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Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.

If I had to teach architecture....I would strive to inculcate in my pupils a keen sense of
control--unbiased judgment and of the how and the why. I would encourage them to
cultivate this sense till their dying day. But I would want them to base it on an objective
series of facts. Facts are fluid and changeable especially nowadays, so I would teach them
to distrust formulas and impress on them that everything is relative.

--Le Corbusier


Your THESIS is the one project that should integrate all your learning in your 4-year
(or so...) stay in BS Architecture. It is suppose to justify your right to graduate. So, you
will have to dig into all the knowledge that you have acquired (architectural and
otherwise) to come up with a project that is not only feasible, but is also believable and

It begins with a problem, and ends at finding a solution to that problem. This is not
an easy task. With a series of research works and evaluations (and reevaluations... and
probably more research work), you need to come up with enough proof that your solution
is right. But thats getting ahead of the job...

Right now, you are faced with one big problem. That is, HOW DO YOU COME UP

But before we get into that, you have to choose a certain topic first. This will help
you narrow down the number, the extent and the magnitude of the problem you want (?)
to solve.


1. Formulation or development of a project that does no exist yet
2. Generation of useful technical data or technical properties of new material or
3. Improvement of existing knowledge
4. New application of an existing knowledge
5. Comparative study of two or more entities or development of an improved
version of an existing one
6. Physical development of a research work
7. Documentation


1. The research topic must be one which YOU selected.
2. It must be within your interest.
3. It must be within your specialization.
4. It must be based on your competence to tackle the necessary work.
5. It must be within your financial capability.
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
6. It should have definable limits to suit your available resources.
7. It must be researchable and manageable.
8. It must be completed within a reasonable span of time.
9. Its solution must require original, critical and reflective thinking.
10. It must be significant, important and relevant to the present time and situation.
11. It must contribute to the national development goals for the improvement of
quality of life.
12. It must contribute to the Institutes body of knowledge.
13. It must not undermine nor compromise the moral and spiritual values of the
14. It must advocate changes in the present order of things.
15. It must offer some kind of return for your efforts.
16. It must not involve any hazards such as physical, social or legal.

These criteria, by the way, are not the only bases for your selection. You may have
some criteria of your own that will help you decide.


When you have already set your mind on a certain topic or problem, the next step is
to find out its physical application. Your thesis, after all, does not just involve research.
Most of the time, the topic or problem chosen must be translated into a structure or a set
of guidelines. Here are some questions to help you determine what kind of project you
may carry out to interpret your research.

1. What are your interests? Do you know of any organizations or groups that
support your interest? They may have possible projects.
2. Do you know of any possible proposal by a government agency and unit which
you can further develop?
3. Are you aware of any new concept, technology or project which may be tested
for feasibility in local application?
4. Again, you may have other bases that you might want to add to these.

Now that youre set at zeroing in on the topic and the project that you want to work
on, it might be really useful in the future to list them down. Read and reread them. If one
does not sound good to you, maybe it does not deserve to be in the list. This means you
will have to wrack your brains one more time to come up with another one, but then
again, it has a big chance of being better than the one you struck out, right?

To further assist you in the final decision, you can use a table such as the one shown
in Figure 1.

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom


1. availability of data
2. personal interest
3. financial capability
4. time requirement
5. etc.




1 - Poor
2 Fair
3 Good
4 - Very Good
5 - Excellent
Figure 1. Selection of Project

Please note that this exercise is not part of the book, but for sure you would do things
like this to ease your way. After all, the acceptance of the responsibility of undertaking
whatever is needed to meet your goals is the most important part in selecting a topic,
aside from truly understanding every purpose, scope and requirements of the project.

Lastly, here are some basic rules in writing your thesis. In this exercise, it is not
enough that you know the data, have analyzed them and made your own conclusions
based on them. It is also very important that you know why and how you should present
such data on your thesis book.

DOs AND DONTs in writing your paper:
1. Dont ever copy text from any published works. That is a capital offense in thesis
writing. In case you dont know it yet, you could be jailed for that! Write in your own
words. Your comprehension of the things you write can only be shown by your
ability to summarize reports.
2. Dont include photocopied texts in your book except as an appendix.
3. Do acknowledge and cite your source. This applies to all possible data sources
including personal interviews. This will save you a lot of effort in explaining some
concepts that are not really your own to begin with.
4. Do read and check your work. Checking includes grammar, spelling and
composition. Remember, its always nice to be short and sweet.
5. Do include pictures, graphs, maps, charts and sketches. Architecture is a visual
medium so always reinforce your ideas with figures. Of course, there should be
proper captions. Make your reader understand the significance of that graph that took
you hours to make!
6. Dont use abbreviations, and unnecessary acronyms and contractions.
7. Do make the effort to introduce new ideas, new chapters, etc. This will create a
smoother flow of your discussions.
8. Dont be afraid of computers. They will facilitate editing and help you come up with
better visual presentations.

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom


A. The Problem and Its Setting
a. Background of the Study
b. Statement of the Problem
c. Architectural Thesis Goals/Objectives/Strategies
d. Scope and Limitations
e. Purpose/Relevance/Significance of the Study
f. Assumptions
g. Definition of Terms & Concepts
B. Review of Related Literature and Studies
C. Theoretical/Conceptual Framework
D. Methodology of Research
E. Bibliography

A. Data Management
a. Present Condition
b. Primary Data
c. Tables and Graphs
B. Case Studies
a. Scope and Delimitations
b. Case Studies
c. Summary and Recommendations

A. Situational Analysis
a. Identification/Assessment of Needs
b. Restatement of the Problem
c. Recommendations
B. The Site
a. Background
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b. Site Selection Criteria
c. Site Selection and J ustification
d. Site Analysis
e. SWOT Analysis
f. Baseline Studies
g. Factors and Issues Relevant to the Site
C. Behavioral Analysis
a. Activity Flow Diagrams
b. Environment-Behavior Studies
c. Interrelationship Analysis
D. Viability Studies
a. Technical Viability and Environmental Impact Assessment
b. Legal Viability
c. Financial Viability
d. Design Proposal

A. Behavioral Analysis
B. Interrelationship Analysis
C. Qualitative Analysis
D. Quantitative Analysis

Chapter 5. SYNTHESIS
A. Design Philosophy
B. Design Goals & Objectives
C. Design Concepts
D. Design Parameters


Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom



This is the part that is supposed to give the reader a clear idea of what your thesis
is all about. Remember, clear idea. So you cannot just go discussing anything you
come across without understanding how it relates to what you want to achieve in the

Here are some of the points you have to cover to make sure that you are writing
your Introduction properly. A proper Introduction will give the reader a strong strong
vision of the direction you want your project to take.

1. Present the problems and concerns which brought you to choose to work on
your proposal. You should do this without using the word I and without
presenting your proposal just yet.

2. Inform your reader of the present scenario -- the unsatisfactory conditions
and the problems that you feel need to be solved (and that YOU can actually
solve ARCHITECTURALLY). These would include such aspects such as
technical problems; absence/incompatibility of present site; need for proper
planning; need for recognition of potentials; etc. Make sure, though, that you
stick only to the relevant factors. Try not to lose focus so early, okay?

3. State the reason/s why it is necessary to conduct the study which will lead
to your solution. This is sometimes called the RATIONALE (which is also
a tip: this is where you rationalize what you are doing. Why in the world
must you do this!? Will it make the world a better place?)

4. Does your problem have a historical background? Most problems do. Trace
it. Then present it clearly and coherently. But be careful about delving too
much on the historical context. Once you've connected the historical events
with present developments and the problem at hand, move on.

5. Ask yourself these questions: Do you have a clearer and deeper
understanding of the conditions pertinent to your problem? Do you want to
find a way to solve it? If there are already existing ways of solving it, are you
interested in going the extra mile to come up with a better solution? If your
answer to these questions is a resounding YES!, then tell your reader so
(again: do not use I and do not actually address your reader). All you have
to do here is convince your reader that your project is worth your effort and
the readers attention.

6. Describe the conditions of your study locale. You should do this in an
informative manner which is not too technical for readers with no
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
background in architecture. And you should do this whether the locality is
being used as a source of basic data or a targeted site for application.

7. Wrap up. Before you start with the next part, make sure that you have linked
all the things youve discussed. Do not leave the reader wondering where on
earth you got the idea of conducting this study. If you can come up with a
clever parting statement here, then by all means, DO!


This is composed of a GENERAL STATEMENT of a MAJ OR PROBLEM and
SPECIFIC QUESTIONS or SUB PROBLEMS pertaining to your thesis topic. If you
have formulated them in the Introduction, you only need to repeat them in this

Since you will be focusing on several RESEARCH TOPICS, you may be able to
come up with different specific needs that may be addressed by your thesis. The
specific needs that you have identified are supposed to make your project unique
from other studies. Let your reader know this by stating your problem in a SIMPLE,
CLEAR and DIRECT manner.


There is one very important word here and that is ARCHITECTURAL.
You can begin selling your project here by defining what kind of
STRUCTURE you want to see in the translation of your study. A brief
description of the outcome could also help so that a conceivable image may be
formed. Keep in mind that you are doing an architectural thesis. Refrain from
devising PROGRAMS for the operations of your project.

