIA, KEE ARCHITECTURE
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Photos: Kristofer Nonn KEE Architecture
Steeling home is easier with Vulcraft.
In April 2013, the Birmingham Barons played their rst game in their new ballpark. The team went on to host
more than 400,000 fans in its rst season at Regions Field, the fourth highest in its history.
The Barons new home, Regions Field in downtown Birmingham, Alabama, has been a hit from opening day.
Its easy to see why Baseballparks.com named Regions Field its 2013 Ballpark of the Year.
The 8,500 seat facility in the heart of the city is a nod to Birminghams steel manufacturing heritage. The parks
faade showcases the beauty of steel construction, from the city name in bold steel letters to the soaring rst-
baseline concourse.
As the lead supplier of Regions Parks steel joists and decking, Vulcraft is proud to be on the Barons team. Our
commitment to superior building components and top-tier technology shines through in everything we do.
Along with the highest quality steel joists, steel joist girders and steel decking, Vulcraft offers superior detailing,
efcient delivery and expert support. With Vulcraft on your team, all your bases are covered.
www.vulcraft.com
|
www.vercodeck.com
When your house is this beautiful, you always want to be the home team.
Just ask the Birmingham Barons Baseball Club.
56 AUGUST 2014
The nearly century-old Opa-Locka Airport has a rather exciting
history. It is the place where Amelia Earhart began her quest to
circle the world before her disappearance and also where Bar-
rington Irving, the frst and youngest African American pilot to
complete the circumnavigation, began and ended his journey.
From there it has served as a U.S. Naval Base as well as the CIA
headquarters for covert operations in Latin America.
Today, it is currently known as the Opa-Locka Executive Air-
port. Its historic value has been preserved with the designation
of a historic district within the confnes of the property. The
airport has seen a recent upgrade (designed by SchenkelShultz
Architecture and built by Moss and Associates), which includes
a new fxed-based operator (FBO) terminal, two 40,000-sq.-ft
hangars, 20,000 sq. ft of tenant shops and offces and new land-
side parking and landscaping to support the new buildings.
One of the project's key elements is the new airside canopy for
the FBO terminal. The design team proposed a cable-stayed design,
instead of the traditional four-column confguration, that reduced
the canopy size by 35% while increasing operational effciency to
allow three aircrafts to be serviced (all nose-in) at once rather than
one at a time. This simple concept also allowed increased circulation
around the canopy to maximize aircraft staging.
The design team turned to the bridge industry, which com-
monly uses cables for suspension and cable-stayed bridge spans,
to provide support for the 85-ft-by-85-ft cable-stayed canopy
(designed by BBM Structural Engineers, with VSL providing the
cables). This presented a challenge in harmoniously tying ultra-
high-strength bridge cables to traditional building steel within the
horizontal canopy plate. The cables are composed of (19) 0.6-in.-
diameter, seven-wire steel strands that have a tensile strength of
270 ksi. Combined, they provide an ultimate tensile capacity for
each cable of over 1,100,000 lb. The back-span is made of concrete
and the main span is steel, and these were designed as such to both
maximize overturning resistance and minimize overturning forces
respectively. The clevis plates were fabricated from 4-in.-thick
90-ksi steel that was shop welded to 50-ksi steel beams (steel was
fabricated by AISC member Steel Fabricators, LLC).
The disparity between the two steel strengths precluded using
standard welding proceduresas joining these two types is a rela-
tively new practiceand required the fabricators welders to obtain
a Procedure Qualifcation Record (PQR) certifcation. They were
required to perform test welds under the scrutiny of an examiner,
and not until passing the exam were the welders allowed to work
on the actual pieces required to connect the cables.
COOL CANOPY
Grounded in Miami
BY WILL BRASWELL, S.E., P.E., BBM STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS, AND DANIEL C. LAGGAN, AIA, SCHENKELSHULTZ ARCHITECTURE
Traditional Four-Corner
Column Canopy
Cable-Stayed Canopy
Photos: Nina Lauren Photography
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 57
Since the beginning of urban mass transit, a major emphasis has
been put on entrancesespecially to subways.
According to New York's Museum of Modern Art, The Pari-
sian architect and designer Hector Guimard was commissioned
to make the 1899 Entrance Gate to Paris Subway (Mtropolit-
ain) Station not only to mark an entry to the new Paris Mtro,
but also to help make this new mode of transportation appealing
to Parisiansthe Art Nouveau aesthetic was unfamiliar to the
masses, yet they soon grew to appreciate this new style previously
known only by the wealthy.
