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Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa

Overview
of Mobile Populations
in the Horn of Africa
Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia
Dr. Saumya Anand UNICEF ESARO
June 2014
This study is a result of a thorough consultative process with key stakeholders working on mixed migration
in the Horn of Africa. This study aims to synthesize the existing body of knowledge on mobile population
in the region and identify critical research gaps to inform development of fexible immunization strategies
for migrants, nomads and pastoralist groups. The desk review elucidates classifcation, taxonomy and
characteristics of migrants and mixed migration process; their motivation – “push” and “pull” factors,
movement patterns, periodicity, countries and areas of origin, migration routes and hubs, transit sites,
mode of transport, destinations, and length of journeys. This study consolidates existing resources and
looks at the mixed migration through the prism of the polio immunization programme. The fndings of this
study may also inform other health and development programmes in the Horn of Africa.
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Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
Executive Summary
The issue of mixed-migration in the Horn of Africa is rather complex. Yet there are a
signifcant amount of resources and practical knowledge already available in various
human and animal health programmes that can inform polio eradication partners.
These resources include literature and information in the form of maps, studies,
publications and data on four major mixed-migration routes in the Horn of Africa
(Eastern, Southern, Western, and Northern).
The breadth and accuracy of information varies signifcantly from route to route.
Fairly robust assessments are available for migrants going from the Horn of Africa
to Yemen, but less so for those going to Europe. Similarly, information resources
do exist about the Western and Southern migration routes, including publications
from IOM and Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat. For migration resulting from the
“push” factors – the websites of UNHCR, IOM, OCHA, and UNOSAT regularly provide
rich and updated data on asylum seekers, refugees and IDPs that could be used for
planning. A number of studies have been found on health status and service delivery
to most of the migrant groups.
Similarly, there are numerous publications, academic papers and web resources on
pastoralists in the Horn of Africa. However, the information on pastoralists remain
fragmented and it is diffcult to assess the current and updated status of pastoralist
clans, their mobility patterns, their numbers etc. In fact, very little information could
be found on the anthropological, socio-cultural and behavioral aspects of pastoralist
clans with regards to access and acceptability of health services such as immunization.
This desk review aims to synthesize an existing body of knowledge and taxonomy of
mobile / pastoralist populations in the Horn of Africa that are critical for polio eradication
efforts in the region. The fndings of this report were validated by group consultations
of regional experts from IOM, UNHCR, FAO, USAID, RMMS, Red Cross, WHO, and
UNICEF, concerned with mobile populations in the Horn of Africa.
There are a number of practical recommendations for reaching migrants and
pastoralists with immunization services. First, lists of refugee camps, IDP settlements,
known transit hubs and border crossings, as well as pastoralists’ settlements and
routes that are already available with different stakeholders, must be urgently compiled
at country level. Micro plans should then be validated against this information to
ensure the inclusion of all possible transit sites and settlements. Furthermore, periodic
meetings need to be planned for keeping micro plans updated and to review the
coverage data for corrective action. Along the same lines, research gaps, elucidating
specifc pastoralist clans, their movement and way of life, must be conducted at the
country level to inform the programme. Additionally, support of information-sharing
platforms and engagements across the countries is of utmost importance.
ii
This desk review and regional consultation of experts, led by UNICEF ESARO on behalf
of GPEI partners, attempted to provide technical support and guide implementers in
Somalia, Kenya, and Ethiopia in designing viable strategies to reach all children on
the move with polio vaccination. The progress of this initiative will be further reviewed
during the next TAG meeting in August 2014 in Amman, Jordan.
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Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements iv
Background 1
Terms of Reference 2
Methodology 3
Terms and Defnitions 4
Overview of Mixed Migration 9
Migration due to “Pull” Factors 11
Migration due to “Push” Factors 21
Health Risks and Services 30
Pastoralists of Sub-Saharan Africa 32
Major Pastoralists Clusters in Horn of Africa 35
The Pastoralists in Somalia 39
The Pastoralists in Ethiopia 41
The Pastoralists in Kenya 44
Health Status and Service Delivery to Pastoralists 48
Regional Consultation Meeting of Experts 52
Recommendations 55
References 57
Agenda 61
List of Participants 62
iv
Acknowledgements
I would like to express my profound gratitude for Nicole Deutsch and Brigitte Toure to
give me the opportunity to work on this study. Special thanks to Rustam Haydarov,
who outlined the framework and provided important guidance on the study.
Sincere appreciation goes to Louis-Georges Arsenault, David Mcloughlin and
Dr. Anisur Rahman Siddique who permitted and encouraged me for taking up this
assignment and released me from India Country Offce to work on this challenge in
Kenya.
I am indebted to Dr. Sam Okiror, Dr. Subroto Mukherjee, Dr. Victoria Gammino for
providing the publications, resource persons and links to so many knowledgeable
experts working in the areas of mobile populations and health service delivery.
Many thanks to all the participants and stakeholders who gave me time for discussions,
valuable resources and information for this study. All useful outcomes of this work are
a result of contribution of various partners working on migration and allied services.
Special thanks goes to Dr. Cyprien Biaou for his active participation in providing
relevant information and insights into the vaccination of livestock in Pastoralists areas
of Somalia.
Last but not least, I would like to express my appreciation to all those who contributed
to this study in so many ways that I cannot document them all.
Dr. Saumya Anand
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Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
Background
In May 2013, the Horn of Africa which had been polio-free for several years, suffered
from an importation of wild polio virus that frst affected South-Central zone of Somalia
and then rapidly spread to the neighboring regions of Kenya and Ethiopia. As of June
5, 2014, there have been a total 219 cases in the region with 195 cases reported in
Somalia, 14 cases in Kenya, and 10 cases in Ethiopia since the start of the outbreak
in May 2013. Other Horn of Africa countries - Djibouti, Eritrea, South Sudan, Uganda,
and Yemen remain at substantial risk of importation. Massive population movement
throughout the region complicates the matter.
Since the start of the outbreak, there have been well over a dozen supplementary
immunization activities conducted across the Horn of Africa region, targeting over 34
million children and adults repeatedly with OPV. The immunization campaign schedule
has been particularly aggressive in Somalia, Kenya, and Ethiopia. To maintain the
intensity of the response in 2014, twelve SIAs have been planned for Somalia,
and eight each for Kenya and Ethiopia respectively. Additional SIA rounds may be
scheduled in the second half of 2014 as the epidemiological situation dictates.
Reaching mobile populations with vaccination, including migrants, pastoralists, IDPs,
and to the lesser extent refugees, has been an enormous challenge. While the macro
picture of the population movement across the Horn of Africa had been known and
was informed by the numerous partners, the programme is struggling to establish a
better understanding of what these mobile groups are, what is their mode, scope,
geography, and seasonality of travel; and lastly, what is the best way to reach them
during and between SIAs.
Recommendations from the last Horn of Africa TAG meeting held in February
2014, included the following: “develop and implement specific flexible plans for
vaccination, communication and surveillance in mobile population with focus
on pastoralists/nomadic community. UNICEF/WHO ROs to facilitate exchange
of good practices, strategies and planning guidelines. The country teams are
encouraged to use available sources of information (e.g., RMMS, IOM, UNHCR,
etc.) to identify, map and access this community and vaccinate.”
On behalf of polio eradication partners in the Horn of Africa, UNICEF ESARO was
requested to take the lead to research, synthesize, and explore the available body
of knowledge on the subject matter, elucidate gaps, and identify practical steps
to support implementing partners in Somalia, Kenya, and Ethiopia to inform the
development of fexible immunization strategies to reach mobile populations. This
review is a collective effort of polio eradication and other development partners in the
Horn of Africa region that will further translate into country-based mobile population
operational research and fexible immunization strategies.
