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SUBSEA COMPLETION, WORKOVER AND PROCESSING IN NIGERIAN DEEP WATERS

Table of Contents Pages

1.0 Introduction 3

2.0 Subsea Completion – Tool & Equipments 4-8

2.1 The Tubing Hanger (TH) 4-5

2.1.1 Hydraulic TH running tool 4

2.1.2 Orientation adapter joint 4

2.1.3 Completion Riser System 4

2.1.4 Tubing Hanger (TH) elevation check tool 5

2.1.5 TH Installation 5

2.2 Tubing Hanger (TH) Washout Tool 5

2.3 Lower Riser Package (LRP)/Emergency Disconnect Package (EDP) 6

2.4 Subsea Trees 6-8

2.4.1 Subsea Tree Installation Operations 7

2.4.2 Subsea Tree Cap 8

3.0 Workover Types 8

4.0 Subsea processing (SSP) systems 9-10

4.1 Subsea Separation 9

4.1.1 Hydrocarbon/water separation 9

4.1.2 Gas/liquid separation 9

4.1.3 Three-phase separation 9

4.2 Pressure-boosting 9-10

4.3 Water disposal 10

5.0 Conclusion 10

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6.0 Appendixes 11-29

6.1 Pictures & Diagrams of some Completion Equipment 11-18

Figure 6.1.1 11

Figure 6.1.2 12

Figure 6.1.3 13

Figure 6.1.4 13

Figure 6.1.5 14

Figure 6.1.6 14

Figure 6.1.7 15

Figure 6.1.8 16

Figure 6.1.9 17

Figure 6.1.10 18

6.2 Stacked up Completion & Processing Tools/Equipments in running mode 19-29

Figure 6.2.1 19

Figure 6.2.2 20

Figure 6.2.3 21

Figure 6.2.4 22

Figure 6.2.5 23

Figure 6.2.6 24

Figure 6.2.7 25

Figure 6.2.8 26

Figure 6.2.9 27

Figure 6.2.10 28

Figure 6.2.11 29

7.0 References 30

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1.0 Introduction

This report is on Subsea Completion, Workover, and processing in Nigerian Deep Waters, within

the Niger Delta coastal regions.

Nigeria, located in the Western part of Africa is one of the largest oil & Gas producers in Africa and

the Niger Delta coastal region has a greater reserve of the Oil & Gas. In Nigeria, the deepwater

sector still has large opportunities to expand and develop.

Some of the Subsea completion carried out in this region was on dual bore completion System

using a Dual bore subsea production tree and equipments. The tree offers the means by which a

single subsea well can be completed, controlled and produced.

Workover is the performance of one or more of a variety of remedial operations on a producing well

to increase production such as deepening, plugging back, pulling and resetting liners, and squeeze

cementing. It could also mean the action and techniques of reentering the well and repairing the

original completion to restore the well’s productivity.

Subsea processing of the produced oil and/or gas includes de-watering, or separating, the bulk of

the gas from the crude oil and sand particles using technology such as Subsea Multiphase flow

meters, Subsea Pump and compressors, Subsea separation and water reinjection etc.

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2.0 Subsea Completion – Tool & Equipments

The first step in preparing the well for completion is installing a completion guide base

(figure 6.1.1).

2.1 Tubing Hanger (TH)

The TH (Figure 6.1.2) will be oriented and landed on the subsea wellhead provided

there is a landing shoulder, sealing area, and provision to lock the TH to the

wellhead. If no such provision exists in the wellhead, a tubing head with these

features will need to be installed for attaching a blowout preventer stack for pressure

control during completion operations.

Some control dimensions are necessary to set the TH and complete the well.

The following Tools/equipments are needed to install the TH:

2.1.1 Hydraulic TH running tool

This tool locks the work string to the wellhead, via the TH and provides vertical

access to the annulus and production bores as well as maintains hydraulic

control of the downhole safety valves using the control system.

2.1.2 Orientation adapter joint:

This is used to connect the TH and TH running tool to the riser running string

and provide a means of orienting the TH by interfacing with an orientation pin

located directly above the wellhead in the BOP stack.

2.1.3 Completion Riser System (Figure 6.1.4)

This system is used to lower the TH to the wellhead and provide access to the

annulus and production bores.
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2.1.4 TH elevation check tool (Figure 6.1.3)

This is used to verify that the TH is all the way down on its landing shoulder

and oriented properly.