The city of Bochum, Germany, situated in a large popu-
lation center that includes Dortmund, had its subway exits/
entrances equipped with escalators that, due to being open
to the elements, ended up causing immense maintenance
costs. As such, the city decided to invest in rain-shelter-
ing canopies. In the above-mentioned tradition of Paris
and other cities with artistic, enticing subway entrances,
Bochum decided to have architects (as opposed to engi-
neers) come up with design concepts for the canopies and
launched a national competitionwhich architect Despang
Architekten won. The two matching canopies are at the
city's Schauspielhaus Station.
The citys main design factor was of a very pragmatic nature;
the structure would need to be able to withstand the impact of a
truck crashing into the canopies. In investigating the best options
for meeting this criteria, the architect, as well as the structural
engineer and steel contractor, concluded that instead of using
several large columns, the requirements could be equally met by
using several smaller steel membersa route that also allowed
for a lighter design that offers a smooth transition when emerg-
ing from underground. The traveler's eye, coming out of the
dark underground, gradually adjusts to the bright outside by
the 50% opacity of the 60-mm-wide (2.36-in.) HSS lattice and
equally sized voids in between. The main intent of the structure,
to shelter the escalators and stairs from rain and snow, is provided
by glass on top of the horizontal, and inside of the vertical, lattice.
In addition, the white fnal fnishing powder coating over the
galvanized steel serves as a refector and diffuser for the daylight
and light trough at the bottom of the structure. With the fanks of
the wall and roof lattice being coated in blue (the color of the city
and the areas public transport system), way-fnding is enhanced.
And the subtle glow created by the light bouncing off the blue and
white surfaces, under the curtain of rain running off the roof glass
edge, creates the image of an urban waterfall.

COOL ENTRANCE
Urban Waterfall
BY MARTIN DESPANG, DIPL.ING., UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII
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Photos: Olaf Baumann/Hannover
Go to www.aisc.org/seminars
for more information.
$350 for Members,
$600 for Member + Buddy
(Sign up two people
and save $50 per registrant!)
The 2nd Edition
Seismic Design Manual
will be available for purchase
for $100
(a discount from $175 member price/
$350 non-member price)
The Louis F. Geschwindner Seminar
Seismic Design Manual and Application
of the 2010 AISC Seismic Provisions
Written by Thomas A. Sabol, S.E., Ph.D. | 0.8 CEUs/8.0 PDHs
2014
FALL
SEMINARS
Theres always a solution in steel.
American Institute of Steel Construction
One E Wacker Drive, Ste. 700
Chicago, IL 60601
www.aisc.org 312.670.2400
St. Louis, MO
New York, NY
Lexington, KY
Pittsburgh, PA
Batavia, NY
Richmond, VA
Long Beach, CA
9/30
10/7
10/14
10/21
11/4
11/11
12/4
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 59
new products
OCEAN BLASTER
The Ocean Blaster is a compact, self-contained shot-blast
system. With a total footprint of only 13 ft 23 ft and an
overall height of only 14 ft, it allows cranes to pass overhead
and is suitable for even the smallest fabrication shops.
Exceptionally effcient turbines clean steel with the lowest
power consumption, signifcantly reducing operating costs.
The Blaster handles a wide variety of structural steel shapes
and sizes up to 40 in. and can produce surface conditions up
to White Metal Blasting SSPC SP5 (NACE 1) specifcation.
For more information, visit www.oceanmachinery.com
or call 800.286.3624.
PRODEVCO INDUSTRIES PROFITTER
The ProFitter is a positioning system for the
ftting section of the shop. It superimposes a
3D laser rendering of the part on fle to the
actual piece in the ftting bay, allowing parts
to be welded in their correct position and
alignment. The laser lines align perfectly with
all edges, both internal and external contours.
The ftter needs only to line up the parts to
the laser lines and tack. No more measuring,
no more marking. The ProFitter will accept
fles directly from your design drawing
packages.
For more information, visit
www.prodevcoind.com or call 418.226.4480.
VOORTMAN MULTI SYSTEM INTEGRATION
Multi System Integration (MSI) virtually creates one production line by linking the computer
control systems of all fabrication machines. The machines (drills, saws, etc.) are mechanically
connected to each other by an automatic material-handling system controlled by the
Voortman proprietary VACAM software and virtually by MSI, which fully automates
material handling and buffer management. Only one person is required to start
the production process at the frst machine, after which the total
production line operates entirely on its own. Production time
and costs are signifcantly reduced as all machines in line
produce at the same time using the cross transports
as material buffers when required.