2
Terms of Reference
At the regional (Horn of Africa) level, this desk review and group consultation of
experts was aimed to:
• Identify and research existing bodies of literature and resources available on mobile
populations in the Horn of Africa, including resources from the Regional Mixed
Migration Secretariat, UNHCR, IOM, FAO, USAID, Danish Refugee Council, and
other organizations.
• Synthesize the existing body of knowledge on taxonomy of mobile populations in the
Horn of Africa, their movement patterns, seasonality, scope of migration; specifcally,
motivations for migration (push and pull factors), characteristics of migrant groups
(origin, clans, age and gender composition, i.e. travelling with children or not, health
status/access to services, ethnic groups, cultural values), country/area of origin or
settlement, migration routes and hubs /transit sites (including border crossings),
mode of transport, single or mass movement, destinations, stop overs, and length
of journeys and other information that may be available.
• Identify critical research gaps (scope and magnitude) to inform the development of
fexible immunization strategies to reach mobile populations. Suggest means to fll
these gaps to elucidate critical knowledge about mobile populations, including a
terms of reference for formative research or additional desk review.
• Suggest a regional framework to address the issue of mobile population
immunization during and between SIAs.
At country level (Kenya, Somalia, and Ethiopia):
• Liaison with country offces to identify and document their needs in research and
mapping of mobile populations to develop fexible immunization strategies.
• Review polio SIA mobile population strategies and other background documents
for technical rigor, coherence and strategic approach (in those countries where
such strategies exist).
• Identify and suggest means to fll existing research gaps at the country level to
inform the development of comprehensive immunization strategies to reach mobile
populations.
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Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
Methodology
• Desk and literature review of available publications
• Inception meeting with the key stakeholders on the approach and methodology
• Solicitation and review of additional material, publications and links to web resources
• Bilateral meetings with major stakeholders and experts including RMMS, FAO,
UNHCR, IOM, other migration experts, etc.
• Interview and consultations with country teams in Kenya, Somalia, and Ethiopia
• Filling gaps with web search for additional resources
• Multilateral regional consultation meeting of experts to inform and validate fndings
• Report writing based on the fndings, discussions, presentations.
4
Technical Terms
and Defnitions
During the initial phase of the review, it became apparent that most of the
stakeholders interviewed had dissimilar understandings of the definitions of
relevant terms. The definitions provided below, were obtained largely from the
websites and publications of the RMMS, IOM & UNHCR to foster a common
understanding based on the scope of this review. For definitions regarding
Nomadism and Pastoralists, the sources and definitions are given in the references
in the footnotes.
• The terms asylum-seeker and refugee are often confused: an asylum-seeker
1

is someone who says he or she is a refugee, but whose claim has not yet
been definitively evaluated. The practice of granting asylum to people fleeing
persecution in foreign lands is one of the earliest hallmarks of civilization.
• A refugee
2
is a person who is outside their home country because they have
suffered (or feared) persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, political
opinion, or because they are a member of a persecuted ‘social group’ or because
they are fleeing a war. Such a person may be called an ‘asylum seeker’ until
recognized by the state where they make a claim.
• Internally displaced persons (IDPs)
3
are among the world’s most vulnerable
people. Unlike refugees, IDPs have not crossed an international border to find
sanctuary but have remained inside their home countries. Even if they have fled for
similar reasons as refugees (armed conflict, generalized violence, human rights
violations), IDPs legally remain under the protection of their own government,
even though that government might be the cause of their flight. As citizens, they
retain all of their rights and protection under both human rights and international
humanitarian law.
• Returnees
4
: For many people forced from their homes, a voluntary return home
in safety and dignity marks the successful end to the trauma.
• An Immigrant
5
is an individual who leaves one’s country to settle in another,
whereas refugees are defined as persons, who move out of one’s country due
to restriction or danger to their lives.
1 http://unhcragencies.weebly.com/who-we-help.html
2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refugee
3 http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49c3646c146.html
4 http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49c3646c1ca.html
5 http://www.diffen.com/difference/Immigrant_vs_Refugee
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Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
Difference
5
Immigrant Refugees
Definition An immigrant is someone
from a foreign country who
relocates to live in another
country. They may/may not
be citizens.
Refugees move out of fear
or necessity. E.g.to flee
persecution, or as their homes
have been destroyed in a natural
disaster.
Status Immigrants are subject to
the laws of their adopted
country. They may only
come if they have work or a
place to live.
Refugees have to move if
they are to save their lives or
preserve their freedom. They
have no protection from their
own state
Reason for
relocation
Immigrants are usually driven
by economic factors, or they
want to be close to family.
Refugees are forced to relocate
for reasons such as fear of
persecution due to war, religion
or political opinion.
Phenomenon natural in population ecology under some kind of coercion or
pressure
• Statelessness
6
is the condition of an individual who is not considered as a
national by any state.
• Migrants choose to move in order to improve the future prospects of themselves
and their families.
• Unaccompanied minors and separated children
7
and other vulnerable
persons on the move: Migrant children without protection or assistance, in a
state of acute vulnerability.
• Pastoralism
8
: Encompassing both those who earn part of their living from
livestock and livestock products, and those for whom livestock does not provide
the main source of income, but who remain connected to a pastoralist lifestyle.
This lifestyle combines a dependence on livestock with social structures and
traditional practices, specific beliefs and institutions, sets of laws and customs.
• Pastoral production systems
9
are those “in which at least 50 percent of
the gross incomes of households (i.e. the value of market production and the
6 http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49c3646c155.html
7 www.regionalmms.org/fleadmin/content/rmms_publications/Going_West_migration_trends_Libya___Europe_
RMMS.pdf
8 HPG Report: Pastoralism demographics, settlement and service provision in the Horn and East Africa, Oxfam
GB in Kenya
9 Pastoralism and Land: Land Tenure, Administration and Use in Pastoral Areas of Ethiopia, A joint publication by
Pastoralist Forum Ethiopia & International Institute of Rural Reconstruction
6
estimated value of subsistence production consumed by households) come
from pastoralism or its related activities, or else, where more than 15 percent
of households’ food energy consumption involves the milk or dairy products
they produce”. The global definition above reflects the characteristics of most
Ethiopian pastoralists.
• Pastoralist societies
10
are those that have disproportionate subsistence
emphasis on herding domesticated livestock
• Types of pastoralists
11

■ Exclusive pastoralism--means that everyone moves with the herds.
■ Transhumant--some people move, some people stay behind (Samburu
practice both of these).
■ Agro-pastoralism--people may practice some agriculture, but still place their
heaviest emphasis on rearing livestock.
• Nomad
12
is a person with no settled home, who moves from place to place as a
way of obtaining food, finding pasture for livestock, or otherwise making a living.
E.g. Gadia Lohar are nomads in India but are not pastoralists
• Push factors
13
are those in their old place which force people to move. For
example, there may be civil wars or wars in general in the country, but political
or religious oppression, climate changes, lack of jobs or simply poverty are all
important push factors.
• Pull factors
14
are factors in the target country which encourage people to move;
these include peace and safety, a chance of a better job, better education, social
security, a better standard of living in general as well as political and religious
freedom
10 http://www.des.ucdavis.edu/faculty/Richerson/BooksOnline/He5-95.pdf
11 http://homepages.wmich.edu/~bstraigh/AN120/AN120visuals/Economy.htm
12 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nomad
13 http://publications.iom.int/bookstore/free/An%20Analysis%20of%20Migration%20Health%20in%20Kenya.pdf
14 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forced_migration
Pastoralists
Exclusive
Pastoralists
Transhumant
Pastoralists
Agro-Pastoralists
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Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
• Forced Migration
14
: refers to the coerced movement of a person or persons
away from their home or home region. It often connotes violent coercion, and
is used interchangeably with the terms “displacement” or forced displacement.
