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1.0 INTRODUCTION

In terms of psychology, therapy provides an opportunity for children to gain control of the situation and the feelings that can help them deal with reality. Therapy helps children to focus and fully committed to the activities. Within my practicum session, I have been assigned to teach Year 5 Bestari.

There are 24 pupils of Year 5 Bestari and after teaching them for several lesson, I managed to identify several pupils who are having problem to cooperate well with their own classmates. Although these few pupils are considered to have average English proficiency level, they are not capable to work within groups and tend to not participating during group activity planned by me.

This arising problem is affecting them indirectly, because many of their classmates are beginning to isolate these selected few due to their incapability to socialize during lesson. To help them overcome this problem, I have planned an hour English lesson that integrates two therapy; Bibliotherapy and Music Therapy.

Bibliotherapy can be briefly defined as usage of literature materials to treat mental, emotional, and nervous disorders. Bibliotherapy also can be interpreted as a process of dynamic interaction between the personality of the reader and literature- interaction which may be utilized for personality assessment, adjustment, and growth. ( Bodart, Ed 225-828). For Music Therapy, it is commonly defined as usage of musical element as a medium to treat any disability shown or developed by children. These musical elements vary from sounds, movement, physical tools and also self- appreciation towards music.

By integrating these therapies into my lesson, it would help these pupils to improve their socializing skill and to build their own self-confidence in working with cooperation in future. Through these therapies, I try to instill any related form of encouragement and motivation to help these few pupils to overcome their social skill disability.

2.0

LESSON PLAN

Daily Lesson Plan English Year Five Class Date Time Enrolment Theme Topic : 5 Bestari :
Daily Lesson Plan
English Year Five
Class
Date
Time
Enrolment
Theme
Topic
: 5 Bestari
: 26 th February 2014
: 9.15 a.m – 10.15 a.m
: 24 pupils
: World of Stories
: Animals and Us
Focused Skill : Reading
Integrated Skills: Listening and Speaking
Content
Standard (s)
: 3.3 Read and understand phrases, sentences, paragraphs and whole texts.
2.5 Talk about the people, places and moral values of the stories heard, read
and
Learning
Standard (s)
viewed in simple language.
: 3.4.3 Read aloud poems and stories clearly and expressively
2.5.2 Talk about actions of people and animals in a story read, heard and
viewed.
Objectives
: By the end of the lesson, pupils will be able to:
i)
ii)
Read and understand simple paragraphs.
(Storyline of The Little Red Hen story)
Talk about things heard, seen, or read.
(Provide responses, talk about animals in the story)
Thinking Skills
: Mind Mapping, Cooperational.
Previous Knowledge: Pupils have learned about animals.
Moral Values
: Love for animals, Kindness, Helpful, Cooperation.
Teaching aids : Video, LCD, Laptop, Story, Big book.

Stage / Phase

 

Teacher’s

Pupils’ activities

Remarks

Time

activities

 

/ Rationale

Pre- Reading

1.

Teacher shows a

1.

Pupils look at the

Teaching aids :

  • 10 minutes

video to pupils.

video shown.

Video

2.

Teacher asks

2.

Pupils give

LCD

questions regarding

responses to

Laptop

the video shown.

questions asked.

e.g. What are the

Skills:

animals that you can

Who is the main

Listening

see in the video?

Speaking

Where can you find these animals?

character?

3.

Teacher draws

mind map based on

pupils’ responses.

 

e.g.

e.g.

While Reading

1.

Teacher reads the

1.

Pupils listen to

Teaching aids:

(Storytelling

story to pupils using

teacher’s reading.

Big book.

/Shared Reading)

big book.

2.

Pupils read aloud

(Story Go Round)

2.

Teacher asks

the story together

Skills:

pupils to read aloud

with guidance.

Reading

  • 20 minutes

the story.

3.

Pupils sit in a big

Listening

3.

Teacher asks

group and listen

pupils to sit in a big

closely.

group.

4.

Pupils read the

4.

Teacher chooses

text if chosen.

a pupil to read few sentences from the

text of the story.

5.

Teacher asks the

chosen pupil to choose the next reader.

Post Reading

1.

Teacher recalls

  • 1. Questions asked

Teaching aids:

20

minutes

story by asking

are based on the

Song

( Song)

pupils questions

storyline.

Laptop

regarding the story

  • 2. Pupils are asked

Speaker

read.

to relate the story

Lyrics

( Moral Values)

with their own

2.