Objectives are more SPECIFIC targets which eventually leads to the
attainment of your architectural goal. You may want to group them by certain
categories as determined by your goal, or arrange them according to importance.
For time-specific objectives, a chronological arrangement may be more

Though you havent defined your conceptual and theoretical frameworks
at this point, you must have a clear idea of what their basis would be (clue:
RESEARCH TOPICS?). Therefore, make sure that your objectives are consistent
with the topics that you want to work on. Again remember the keyword:

Strategies are simply particular actions you have to do to achieve each
specific objective. Forget about architectural for a while and focus on
RESEARCH WORK. What do you need to know, study, research on, survey,
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
observe, estimate or program in order to create a body of knowledge that will
lead to meeting your objectives.

It would, therefore, be more comprehensible if you follow the succeeding
outline in stating your thesis goals, objectives and strategies.


As you enumerate the objectives and strategies, keep checking their
relevance to your goal. If you do not see a direct relationship, scrap the objective
before you get carried away identifying the strategies. And please be consistent
with your sentence structure. If you begin the GOAL and the first OBJ ECTIVE
with To +verb...., use the format until you ran out of objectives to state.

Strategies are a totally different thing. They are structured in the imperative
form (the better to scare you into doing them, perhaps?).


It is very important that you state in the clearest manner possible the
coverage of your study and project. To do this, you must first ask yourself what
you need to do and why you need to do them. Once youve identified these you
can again categorize or group them to gauge the task better.

Lets say you will be covering a lot of investigation with respect to the site.
Identify what you need to know as required by your project. Then lets say again
that you also have to conduct deeper research about your thesis topic/s. Do you
know why? Of course, you do. Write your purposes. Elaborate if possible. Then
lets say further that youll be conducting case studies. What will be your
subjects? What will you be looking into? Will it be the locale, the users, the
activities, what? Then (as you may have already guessed) you have to explain
why. Then lets say you stop. Good.

Most researchers make the mistake of using this part of the paper to state
simply what their project will NOT be about. But then again, who said that you
are like most researchers? Youre not, right? Right. So make this a statement of
the constraints or limiting factors that might affect your research, and therefore,
the final output. Some examples would be budgetary limits (dont we all have
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
this??), unavailability or inaccessibility of data, and of course our favorite
excuse: time constraints

However, these limitations are determined only to keep your study at a
realistic level and in no way should be used as an excuse for personal
shortcomings or blocks in the outcome of the project.


Who will benefit from your studies? How can this study be of any help in
fostering a better architecture? These are few of the questions you have to take into
consideration in writing the significance of your thesis. This may deal with the social,
economic or cultural aspects of the project. You can even combine or address all of
the aspects if you like. But HOLD IT! Do not think of yourself as some kind of a God
who can actually SOLVE the problems with your thesis in blink of an eye. You can
not alleviate poverty nor improve the whole bureaucratic system through your study.
But it can be a TOOL. ( and it MUST be a tool if that is what you aim). Always keep
in mind that you are an architect, not a psychologist, sociologist, physician nor a
politician. And so you must always direct your discussions on the
ARCHITECTURAL aspect of your work. Oftentimes, you are carried away by the
description drawn from the clients project proposals and thereby forgetting the
architectural contributions you want your project to have. Example, if you are
working on a Rehabilitation Center for Drug Dependents, you will not say that your
thesis can actually heal these addicts. Instead, you can state your possible
contributions, as an architect, to meet this concern.


The thesis, though a theoretical exercise which need no immediate application,
should however be as REALISTIC and ACHIEVABLE as possible. It would only
mean that you will be dealing with assumptions which will support your study and
give substance to your work. These may be conditions where you base your study
that need some validation through key informants you have interviewed. Your
clients name, the possible funding source, the organization who will run the proposal
and the likes are examples of these. Your assumptions can be of great help when
dealing with programming and cost analysis Further, it can bring your project into a
more realistic sense and create a more formidable framework for the design.


One caution in doing this: This is NOT a mini-dictionary. And so you are
reminded that you will just write words that you believe are TOO TECHNICAL for
your readers. Do not include terms which are only unfamiliar to you. You might end
up doing a list of terms for you and not your readers.

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
The following are some guidelines in writing an effective definition of terms:

1. Only terms, words or phrases which have special or unique meanings in
the study are defined. Example: Learning areas may be defined as a
classroom, but may take another meaning as to what your study is all about,
say a laboratory or a drafting room.

2. Terms should be defined operationally, that is, how they are used in your
study. For instance the study is about accessibility. What do you mean by
accessibility? To make the meaning clear you have to define what covers the
term, essential for a clearer understanding of your study.

3. You may develop your own definition from the characteristics of the term
defined. Thus, a house made of light materials may be defined as one made
of bamboo, nipa, buri, etc. This is also an operational definition.

4. Definitions may be taken from valid sources. Encyclopedias, reference
books, magazines and newspapers are samples of these. And hey, because
these are printed and published materials, you need to acknowledge them in
any form possible. Definitions taken from these kinds of materials are called
conceptual or theoretical definitions.

5. Acronyms should always be spelled out especially they are not commonly
known or if they were used for the first time. You may be using and typing
the same long meaning of Department of Environment and Natural
Resources for a hundred times or even more along your work. So dont you
think DENR would be a better alternative?

6. Use simple words in defining your terms. It would be more complicated if
you will not, and therefore building another bulk of things to be defined.

7. Definitions should be as brief, clear and direct as possible. Need we say


When you have already established your scope, you probably would have also
known the coverage of your thesis. Hence, you are ready to define varied literature
related to your study. These are summarized versions of articles, researches, write-
ups and other thesis works which are somehow related to your topic(s). The key here
is simple. The more you read, the better! And therefore the easier for you to visualize
and understand the needs of your work. This would also help you know where will
you take-off. Having known what were already written and published, you will then
have the idea where would you start your study. Will it just be a continuation of an
existing project? Will you just be pushing a new theory related to those previously
stated? Or is it a totally new project with totally new concepts related to the existing
ones? To help you further understand, here are some guidelines on citing related

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
1. Materials must be as recent as possible. New learnings are discovered
everyday. Your piece of literature may be true and relevant today but not in
the next months or years. It is not that changes occurs that abrupt but
developments may arise which may have altered the theories presented on
your researched literature.

2. Materials must be as objective and as unbiased as possible. You have to
avoid material which are obviously and extremely siding an organization,
group or an individual figure, whether political, religious or otherwise.

3. Materials may not be too few or too many. It is always best to know where
and when to stop. Maintain a balanced presentation of literature, just enough,
not to overwhelm your readers. In an undergraduate thesis like yours, ten
(10) pieces of literature for review is recommended.


Your thesis is a research-based thesis. It means that you are supposed to
formulate ideas based on your gathered facts and information to later on be applied to
a specific project. To know the applicability of these theories, it is essential that you
create a framework. Something which will bind your thoughts into one concrete
THRUST-- where ALL your inputs as well as your outputs will be based. Usually,
your research topics correspond to these. You must always remember that these
topics are supposed to be supportive ideas in the development of your study, if not
the main end of it.

This will be the part where you will inform your readers if there is a theory you
want to prove e.g. a limited area can affect the behavior of a drug dependent, or a
concept you want to test say, a moving space is best suited for the healing mind. You
might wonder what the difference between a theory and a concept is. According to
Homans (1967), a THEORY has three basic components (1) conceptual scheme (2)
set of proposition stating relationships between properties or variables and (3) context
for verification. Your Architectural Theory of Design subjects (AR 273 and 263)
clearly state this as a relation between two properties, in the given example, space
and behavior. Theories have been subjected to further studies by various people and
yet they are still something that can be verified. Your thesis can be a supportive study
and a test if the theories presented are really true. A theory is something which
already has a proponent. It means that a person before you had already proposed this
theory and other people have been verifying this as well. Therefore, your framework
should be based from a proponent and the consolidation of studies made as well to
see the extent of verification done. CONCEPTS on the other hand are just ideas or
concrete expression of terms (see chapter on concept). These may be based on your
OWN ideas and NOT coming from another researcher or proponent. If your research
topic will be working on this type of a framework, then you have to state so. Yes, this
may sound a little bit confusing and difficult at first but you have already done this
before, havent you? You are just to organize and give your work a more solid basis
by stating the theories and/or concepts and HOW will you go about this. Again, these
may just be part and parcel of the research topic or the entire thesis.
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom

In any research, it is not only important that you know WHAT to do but more
essentially HOW you will do it. The methods of research (check your AR 483) will
help you with this process. You see, this is an organized table or framework which
explains the step by step process of doing your study. You can choose from a number
of methods used in an architectural research (descriptive, analytic or a combination),
you have to enumerate them and elaborate and explain as well why are you using
them. If it is an interview: with whom? why?, etc. If it is a survey: what type of
questions will you be asking? How were you able to establish them? And so on and
so forth... It is also recommended that you prepare a WORK PLAN. This is a
synthesis of your plan and how are you going to conduct the study.



This is the list of references (books, magazines, interviews, etc.) you have
consulted in the development of your book.. Here items are arranged alphabetically
regardless of the articles a, an and the. You may provide bibliographies for every
chapter and have them listed at the end. You can break down a rather long
bibliography according to topics or type of publication, but you have to maintain an
alphabetical arrangement within each section.