Due to conflicts and natural disasters and resulting in IDPs & Refugee outflows
• Irregular Migration
15
: Due to poverty & reduction in livelihood options, and
linked to human trafficking and smuggling
• Traditional & Cross Border Migration
16
: Linked to nomadism and cross border
movement. It is mainly a survival strategy such as pastoralists looking for pasture
and cross border trade abroad and within the region.
• Mixed migration
17
: The use of one migration route by several different groups
of migrants including asylum seekers, economic migrants, victims of trafficking
and smuggling.
• People smuggling
18
(also called human smuggling) is “the facilitation,
transportation, attempted transportation or illegal entry of a person or persons
across an international border, in violation of one or more countries’ laws, either
clandestinely or through deception, such as the use of fraudulent documents”.
■ The term is understood as and often used interchangeably with migrant
smuggling, which is defined by the United Nations Convention against
Transnational Organized Crime as “...the procurement, in order to obtain,
directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit, of the illegal
entry of a person into a state party of which the person is not a national”.
■ The practice of people smuggling has seen a rise over the past few decades
and today now accounts for a significant portion of illegal immigration
in countries around the world. People smuggling generally takes place
with the consent of the person or persons being smuggled, and common
reasons for individuals seeking to be smuggled include employment and
economic opportunity, personal and/or familial betterment, and escape
from persecution or conflict.
• Unlike human traffcking
18
, people smuggling is characterized by the consent
between customer and smuggler - a contractual agreement that typically
terminates upon arrival in the destination location.
15 http://ronairobi.iom.int/kenya
16 http://kenya.iom.int/our-work/programmes/mida/item/39-kenya
17 http://www.iom.int/cms/en/sites/iom/home/about-migration/key-migration-terms-1.html
18 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People_smuggling
8
Resources:
1. Pastoralism in Africa: Past, Present and Future edited by Michael Bollig, Michael
Schnegg, Hans-Peter Wotzka
2. Pastoralists Under Pressure, 1999, Roger Blench
3. http://www.des.ucdavis.edu/faculty/Richerson/BooksOnline/He5-95.pdf
4. http://homepages.wmich.edu/~bstraigh/AN120/AN120visuals/Economy.htm
5. http://pastoral i sm-cl i mate-change-pol i cy.com/2013/09/24/nomadi c-
pastoralism-a-tentative-defnition/
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Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
“The importance of understanding movement through the lens
of mixed migration is that it captures movement that is invisible
and clandestine as well as movement of populations that are
more visible and countable.”
Christopher Horwood,
Coordinator,
Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat
Overview of
Mixed Migration
The scope of this review in the context of health service delivery in the Horn of Africa
(HOA), necessitates the focus on the person instead of the process or concept
of migration. Though the defnitions have been used from a variety of sources for
wider perspectives and to understand the terms better, the document itself refers to
the person rather than the process e.g. migrants and asylum seekers or refugees,
pastoralists etc. instead of the process of migration.
Mobile Populations
International
migrants
(economic usually
labor migration)
Exclusive:
Dependent
solely on
sale of
dairy, animal
products, no
farming
Trans-
humant
Old stay
home Young
move with
split herd &
return for
farming
Agro-
pastoralist
own land,
farm under
favourable
conditions &
small herd
Legal
migrants
Refugees
seeks asylum
as feeing
persecution
from foreign
land
Remaining
within their
country,
displaced
due to
confict,
violence,
foods etc.
Not
considered
as a national
by any state
Asylum
seekers:
claims
refugee
status but
not verifed
Religious
congregation,
Rural-Urban
migration due
to Economic
or other
reasons like
education or
social reasons
Illegal
migrants
Nomadic Pastoralists
disproportionate
subsistence emphasis
on herding domesticated
livestock & nomadic
lifestyle
Internal
migrants
Mainly Push factors
Asylum
Seekers &
Refugees
Internally
Displaced
People
(IDPs)
Stateless
People
Periodic Multi-factorial Mainly Pull factors
10
The broad classifcation of migration due to pull factors, push factors and multifactorial
had been used to focus attention on the basic drive for population movement. It
segregates the people who “wanted” to migrate in contrast to those who were “forced”
to move out of their areas. Nomadic pastoralists normally have a periodic movement
pattern limited to their clan/sub clan areas, infuenced by availability of water, feld
resources and clan dynamics in that order; but external factors like confict, violence,
drought and famine and encroachment into their grazing lands often change the
normal patterns of their movement, which are certainly not limited by international
boundaries deemed notional by their tribal culture.
Examples of these push & pull factors affecting migration
Economic:
• Widening fnancial disparity and the growing need for young and relatively cheap
labor drives people away in search of employment;
• Inequitable distribution of resources encourages people to search for equality and
wealth elsewhere;
• Work requirements often necessitate travel for military offcials, tradesmen, and
transport workers;
• Kenya is a transit country for goods fowing to its landlocked neighbors, thus large
numbers of mobile populations saturate its road and water transport corridors.
Socio-cultural:
• Poor schooling, social services, health care, family reunifcation and protection
pushes people to move in search of new locales with improved facilities;
• Insuffcient family support structures encourage individuals to migrate.
Natural, environmental and seasonality:
• Climate pushes pastoralists and cattle rustlers to move seasonally;
• Rural to urban migration can, in part, be attributed to the scarcity; of natural
resources; collapsing and contracting industries force people to move in search of
a new trade;
• Natural disasters push those unable to cope or survive into safer locales or
displacement camps;
• Outbreaks of disease compel people to move into non-susceptible regions.
Socio-political environment:
• Ongoing confict in Somalia and Sudan and economic disparity in Ethiopia has
resulted in a large number of migrants crossing Kenya’s borders.
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Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
Migration due to
“Pull” Factors
Migration in the context the of Horn of Africa corresponds largely to three or four
major international migration routes in addition to internal migration within each
country. International migration is described in most publications by organizations
that are actively working in this feld like RMMS and IOM. In addition to the eastwards
migration across the Gulf of Aden into Yemen and onwards either towards Saudi
Arabia, UAE or Oman, a southern route towards the Republic of South Africa (RSA)
has considerable mixed migration. The sea crossing in the Gulf of Aden Migration
Route
19
is usually from Obock in Djibouti or Bosasso in Puntland in overcrowded
boats are under arduous conditions.
“Migrants voluntarily register in our Migration Response Centers
and seek services when they face problems. These registered
migrants are only the tip of the iceberg. The migration fows are
much larger among the people that do not seek support of IOM.”
Craig Murphy,
Project Coordinator on Mixed Migration,
International Organization for Migration
19 Source: http://kenya.iom.int/about-iom/iom-kenya-strategic-focus
12
Source: http://kenya.iom.int/about-iom/iom-kenya-strategic-focus
Major International Migration Routes
MOROCCO
ALGERIA
TUNISIA
LIBYA
EGYPT
CHAD
NIGER
MALI
MAURITANIA
GUINEA
NIGERIA
CAMEROON
GABON
CONGO
DRC
RWANDA
UGANDA
KENYA
ZANZIBAR
MALAWI
East African Migration Route
Gulf of Aden Migration Route
South African Migration Route
ZAMBIA
ANGOLA
NAMIBIA
BOTSWANA
LESOTHO
SWAZILAND
ZIMBABWE
MOZAMBIQUE
SOUTH
AFRICA
SOMALIA
ETHIOPIA
SUDAN
ERITREA
DJIBOUTI
BURKINA
FASO
13
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
The South African Migration Route
19
includes both land and sea routes, either
separately, or a mixture of these routes, depending on the circumstances. Both
Somalis and Ethiopians pass through Nairobi in Kenya for the southern land route.
Further, they pass through Tanzania to RSA, either through Mozambique or Zambia
& Zimbabwe. The sea route from Somalia begins in Mogadishu, passing through
Mombasa, Dar-Es-Salam fnally
20
ending in Mtwara from where land route is usually
taken to enter RSA.