2.1.5 TH Installation

The TH is run on its completion riser running assembly down through the

drilling riser and BOP stack which is landed and locked to the wellhead. The

TH is then tagged out on its landing shoulder with partial string weight. The TH

running assembly is then picked up a short distance so that the orientation pin

engages the helix on the orientation adapter joint and allows the TH and

running assembly to orient to the vertical slot in the adapter joint which is

preset to achieve the desired orientation of the production and annulus bore.

With the orientation pin still extended, the TH is set back down on the landing

shoulder with total string weight which will activate the TH seal assembly. The

TH is then hydraulically locked to the wellhead through the control function in

the TH running tool. An overpull test will establish that the TH is locked to the

wellhead. All downhole equipment is then tested. The TH running tool is

hydraulically unlocked from the TH and the TH running assembly is then pulled

back through the rotary.

2.2 TH Washout Tool (Figure 6.1.5)

This provide a means of cleaning out the upper portion of the wellhead prior to

landing the tree

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2.3 Lower Riser Package (LRP)/Emergency Disconnect Package (EDP)

(Figure 6.1.9 & 6.1.10)

LRP helps in redundant pressure control provided by hydraulically controlled valves

in the production and annulus bores above the tree. The EDP provides the second

primary function which is a means to disconnect from the tree/LRP should the rig

experience excessive wave action and the riser system need to be disconnected from

the well.

2.4 Subsea Tree (Figure 6.1.6)

Subsea Trees provides features including a hydraulic connector at the bottom to lock

the tree to the wellhead, seal pockets or stab sub receptacles in the bottom to

interface with the TH annulus, production and downhole tool connections, a flow line

connection system and hydraulic controls and accessories. Generally, all of the

valves in the tree are hydraulically controlled with manual overrides which are

adapted for actuation by an ROV. During the tree running operation, the valves are

hydraulically controlled from the control umbilical connected to the EDP/LRP. Later in

the operation when the tree cap is installed, the functions will be bridged over to the

control umbilical attached to the completion guide base so that the tree can be

controlled from the production platform location. It can be run with guideline or

guidelineless

Subsea trees could basically be classified as vertical trees (VXT) and horizontal trees

(HXT). It could also be classified as production and water / gas injection trees.

The major differences between VXT and HXT are:

• In a VXT, the master valve is located directly above the TH, while in an HXT

the master valve is in the horizontal run adjacent to the wing valve

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• In a VXT, the TH and downhole tubing are run prior to installing the tree, while

in an HXT the TH is typically landed in the tree, and hence the TH and

downhole tubing can be retrieved and replaced without requiring removal of

the tree. The removal of an HXT normally requires prior removal of the TH and

completion string;

• VXT systems are run on a dual-bore completion riser (or a monobore riser with

bore selector located above the LRP). TH of HXT is run on casing tubular

joints.

2.4.1 Subsea Tree Installation Operations

In preparation for running the tree, the EDP/LRP will be locked to the top of the

tree at the surface in the moon pool. The hydraulic control umbilical is

connected to the top of the EDP. All hydraulics will be tested. The EDP, LRP

and tree will be picked up with the riser handling tool and hung off in the riser

spider. The tree is then lowered down to its required depth by adding riser

joints. The tree is now landed on the wellhead and locked to the wellhead by

activating the hydraulic lock function through the control umbilical to the tree

connector. An overpull is made to verify the connection and usually visual

verification by camera or ROV is vital. Pressure test all applicable connections

and valve functional. The surface joint is now installed bringing the riser

system through the rotary. The surface tree is made up and lowered onto the

top of the surface joint. The wireline plugs can now be pulled from the TH. The

well can now be completed and flow tested. The tree is now shut in

preparation for pulling the EDP/LRP/completion riser system. The surface tree

is disconnected and laid aside. The LRP connector is hydraulically unlocked

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from the tree and with the riser spider installed at the rotary; the

EDP/LRP/completion riser system can be retrieved.

2.4.2 Subsea Tree Cap (Figure 6.1.8)

This is usually installed on the top of the tree to prevent marine growth on the

upper tree connection area and sealing bores, and may be either pressure-

containing or non-pressure-containing. Tree cap is installed using the tree cap

running tool

3.0 Workover Operations

Workover is the performance of one or more of remedial operations on a producing well to

try to increase production. Examples of workover jobs are deepening, plugging back, pulling

and resetting liners, and squeeze cementing.

It also consists of the action and techniques of reentering the well and redoing or repairing

the original completion to restore the well’s productivity.