Remember to put the authors surname first, then the first name and middle name
or intial (if any). Separate the major elements with a period. Page numbers are only
necessary if the source is an article, but if it is a book, you need not indicate them.

The following are some examples of possible sources and the manner by which
you should include them in the Bibliography.

1. Bibliography style for a book by one author
J odidio, Philip. Architecture Now. Cologne, Germany: Taschen GMBH,
2. For a book by two authors. Use commas to separate names.
Kirk, Stephen J . and Spreckelmeyer, Kent F. Enhancing Value in Design
Decisions. New York: Random House, 1993.
3. For a book by three or more authors. Use semicolons to separate names
Dacanay J r., J ulian E; Encarnacion, Rosario S; and Perez III, Rodrigo D.
Folk Architecture. Quezon City: GCF Books, 1989.
For when there are more than three authors, you could include the names of
all the authors, space permitting, or use and others or et al.
Bradock, Richard, and others. Research in Written Composition. Urbana, Ill.:
National Council of Tecahers in Englih, 1963.
4. For a book by an organization
US Department of Commerce. Pocket Data Book USA 1976. Washington,
D.C.: US Government Printing Office, November, 1976.
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
5. For a book by an author with a pen name. Use the pen name of an author if
that is what the title page shows. No need to supply the real name.
6. For a book with the authors name not given
name known but not given on the title page
[Nesmith, Eleanor Lynn.] Instant Architecture. New York: Byron Preiss
Visual Publication, 1995.
name involves guesswork
[Nesmith, Eleanor Lynn?] Instant Architecture. New York: Byron Preiss
Visual Publication, 1995.
name is not given nor ascertainable (do not use anon. or anonymous)
Air Pollution Primer. New York: National Tuberculosis and Respiratory
Disease Asscociation, 1991.
7. For a book with editor, compiler, or translator in place of author. Editor or
other term is abbreviated and places after the name.
Devoto, Bernard, ed. Mark Twain: Letters from the Earth. New York: Harper
and Row, 1962.
Cromley, Elizabeth Collins and Hudgins, Carter L., eds. Shaping
Communities. Knoxville, Tennessee: The University of Tennessee Press,
8. For a book with editor, compiler, or translator in addition to author. Authors
name first. Place the name of the editor, compiler, or translator after the title
Twain, Mark. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Edited by Henry Nash Smith.
Boston: Houghto Mifflin Co., 1958.
9. For a book edition, series, or volume.
Himstreet, William C., and Baty, Wayne Murlin. Business Communication:
Principles and Methods. 7
ed. Boston: Kent Publishing Company, 1984.
Churchill, Winston E. The Second World War. 6 vols. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 1948.
Mencken, H. L. The American Language. 4
ed., corrected, enlarged and
rewritten. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1986.
Mencken, H. L. The American Language. Supplement 1. New York: Alfred
A. Knopf, 1986.
10. For a book in a reprinted edition. Data on the reprinting publisher are given
after the data on the original publisher.
Bierce, Ambrose. The Devils Dictionary. Neale Publishing Co., 1911.
Reprint. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1958.
11. For an unpublished work (thesis, manuscript, book in draft). Title is placed in
quotation marks and is not underlined. The word thesis or a similar term is
used to label the work
Dela Cruz, J uan. Revitalization of the City of Malolos. Undergraduate
Thesis. Bulacan: Bulacan State University, 2001.
12. For articles. Give title of article in quotation marks, title of periodical
underlined, volume number and issue number and date and the inclusive pages
that the article appeared on
Lacayo, Richard. Buildings that Breathe Time Magazine. (September 2,
2002), 60-62.
With newspapers, it is sometimes necessary to give the section number or
name with the page number
Clines, Francis X. The Mother Tongue Has a Movement. New York Times
(J une 3, 1984), 8E.
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
Corwin, Miles. A City with Its Own Official Language. San Francisco
Chronicle (May 19, 1985), Punch, 3
For when an article is continued
Lacayo, Richard. Buildings that Breathe Time Magazine. (September 2,
2002), 60-62, 83
13. For a work cited in another work.
Walpole, J ane R. Why Must the Passive Be Damned? College Composition
and Communication. 30:3 (October, 1979), 251. In Bush, Donald. The
Passive. Technical Communication, 28:1 (First Quarter 1981) 19-20, 22.
14. For government documents. Follow the style shown for a book by an
organization. Use the style appropriate for the number of author/s
15. For a computer software program.
Include the name of the writer of the program, if known.
Underline the title of program
Label Computer Software neither underlined nor enclosed in quotation
Include name of distributor and the year of publication.
Separate items with periods, but place between distributor and the year of
Add any pertinent information like the computer for which the software was
designed, the number of units of memory, and the form of the program
16. For an on-line information. This is treated as a printed material, but with a
reference to the source/site at the end of the entry.
17. For repeated Bibliography items. When several works by the same author are
listed in sequence, you may repeat the authors name, or use a line of 5 hypens
in place of the authors name.


Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom

Architecture is not in the empty building, but in the vital
interchange between building and participant.
- Cesar Pelli (1926 - )
Argentine-born U.S. architect.


After drawing a clear introduction and orienting your readers with the particulars of
your thesis, you are supposed to give them the meat of the book in this chapter. You
are to give your readers a comprehensive report of the facts you have gathered during the
course of your research. However, you should be careful on what to present. This is not a
mere tally nor collection of data. Presentation involves organization. To give you a
clearer picture, you may do the following suggestions:

1. Segregate the facts from the concepts. You probably know now what the
difference is between these two. Factual data are those information based on
what is existing, something which is of truth and reality. Conceptual data may be
written ideas which you could use as basis for your study. It is necessary for you
to know this so as you would determine which data can be processed and what
are not.

2. Recognize what data to present. You might be tempted to present several bits of
information or a huge number of knowledge about the topics you are studying.
DONT. Analyze the articles, tables, etc. and their relevance to your thesis. Ask
yourself. Are these really helpful? Are these important? Can I do without them?
You see, not because an article or a clipping tells you about your topic, it would
automatically qualify and be accepted as data.

3. Organize your data. It would be necessary to have proper sequencing of the data
you will be presenting. Sequencing would mean developing your data
presentation from the simplest to the most complex ideas. It would also help if
you would relate topics after topics so that you would establish the links between
them, to later on be connected to the main thing.

Alright, you may be a bit lost about that, but heres a more comprehensible way of
looking at it. The following is a detailed discussion of the types of data to be presented
and the manner it should be presented.


It is inevitable to come up with basic data about your proposal. These come in
statistical form. You may have to come back to your good old junior year in high
school to be able to understand this. But hey, havent you done this before when you
were doing your research methods a year ago? Yes, this is as simple as showing
factual data to your readers, whether in textual, tabular or graphical form.

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
However, you have to take note that these are statistical data and so these are
data, already processed, initially, by the agency where you got them. Population,
vehicular volume and Growth in Rice Production are just few samples of such.

Present and Projected Population
Population Distribution by:
Age, Sex, Religion, Educational Attainment, Employment, Income
Urban-Rural Population Distribution
Population Density
Growth Trends
Literacy Rate
Household Size
Number of Dwelling Units by:
Type of Construction Materials, Structure, Ownership

Macro-Site Data
Political Boundaries
Area and Land Uses
Adjoining Areas and Uses
Micro Site Data
Land Use
Topography/ Landform
Water Bodies and Quality
Orientation in relation to solar paths and wind paths
Flora and Fauna
Visual Resources
Existing Structures

General Public Services
This covers the administrative systems of the municipality, e.g.,
organizational structure, policy development and information
management. This also includes the local governments financial and
fiscal administration.
Social Services
This encompasses education, culture, sports and manpower development;
health and sanitation, nutrition and population policies; housing and
community development; social welfare, protective services and
recreational facilities of the municipality.
Economic Services
This covers agriculture, trade and industry, tourism, labor and
employment; existing and projected uses of and demand for land;
projected income and employment opportunities; direction and pattern of
growth of agriculture and industry.
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
Physical Infrastructure
This includes the inventory of roads, transportation,
communication, sewage and drainage, power, telecommunication,
drinking water, solid waste disposal, transport terminal, traffic

This consists of pieces of information relative to particular industries or
aspects of the economy. Following are some examples of industries that
need to be studied relative to a number of thesis topics.

Industries Thesis Topics
The housing industry Subdivision development
Community development
Housing components and materials
The retail sales industry Commercial development

The health care industry Pharmaceutical Facilities
Hospital Complex
The transport industry Sea Port development
Multi-modal facilities
The manufacturing industry Industrial development
Production Centers
The food industry Food processing plants

The tourism industry Historic town renewal plans

The telecommunication Industry Information Technology Centers

Some of the basic data that make up the industry profile are the following:
Current Standards of Operation
Accomplishments and Shortfalls vis--vis industry targets
Administrative/Organizational, Technical/Technological, Problems
Outlooks or envisioned future business environments
Players and Leaders in the Industry
Competition and Competitive Advantages
Opportunities for Improvement


Primary data come from original sources. They are not commentary about the
topic, but rather consists of information that must be commented upon by
succeeding topics.