20 Source: OCHA_ROSA_Humanitarian_Bulletin_Jan_2014
INDIAN OCEAN
Mo:ambique Channel
MOZAMBÌQUE

Narpu|a
Harare
Lusaka
Dodoma
Maputo
KigaIi
Maseru
Moroni
KampaIa
Nairobi
Victoria
LiIongwe
Djibouti
Gaborone
Mogadishu
Bujumbura
Addis-Ababa
Antananarivo
Mbabane
Pretoria
Juoa
Tele
Targa
Voeya
8e|ra
Pa|ra
Ndo|a Peroa
0edza
0u|W|
VWarga
K|lelo
lr|rga
V||ur|
3|rar|
VWarza
3e||ra
Kar|oa
VlWara
3orgWe
Voya|e
Vereoa
laWassa
0aroe|a
Nararga
3||orge
Cr|l|pa Karorga
0za|e|a
Vpuurgu
Voroasa
Vardera
Nyrugusu
8|arlyre
Vacr|rga
Ncrurga
Cr|rurdu
Cr|p|rga
Voc|rooa
8agaroyo
K|sraayo
3arya Juu
Torgogara
Luouroasr|
3oulr K|vu
N|rolo|ola
N|rala 8ay
8e|lor|dge
Nyaraparda
0ororgosa
Vayu|Wayu|Wa
0ar es 3a|aar
v|clor|a Fa||s
Nyuroa ya Vurgu
Varalare
Ne|spru|l
Vorogoro
Vucr|rga/KarWa|a
ZAMBÌA
SOUTH AFRÌCA
KENYA
ETHÌOPÌA
MOZAMBÌQUE
DEMOCRATÌC REPUBLÌC
OF THE CONGO
SOMALÌA
BOTSWANA
MADAGASCAR
SOUTH SUDAN
ZÌMBABWE
UGANDA
CAR
TANZANÌA
MALAWÌ
LESOTHO
BURUNDÌ
RWANDA
SUDAN
SWAZÌLAND
ABYEÌ
ÌLEMÌ TRÌANGLE
COMOROS
SEYCHELLES
Legend
Capital Cities
Place
Transit Locations

Refugee Camps
Refugee Reception Centres
GeneraI Migration Routes
Land Routes
Sea Routes
Country Boundaries
Migration Flows SOUTH-EAST AFRICA
The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the UN
Creation date: 14 Jan 2014 Map No: 361v02 Sources: UNCS, ÌOM, OCHA Feedback: ocharosa@un.org www.unocha.org/rosa
50
km
www.reliefweb.int http://rosa.humanitarianresponse.info
Data generalised by OCHA ROSA based on maps from the IOM (International Organization for Migration) report 'Health Vulnerabilities Study of Mixed
Migration Flows from the East and Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes Region to Southern Africa, 2013'. This information is based on a preliminary study
commissioned by IOM and specific observations may have changed in the interval, which itself highlights the dynamic nature of mixed migration flows.
F
r
o
m

K
in
s
h
a
s
a
-
C
o
n
g
o

/

D
R
C
(International Flight Routes from Dar Es Salaam,
Addis Ababa and Nairobi, to Maputo in Mozambique.)
14
“Population movement is often happening illegally. Thus, this
data is not in the public domain, and there is no reason why
it would be. Unless there are investments done to track it, it
would not be possible to have precise estimates.”
Christopher Horwood,
Coordinator,
Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat
15
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
Nairobi
Addis
Ababa
Dadaab
Kakuma
Dollo Ado
Gaalkacyo
Hargeysa
Sana`a
Kassala
Shagarab
Moyale
Capital
Main town or village
Refugee camp
Movement on land
Movement by sea
Member oqency doto inventory (2-4 poqes mox)
5oqqesteJ ´templote´ opptoocb.
kef/ection: lJeotlfy tbe key oteos of expettlse tbot yoot oqeocy speclflcolly Jeols wltb tbot lotetsect wltb mlxeJ mlqtotloo lssoes. (lf yoo oeeJ to be sote oboot mlxeJ mlqtotloo qo to www.teqlooolmms.com to leoto mote)
Kharaz
Ali Addeh
IN nCkN CI AIkICA AND ¥LMLN
MIkLD MIGkA1ICN
1he 8MMS ls prlmarlly funded by Lhe Luropean unlon Commlsslon
wlLh slgnlflcanL supporL from oLher donors.
www.regionalmms.org
chris.horwood@regionalmms.org
+254 (0) 717 722 341
Designed by UNHCR for cootoct.
8oma|| |0Ps: 3ora||a gererales lre r|gresl ruroer ol relugees |r lre
reg|or. Accord|rg lo dala co||ecled ard posled oy uNlCR lrere are
over 1.1 r||||or |rlerra||y d|sp|aced persors |r 3ora||a. Vogad|sru |s
rosl lo approx|rale|y 3Z0,000 l0Ps.
Arr|v|ng from Er|trea:
Accord|rg lo sore sources
Er|lrear relugees rave oeer
erler|rg Elr|op|a al lre rale ol
1,500 lo 2,000 every rorlr.
uraccorpar|ed Er|lrear
r|rors are reporled lo oe
arr|v|rg al lre rale ol 150 lo
200 per rorlr ard rera|r a
group ol corcerr.
Refugees |n Eth|op|a: Al lre erd ol Jure, Elr|op|a Was
rosl lo over 5Z0,000 relugees lror 13 courlr|es. Tre
rajor|ly 3ora|| (211,310) lo||oWed oy 3oulr 3udarese
(158,000).
klsmaayo
0epart|ng from ßossaso:
|n June an est|mated 3,279
m|grants|refugees departed
from ßossaso , a 157
decrease from Hay 2014 and a
3827 |ncrease from the
m|grants|refugees that ar|ved
|n June 2013.
ugarda
!une 2014
Mogadlshu
Mombasa
Cbock
3aud| Arao|a
8oma|| Refugees |n Kenya:
Ar esl|raled 2,000 sora|| relugees rave
|rd|caled lre|r W||||rgress lo vo|urlar||y
relurr lo K|srayo , 8a|doa ard Luuq
lror Kerya. A lr|parle corr|ss|or
eslao||sred urder lre Tr|parl|le
agreererl s|gred |r Noveroer 2013 |s
scredu|ed lor operal|ora||zed |r lre
cor|rg rorlrs
Towards Egypt:
Eu par||arerl adopled a reso|ul|or or secur|ly
ard rurar lrall|c||rg |r lre 3|ra|.Tre reso|ul|or
ca||s lor reg|ora| coord|raled acl|or lo address
lrall|c||rg |r lre 3|ra|, arorgsl olrer
recorerdal|ors. A jo|rl 3udarese ard Egypl|ar
oorder ur|l |s reporled|y urder d|scuss|or
arorg re|evarl aulror|l|es ard W||| oe a|red al
address|rg cross oorder cr|re |rc|ud|rg rurar
lrall|c||rg ard srugg||rg a|org lre corror
oourdary ol oolr courlr|es. A Reg|ora|
0|a|ogue or rurar lrall|c||rg ard srugg||rg |s
scredu|ed lor |aler lr|s year.
Na|rob|: Refugee Re|ocat|on
Kerya, 3ora||a ard uNlCR
ror|raled 12 oll|c|a|s lo s|l |r lre
Tr|parl|le corr|ss|or las|ed W|lr
advarc|rg vo|urlary ard orgar|zed
repalr|al|or ol relugees ard
re|rlegral|or ol relurrees. l0V ard
uNlCR |aurcred a 1 rorlr relurrs
|rlerl|or survey largel|rg 0adaao
oased 3ora|| relugees |r Feoruary
2011.