Some equipment/tools presently available for performing well entry and subsea

interventions include:

• Completion/workover riser systems

• Light well intervention systems

• Seabed equipment intervention systems

• Other intervention techniques, e.g. through-flowline servicing, pigging and

reeled/coiled-tubing intervention in flowlines.

4.0 Subsea processing (SSP) systems
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SSP comprises all separation and pressure-boosting operations that are performed subsea,

whether downhole or on the seabed.

4.1 Subsea Separation

This is used to increase production rates, maximize total recovery, overcome flow

assurance problems and limitations of topside facilities.

4.1.1 Hydrocarbon/water separation

This involves removing most or all of the produced water from the well fluids,

which can either be discharged subsea or re-injected into a suitable formation.

4.1.2 Gas/liquid separation

This allows efficient single-phase pumping of the separated liquids and helps

overcome flow assurance problems, especially hydrate formation and

corrosion.

4.1.3 Three-phase separation

Three-phase subsea separation is also possible. However, there are

significant challenges to obtaining reliable performance of these systems.

4.2 Pressure-boosting

Pressure-boosting (pumping) can be applied downhole or on the seabed, to boost

production above natural flow conditions by adding energy to the system. Some

pressure-boosting (pumping) devices are:

• Submersible pumps

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• Seabed multiphase pumps

• Wet gas compressors

4.3 Water disposal

Produced water is either disposed of to the environment or re-injected into a suitable

formation, consistent with local regulatory requirements.

5.0 Conclusion

Deepwater exploration in this region has been very challenging technically and difficult as a

result of the water depth involved. Also, it has been a very expensive venture.

Subsea Engineering technology (drilling, completion, workover, processing and

abandonment) have been able to give the major producers success in exploring the Oil &

Gas deposits in these difficult reserves in this region. New and innovative technological

advancement in Subsea Engineering technology is progressively coming into the industry

like lighter weight and increased water depth for the Subsea equipments/tools. This will help

access and explore those difficult reserves in this region, which in the past prove difficult to

reach as a result of the water depth involved.

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6.0 Appendixes

6.1 Pictures & Diagrams of some Completion Equipment

Figure 6.1.1: Running Completion Guide Base using the Running Tool

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LOCK DOWN RING
ACTUATOR IN SET DOWNHOLE PRESSURE
POSITION AND TEMPERATURE LINE

ANNULUS
BORE

DOWNHOLE
DOWNHOLE SAFETY PRESSURE
VALVE LINE AND PRODUCTION
TEMPERATURE BORE
LINE
DOWNHOLE SAFETY
TUBING HANGER VALVE LINE
SEAL ASSEMBLY
IN SET POSITION

LOCK DOWN RING
ACTUATOR IN
RUNNING
POSITION
LOCK DOWN
RING
ADJUSTABLE
LOCATOR
RING

PRODUCTION
BORE PLUG
PROFILE

ANNULUS BORE
PLUG PROFILE
INDICATOR
PIN

GROOVED
SHEAR PIN
PRODUCTION BORE TUBING HANGER SEAL
ANNULUS BORE ASSEMBLY
RETAINER RING IN RUNNING
POSITION

METAL TO
METAL SEAL

Figure 6.1.2: Dual Bore Tubing Hanger Assembly

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IMPRESSION BLOCK
4-1/2” IF BOX RETAINER SLEEVE
CONNECTION

RETAINER NUT

IMPRESSION BLOCK
LEAD
ASSEMBLY
IMPRESSION
BLOCK

ORIENTAION LINE
SOCKET SET
SCREW

LANDING JOINT

LANDING HEAD

INDICATOR ROD

ALLIGNMENT KEY

Figure 6.1.3: Orientation Elevation Check Tool

ALLIGNMENT KEY SLOT
RISER BOX
CONNECTION RISER PIN
FOR ANNULUS CONNECTION
BORE FOR PRODUCTION
BORE

RETAINER RING
RETAINER RING

RISER
ANNULUS CLAMP
BORE

PRODUCTION BORE

ALIGNMENT RING

RETAINER RING

RISER PIN RISER BOX
CONNECTION CONNECTION
FOR ANNULUS FOR PRODUCTION
BORE BORE

Figure 6.1.4: Riser Joint

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4-1/2” IF BOX

GUIDE POST FUNNEL ASSEMBLY

LIFTING EYE FLOW BY PARTS RELEASE BOLT

DEBRIS SHIELD

WASHING JETS

RELEASE BOLT SNAP RING

Figure 6.1.5: TH Washout Tool

STAB PLATE
TREE MANDREL

ALIGNMENT PIN
TREE GUIDE FRAME

PRODUCTION SWAP VALVE METHANOL INJECTION LINE

CROSSOVER VALVE ACCUMULATOR
UPPER PRODUCTION
MASTER VALVE
PRODUCTION
WING VALVE
ANNULAR WING VALVE
SSSV CONTROL LINE
VX GASKET TEST CONNECTION
CONNECTION