Tactics that may be used to gather Primary Data include interviews, listening (to
symposia, lectures), focus groups, surveys and observations (participatory, non-
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom

Tactics Interactive Non-interactive
Interviews In-depth interviews
Key informants
Career histories


Focus Groups Discussions guided to
test in small groups
Participants help
construct the right

Surveys Multiple sorting
Projective surveys

Observation Participant

observation stream
of behavior
Field notes
Visual mapping


You may have already identified these tables and graphs at the beginning of your
book, but you might be wondering where these will appear. If you think that they will
all come in a single bulk in just a single chapter, think again. This chapter may
contain most of these figures but you are free to present some whenever the need in
certain discussions arises. We are architects and so these graphs and illustrations will
always be our most effective tools in expressing our thoughts.

Now, the question you might have in your mind is what are these tables? What
about these graphs? A statistical table or simply table is defined as a systematic
arrangement of related data in which classes of numerical facts or data are given each
a row and their subclasses are given each a column in order to present the
relationships of the sets or numerical facts or data in a definite, compact and
understandable form or forms. Now, you may probably recognize a table when you
see one, right?

A graph on the other hand, is a chart representing the quantitative variations or
changes of a variable itself, or quantitative changes of a variable in comparison with
those of another variable or variables in pictorial or diagrammatic form. There are
some advantages of using a graph over a table. These are:

1. It attracts attention more effectively than tables, and, therefore is less likely
to be overlooked. Your readers may skip tables but pause to look at charts.

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
2. The use of colors and pictorial diagrams make a list of figures in thesis
reports more meaningful

3. It gives a comprehensive view of quantitative data. A moving line exerts a
more powerful effect in the readers mind than the tabulated data. It shows
what is happening and what is likely to take place.

4. Its general usefulness lies in the simplicity it adds to the presentation of the
numerical data.

But graphs have disadvantages as well as advantages. They are generally
inaccurate, incomplete, more expensive and time consuming. Further, graphs can
only be made only the data have been tabulated. Listed below are the varied types of
graphs you may encounter:

1. Bar graphs
a. Single vertical bar graph
b. Single horizontal bar graph
c. Grouped or multiple or composite bar graph
d. Duo-directional or bilateral bar graph
e. Subdivided or component bar graph
f. Histogram

2. Linear graphs
a. Time series or chronological line chart
b. Composite line chart
c. Frequency polygon
d. Ogives
e. Band chart

3. Hundred percent graphs or charts
a. Subdivided bar or rectangular bar graph
b. Circle or pie chart

4. Pictograms
5. Statistical maps
6. Ratio charts

You might just be copying these tables, graphs and charts as part of your
presentation of data. But dont you think it would be more fruitful on your part if
youll be doing these by yourself? Why not? You might have already gathered your
data and so you are in the right position to process them yourself and show your
readers these data as you understand them. Come on, you can do it.

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom

This chapter is actually an extension of your Research Data. The difference is
that with Case Studies, you are analyzing existing related structures, groups,
localities and situations and you might be getting information that may not be
available in textbooks or previous studies. This is especially true for local cases that
may have some connection with your project. Focus, however, should be on the
variable that may be difficult to determine without actual reconnaissance. Do not
forget that you are the one who has the best understanding of your project and what
information you need from the case studies. That simply means that it is also YOU
who can conduct the studies most effectively.

If you need information regarding structures or scenarios abroad (especially if
you want to determine the applicability of certain theories and principles to the
Philippines), you can use secondary data. It is best, in this case, to come up with at
least one local study (besides the foreign one) so that it would be easier to determine
the applicability and feasibility of foreign concepts in local settings.


As you study different cases, it would become evident to you that each
structure, user group, locality or situation is made up of several variables. A
study of a municipality, for instance, could cover its physical, cultural, historical,
social and economic frameworks. But not all of these may be relevant to your
project. So, you have to state in the SCOPE all the specific concerns that you will
focus on. You also have to discuss the extent of work that you will cover in
regard to these elements.

To further clarify matters, you can discuss all those concerns that you will NOT
be covering in the DELIMITATION. This will give your reader a more
simplified view of what to note in the cases under study.


Each case study can be presented by first explaining how they are related to
your project. You can discuss the situation by dividing it into sub components
and presenting their respective merits. If you think that sketches, maps, graphs
and photographs would help you explain them better, then use them to support
your data. J ust remember to provide proper captions or else, they may be useless.
Lastly, you have to make sure that all the specific concerns are discussed
properly, and their relevance to the project stated clearly.

It is also advisable that you choose cases that are related to your thesis in
distinctly varied ways. One case study may be concerned with a project similar to
your proposal and another which employs a technology which is comparable to
what you are proposing. You might also be able to draw more reliable
conclusions by studying both local and foreign cases.

At least three TOPICS for study would be ideal -- a study of similar user
groups, a study of a case similar to the project (local and foreign), and a study of
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
the current trend/s (local and foreign) pertinent to the project. It might also be
useful to include a failed case that used the same technique or was intended for
the same user group. Even failed cases are helpful in your research as they give
you a fairly good idea of what NOT to do. However, please take note of the word
TOPIC. This does not mean that you have to limit your case studies to three also.


This is where you correlate and summarize all the factors that you have
studied to see their implications to the project. You can end this chapter by
recommending and endorsing concepts and approaches learned from the case
studies according to their suitability to your project.

C. RESEARCH TOPIC (or you can write the TOPIC TITLE)

A research topic is something born with your thesis. Ideally these topics should
be thought of before the project since these are basically the things of your interest.
But of course, we dont want to be too idealistic here, and so they may come together
as a package, with the source of your project hooked on these topics.

In selecting a research topic, you should look into your thesis project and see the
possible requirements or kind of character which will make it unique or increase its
architectural value. In other words, being the soul of your book, this section will
give your readers a great deal of what they will be reading as they go along with your
thesis. These research topics do not only explain the essential things about your study
but clarify as well the theoretical or conceptual framework you mentioned in Chapter
1. This would require you to write the applicability of these topics to your project and
so you should be wise in selecting the topics. Be very specific. Focus.

How will you do this? First, you have to orient your readers why you choose the
topics as your focal points of study. You can very well do this by reiterating the roots
of your problem(s). You have to go back to the background you have presented in
Chapter 1 and stress the need for the topics to be studied so as to have a clear
solution, in the end, to the problems posted in your statement.


This is the thorough discussion regarding your research. This should contain
studies, approaches as well as trends (of course acknowledged) relative to your topic.
But dont be misguided. A common mistake here is that the contents of the research
body are lifted from published work, completely! This is a big no-no! Any data or
information appearing on this part will have to be processed and quoted. Discussions
should be paraphrased and again for the nth time properly acknowledged! The
information should be brief and discussions well-organized. Again, the key is focus.
If for example you are to discuss behavioral analysis as a research topic, do you need
to write everything about behavior including the psychology of the human mind if
your only concern is the behavior of a child? J ust to inform your readers about the
basic, why not? But the meat of the discussion should be on the psychology of
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
children. Focus! You may also want to mention cases and examples, but you must
not discuss them fully as you would be required to do in the Case Studies.

It was mentioned earlier that your research will not have any value or
significance unless you connect it with a project which will manifest the studies
made. This is the part where you relate your topics with your project. Let us continue
our example on the behavioral analysis. It will be pertinent to note not only the
theories on behavior but its application to the architectural sense as well. You may
have to study theories on perception, color and space to support your documented
research when applied to the real thing. Again, you have to be specific. Bear in
mind that what youll be writing should be something which will give your readers a
clear understanding of your thesis and not confuse them. So go straight to the point.
However, you will not stop when you have given the application. You still have to
cross examine these data. Check on its economic feasibility and other areas you
might think is appropriate for study.

This lecture was compiled from the following references:

The Far Eastern University Architecture Thesis Manual
Guide for Writing the Master of Architecture Thesis, University of the Philippines
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom



If you think that it is enough just to gather and present your data think again.
They will have no value unless they can be related to the project. What you have to
do in this chapter is sift through the information that you have presented in the
previous chapters and come up with those that can serve as a basis for further
developments. With the theoretical foundation that youve laid out in Chapter 1 and
the factual components that youve presented in Chapter 2, you can very well analyze
WHAT REALLY NEEDS TO BE DONE. But remember, the needs you identify
here should always be ones that can be satisfied by ARCHITECTURAL
SOLUTIONS. Otherwise, discard them or process them so that although the root may
be social, psychological, physiological, etc., the expressed needs and requirements
are architectural.


Okay, so you might think that were going back to Chapter 1 here. This time,
youre right. At least, in a way. You have to reread the Statement of the Problem you
formulated with only preliminary information and high hopes. You have the facts
now. This time, they should anchor your thoughts to the ground. Your situation can
have you viewing the problem in a new light. You might need to come up with a
NEW STATEMENT. J ust dont veer too far from what you have previously stated.
Keep this in mind: new view but not necessarily new problem.

If, on the other hand, all the facts just reinforced the problem you stated in
Chapter 1, do not feel compelled to change your statement. All you have to do in this
case is to RESTATE it. That simple.