For more information,
visit www.voortman.net or call 815.468.6300.
60 AUGUST 2014
news
People and Firms
Structal-Bridges (an AISC/
NSBA member and AI SC
c er t i f i ed f a br i c a t or ) , a
di vi si on of Canam Group,
has l aunched a bl og that
will serve as a platform for
sharing expertise on various
topics related to the bridge
constructi on i ndustry. You
can visit the blog at http://
bl og.structal bri dges.com;
i t can al so be accessed on
St r uct al - Br i dges websi t e
(www.structalbridges.com)
by clicking on the Blog tab
or on the banner Follow our
blog.
Nai k Consul ti ng Group,
P. C. , has hi red John Tan,
P. E. , as vi ce pr es i dent /
director of structural design
services in the firms Edison,
N. J. , offi ce. The company
has also hired Ken Standig,
P.E., as senior vice president,
tasked with overseeing the
New York offices operations.
In addition, Samir D. Mody
has been hired as senior vice
presi dent t o over see t he
companys New Jersey and
Pennsylvania office operations
and lead the firms short- and
long-range plans.
A u t o d e s k , I n c . , h a s
announced the rel ease of
t he new Autodesk 2015
Desi gn Sui tes, whi ch are
more tightly integrated with
Aut odesk cl oud ser vi ces.
Each Autodesk 2015 Design
Sui t e i ncl udes Aut oCAD
2015, which includes a new
i nt er f ace and enhanced
productivity tools.
CONFERENCES
Rethinking Architecture
The idea of rethinking your space is essen-
tial for a city today, said Chicago Mayor
Rahm Emanuel in his keynote address at
the 2014 AIA Convention in Chicago last
month (at which AISC was an exhibitor).
Emanuel shared top keynote billing
with two prominent Chicago designers
architect Jeanne Gang and artist Theaster
Gatesand talked about next years
inaugural Chicago Architecture Biennial
(an international forum for the exploration
of new ideas in architecture) as well as the
citys position as an infuential leader in
architecture.
People from around the world are
now migrating back to cities, the mayor
said. In the same way that 100 years ago
Chicago was at the epicenter of modern
architecture, we are now at the epicenter
of rethinking livable, sustainable and
beautiful citiesand your work is essential
to think through that effort.
The idea of rethinking architecture
was a running theme throughout the
conference, which attracted nearly 20,000
attendees.
During the show, AIA announced the
availability of its AIA Foresight Report,
which highlights key trends in the
architecture marketplace and their impact
on business and growth. One trend is that
design frms are exploring alternative ways
to attract and retain key talent, including
fexible work plans (in terms of hours and
location) that allow for better work-life
balance, improved work environments,
proft-sharing programs, fringe benefts
and ongoing education. Another key
fnding was that crowdfunding and
crowdsourcing signal major changes in
the role of users and clients in the design
process. The report also noted that more
than half the design frm leaders in North
America expect growth for the next
year, and the Bureau of Labor Statistics
anticipates nearly 19,000 architecture
jobs will be added to the U.S. economy
between 2012 and 2022, representing a
greater-than-average growth rate of 17%.
On the show foor, the main focus of
AISCs booth was curved steel, which had
architects reimagining their designs with the
fexibility and creativity that steel can bring to
a project. A wide-fange curved steel sculpture
provided by AISC member Chicago Metal
Rolled Products was a big draw, spurring
questions about how steel can be bent. And
the AISC-sponsored session Innovative
Applications in Architecturally Exposed
Structural Steel (AESS) was packed with
attendees. Terri Meyer Boake, professor at
the School of Architecture at the University
of Waterloo, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada,
talked about the many advantages of AESS,
such as how it eliminates the need for cover
systems due to its modern aesthetic.
You can fnd information about curved
steel and AESS at www.aisc.org or by
contacting AISCs Steel Solutions Center
at 866.ASK.AISC or solutions@aisc.org.
TECHNOLOGY
Printing out Steel
Using the latest 3D printing techniques,
or additive manufacturing, engineering
frm Arup has produced a design method
for critical structural steel elements for use
in complex projects.
Arup created a redesign of a steel
node for a lightweight structure using
additive manufacturing and claims
that by using this new technique,
complex individually designed pieces
can be created far more effciently.
This has tremendous implications for
reducing costs and cutting waste, said
Salome Galjaard, a team leader with Arup.
