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audience. It being impossible for the -whole of the parties to be present together,
there must be, besides the apartments which are occupied by the sovereign and his
or her family, ample room and accommodation for the attendants in waiting of every
degree, and the consequent accessories. A palace should be disposed with porticoes,
vestibules, galleries, halls of waiting suited to every season, wherein those to be admitted
may wait with convenience and comfort till their turn of admission arrives. It is
evident that, from the nature of such an edifice, much magnificence should be displayed
in it. The site on which a palace is to be seated must be open and free in every respect,
go that a largo expanse of gardens should be attached to it for the use of the piiblic as
well as the sovereign, in which respect the palaces of the Tuileries and Versailles are
unparalleled. All should have a royal bearing, parsimony being inadmissible in works
of this nature.
The palace.<) of the Escurial, Versailles, and the Tuileries are, though extremely
spacious and imposing, but ill-disposed and imperfect examples of a palace. Perhaps
the most perfect in Europe is tliat at Caserta, near Naples, commenced in 1762, which
is described by Milizia as follows

" The plan of this palace is a vast rectangle, 731
feet long from east to west, 569 from north to south, and 106 feitin height. The interior
is divided into four courts,
16'2 feet by 244. The depth of building that surrounds these
: courts, in which are the apartments, passages, &c., is 80 feet, including the thickness of
the walls, which are in some instances 15 feet. The two principal facades have five
stories besides that below the ground, and each contains thirty-seven windows. There
are three entrances, one iu the centre, and the others at equal distances between it and
the extreme angles, where, as well as in the centre, ihe building breaks forward a litile,
is carried up to the height of 60 feet, and formed into pavilions by columns 42 feet high.
Thus the whole height of the building is 102 feet from the foundation to the top of the
pavilion, at the anghs 162 feet, and in the centre 190 feet. The basement, which is
rusticated, comprises tlie lower offices, the ground floor, and its mezzanine. Abi)ve is
placed an Ionic order of columns and pilasters, which contains the two ranges of state
apartments ;
the lower windows are ornamented with pediments
in the frieze are
introduced the windows of the upper mezzanine. The centre entrance It-ads to a superb
portico, which traverses the building from north to south, and is sufficiently spai-ious
to allow carriages to pass under from either facade to the centre of the building, where
is a large octangular vestibule, which unites the arms of the cross produced by dividing
the plan into four courts : two sides of the octagon are open to the portico, four to the
four courts, one to the grand staircase, and the eighth is occupied by a statue of Hercules
crowned by Virtue.
The grand staircase, which is on the right, is lighted by twenty-four windows, and
decorated in a beautiful style. At the first landing it is divided into two flights; the
liundred steps of which it is composed are 18 feet long, and each of one piece of marble
it is lighted also from the top by a double skylight. The upper vestibule is also octangular,
and surrounded by twenty-four columns of yellow marble 18 feet high. Four doors lewd
from thence to the apartments : the one opposite the landing to the chapel, tliat to the
right to the apartments of the king, which comprehend the south-west angle of the build-
ing, overlooking the sea and the plains of Naples and Capua. To the It- ft are tlie apart-
ments of the queen, occupying the north-west angle, the remainder of these floors being
occupied by the princes. Tlie chambers throughout are vaulted, and admirably arranged
the apartments of the king and queen are separated by a gallery 138 feet long, 42 wide,
and 52 high. The palace contains a small elegant theatre, on a circular plan, divided
into nine compartments, with four tiers of boxes. The chapel is rectangular in its plan,
with the end terminated semicircularly, and decorated with isolated Corinthian columns
on pedestals, with an entablature, in which the cornice is not omitted. The marbles and
sculptures throughout are of the richest kind; the apartments generally well arriingcd
and distributed, of magnificent dimensions, and of various forms. The whole is a rare
as>emblage of vastnesc, regularity, symmetry, richness, ease, and elegance. The multi-
plicity of windows may certainly be a little at variance with propriety.
"But the most wonderful part of this grand work has not ms yet been desciibed.
There are ranges of aqueducts of a great height, and of sufficient length to unite the two
Tifati mountains near the Furche Caudine. The waters on the mountjiin are colhcted
info a canal for the purpose of supplying these acqueducts, and conducted to various
lakes and fountains of every description. To the embellishments," adds Milizia, "of
this royal residence are added a convenience and solidity that throw into shade all that
has been done before or since." The plans, &c. of this palace are given in Durand's
I'arallele des Edifices, and also in the work l)y Vanvitelli, its architect.
The palace at Whitehall projected by Inigo .Tones, and published in Kent's Designs
207, supra), consisted of six courts, with greater beauties of composition
had the edifice, of which the
is not the hundredth part, been
carried to completion, it would have eclipsed the one at Caserta, which contains the