So, you have made the problem clearer and more specific than before. What
do you do now? That would be what you will be discussing in this section. This may
be a statement of what structure you have concluded is necessary to solve the
problem. If there are concepts and theories that need to be studied and discussed
further so that you could arrive at the most effective design solutions, you have to
present them along with your recommendations. Same goes if you think that there is
a new design approach which has to be developed and used for the proposal.

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom

It must be our primary concern as designers to find the most ideal combination of
function and location. We might struggle to create a very well-contrived plan but if the
structure juts out like a sore thumb in its location, all the programs we use and the designs
we produce can come to nothing.

For this chapter, you will have to conduct several types of studies at several levels to
come up with the best site for your proposed project. The extent of what you will discuss
here will depend basically on how important and influential the choice of site is to your
project. Your focus should be on the appropriateness and feasibility of possible sites to
the intended use. And to determine this, you have to conduct comprehensive analyses of
the characteristics of the site and its surrounding areas. Of course, in the end, you will
have to indicate how these factors and attributes will affect the project.

There are several topics to be covered in this chapter. However, this is once again
NOT a standard thing. You can add relevant topics but make sure that each one will be
discussed clearly and thoroughly.


With a reliable knowledge and a vision of your project proposal, you can now
determine its requisite site requirements and the possibility of having to seek for
alternatives. Your site may be given, but that does not mean that you will have a
lighter workload than if you have to look for one. At this point, at least acquaint your
reader with your situation (or predicament?) and what you plan to do about it. If the
site is given, brief your reader about pertinent matters in regard to it (location, size,
etc.). If its not, dont whine. J ust tell the reader so and give him an idea of your
game plan for your quest.


In this section, you will have to discuss what features of a site -- both natural
and built -- are best-suited to your requirements. It is, therefore, a huge advantage if
you can coherently state the character of your project, the site attributes that it
requires and why. Dont worry. The why? is quite easy to answer. Did you get
them from a textbook? Did you so brilliantly come up with it on your own? Are you
following standards set by a government agency? Or is it all of the above? Once you
have stated your answer, discuss each criterion intensively. And voila! Theres your

Some points may be helpful here:

1. Be specific. Avoid vague statements such as big enough, should be
2. Stick only to the criteria that are most relevant to your project. Time-
distances relations, for example, may mean the world to one project and have
no effect whatsoever on another.
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
3. Be realistic. Do not seek qualities that would be impossible to find. Yes, that
makes a location on top of a snow-capped mountain here in the Philippines
totally out of the question!


So, lets say that you were lucky enough to find three possible sites for your
project. Start by pointing out their favorable and unfavorable aspects by BRIEFLY
discussing each one. It might also simplify the work if you can try to evaluate the
sites merits using a rating system (1 for severe limitation, 2 - moderate constraint, 3 -
good condition, 4 - excellent condition).

Then, select the most ideal one. This is the site that could meet the project
requirements with the least modifications. Try to see if the score in the rating system
validates your choice. The table on Figure 2 is a very effective tool in selecting the
best possible site for your proposal.


Although the Site Selection Process has already given your reader an idea about
your site, deeper analysis is still needed. This is usually done in two levels -- the
MICRO SITE ANALYSIS which studies the specific area within the property
boundaries and its immediate environs; and the MACRO SITE ANALYSIS which
includes the examination of the site environs up to the horizon (sometimes even
beyond). In this analysis, the condition of various factors such as utilities, natural
elements, climate, infrastructure and sensuous characters are presented. Of course, a
discussion of how these factors affect your project always follows.

It is sometimes very tempting to limit the discussion of the effects to the most
obvious and conspicuous. But since an extensive analysis should be involved, it is
possible to learn how each factor influences the project at a deeper level. There will
be times, too, when you would feel like you have to LIE about some of the factors.
Please DONT. Your site needs not be perfect. Ideal, yes. But perfect? Not really. If
some important elements are absent in your site, say water system, tell the truth. They
might sound like big limitations now, but in the end they will serve you better as
useful design determinants. So, the more honest you are about them, the better.


To most designers, a tabulated SWOT analysis (defining its STRENGTHS,
WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES and THREATS in relation to your project) may
be the best visual guide to the analysis. It can give your reader an idea of how
suitable the site is to the project with just one look. It will also enable you to relate
these aspects to each other so that you can have a clear idea of your sites potentials
as well as its imperfections.

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
From Landscape Architecture: A Manual for Site Planning and Design
By John Ormsbee Simonds
New York: Mc-Graw Hill, 1998

CRITERIA Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4 Site 5




Climate (temperature, storms, rainfall, etc.)
Soils (stability, fertility, depth)
Water supply and quality
Economy (rising, stable, declining)
Transportation (highways and transit)
Energy (availability and relative cost)
Landscape character
Cultural opportunities
Employment opportunities
Health care facilities
Major detractions (list and describe)
Exceptional features (list and describe)

Travel (time-distance to work, shopping, etc.)
Travel experience (pleasant or unpleasant)
Community ambience
Cultural opportunities (library, auditorium)
Public services (fire, police, etc.)
Safety and security
Medical facilities
Major detraction (list and describe)
Exceptional features (list and descried)

Landscape character
Compatibility of proposed uses
Trafficways (access, hazard, attractiveness)
Conveniences (schools, service, etc.)
Parks, recreation and open space
Exposure (sun, wind, storms, planning)
Freedom from noise, fumes, etc.
Utilities (availability and cost)
Major detraction (list and describe)
Exceptional features (list and descried)

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
CRITERIA Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4 Site 5

Size and shape (suitability)
Aspect from approaches
Safe entrance and egress
On-site feel
Permanent trees and cover
Need for clearing
Ground forms and gradients
Soils (quality and depth)
Relative cost of earthwork and foundation
Site drainage
Adjacent structures (or lack of)
Relationship to circulation patterns
Relative cost of land and development
Major detraction (list and describe)
Exceptional features (list and descried)

Topographic fit of programmed user
Gradient of approaches
Safe distance at entrance drive
Orientation to sun, wind and breeze
Freedom from noise and glare
Visual impact of neighboring uses
Visual impact upon neighboring uses
Proximity to utility leads


* - severe limitation
#- moderate constraint
^- condition good
>- condition excellent

Note: By substituting numbers for symbols, the arithmetic sum for each column
would give a general indication of its relative overall rating. It is to be
realized, however, that in some cases a single severe constraint or superlative
feature might well overwhelm the statistics and become the deciding factor.

And remember that this is SITE analysis. Some municipality, city,
provincial or even regional data may help but they should NEVER be the
focus of this part, much less its only content.

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom

Baselines are starting points from which the design proper takes off. They help
paint the backdrop against which the research undertaking is being pursued. Baseline
information can be the bases for formulating the parameters by which the outcomes
of the research can be evaluated.

Base Maps
Municipal or General Base Map
Poblacion or Urban Base Map
Base Maps for other Built-up Areas
Vicinity Map

Thematic or Analytical Maps
Contour Map
Soil Map
Slope Map
Land Capability Map
Soil Suitability for Agricultural Uses
Soil Suitability for Urban Uses
Hydro-geologic or Groundwater Map
Facilities/ Infrastructures Map
Development Constraints Map (geologic, fault, flooding, etc.)
Special Projects Map
Weather Map

Quality Standards
Governing benchmarks that regulate the physical make-up of industry
outputs. These are often measured by getting feedbacks from users or

Performance Standards
These are standards that regulate operations or ways of doing things. These
are often quantified and measured in terms of units such as speed, rate,
efficiency, etc.


These are factors and considerations in regard to the site that will be relevant
to your project. You may begin this section by presenting a Code Survey. Look for
local laws, codes and policies (or even international ones, if necessary) that will help
you define the limits of your development. Aside from these, you also have to
identify and study other factors that are not based on the law. These would include
phenomena which are natural to your site (flooding, strong coastal winds, etc.), local
ordinances, local customs and community characteristics. Of course, in the end, you
will have to state how all these will affect your site.

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
From Site Planning by Kevin Lynch
M.I.T. Press, Massachusetts. 1979

a. INITIAL PERSONAL RECONNAISSANCE observation of the sites apparent
character, problem and possibilities presented through notes, sketches, photographs,

b. COLLATION OF EXISTING DATA such as contour maps, aerial photos,
geological soil and water surveys, climate records, ecological studies, engineering
reports, boring tests, census materials, histories, social studies, market reports, traffic
studies, legal and public control documents, official proposals, records and current

CHANGES geographic location, surrounding populations, social and political
structure, general economy, ecological and hydrographic system, land use patterns,
access system, principal off-site destinations and facilities

1. Geology and soil
Underlying geology, rock character and depth
Soil type and depth, value as engineering material and as plant medium
Fill, ledge, slide and subsidence
2. Water
Existing water bodies - variation and purity
Natural and man-made drainage channels - flow, capacity, purity
Surface drainage patterns, amounts, blockages, undrained depressions
Water table - elevation and fluctuation, springs
Water supply - quantity and quality
3. Topography
Pattern of landforms
Slope analysis
Visibility analysis
Circulation analysis
Unique features