But most importantly, this approach
potentially enables a very sophisticated
design, without the need to simplify the
design in a later stage to lower costs.
Arup funded the work and collaborated
with a number of partners to realize
the designs, including WithinLab (an
engineering design software and consulting
company), CRDM/3D Systems (the
additive manufacturing partner) and EOS,
who worked on the early development of
the technology.
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 61
STEELDAY
SteelDay Set for September 19
Where will you be on SteelDay this year?
Whether you visit a structural steel
facility, tour a job site or attend a seminar,
you can be part of the industrys largest
educational and networking event on
September 19. Hosted by AISC and its
members and partners, SteelDay offers
events all over the country for AEC
professionals, university faculty and
students and the public to get an inside
look at how the structural steel industry
works to build America.
Now in its sixth year, SteelDay is a
great opportunity to see the structural
steel industrys latest technologies and
construction processes in action (and at
some events, actually operate tools and
machinery), learn directly from industry
experts and build new relationships.
Cant get to an event on SteelDay?
Dont fret! Live webinars will be offered.
In addition, participants can request
a brief informative video about the
structural steel industry. And if available,
an industry representative in your area
will even visit your offce or school on
SteelDay to answer any questions.
Never before have there been as
many ways to be involved with SteelDay,
said Ross Allbritton, AISCs industry
mobilization manager.
In addition, Illinois governor Pat
Quinn has recognized the value and
importance of the structural steel
industry in Illinois with an official
SteelDay proclamation. And AISC will
be hosting a special SteelDay celebration
in Chicago, which will include an
architectural boat tour and more.
To sign up to attend or host a SteelDay
event, visit www.steelday.org. You can
also keep up with SteelDay updates and
discussions via AISCs social media channels:
www. facebook. com/AISCdotORG,
www.twitter.com/aisc and www.youtube.
com/AISCsteelTV.
news

Phone 205-791-2011
Fax 205-791-0500
E-mail: sales@whitefab.com
Web: www.whitefab.com
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62 AUGUST 2014
news
The largest bridge slide ever was
completed at the site of the Milton-
Madison Bridge over the Ohio River
between Milton, Ky., and Madison,
Ind., when the new bridge made its
55-ft journey from temporary piers
to permanent, refurbished piers.
Spanning nearly a half-mile, the truss
of the Milton-Madison Bridge is now
the longest bridge in North America to
be slid laterally into place.
The slide began on a Wednesday
morning but was halted in the late after-
noon due to high winds over the Ohio
River. Walsh Construction, who built
the bridge, brought in materials from
the Louisville-Southern Indiana Ohio
River Bridges Project to help deal with
windy conditions and assist in synchro-
nizing the slide onto the fve permanent
piers, a decision that allowed the slide to
resume the following morning.
Its great to see the bridge complet-
ed and sitting in its permanent location,
said Dav Kessinger, project manager for
the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet.
This bridge will serve the area well for
decades to come.
This is truly a historic accomplish-
ment for everyone involved, added
Kevin Hetrick, project manager for the
Indiana Department of Transportation
(INDOT). The people of Indiana and
Kentucky should be proud to be a part
of this amazing engineering feat.
Polished steel sliding plates were
secured on top of the refurbished
piers. Steel cables and eight computer-
controlled hydraulic jacks were used
to pull the bridge through a series of
grabs and pulls to slide it into place.
The new 15,000-ton steel truss bridge
is 2,428 ft long and 40 ft wide with
two 12-ft lanes and 8-ft shoulders
twice as wide as the old bridge, which
opened in 1929. Following completion,
it took approximately a week to fnish
inspections, road connections to the
span and other work before the bridge
reopened to traffc.
The Milton-Madison Bridge Proj-
ect, which was a joint effort between
the Indiana Department of Transpor-
tation and the Kentucky Transporta-
tion Cabinet, has received several state
and national engineering awards for
innovation.
The article Move That Bridge
in the February 2012 issue of Modern
Steel (www.modernsteel.com) also
describes the project in detail and ex-
plains how the decision to use the in-
novative sliding technique stemmed
from the systems success on the Cap-
ilano River Bridge project in Vancou-
ver, Canada.
BRIDGES
Biggest-Ever Bridge Slide
You
should
see
what
we
can do.
SteelDay

is an annual
event hosted by the
American Institute of
Steel Construction,
its members and
partners. Plan your
SteelDay

visits and
see rst hand why it
makes sense to build
with structural steel.