8natched |n the desert: Er|lrears are
l|ee|rg Er|lrea al ar esl|raled rale ol al
|easl 100-Z00 per rorlr. 3ore esl|rales
suggesl lre l|oW |s rucr r|grer (up to
4,000 per month). 3ore are ||drapped
oy lr|oesrer |r lre deserl ard so|d lo
lrall|c||rg / exlorl|or gargs |r 3udar,
L|oya, Egypl ard lre 3|ra| reg|or. Tre
3ragarao carp corp|ex rear Kasa|a
rosls approx|rale|y 29,000 peop|e.
uNlCR c|a|rs lral ruroer ol reporled
||drapp|rgs ol relugees ard r|grarls
rave reduced |r recerl rorlrs due lo
spec|l|c po||ce ard r|||lary acl|or (W|lr
|rlerral|ora| supporl).
8aud| Arab|a - Lega| and Po||cy 6hanges : Ellorls lo reslruclure lre doresl|c |aoour rar|el
|r 3aud| Arao|a |ed lo crarges |r lre sysler |r Varcr 2013. As a resu|l lre K|rg
|ssued ar arresly lor urdocurerled |aoour r|grarls lo correcl lre|r slalus oy Noveroer
2013. Tre exp|ry ol lre arresly ard a suosequerl crac|doWr or urdcourerled |aoour
r|grarls resu|led |r lre expu|s|or ard relurr ol over 550,000 Yerer| |aoour r|grarls v|a lre
A| TuWa| oorder, 10|r rorlr ol laradr |r lajjar 0overrorale. lr add|l|or, ar esl|raled
1ê0,000 Elr|op|ar |aoour r|grarls ard over 3ê,000 3ora||s rave oeer deporled lo Add|s
Aoaoa ard Vogad|sru respecl|ve|y, W|lr rore expu|s|ors expecled. Co||ecl|ve|y, 1 r||||or ol
lre esl|raled 9 r||||or |aoour r|grarl Wor| lorce ras oeer deporled or W||||rg|y |ell lre 3aud|
||rgdor W|lr lre ruroer expecled lo reacr 2 r||||or.
Er|lrea
8outh 8udanese refugees:
0ver 1.5 r||||or are d|sp|aced
lo||oW|rg ar oulorea| ol v|o|erce
|r 3oulr 3udar |r r|d-0eceroer
2013. 0ver 100,000 3oulr
3udarese rave sought refuge |r
re|groour|rg courlr|es ra|r|y
ugarda ,Kerya ard Elr|op|a.
Eth|op|an exodus :
Ar esl|raled 1,1ê8 Elr|op|ars rade lre|r
Way lo Yerer |r Jure 2011, a 31º decrease
lror Vay 2011 ard a Zº |rcrease lror lre
ruroer ol Elr|op|ars lral arr|ved |r Jure
2013.
.
Refugees
As ol Jure 2011, Yerer Was rosl
lo over 200,000 relugees ard
asy|ur see|ers lror 3ora||a,
Elr|op|a, Er|lrea, 3yr|a & lraq.
haradh: Tre ruroer ol r|grarls |r
laradr |s reporled lo rave sca|ed doWr
lror lre 25,000 recorded al lre oeg|r|rg
ol 2013 lo rurdreds oy Jure 2011
lo||oW|rg lre c|osure ol lre Yerer/3aud|
oorder.
Traff|ck|ng of women:
Fera|e r|grarls/relugees |r Yerer
are vu|rerao|e lo
rarrassrerl,||drapp|rg,doresl|c
serv|lude ard olrer lorrs ol
s|avery.0ala soon to be pub||shed
|n an upcom|ng RHH8 report
suggesls lrere |s ar urexp|a|red
'd|sappeararce' ol r|grarl Worer
lo||oW|rg lre|r arr|va| |r Yerer.
3udar
Elr|op|a
3ora|||ard
Purl|ard
0man: A crac|doWr or |aoour
r|grarls |r 3aud| Arao|a ray resu|l |
r|grer r|grarl rovererl easl ol
Yerer lo 0rar.
Kerya
3ora||a
(SouLh-CenLral)
Culf of
Aden
8ed Sea
lndlan
Ccean
1anzanla
3oulr 3udar
Co|ng 8outh: Elr|op|ar ard 3ora|| r|grarls rove a|org lre easlerr corr|dor
ol Alr|ca loWards 3oulr Alr|ca |ed oy srugg|ers. 0ealr ard v|o|erce are
corror. Nuroers are ur|roWr oul |r 2009 |l Was esl|raled lral approx|rale|y
20,000 loo| lr|s roule every year.
Egypl
Refugees |n Uganda:
ugarda rosls over 200,000
relugees lror 0RC, 8ururd|,
Elr|op|a, Er|lrea, RWarda,
3ora||a ard 3oulr 3udar. Tre
orgo|rg cr|s|s |r 3oulr 3udar
ras resu|led |r lre arr|va| over
118,000 3oulr 3udarese
asy|ur see|ers.
Yerer
0epart|ng from 0bock:
lr Jure 2011, 2,91ê r|grarls/relugees
arr|ved or lre srores ol Yerer, a 39º
decrease lror Vay 2011 ard ar 18º
decrease lror lre r|grarls/relugees lral
arr|ved |r Jure 2013.
lrregu|ar rovrerl: Ar esl|raled ê00-900 r|grarls/relugees
|eave 3ora|||ard every rorlr. Ar esl|raled 200
r|grarls/relugees are |rlercepled oy Elr|op|ar aulror|l|es ard
relurred. A rajor|ly ol lre deparl|rg r|grarls are desl|red lor
L|oya.
H|grants| Refugees go|ng to 8outh Afr|ca
lrregu|ar |rr|grarl's lo 3oulr Alr|ca
lace xeroproo|c allac|s oolr |r lrars|l ard
desl|ral|or courlr|es. see 0ClA 3oulr-Easl
Alr|ca r|gral|or l|oWs
rap.rllp://re||elWeo.|rl/s|les/re||elWeo.|rl/l||es/r
esources/Pagesº20lrorº200ClA_R03A_l
urar|lar|ar_8u||el|r_Jar_2011.pdl. Arresly
lrlerral|ora| |r a 12 Jure Press Re|ease
c|a|red 3oulr Alr|ca's 0overrrerl ard po||ce
are la|||rg lo prolecl 3ora|| relugees lror
dead|y allac|s.
8oma|| returns:
0ver 31,000 3ora|| relugee relurrs Were recorded
|r 2013 ra|r|y lror Kerya. Fo||oW|rg lre Apr|| 2011
crac| doWr or uroar relugees |r Kerya, 359
3ora||s rave oeer deporled lo Vogad|sru Wr||e ar
esl|raled Z,000 are reporled lo rave l|ed.
Expu|s|ons from 8aud| Arab|a:
8|nce 0ecember 2013, over 3ô,000 8oma||s have reported|y
been expe||ed | deported from 8aud| Arab|a, w|th
thousands more expected as part of the 8aud| 'purge' on
|rregu|ar m|grat|on.
16
East African Migration routes
19
, are across the Sahara Desert. These routes include
long road journeys in overcrowded Lorries. The northern land route is passed either
via Kenya or Ethiopia into Kassala in Sudan, passing through Egypt and across the
Suez Canal into Turkey, whereas the north-western route branches off from Sudan
into Chad and through Libya across the Mediterranean Sea into Europe. The sea
crossing is also a perilous journey under overcrowded conditions that often end in
boats capsizing. The Red Sea route described in some of the publications is now
rarely used.
Air route to Europe and RSA is also used to a limited extent by the migrants who do
not wish to go through the hardship of land & sea routes and have the resources to
travel by air.