4. Climate
Regional data on variation of temperature, precipitation, humidity, solar
angle, cloudiness, wind direction and force
Local microclimates: warm and cool slopes, air drainage, wind deflection
and local breeze, shade, heat reflection and storage, plant indicators
Sound level, atmospheric quality, smells
5. Ecology
Dominant plant/animal communities - location and relative stability
Their dependence on existing factors, self-regulation, sensitivity to
Mapping of general plant cover, including wooded areas
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
Specimen trees to be retained: their location, spread, species and
elevation at base
6. Man-made structures
Existing buildings: outline, location, floor elevations, type, condition, us
Circulation facilities (roads, paths, rails, transit, etc.): location, capacity,
Utilities (storm and sanitary sewers, water, gas, electricity, telephone,
steam, etc.): location, elevation, capacity
7. Sensuous Qualities
Character and relation of visual spaces
Viewpoints, vistas and visual focal points
Character and rhythm of visual sequences
Quality and variation of light, sound, smell and feel

1. Resident and using population
Number and composition
Social structures and institution
Economic structure
Political structure
Current changes and problems
2. On-site and adjacent behavior settings: nature, location, rhythm, stability,
participants, conflicts
3. Site values, rights and restraints
Ownerships, easements, and other rights
Legal controls: zoning and other regulations
Economic values
Accepted territories
Political jurisdictions
4. Past and future
Site history and its traces
Public and private intentions for future use of site, conflicts
5. Images
Group and individual identification and organization of site
Meanings attached to the site, symbolic expression
Hopes, fears, wishes, preferences

1. Classification of site by areas of similar structure, quality, and problems
2. Identification of key points, lines and areas
3. Analysis of current and likely future changes - the dynamic aspect of the
4. Identification of significant problems and possibilities

Thesis Manual.2006

University of the Philippines Masters of Architecture Guide for Thesis-writing
Draft of Far Eastern University Architecture Thesis Manual
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom


As your project will cater mainly to its users, it might be useful to your study to
look into their patterns of activities as these would help determine the characteristics
of spaces which will be provided for them. The pattern of activitiy will also create a
basis for the interrelationships of spaces and, consequently, structures.

For some projects, the activity flow diagram may be governed by a given
schedule. This is true for schools, for example, where the activities of the users as
based on the scheduling of classes. For others, the pattern may have to be determined
through direct observation, interviews or any first-hand procedure. It is also
important to note the less obvious details in the pattern aside from those which are
based on a given program or are easily discernible through observation.


Should your thesis have the behavior of the users as its main thrust, you should
expand this part and have a thorough and in depth output. You may not only be
dealing with the activities of the users for the time being but would most probably
extend your analysis to the culture of these people. Moreover, this would entail a
comparative analysis of your users behavior with that of other paradigms.

Again, this is an analysis and so you would not just list the activities. Apart from
identifying the activities and behavior of your users, whether individual or group, you
are to give your readers a hint of why youre discussing these things. How will these
affect the overall concept of your thesis? In what way can these behaviors be a tool in
designing an effective working environment? Do you need to apply your knowledge
in space engineering?

The concepts of territoriality, defensible space and space bubbles are very helpful
tools in analyzing the behavior of people in relation to the environment. In the end,
this procedure will help you understand how the environment shapes behavior and


This is the simplest part of space programming-- but not quite. If you think that
doing matrices and bubble diagrams would be too easy for you to do, well
unfortunately, theyre not. Although such graphical instruments help facilitate the
organization of spaces, they may be too flexible, and so youll have the tendency to
overlook at the appropriate circulation. To avoid this, it is recommended that you
have to go further and create alternative schemes or bubbles (variations of your
design) and even zoning (based on the result of matrices) with circulation diagrams
of various types of users. The results of your case studies would probably be applied
here. Again, you are encouraged to draw various schemes to present probable
solutions- and it will not stop there. You have to orient your readers of the variances
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
and indicate the advantages and disadvantages of each scheme so that you would not
have the difficulty of explaining the design of your choice when later on tested
against the concepts. Remember to include the services and utilities.

There are different methods in programming spaces. It can be a matrix which
allocates specific variable depending on the activity e.g. pivotal and then coming up
with the area. You may also use basic standards from the National Building Code or
other building standards and multiply these with the number of users. Another way is
to layout a scheme containing the furniture, spaces, and circulation (of course in
scale). This may be most helpful for rooms requiring specific furniture as in
hospitals, laboratories, factories and the like.


Viability studies are undertaken to ascertain the possibility of the project
getting implemented. They are used to determine probable impediments to project
realization and to identify measures by which these impediments may be minimized
or eliminated.


The Technical Design Constraints - All designers must work within a set of
parameters based on the following:


The project must be realizable based on the available systems, infrastructure and
know-how. Production, replication, testing must be possible within the existing
framework of expertise and tools by which the processes can be carried out.
Propositions must be grounded on theories that are sufficiently backed up by past
research undertakings.

Its also possible that the proposed project is illustrative of new technology. In this
case, the research output must include recommendations on the development of the
proposed technology.


Project Cost - these are expenses that are directly attributable to the completion of the
project. Examples are: design development cost, construction/ development/
production cost

Capital - this covers all initial, one-time expenditures. Examples are: construction of
production plants, equipment purchase, land acquisition

Operating - regular/periodic expenses such as utility bills, salaries for personnel,
Maintenance - periodic or one-time expenses for repairs and facilities upgrading
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom

Timeframe - a schedule showing how the project will progress over a projected
duration must be shown. Schedules may be in the form of a bar chart, an S-curve or a
PERT-CPM diagram
Phasing - project completion may be done in phases or in distinct time frames
Gestation - a lead-time or preparatory period may be needed before a project can
fully take-off

Resource Requirements

Materials - the types, sources and availability of needed building or product
components need to be firmed up
Manpower - the labor component, required expertise, organizational requirements
also need to be identified
Equipment - pieces of light and heavy equipment needed for the production and
operating stages must be available

Site Conditions

Location/ Surrounding Areas
Land Area and Configuration
Soil Type
Water Bodies
Atmosphere/Air quality
Fish and Wildlife
Visual Resources
Danger/ Hazard prone areas
Existing Structures
Drainage Communication

Environmental Impact Assessment- An EIA is undertaken to compare scenarios
with and without the proposed project. The results are used to weigh favorable
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
against unfavorable impacts of the project on the environment. The word
environment here refers to both the physical and non-physical dimensions.
The physical dimensions cover ecological and technological concerns while the non-
physical dimensions cover the social, cultural, economic and political concerns.

The Environmental Impact Statement outline prescribed by the Department
of Environment and Natural Resources.

1.0 Name and Address of Project Proponent
2.0 Type of Project
3.0 Overview Summary
4.0 The Project Setting
5.0 The Proposal
6.0 A Brief History of Past Environmental Conditions and a
Description of the Existing Environmental and Resource Use.
7.0 Future Environmental Conditions without the Project
(An average of five years projection)
8.0 Prediction and Assessment of Impacts
9.0 Contingency Plans
10.0 Environmental Briefings and Monitoring
11.0 Mitigation Measures
12.0 Residual/ Unavoidable Impacts
13.0 Information Deficiencies
14.0 Appendices
15.0 Consultation and Comments including Public Recommendations

Details are in the attached Readings

Considering that projects of all types and scale have varying degrees of
environmental impacts, the EIA is used to identify ways by which unfavorable
impacts may be mitigated.


Projects must be developed and implemented within the existing legal framework
that is defined by the following:

Design Laws, Codes, Guidelines examples are the National Building Code, the
Referral Codes, Batas Pambansa 220, Batas Pambansa 344, Condominium Act,
ICOMOS, Presidential Decree 957

Patent Laws/ Intellectual Property Rights there are procedures for claiming
ownership over intellectual properties in the form of creative work, inventions,
models and paradigms
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
Accreditation there are also procedures for recognition prior to entry into the target
market. For example the AITECH (Accreditation of Innovative Technology) is a task
force that screens, evaluates8 and approves new technology for housing

Other Laws- other laws that can directly or indirectly affect the project outcome are
the Civil Code, laws that cover national defense, trading, taxation, etc.

Another legal concern has to do with the entities or personalities that will be tapped
to develop and implement the proposed project.

Institutional Arrangements- the type and level of networking required to effect
project completion need to be identified

Concerned Agencies- the particular public or private organizations and their roles in
the network should also be clarified

It would also be possible that the project is illustrative of the need to modify certain
aspects within the existing legal framework. In this case the research output must
include recommendations on how these modifications can be systematically effected.


Sources of Funds

Funds, for various project types, come basically from either public or private sources.
Investments of any form and origin need to be recovered and in most cases with an
acceptable level of profit. Recovery of investments could be through any of the


These are the proceeds from the outright disposal of completed products or its
independent components. Selling price is determined by market forces and by the
prevailing ratio between supply and demand. The final price that is passed on to the
buyer/consumer should cover the cost of production and the mark-up.

User Charges/ Rentals

This strategy attempts to extract the amount required to finance services from those
who benefit from their existence. Under perfect conditions, i.e., when the benefits
are acknowledged by the beneficiaries, as allocated, then user charges must show a
direct linked between the quantity of services and the revenues generated to finance
their services.

Shared Taxation

A tax is a compulsory contribution to government without reference to a particular
benefit received by the taxpayer. Subsidy from general taxation occurs when there is
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
some degree of general benefit, or where consumers cannot afford the full cost of a
service that is regarded as essential to human welfare.