@aisc
/AISCdotORG
/AISCsteelTV
American Institute of Steel Construction
One East Wacker Drive, Suite 700
Chicago, IL 60601
312.670.2400 www.aisc.org
Theres always a solution in steel.
SteelDay
Its coming... 9.19.2014
www.SteelDay.org
marketplace Search employment ads online at www.modernsteel.com.
Visit steelTOOLS.org
Join the conversation at AISCs new
le-sharing, information-sharing website.
Here are just a few of the FREE resources now available:
More than 160 steelTOOLS utilities available for downloading
Discussion blogs where your can connect and share ideas with
your peers
Files posted by your peers in special interest libraries, including:
A Pocket Reference to W Shapes by Depth,
then Flange Width
Welding Capacity Calculator
Moments, Shears and Reactions for Continuous Bridges
Video: Bridge Erection at the SeaTac Airport
Got Questions? Got Answers?
Participate with us at steelTOOLS.org.
AISC Continuing Education Seminars
www.aisc.org/seminars.
Like AISC on Facebook
facebook.com/AISCdotORG
Follow AISC on Twitter
@AISC
Looking for something from an old issue of Modern Steel?
All of the issues from Modern Steel Constructions
first 50 years are now available as free PDF downloads
at www.modernsteel.com/backissues.
AISC QUALITY CERTIFICATION
IT WORKS... DONT WAIT!
For fabrication or erection help
Call Jim Mooney
your Quality Certification Connection
JAMES M. MOONEY & ASSOCIATES
941.223.4332 jmmoon94@aol.com
Contract Auditor
Quality Management Company, LLC is seeking contractors to
conduct audits for the AISC Certied Fabricator and AISC Certied
Erector Programs. Contractors must have knowledge of quality
management practices as well as knowledge of audit principles,
practices and techniques and knowledge of the steel construction
industry. If you are interested, please submit your statement of
interest contractor@qmconline.org.
Southeastern Steel
FABRICATOR FOR SALE
Revenue $10 million+. Protable.
Owner retiring. Excellent customer base.
Clint Bundy 704-552-3872.
64 AUGUST 2014
To advertise, call 231.228.2274 or e-mail gurthet@modernsteel.com.
LATE MODEL STRUCTURAL
STEEL FABRICATING EQUIPMENT
Ficep 2004 DTT CNC Drilling & Thermal Coping Line, 78-3/4 x 24 Max. Beam,
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Max. Hole Drilled, 12 Spindle Stroke, 1500 RPM, Ficep S.P.A CNC, 2007 #24252
Peddinghaus Ocean Avenger II 1000-1 CNC Beam Drill, Siemens 840D CNC,
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Controlled Automation 2AT-175 CNC Plate Punch, 175 Ton, 30 x 60Travel,
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Hyd-Mech M16A CNC Automatic Horizontal Band Saw, 16 x 25, 16 Round,
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Phone: 631.249.5566 | Fax: 631.249.9494 | sales@prestigeequipment.com
Visit www.PrestigeEquipment.com for our inventory & services
employment
To advertise, call 231.228.2274 or e-mail gurthet@modernsteel.com.
Search employment ads online at www.modernsteel.com.
ProCounsel, a member of AISC, can market your skills
and achievements (without identifying you) to any city
or state in the United States. We communicate with
over 3,000 steel fabricators nationwide. The employer
pays the employment fee and the interviewing and
relocation expenses. If youve been thinking of making
a change, now is the time to do it. Our target, for you,
is the right job, in the right location, at the right money.
RECRUITER IN STRUCTURAL MISCELLANEOUS
STEEL FABRICATION
Buzz Taylor
PROCOUNSEL
Toll free: 866-289-7833 or 214-741-3014
Fax: 214-741-3019
mailbox@procounsel.net
Structural Engineers
Are you looking for a new and exciting opportunity in 2014?
We are a niche recruiter that specializes in matching great structural
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Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 65
Connection Design Engineer
International Design Services is seeking a steel
connection design engineer for our St. Louis office.
Minimum 4 years of experience and the ability to obtain a PE license. Working
knowledge of Mathcad is preferred. Candidate will have experience managing
others and will be responsible for the production of an engineering team.
Candidate must also skillfully interact with the detailing team, fabricator, general
contractor and EOR. IDS offers a benefits package, competitive salary, and
relocation allowance. SE license is strongly preferred.
Please call 314-872-1791 or email your resume to msmith@ids-inc.net.