Teacher

experiences in real

encourages pupils to respond by listing out all responses made by pupils.

life.

3.

Teacher plays

  • 3. Song is played to

Meaningful and fun

song through

consolidate pupils’

learning.

speakers.

understanding of the

4.

Teacher displays

story.

song lyrics to pupils.

  • 4. Group

5.

Pupils are divided

cooperation is

into groups and are given time to practice among themselves.

nurtured during this stage.

Closure

1.

In groups, pupils

  • 1. Pupils give

Moral Values

10

minutes

perform the song.

feedback to teacher.

 

2.

Teacher recalls

lesson by instilling

moral values.

3.0

REPORT ON THERAPY

The lesson planned revolves on reading as its focused skill and integrated with listening and speaking skills. There were three stages of a reading lesson; Pre-Reading, While Reading and Post-Reading. Each stage of lesson was planned carefully to cater to ease the problem faced by few selected pupils who are having trouble working within group of people in Year 5 Bestari. There were two main therapy used as a reference while planning this lesson in order to help those problematic pupils encounter and improve their social skills. Bibliotherapy was used during Pre-reading and While Reading stage while Music therapy was integrated in Post-Reading stage of the lesson.

In planning an integrated lesson plan for problematic pupils, the three steps that the reader goes through to benefit from a bibliotheraputic process that should be considered are: ( Bodart, Ed 225-828).

o

Identification - the reader associates himself or herself with a character or

o

situation in a book. Catharsis - the reader shares the feelings and motivations of the book’s

o

character. Insight - the reader realizes his or her situation can be dealt with more effectively by imitating or adapting the ideas from the reading material.

Furthermore, bibliotherapy can assist children in overcoming problems by having them read stories about characters who have successfully resolved a dilemma similar to their own. One of the underlying premises of bibliotherapy is that interpreting stories is an ever-changing process to which children bring their own needs and experiences. Since students often have difficulty identifying and communicating their feelings, stories can serve to facilitate open discussion and self-understanding. If children become emotionally involved with literary characters, they are more able to verbalize, act out, or draw pictures describing their innermost thoughts.

Thus, for my lesson, I decided to choose the story “The Little Red Hen” as my main teaching material.

Thus, for my lesson, I decided to choose the story “The Little Red Hen” as my

Cover of the book

Since this story is mainly about cooperation and its advantages, it was suitable to demonstrate the insight of the story to those problematic pupils. It is known that in order to apply any related therapy to overcome problem, a teacher should be able to ascertain the true nature of a student or a student’s needs and select a book that meets those needs. For this case, this story was considered most suitable.

Pre-Reading Stage

For Pre-Reading stage, I chose to show a video clip to my class. This was done to attract their attention and interest to lesson. The video clip used showed variety of

animals in the wild. Besides attracting pupils’ attention, the video clip used also

managed to activate pupils’ prior knowledge about animals. They were very interested and managed to come up with plenty of responses to my enquiries regarding the video. The target pupils also seemed to focus and get involved during Pre-reading stage. They

were seen communicating with their classmates, talking about the video shown.

While-Reading stage

While-Reading stage of the lesson was filled with bibliotherapy-related activities. This stage is crucial for my lesson because during this stage, pupils are introduced to the book and story. To integrate bibliotherapy in a lesson, there are many characteristic that should be taken into account. One of them is pupils are encouraged to listen to or read a book or any form of literature. So, I decided to go with Shared Reading activity, where I use a big book of The Little Red Hen and conducted a storytelling session. This activity can be related to group bibliotherapy, where it allows interaction among the pupils who share common needs or interest.

Group bibliotherapy also provides security to pupils who feel uncomfortable if singled out for attention. This is suitable to be done because the targeted pupils should never be pointed out / singled out during lesson.

Group bibliotherapy also allows for sharing of experiences which serves to lessen anxieties, promote feelings of belonging, and improve self-concept, much different from individual bibliotherapy that focused more on offering pupils the security of knowing that someone cares enough to listen and freedom to express themselves in a one-to-one situation. I chose to conduct a storytelling session because it helps in leading pupils to appreciate others who are in some way different, thus aiding in social skills development.

During storytelling session, I tried to give more attention to the target pupils by asking them to sit in the front row. They managed to behave and cooperate with me well. However, as the storytelling session went by, one of them was sitting quietly and not giving any effort to cooperate with others. Thus, I stopped and started to ask questions to random pupils. All of the pupils, including the target ones, started to pay more attention to the story told.