Funding Terms


Large capital investments are usually financed by loans that are granted based on
specific lending terms. These terms specify repayment period, mode of payment,
interest rates and provisions for penalties. The total amount of loan is distributed
over its life and, therefore, to successive beneficiaries.


This form of assistance is usually given for pre-identified projects, i.e., conditions for
use are normally stipulated. Full cost-recovery is not always expected out of projects
that are financed through grants.

Financial Benchmarks


The assessment of profitability is begins with the computation of the net income,
which basically is equal to Total Revenues less Total Cost. The bottom line figure is
then used to compute for the following profitability ratios :

Return on Investment (ROI) = Net Income

Total Investment

Project Life

Profit Margin (PM) = Net Income

Total Sales

Gross Profit Ratio (GPR) = Gross Profit

Total Sales

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom

Take a deep breath. Youve come a long way. Take a minute or two to
congratulate yourself for what you have accomplished so far. Actually, you will be
needing all the confidence you can muster as you forge through the next step: stating

Since this is the foundation of all that you will be conceptualizing from hereon,
the Design Proposal should be discussed in the clearest and most coherent manner
possible. Avoid words that may be too technical or too complex or too vague. With
just one look at the Proposal, the reader must have a good idea of what to expect in
the translation.

Aside from this, you must also enumerate the specific functions that your project
will perform and the specific activities that it will house. Refrain from naming
specific spaces though. This should be done in the Programming part. For example,
you can say a venue for the exhibit of native Filipino art but you cannot say
museum. Not yet. Remember: functions and activities only.

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
chapter 4. PROGRAMMING

This is perhaps the most important part of your thesis. Here, you have to come up
with the possible areas for your project as a concrete solution to the things you discussed
in the earlier part of your work. It would be difficult to understand and appreciate what
youll write here if you dont give your readers a background of your project, its purpose,
and users. In addition, since the discussion to follow will delve on the administrative
structure of the proponent, then it would be helpful if you could also explain what this
organization does. Your organizational chart could be your best tool in doing this.

Before you go deeper with the details of space programming, it would be
appropriate to define the term for you. Space programming is an exercise for the student
to concretize the abstractions of space relationships into units of measure as well as
the flow or circulation. It is the consolidation of all the requirements, standards,
rules and regulations. Requirements would mean the needs of the project (users and
systems) in terms of 3-dimensional spaces, facilities, spatial relationships, etc. These
may be guided by legal standards or conditions informally set by the unit of analysis
as dictated by the needs. Rules and regulations are the legal guidelines that you
must follow in the course of the design. The main end of this exercise is to have a
systematic presentation of all these requirements to later on be translated in into
schemes and plans. For the purpose of the thesis, you are to stick to the minimum
requirements. However, should the project need to provide areas for expansion, let
this be stated and taken into account.


As your thesis will cater to its users, more than anyone else, it is but rightful to
take a look into their activities as well as their operations if they move in an
organization. The visiting public would also share an ear with the analysis. In this
part, you will enumerate the main departments or units and how they relate to each
other. This will give you and your readers an idea how a certain department works
and interrelate with each other. In doing so, you will find yourself identifying which
units are active, thus requiring an active space, and which are not. You have to
indicate the magnitude and level of sensitivity of service to adequately and
effectively provide a space for them, afterwards. Analyzing the schedule of the
activities would also be helpful.

Should your thesis focus on the behavior of the users as its main thrust, you
should expand this part and have a thorough and in depth output. You may not only
be dealing with the activities of the users for the time being but would most probably
extend your analysis to the culture of these people. Moreover, this would entail a
comparative analysis of your users behavior with that of other paradigms.

Again, this is an analysis and so you would not just list the activities and
presto! Youre done with it! Apart from identifying the activities and behavior of
your users, whether individual or group, you are to give your readers a hint of why
youre discussing these things. How will these affect the overall concept of your
thesis? In what way can these behaviors be a tool in designing an effective working
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
environment? Do you need to apply your knowledge in space engineering? You
watch and see.


This is the simplest part of space programming-- but not quite. If you think that
doing matrices and bubble diagrams would be too easy for you to do, well
unfortunately, theyre not. Although such graphical instruments help facilitate the
organization of spaces, they may be too flexible and so youll have the tendency to
overlook at the appropriate circulation. To avoid this, it is recommended that you
have to go further and create alternative schemes or bubbles (variations of your
design) and even zoning (based on the result of matrices) with circulation diagrams
of various types of users. The results of your case studies would probably be applied
here. Again, you are encouraged to draw various schemes to present probable
solutions- and it will not stop there. You have to orient your readers of the variances
and indicate the advantages and disadvantages of each scheme so that you would not
have the difficulty of explaining the design of your choice when later on tested
against the concepts. Remember to include the services and utilities.

There are different methods in programming spaces. It can be a matrix which
allocates specific variable depending on the activity e.g. pivotal and then coming up
with the area. You may also use basic standards from the National Building Code or
other building standards and multiply these with the number of users. Another way is
to layout a scheme containing the furniture, spaces and circulation (of course in
scale). This may be most helpful for rooms requiring specific furniture as in
hospitals, laboratories, factories and the like.


This has been proven as one of the most effective, if not the most effective way
of programming spaces. It is a two-fold analysis, which initially caters to the qualities
of the project, and later on translated to be a quantitative one. Let us first deal with
the first one. Qualitative analysis, as the term suggests is an analysis pertinent to the
QUALITIES of your proposal which will inevitably become bases for the design.
This would have to do with five major concerns namely: (1) Establishing GOALS,
(2) Collecting and Analyzing FACTS, (3) Uncovering and Testing CONCEPTS, (4)
Determining NEEDS and (5) Stating the PROBLEMS. All these concerns will have
to be interacted with four (4) considerations: FUNCTION, FORM, ECONOMY, and
TIME. You may notice that this programming method includes the basic steps in
design or what you familiarly know as DESIGN PROCESS. Youre right! You will
have to use the objectives in chapter 1 (goals), the data (facts) you have gathered in
chapter 2, and the proposed ideas (concepts) you have in the next chapter to do this.

Like the interrelationship analysis, this analysis also comes in matrix form.
Therefore, it can be interchanged so as to fit the desired program. Provided with this
manual is a sample table with possible issues for each concern. You may consult the
book Problem Seeking by Pena to further understand this discussion.

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom

Like any other data, a qualitative input would have to be translated into a more
perceptible program to be understood and later be translated into a plan. This is what
a quantitative analysis does. It translates the qualitative matrix you did to a more
tangible thing. Thats right, the word is TANGIBLE. While the qualitative speaks of
the abstract, the quantitative talks of the more realizable output- something which can
be grasped by the readers at once. You may ask: why then cant you go directly with
the quantitative? The answer is simple. Because all the inputs in this section will be
taken from the Qualitative analysis. Remember, you will only TRANSLATE on a
quantitative evaluation.

What then would be the content of this part? You will be enumerating the areas
which you think will be needed by your proposal (again, based on the qualitative
analysis). These are general areas which can be specifically named in various terms,
depending upon the function it will perform. Example, when youre dealing with
schools, you may want to call a classroom, a laboratory and a drawing room under a
single heading, say learning areas. This way, you can generalize the function of the
space you are providing. But you have to identify all these rooms as well since you
will be determining the required number in the end. Yes, you read it right!
NUMBERS. Quantitative analysis involves quantities, figures, numbers, numerals
and therefore computations. This will contain the mathematical computations for
your project. From the most basic computation of space areas to CONSTRUCTION
etc. Perhaps, you could also deal with the analysis of the COSTING and RETURN
OF INVESTMENT through concepts on funding and its possible revenue schemes.

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
chapter 5. SYNTHESIS

Youre almost done! This is the phase where you summarize all that has been done in
the book. You may have to go back to your objectives and see if you were able to meet
them or restructure your concepts so that your readers will have a clearer vision of what
you plan to do in your Design 10 (knock on wood!). This chapter will be your LINK to
your translation in your bid for an architectural degree. How about that for a push?!

The discussions to follow may not be new to you for you have been doing this for the
past four, five, or more so years in your stay in the institute. These are the basic contents
of your concept board. Something you should have known now by heart.


Sure, you have established the theories and the concepts youll need for your
proposal, but it wouldnt be enough to just have them and let loose of the unifying
thing in work. Philosophies do this. These are the bases of your ideas for the
proposal, a guiding dictum which gels your proposed work into one, single
composition. There are two types of philosophy. One, coming from a person, living
or not, who may have studied the same topics youre dealing with and defined ideas
appropriate for your study. Thus, you have to quote them and tell your readers so.
And two, it may be YOUR OWN notions for the project. Yes, you can be a
philosopher, why not? And so, you are able to conceive your own thoughts especially
if you were the one who proposed the study. CAUTION: You may be tempted to use
philosophies you already have used for your design plates when you were in your
lower years. Why not? But see to it that it would be applicable for your project youre
doing. Philosophies are NOT FIXED. On the contrary, they should be FLEXIBLE.
Meaning, they must bend to where they should go and reflect the design you would
like to have for your project, and vice versa. AND you must understand them! Form
follows function may be a cute clich but WAKE UP! You CANNOT use it all the
time. Dictums of well-known architects (refer to your Theory of Architectural Design
02) will be a great deal of help for you in doing this part of your thesis.