There are several updated resources available giving both data and subjective and
anecdotal accounts and case studies for these migration patterns, routes, conditions
and other aspects. These include the RMMS publications
21
and IOM publications
22
,
in addition to monthly 1-pagers by RMMS (See page 15) which provide updates
on major routes with some key fgures. Additional resources, given below, can help
bridge the gaps. There is a breakup of migration with a rough estimate of gender, age
and reason for migration including push and pull factors that cause the migration in
the frst place. However, it is essential to understand that a large part of this migration
is not only diffcult to characterize by cause as it is multifactorial in nature, but also,
migration is a dynamic phenomenon. Many of the transit points like Eastleigh in Kenya
become short or long term destinations for a signifcant proportion of the migrants. In
addition, even the people who head towards refugee camps as asylum seekers could
be going there to escape violence, oppression (Push factors) or just to get food and
treatment
23
(Pull factors).
From the point of view of planning a transit strategy for vaccinating the target age
groups within these migrants, the major routes are given below. Transit & mobile
teams need to be placed strategically at each of these “hubs” of migration, and on
the border crossing and the sea ports, with the objective to tap the children who
would otherwise be missed. An irregular migrant is least likely to “resist” vaccination
for an accompanying child in order to avoid attention. Care should be taken to ensure
that all arrival/transit and departure points for potential migrants are identifed and
vaccination teams are deployed consistent with the fow of children at these points.
21 Migrant Smuggling in the Horn of Africa, RMMS, June 2013
22 In Pursuit of the Southern Dream: Victims of Necessity, IOM, April 2009
23 Discussions with medical and program staff, specifcally, Dr. Miriti Damaris, Health Assessment Centre IOM and
data presented by her suggest that people come to Dadaab for Multi Drug Treatment of Tuberculosis being
provided.
Excerpts from “Health Vulnerabilities study of Mixed Migration fows
from the East and Horn of Africa and the great lakes region to Southern
Africa” A study by IOM
PUSH-PULL FACTORS
While war, poverty, discrimination, violence and the promise of money and opportunity
in South Africa continue to be the main push factors for all groups of irregular
migrants, some of the Somali migrants interviewed for this study claimed that they
had left their home country because they feared recruitment by radical/terrorist
groups operating in Somalia. Migrants from the DRC, meanwhile, cited the ongoing
confict and violence in their country as the major reason behind their decision to
leave. Based on the interviews conducted, some migrants appeared to have given
little thought to organizing and planning their journey and had simply fed as an act of
self-preservation in the face of danger and in search of a “safe place”. However, there
is some anecdotal evidence suggesting a certain degree of planning and organization
among migrants from the DRC who had transited through Mozambique.
The main routes used by Migrants travelling towards RSA in 2009
24
were as
follows: Ethiopian migrants
• 1st route: Moyale (Ethiopia) by road – Nairobi by road to Mombasa, by road to
Tanga or dhows to Bagamoyo and then Dar Es Salaam by road – Mbeya – by road
to Malawi
• 2nd route: Moyale by road to Nairobi by road to Namanga-Arusha-Mbeya-Malawi
• 3rd route: Moyale (Ethiopia) by road – Nairobi by road to Mombasa by road to
Taveta— on foot to Mwanga district or Sanya Juu in Hai District in Kilimanjaro- by
road to Mbeya- Malawi
• 4th route: Moyale/Nairobi/Mombasa/Namanga/Dar Es Salaam/Mtwara
• 5th route: Moyale/Nairobi/Sirari/Mwanza/Tabora/Sikonge/Mbeya-Malawi
• 6th route: Moyale/Nairobi/Mombasa by boat/dhow to Mtwara
• 7th route: Moyale/Nairobi/Mombasa by boat to Mozambique and then return by
road to Mtwara where they later travel by road to Malawi
Somali irregular migrants travelled through Kenya and then took the following routes:
• 1st route: Mogadishu/Garissa/Nairobi/Mombasa/Namanga/Dar Es Salaam/Mtwara
• 2nd route: Mogadishu/Garissa/Nairobi/Mombasa/Tanga/Dar Es Salaam/Mtwara
• 3rd route: Mogadishu/Garissa/Nairobi/Mombasa by boat to Mtwara
• 4th route: Mogadishu/Garissa/Nairobi/Mombasa/Pemba in Mozambique/Mtwara
Note: Addition transit sites
29
are given in the section on migration due to push factors
(Pg. 21 onwards).
24 In Pursuit of the Southern Dream: Victims of Necessity, IOM, April 2009
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
17
Modes of transport
1. Air travel: Limited use by those who have the resources
a. Full air fight: A small number of migrants interviewed few all the way to South
Africa from their origin country of Ethiopia or Kenya.
b. Partial fight: For most irregular migrants, air travel only covered a portion of
their route. Flights between the cities of Addis Ababa, Nairobi, Harare, Maputo,
Lilongwe, Lusaka and Johannesburg were mainly used.
2. Sea travel: A substantial number of migrants interviewed travelled by water as
part of their journey. The two main routes passed through the Indian Ocean and
the lake. Transiting migrants took boats from places as far as Mogadishu and
Mombasa to destinations as distant as Mozambique. The migrants who travelled
by boat through the lake had aimed to secure entry into Malawi. Passages
through the Indian Ocean and the lake have declined in popularity as governments
have increased their efforts to prevent migrants from using these routes. Tragic
incidents well publicized in the international media, such as the drowning of
irregular migrants from Eastern Africa in the lake in June 2012, may have also
contributed to the reduced use of previously busy routes.
3. Overland travel: The Ethiopian and Somali migrants who moved to Southern
Africa used a variety of routes to cross transit countries in 2009.6 Since then,
several new routes have opened up to supplement existing routes or to circumvent
routes that have become more diffcult to transit due to new legislation that allows
imprisonment of people using these routes and the threat posed by immigration
patrols or violence. The most popular transit countries among migrants bound
for Southern Africa include Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia and
Zimbabwe. While some migrants transit through Swaziland and Botswana, the
majority use the aforementioned six countries as transit points for migrating south.
As Congolese migrants were not part of the assessment for the 2009 study, it is
not possible to assess any changes in their movement patterns. For the current
study, Burundi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe were
identifed as transit countries for migrants from the DRC migrating to Southern
Africa.
As in 2009, container trucks, boats and travel on foot were the favored modes
of transport by Ethiopian and Somali migrants interviewed for the current study.
Meanwhile, migrants from the DRC often travel on foot and frequently use commercial
transportation such as buses and minibuses. Air travel, which was used to a lesser
extent by Ethiopian and Somali migrants in 2009, appears to be used more frequently
by Ethiopian and Somali migrants, particularly through Mozambique.
18
19
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
Resources
1. Health Vulnerabilities study of Mixed Migration fows from the East and Horn of
Africa and the great lakes region to Southern Africa” A study by IOM
2. http://publications.iom.int/bookstore/free/In_Pursuit_of_the_Southern_Dream.
pdf
3. A Rapid Assessment of access to health care at selected one stop border posts,
Dec 2013 by IOM
20
“Approximately 435,600 children in the Horn of
Africa are Refugees”
Dr. John Burton,
Senior Public Health Offcer,
UNHCR
21
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
noLe, LsLlmaLes are rounded Lo Lhe nearesL LhousandLh.

1oLal luÞ LsLlmaLes
UNHCR 8omalia
Nairobi, Kenya
Sources:
UNHCR Offices, Various ÌDP
assessments, Global Ìnsight digital
mapping © 1998 Europa
Technologies Ltd.
The boundaries and names shown
and the designations used on this
map do not impIy officiaI endorsement
or acceptance by the United Nations.