Since bibliotherapy should include discussion to make it as efficient as it can be, I started to pause during my reading and asking questions that probe into what happened

in the book in order to bring about a shift in feeling and relationship, thus making it easier for pupils to identify with the characters situations. The target pupils were asked and they managed to come up with reasonable responses.

Besides asking questions, I also attempted to get the students to transfer the situation in the book to real life situation by providing another example of cooperation to pupils, especially the target ones. They were very encouraged and seemed to have a good understanding of the story.

When pupils are asked to read aloud the texts in the book and choose the next reader among themselves, most of the pupils managed and eager to participate for the activities. As expected, few of the target pupils were not interested to get involved because they did not want to choose the nest reader. As mentioned, bibliotherapy may be limited by several inevitable factors such as the manner in which the book is presented to the pupil, the readiness of the pupil to see himself in a mirror, the therapist’s skill in directing the process through all the steps, especially the follow-up activities and the degree and nature of pupils’ problem.

To overcome this problem, a teacher should be able to encourage and motivate problematic pupils by demonstrating and sharing their thoughts about the activity. After a little intervention and demonstration, the target pupils were starting to open up and get involved during lesson. Other pupils were also encouraged to discuss and provide assistance to them, increasing their self-confidence and ability to socialize.

From this session, I can justify that bibliotheraputic session can improve pupils affective ability by promoting empathy and producing personal and social adjustment. It also helps in developing positive self-image for pupils and relieving their emotional pressures. For the target pupils, my main goal was to promote group cooperation within them and first thing that they should be able to project are tolerance, respect, and acceptance of others. For my lesson, it was shown and achieved thoroughly.

Post- Reading Stage

Implementation and integration of Music Therapy was done during this stage. This is where pupils will be tested to consolidate their understanding of the lesson

learned. For this lesson, I decided to go with a song performance of “The Little Red

Hen”. Music therapy is one of the therapies that can be integrated into lessons to bring out the best benefit and overcome pupilsproblem. All children can be helped to learn to enjoy and become involved in music to some extent.

Music therapy can also be of inestimable value for children who have difficulties in hearing, seeing, moving, thinking or responding. A single instrument of musical element can possess qualities of sound and tone irresistible enough to reach a child in a direct, uncomplicated manner. Children who experience severe obstacles in forming relationships with other children, adults and their environment can achieve security and joy in making music.

There are several reasons that I considered before integrating this therapy into my lesson, such as music captivates and maintains, stimulates and utilizes many parts of the brain and is easily adapted to, and can be reflective of, a person's abilities.

Music therapy can also help pupils on their journey of self-growth and understanding. Music is effective because it is a nonverbal form of communication, it is a natural reinforcement, it is immediate in time, provides motivation for practicing nonmusical skills, and is successful because almost everyone responds positively to at least some kind of music.

For my lesson, I selected a related song to be used as a medium for music therapy. This was a contextualized learning because pupils managed to make associations and connections from book and story learned in earlier stages. During the lesson, all the target pupils were divided into different groups to promote more socializing opportunities and create a sound environment for them.

At first, they were not willing to cooperate well during activity. But after some time communicating with the teacher and other pupils, the target pupils were finally

cooperating and managed to relate the song with their own situation. This enables them to gain more confidence and lessen their fear of making any mistakes during socializing.

Music therapy proved to be a very reliable and successful form of therapy to be conducted during lesson. Music therapy allows pupils to appreciate more and making lesson to become more meaningful and fun. During my lesson, pupils were having so much fun during the integration of music therapy through song. They were practicing and communicating with each other, including the target pupils.

Music therapy can also be use to work towards a number of non-musical goals including improving communication skills, decreasing inappropriate behavior, improving academic and motor skills, increasing attention span, strengthening social and leisure skills, pain management and stress reduction. This wide range of rehabilitation makes music therapy as one of the effective therapy to be used as a guidance and counseling tool.

4.0

REFERENCES

BOOK / INTERNET / JOURNAL

Treating

Children

and

Adolescent

Aggression

Through

Bibliotherapy,

Shechtman, Z. 2009, XV, 239 p., Hardcover.

 

Abdullah, M.H. (2002). Bibliotherapy. Bloomington, IN: ERIC CleaningHouse

Brewster, L. (2007). The Reading Remedy: Bibliotherapy in practice. Aplis, 21(4),

172-177.

5.0

APPENDICES