Nope, you are not going back to your chapter 1 and rewrite the objectives and
goals you have written there, though this may be your take-off point. You could base
your design objectives from the objectives of your thesis. But take note that these are
DESIGN goals and objectives different from the goals and objectives of your
STUDY. The things youll present here are the ones relative to your probable
DESIGN. What do you wish to do with your structures? How would you like the
systems to go? What would you like to achieve at the end of your translation? Hey,
wait! These do not only pertain to the possible appearance of the structures but the
overall objectives of the design as well. In other words, these are more FOCUSED on
the DESIGN aspects of your project. See, perhaps you now realize that there
REALLY IS a difference after all.

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom

Concepts are thoughts concerning the way several elements or characteristics can
be combined into a SINGLE THING. In architecture, a concept also identifies how
various aspects of the requirements for a building can be brought together in a
SPECIFIC thought that DIRECTLY influences the DESIGN and its
CONFIGURATION. This only means that the concepts you will be providing will
somehow wrap up the totality of your design program. Do you still remember the
discussion in the framework? While that framework will be your THRUST, the
Design Concepts will be the BACKBONE of the ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN. And
they should go hand in hand to effectively work together the framework and the

This may be simple for you to understand if you were getting high grades in your
concept boards in your past design subjects. If not, heres a review of your design
concepts. Basically there are five (5) types of concepts in architecture. See if you can
still remember them:

1. Analogy (looking at other things)
Here you identify possible, literal relationships between things. You tend to
look for a desirable characteristic of an object and make this as the model for
your project.

2. Metaphors and Simile
This type of concept also identifies relationships between things. However,
the relationships are abstract rather than literal. You may have to establish
certain patterns of parallel relationships.

3. Essences
The whole program that you have for your thesis, complicated as it is, is
explained in terms of terse, explicit statements. It has to connote insights,
meaning, and your personal accounts for the project. Most of the time, this comes
with a conceptual scenario- a short essay that tie together all the important factors
and ideas that influenced the design solution. It may also be something which
discovers the roots of the issues.

4. Programmatic
This is what you have been doing all the while in your lower design subjects,
where you write the problems, come up with the objectives, state your
philosophies and come up with a concept at the end. In that way you directly
respond to the stated requirements.

5. Ideals
Here you look at the universality of the concept. You view the project as a
universal one something which will be a universal solution for even a general

So, how well did you fare in remembering them? You dont have to use all five
at the same time. You just have to choose which of them fits your thesis.

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom

All done! All you need to do now is check the existing standards applicable to
your thesis for translation. These will comprise your design parameters. You may
also want to call these as Design CONSIDERATIONS. And as the term conveys, you
are to state the things you would have to consider in doing your design. This applies
both to the structures and its immediate environment (both the micro and the macro).
You may have to be guided with legal documents and follow pertinent laws to do
this. Building Orientation, Circulation, Security, Accessibility, and Economy may be
the factors you would be looking at here. But it would not just end in writing these
headings. It would involve an explanation along with a long list of the laws, rules and
orders governing such considerations. Yes, youre right again! This part will be your
DESIGN GUIDELINES which will tell your readers as well the restrictions for your

Having established the guidelines would only mean youre ready to go to your
drawing board and translate this book into ARCHITECTURAL PLANS.

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
chapter 6. TRANSLATION

Dont get too excited. You may have to wait for the next semester to see the contents
of the discussion on this. So good luck! Aim to do chapter 6. You know what we mean.

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom

For this academic year, the theme for the thesis shall be FILIPINO
student-proponent shall have to come up with a thesis which will embody concepts
and design solutions that are locally feasible and globally competitive.

The student can choose any three (3) from the given list of research topics. These
topics should provide adequate foundation for the title/proposal.
a. Green Architecture
b. Tropical Design
c. Sick Building Syndrome
d. Architecture in Response to Natural Phenomena
a. Anthropometrics
b. Ergonomics
c. Proxemics
d. Environment-Behavior Studies
a. Historical Preservation
b. Urban Renewal
c. Social Engineering
d. Filipino Architecture
a. Psychological Effects of Spaces
b. Principles of Scale and Proportion
c. Design of Interior Environments
d. Theories of Territoriality and Defensible Spaces
a. Intelligent Building Design
b. Indigenous Technology
c. Architectural Innovations
d. Interior Architecture
e. High-rise Structures

A schedule of submittals will be provided by the Thesis Advisers to guide the
students in programming their activities with respect to given deadlines.

A copy of the Final Draft of the Thesis Book shall be submitted not later than
5:00 in the afternoon, fourteen (14) days before the Finals Week of the first semester.
Failure to submit the Book on time shall mean automatic disqualification for AR 541-
543D (Architectural Design X).

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
Size of paper: A4 (29.7 x 21.0 cm)
Orientation: Landscape
Language: English
Text Format:
General 12 Times New Roman
Subtitles 14 Times New Roman Bold
Titles 16 Times New Roman Bold
Left 2 inches
Right 2 inches
Top 1 inch
Bottom 1 inch

A uniform pattern for the cover of the Thesis Book must be followed. The cover
shall also be in landscape format using the text font and sizes as indicated in Figure

If the academic year ends in an even numbered year, the cover shall be white
with maroon letters. Thesis books submitted in even numbered years, on the other
hand, shall have maroon cover with silver letters.


The Final Draft of the Thesis Book shall be defended one week before the Finals
Week for the first semester. A Schedule of Thesis Book Defense will be distributed
to the Thesis Classes a week before the first presentation. A copy of the Schedule
will also be posted on a visually accessible bulletin board. This shall be done to
inform the students of their individual schedule and give them adequate time to
prepare for their Defense.

The proponent should come 30 minutes before his/her schedule to defend. Those
who will come 30 minutes after their schedule shall not be allowed to defend
anymore, and, therefore shall get a failing grade for the Defense.

The Thesis Book shall be presented by the proponent in front of a Panel of J urors
using MS PowerPoint. A compact disk containing the presentation shall be submitted
after the deliberation.

Each student shall be given 15 minutes to present the Book. Questions coming
from the J urors may be answered in another 15 minutes. After which the J urors shall
assess the merits of the Book and give their grade for the Defense. A member of the
Thesis Council shall compute the grade. If there are recommendations, these shall be
read by the Adviser who shall also announce whether the Proponent passed or failed
the Oral Defense.

The J ury grade shall comprise 60% of the students final grade for the book while
the Adviser shall give the remaining 40%, which will come from the performance
Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
and submittals of the student during the course subject. Since the grade for the book
comprises 75% of the grade in Ar 551-553D, a failing grade in the Book Defense will
certainly mean automatic disqualification for the next Architectural Design subject
which is Ar 541-542D.

A panel of jurors composed of faculty members from the Department of
Architecture shall deliberate on the merits of the Book. The Panel of J urors shall be
composed of not more than three architects from the Department of Architecture. The
Thesis Council, being the regulating body in this procedure, is excluded from sitting
as members of the panel.

The jurors shall be selected so that the schedule of defense will not be in conflict
with the schedule of their classes and other co-curricular activities. Knowledge
and/or exposure to the respective research topics will be the primary criteria for the
selection of J ury members.

The J urys grade will be based upon a set of criteria which was previously
presented and agreed upon by the Thesis Class. This grade will represent 60% of the
students final grade for the book. Therefore, a failing grade for the book shall also
mean failure in Ar 551-553D and disqualification from the next Architectural Design
subject which is Ar 541-543D.

The grade for the Oral Defense shall be based on the following criteria:

Content 60%
Oral 20%
Graphical 20%

The proponents are strictly required to wear the prescribed school uniform
including his/her identification card during the Book Defense.

Each student shall pay the amount of five hundred pesos (P 500.00) at the
Deans Office for the deliberation of the Book. This amount is broken down into two
scheduled payments:

P 250.00 before the Proposal Clarification
P 250.00 one week before the Book Oral Defense

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom
From Problem Seeking by William Pena

Estimate 1% to 3% of building cost

Refer to required ratio to get number of parking slots. Estimate per slot.

Estimate per linear meter

Estimate 1% to 7% of building cost

Estimate .5% to 2.5% of building cost

Estimate lump sum per unit per type

Estimate 1% to 3% of building cost

Estimate 3% to 5% of building cost

Estimate .5% to 2.5% of building cost

Estimate 1% to 2% of building cost

Estimate lump sum

Estimate pedestrian lighting 1% of building cost; parking lighting lump sum
per car

Architecture Thesis Manual EMCVillanueva.GRLajom


Take a deep breath. Youve come a long way. Take a minute or two to
congratulate yourself for what you have accomplished so far. Actually, you will be
needing all the confidence you can muster as you forge through the next step: stating

Since this is the foundation of all that you will be conceptualizing from hereon,
the Design Proposal should be discussed in the clearest and most coherent manner
possible. Avoid words that may be too technical or too complex or too vague. With
just one look at the Proposal, the reader must have a good idea of what to expect in
the translation.

Aside from this, you must also enumerate the specific functions that your project
will perform and the specific activities that it will house. Refrain from naming
specific spaces though. This should be done in the Programming part. For example,
you can say a venue for the exhibit of native Filipino art but you cannot say
museum. Not yet. Remember: functions and activities only.