Tota| |0Ps by Reg|on
Apr|| - 2011
T
o
ta
l_
ÌD
P
s
_
b
y
_
R
e
g
io
n
_
A
p
r
il_
2
0
1
4
_
A
3
P
C
.x
ls
Printed: 10th ApriI, 2014 kagori@unhcr.org
Less Lhan 10,000
10,000 - 24,999
23,000 - 49,999
30,000 - 99,999
More Lhan 100,000
IDÞ Þopu|at|on Lst|mate range
M 1.1 M
1oLal luÞ LsLlmaLes 1oLal luÞ LsLl
Less Lhan 10,000
10,000 - 24,999
23,000 - 49,999
30,000 - 99,999
More Lhan 100,000
IDÞ Þopu|at|on Lst|mate range
Awda|
8ar|
Sanaag
1ogdheer
Soo| 26,000 S | Soo|
S,000
49,000
1,000
Awda|
8,000
Nugaa| Nugaa|
10,000
8ay
24,000 24,000
8akoo|
Ga|gaduud gg
120,000
Mudug M d Mudug g
71,000
Shabe||e noose
Shabee||e Dhexe
8ay 8ay
40,000
8anad|r
x a e Dh Dhex abee ee||e ||e
S1,000
S1,000
27,000 27,000 27 27 000 000
Iuba Dhexe
Gedo
n hab || n se noos habe||e n
103,000
S1,000
n|raan
8an 8an 8an a ad| ad| ad| ad rrr
369,000
31,000 31 000 31 000
Iuba noose
Gedo Gedo
77,000
Woqooy| Ga|beed
1 dh 1og gdheer
26 000
Woqooy| Ga|beed Woqooy| Ga|b
4S,000
Mogadishu IDP Estimates
. es are rounnded nded Lo Lo Lhe Lhe near nearesL esL Lhou Lhousand sandLh Lh
369,000
Moga es adi adishu shu ID IDP E Esti stimat mate
369,000 369,000
Migration due to
“Push” Factors
Displacement is an important aspect of population movement in the Horn of Africa,
considering ongoing violence & confict ongoing in Somalia and South Sudan, food
insecurity in Somalia and parts of Ethiopia and Kenya. In addition, the inter clan
dynamics and hostilities also adds to the forced migration, especially with regards to
pastoralists, who are otherwise restricted within their areas of periodic clan mobility.
Refugees, Asylum Seekers & IDPs in the Horn of Africa, 2013-14
List of
• Refugee camps
• IDP Settlement
• Peri-urban sites
Demography
(51%) Female Male (49%)
8% 8%
8% 7%
15% 14%
16% 21%
1% 1%
Age
0 - 4
5 - 11
12 - 17
18 - 59
60 +
Estimated Population by Date
1,000k
950k
UNHCP 2014 pIannIng fIgures for Kenya
TYPE DF
PDPULATIDN
DPICIN
0ec 2013 0ec 2014 0ec 2015
TotaI In
country
of whom
assIsted
by UNHCP
TotaI In
country
of whom
assIsted
by UNHCP
TotaI In
country
of whom
assIsted
by UNHCP
TotaI 625,250 604,700 600,º10 57º,7º0 602,520 581,820
Pefugees
EthIopIa 21,610 21,610 19,920 19,920 19,450 19,450
SomalIa 482,J90 482,J90 442,170 442,170 428,440 428,440
South Sudan 14,200 14,200 14,2J0 14,2J0 14,680 14,680
7arIous 20,070 20,070 19,810 19,810 18,650 19,650
AsyIum-
seekers
0em. Fep. of
the Congo
8,920 8,920 10,140 10,140 11,170 11,170
EthIopIa 11,110 11,110 11,670 11,670 12,1J0 12,1J0
South Sudan 29,090 29,090 J9,800 J9,800 48,570 48,570
7arIous 17,J10 17,J10 22,050 22,050 27,7J0 27,7J0
InternaIIy
dIspIaced Kenya · · · · · ·
StateIess
peopIe
Stateless 20,550 · 21,120 · 21,700 ·
| Pesponse |
Needs and strategIes
Ìn 2014, the top prIorItIes for the Kenya operatIon are to: preserve access to asylum and protectIon for
asylum·seekers and refugees; contInue the unInterrupted delIvery of lIfe·savIng servIces In safety and
securIty; provIde housIng, prImary health care, water, sanItatIon, hygIene, and the basIc Infrastructure
underpInnIng them; and support the achIevement of durable solutIons for those choosIng to eIther
voluntarIly repatrIate, seek resettlement In a thIrd country or request an alternatIve resIdency status.
UNHCF wIll also pursue Its advocacy efforts on the preventIon of statelessness among affected
communItIes.
The DffIce's strategIes to achIeve these prIorItIes wIll Include: deepenIng technIcal and materIal support
to governmental, non·governmental and communIty·based InstItutIons at the natIonal and local levels;
adoptIng communIty·based approaches to maIntaInIng law and order; promotIng peaceful Inter·communal
relatIons; consolIdatIng the Covernment's receptIon, regIstratIon, documentatIon, FS0 and camp
management capabIlItIes; further strengthenIng communIty·based protectIon and management of basIc
servIces; ImplementIng the joInt global educatIon strategy (UNHCF, UNÌCEF and the Covernment), whIch
Is adapted to the local context and contrIbutes to chIld protectIon and sexual and gender·based vIolence
(SC87) responses and preventIon; and enhancIng durable solutIons and lIvelIhood opportunItIes upon
return home.
To advance these goals, UNHCF wIll foster strategIc partnershIps wIth key InstItutIons and servIce
provIders at natIonal and local levels.
| ImpIementatIon |
CoordInatIon
UNHCF maIntaIns strategIc partnershIps to ensure the effectIve protectIon of asylum·seekers and
refugees In Kenya. The DffIce wIll contInue close collaboratIon wIth key InstItutIons In the executIve,
legIslatIve and judIcIary, as well as wIth the medIa sector, at natIonal and local levels.
The |InIstry of ÌnterIor and CoordInatIon of NatIonal Covernment In the DffIce of the PresIdent and Its
0epartment of Fefugee AffaIrs are UNHCF's prImary Covernment counterparts In asylum and refugee
management. Dther key partners are UN agencIes, InternatIonal and natIonal NCDs and the Kenya Fed
Cross SocIety. Ìn the camps, WFP Is the prIncIpal provIder of food assIstance, whIle In the areas of chIld
protectIon, responses to SC87, water and sanItatIon, nutrItIon and health, and educatIon, UNÌCEF Is a
key partner.