Paxton & Vierling Steel (PVS), a steel fabricator established in 1885
and located in Omaha, Nebraska, is currently recruiting structural steel
estimators and detailers. PVS is an AISC and ISO certified steel fabricator
whos quality program is compliant with Canadian Weld Bureau and
NQA-1 (nuclear) requirements. PVS specialty is industrial and
nuclear projects throughout North America.
For information on our company please visit www.PVSteelFab.com.
Please send your resume to Towen@owenind.com.
Project Manager-Steel Fabricator (Greenfield, NH)
American Steel Fabricators, Inc. has an outstanding professional
opportunity for a Project Manager in the structural and miscellaneous
steel industry. We are a dynamic company with an excellent New
England construction industry reputation. The successful candidate will
have a strong work ethic and exemplary references. This position offers
real growth potential for a person willing to make it happen. We offer a
competitive compensation/benefits package. Please email your resume
to ksweeney@americansteelfab.com.
Project Manager
Lenex Steel Company is currently seeking Project Managers to join our
team in the Indianapolis and/or Chicago markets. The Project Manager
has overall responsibility for managing projects from pre-award through
completion and managing project engineers and field project managers.
The ideal candidate has a degree in engineering or building construction
management with structural steel experience. Lenex Steel offers
competitive salaries and a comprehensive benefits package.
Email resume to jenny.hutchinson@lenexsteel.com.
The American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) is seeking a production
engineer or manager from the fabricated structural steel industry to join our AISC
Certification program team.
The AISC Certification program assesses the effectiveness of fabricator and erector
quality management systems that integrate quality standards, program regulations,
and management principles. The primary responsibility of this position is to review
and analyze the supporting documentation and evidence provided on audits
submitted by independent auditors, certified fabricators and/or certified erectors to
ensure that all the requirements of the AISC Certification programs are met.
A working knowledge of specifications, codes and other regulations related to
the structural steel and construction industry is a must. The ideal candidate
will have a college degree and at least 5 years work experience in structural
steel construction. This position is located in the AISC Chicago office and will
report directly to the AISC Vice President of Certification. The ability to travel
approximately 25% of the time and attend industry events is required.
If you are interested in applying for this position, please forward your resume and
cover letter, including your desired salary requirements to hr@aisc.org
Certification
Program Analyst
Lincoln Engineering Group is one of the fastest growing steel detailing
firms in the country located in beautiful Chicago area. We currently have
immediate openings for experienced Project Managers and checkers.
Ideal candidate would have 5 years experience in Structural and
Miscellaneous steel detailing and checking, as well as, knowledge
of applicable codes. He/she should be a team leader with excellent
communication skills. Knowledge of CAD & 3D Software such as SDS/2
or Tekla, and Miscellaneous Steel Detailing is a plus but not a must!
We offer a competitive compensation and benefits package.
May consider relocation allowance for the right candidate.
Please submit your Rsum to: jobs@lincolnengineering.com or
Contact Salah Bassiouny at (630) 445-2111.
Structural Steel Detailing
Project Managers
and Checkers
66 AUGUST 2014
FROM JUNE 12 TO JULY 13, the eyes of the world were
on Brazil, which hosted the 2014 FIFA World Cup.
For four games, they were specifically focused on Arena
Amaznia in the city of Manaus. One of 12 host stadiums for the
Cup, Arena Amaznia opened earlier this year and seats 44,500.
Manaus is in the heart of the Amazon rainforest. Its natural sur-
roundings, as well as the straw baskets of the local indigenous peo-
ple, inspired Gerkan, Marg und Partner (GMP) to create the sta-
diums basket-like design, which was built by Martifer Construes.
A steel structure circles the stadium, creating a 23,000-sq.-m
(247,600-sq.-ft) roof. Built from 7,000 tons of steel, the main and
secondary structures of angled and H profiles and steel plates rise
to the height of 31 meters (102 ft). The pitch is surrounded by
the steel structure, which is coated with translucent white PTFE
membrane sheets to reduce the temperature in the stadium.
Fabricating the twisted and cambered beams, which
required exact coordinate control, was a challenge. To
manage preassembly and assembly as well as track materi-
als during manufacturing, Martifer used Tekla software to
ensure that planning and design advanced as they should.
The design team modeled Arena Amaznia in 3D and
extracted 2D drawings plus CNC and material listings,
and created specific files to control geometric coordinates
of the beams during manufacturing, preassembly and final
assembly in stageswith dead, partial and final loads.
Martifer began work on the arena in November 2012 and it
was inaugurated this past March. Following the World Cup, it
will host concerts and other events.
structurally
sound
THE BEAUTIFUL
GAME