FLOWLINE

ANODE
FLOWLINE DEBRIS
COVER
DX CONNECTOR
FLOWLINE
CONNECTOR

Figure 6.1.6: Subsea Tree

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ANNULUS BOX
CONNECTION

PRODUCTION
RISER PIN
CONNECTION

ALIGNMENT RING

STANDARD
PRODUCTION
RISER
CONNECTION

ALIGNMENT RING

ANNULUS BORE

RISER CLAMP

PRODUCTION BORE

RADIAL BOLT PIN
CONNECTION

Figure 6.1.7: Stress Joint

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Typical Tree Cap (TC)

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Typical Tree Cap (TC) Running Tool

Tool

Figure 6.1.8: Typical Tree Cap and Running Tool

Figure 6.1.9: Emergency Disconnect Package (EDP)

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Figure 6.1.10: Lower Riser Package (LRP)

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6.2 Stacked up Completion & Processing Tools/Equipments in running mode

ORIENTATION PIN IN
RETRACTED MODE

ORIENTATION ADAPTER JOINT (OAJ)

Figure 6.2.1 Tubing Hanger Tagged with
Orientation Pin Retracted

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ORIENTATION PIN IN ORIENTATION ADAPTER JOINT (OAJ
EXTENDED MODE IN ROTATION MODE

TUBING HANGER

Figure 6.2.2 Orientation Pin Extended,
Tubing Hanger Picked up
While Orientation Joint Rotates

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ORIENTATION PIN FULLY ORIENTATION ADAPTER JOINT (OAJ
STROKED OUT

TUBING HANGER IN FULLY
ORIENTATED MODE

Figure 6.2.3 Orientation Pin Stroked out, with
Tubing Hanger Fully Orientated

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WELLHEAD HOUSING

TUBING HANGER LOCKED TO
WELLHEAD HOUSING

Figure 6.2.4 Lock Tubing Hanger to Wellhead

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TUBING HANGER RUNNING
TOOL UNLOCKED FROM
TUBING HANGER

WELLHEAD HOUSING

TUBING HANGER LOCKED TO
WELLHEAD HOUSING

Figure 6.2.5 Tubing Hanger Running Tool Unlocked from
Tubing Hanger
Figure 2.5

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ORIENTATION PIN IN
EXTENDED MODE

ORIENTATION & ELEVATION
CHECK TOOL

Figure 6.2.6 Orientation & Elevation Check Tool
Landed with Orientation
Figure 2.6 Pin Extended

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EMERGENCY DISCONNECTION
PACKAGE (EDP)

LOWER RISER
PACKAGE (LRP)

TREE

WELLHEAD HOUSING

Figure 6.2.7Figure
Overview
2.7 of Tree Landed
on Wellhead

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TREE

TREE CONNECTOR
LOCKING PROFILE

WELLHEAD HOUSING
LOCKING PROFILE

WELLHEAD HOUSING

Figure 6.2.8 Overview of Tree Locked to
Figure 2.8
Wellhead

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GUIDELINES

EMERGENCY
DISCONNECTION
PACKAGE (EDP)

LOWER RISER
PACKAGE (LRP)

TREE

Figure 6.2.9 Overview of LRP & EDP Assemblies
Unlatched and Retrieved

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GUIDELINES

TREE CAP
RUNNING TOOL

TREE CAP
GUIDE POST

TREE CAP

TREE

Figure 6.2.10 Overview of Tree Cap been run with
Tree Cap Running Tool

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Figure 6.2.11 Subsea Processing Systems Overview

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7.0 References

[1] ISO 13628-1 (2nd Edition, 2005); Petroleum and natural gas industries — Design and

operation of subsea production systems (Part 1: General requirements and

recommendations) [Accessed December, 2009]

[2] ISO 13628-7 (2nd Edition, 2005); Petroleum and natural gas industries — Design and

operation of subsea production systems (Part 7: Completion & Workover Risers) [Accessed

December, 2009]

[3] Dril-Quip Inc (1996). Offshore Drillings & Completions Training Manuals; Pages 253 – 295

[Accessed December, 2009]

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