2014 UNHCP partners In Kenya
ImpIementIng partners
Covernment agencIes: 0epartment of Fefugee AffaIrs, |InIstry of Health, |InIstry of ÌnterIor and
CoordInatIon of NatIonal Covernment
NCDs: CAFE ÌnternatIonal, 0anIsh Fefugee CouncIl, 0on 8osco · Kenya, FafIÌntegrated 0evelopment
AssocIatIon, FIlmAId ÌnternatIonal, Hebrew ÌmmIgratIon AId SocIety, ÌnternatIonal Fescue CommIttee, ÌslamIc
FelIef Kenya, JesuIt Fefugee ServIce, Kenya |agIstrates and Judges AssocIatIon, Kenya NatIonal CommIssIon
on Human FIghts, Kenya Fed Cross SocIety, Legal AdvIce Centre (Kìtuo Chc Sherìc) · Kenya, Lutheran World
FederatIon, NatIonal CouncIl of Churches of Kenya, NorwegIan Fefugee CouncIl, Peace WInds Japan, Fefugee
ConsortIum of Kenya, FelIef FeconstructIon and 0evelopment DrganIsatIon, Save the ChIldren, WIndle Trust
UK In Kenya
Dthers: UN7
more documents
more documents
more documents
more documents
0 Mar 2011 | Evaluation Reports
Navigating Nairobi. A review of the
implementation of UNHCR's urban refugee
policy in Kenya's capital city. Elizabeth
Campbell, Jeff Crisp, Esther Kiragu. January
2011
0 Jan 2011 | Evaluation Reports
Statistics
2005 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook Country
Data Sheet - Kenya
30 Apr 2007 | Country Data Sheets
2004 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook Country
Data Sheet - Kenya
21 Aug 2006 | Country Data Sheets
2003 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook Country
Data Sheet - Kenya
1 Jan 2005 | Country Data Sheets
2002 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook Country
Data Sheet - Kenya
1 Sep 2004 | Country Data Sheets
UNHCR Maps
Registered Somalis in the East and Horn of
Africa Region
19 Aug 2012 | Maps f romUNHCRMapping unit
Kenya - Somalia border - July 2012
23 Jul 2012 | Maps f romUNHCRMapping unit
Kenya Atlas Map - July 2012
23 Jul 2012 | Maps f romUNHCRMapping unit
UNHCR Presence in the East, Horn of Africa
and the Great Lakes Region - July 2012
23 Jul 2012 | Maps f romUNHCRMapping unit
UNHCR Partner Directory
Action Africa Help Ìnternational
27 Oct 2011 | NGODirectory
African Development and Emergency
Organization
27 Oct 2011 | NGODirectory
Agency for Cooperation and Research in
Development / Association de Coopération et
de Recherches pour le Développement
27 Oct 2011 | NGODirectory
Association of Christian Resource
Organizations Serving Sudan
27 Oct 2011 | NGODirectory
Kenya Fact Sheet
FIood Airdrop in Kenya
Dire Times in Dadaab
CP 2014 pIannIng fIgures for Kenya
TY TT PE DF
PDPULATIDN
DPICIN
0ec 2013 0ec 2014 0ec 2015
TotaI In
country rr
of whom
assIsted
by UNHCP
TotaI In
country rr
of whom
assIsted
by UNHCP
TotaI In
country r
of whom
assIsted
by UNHCP
TotaI 625,250 604,700 600,º10 57º,7º0 602,520 581,820
Pe PP fugees
EthIopIa 21,610 21,610 19,920 19,920 19,450 19,450
SomalIa 482,J90 482,J90 442,170 442,170 428,440 428,440
South Sudan 14,200 14,200 14,2J0 14,2J0 14,680 14,680
7arIous 20,070 20,070 19,810 19,810 18,650 19,650
AsyIum-
seekers
0em. Fep. of
the Congo
8,920 8,920 10,140 10,140 11,170 11,170
EthIopIa 11,110 11,110 11,670 11,670 12,1J0 12,1J0
South Sudan 29,090 29,090 J9,800 J9,800 48,570 48,570
7arIous 17,J10 17,J10 22
InternaIIy
dIspIaced Kenya · · · · · ·
StateIess
peopIe
Stateles
| Pesponse |
Needs and strategIes
Ìn 2014, the top prIorItIes for the Ke KK nya operatIon are to: preserve access to asylum and protectIon for
asylum·seekers and refugees; contInue the unInterrupted delIvery of lIfe·savIng servIces In safety and
securIty; provIde housIng, prImary health care, wa ww ter, sanItatIon, hygIene, and the basIc Infrastructure
underpInnIng them; and support the achIevement of durable solutIons for those choosIng to eIther
voluntarIly ll repatrIate, seek resettlement In a thIrd country or request an alternatIve resIdency status.
UNHCF wI ww ll also pursue Its advocacy efforts on the preventIon of statelessness among affected
communItIes.
The DffIce's strategIes to achIeve these prIorItIes wI w ll Include: deepenIng technIcal and materIal support
to governmental, non·governmental and communIty·based InstItutIons at the natIonal and local levels;
adoptIng communIty·based approaches to maIntaInIng law and order; promotIng peaceful Inter·communal
relatIons; consolIdatIng the Covernment's receptIon, regIstratIon, documentatIon, FS0 and camp
management capabIlItIes; further strengthenIng communIty·based protectIon and management of basIc
servIces; ImplementIng the joInt global educatIon strategy (UNHCF, UNÌCEF and the Covernment), whIch
Is adapted to the local context and contrIbutes to chIld protectIon and sexual and gender·based vIolence
(SC87) responses and preventIon; and enhancIng durable solutIons and lIvelIhood opportunItIes upon
return home.
To advance these goals, UNHCF wI ww ll foster strategIc partnershIps wI ww th key InstItutIons and servIce
provIders at natIonal and l
| ImpIementatIon |
CoordInatIon
UNHCF maIntaIns strategIc partnershIps to ensure the effectIve protectIon of asylum·seekers and
refugees In Ke K nya. The DffIce wI ww ll contInue close collaboratIon wI ww th key InstItutIons In the executIve,
legIslatIve and judIcIary, as we ww ll as wI ww th the medIa sector, at natIonal and local levels.
The |InIstry of ÌnterIor and CoordInatIon of NatIonal Covernment In the DffIce of the PresIdent and Its
0epartment of Fefugee AffaIrs are UNHCF's prImary Covernment counterparts In asylum and refugee
management. Dther key partners are UN agencIes, InternatIonal and natIonal NCDs and the Ke K nya Fed
Cross SocIety. Ìn the camps, WFP Is the prIncIpal provIder of food assIstance, whIle In the areas of chIld
protectIon, responses to SC87, wa ww ter and sanItatIon, nutrItIon and health, and educatIon, UNÌCEF Is a
key partner.
2014 UNHCP partners In Kenya
ImpIementIng partners
Covernment agencIes: 0epartment of Fefugee Aff ff a ff Irs, |InIstry of Health, |InIstry of ÌnterIor and
CoordInatIon of NatIonal Cove vv rnment
CAFE ÌnternatIonal, 0anIsh Fefugee CouncIl, 0on 8osco · Kenya, FafI f Ìntegrated 0eve vv lopment
AssocIatIon, FIlmA mm Id ÌnternatIonal, Hebrew ÌmmIgratIon AId SocIety, ÌnternatIonal Fescue CommIttee, ÌslamIc
FelIef Kenya, JesuIt Fefugee ServI vv ce, Kenya |agIstrates and Judges AssocIatIon, Kenya NatIonal CommIssIon
on Human FIghts, Kenya Fed Cross SocIety, Legal AdvI vv ce Centre (Kìtuo Chc Sherìc) · Kenya, Lutheran World
FederatIon, NatIonal CouncIl of Churches of Kenya, NorwegIan Fefugee CouncIl, Peace WInds Japan, Fefugee
ConsortIum of Kenya, FelIef FeconstructIon and 0eve vv lopment DrganIsatIon, Save vv the ChIldren, WIndle Trust
UK In Kenya
UN7
cuments
more rr documents
more rr documents
more rr documents
0 Mar 2011 | Ev EE aluation Re RR ports
Navi vvgating Nairo r bi. A re rr vi vvew of the
implementation of UNHCR's urban re rr fu ff gee
policy in Kenya's capital city. Elizabeth
Campbell, Jeff ff Crisp, Esther Kira rr gu. January rr
2011
0 Jan 2011 | Ev EE aluation Re RR ports

2005 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook Country rr
Data Sheet - Kenya
30 Apr 2007 | Co C untry Data Sheets
2004 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook Country rr
Data Sheet - Kenya
21 Aug 2006 | Co CC untry Data Sheets
2003 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook Country rr
Data Sheet - Kenya
1 Jan 2005 | Co C untry Data Sheets
2002 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook Country rr
Data Sheet - Kenya
1 Sep 2004 | Co CC untry Data Sheets
UNHCR Maps
Registere rr d Somalis in the East and Horn of
Afr ff ica Region
19 Aug 2012 | Maps f romUNHCRMapping unit
Kenya - Somalia bord rr er - July 2012
23 Jul 2012 | Maps f romUNHCRMapping unit
Kenya Atlas Map - July 2012
23 Jul 2012 | Maps f romUNHCRMapping unit
UNHCR Pre r sence in the East, Horn of Afr ff ica
and the Gre rr at Lakes Region - July 2012
23 Jul 2012 | Maps f romUNHCRMapping unit
UNHCR Partner Directory
Action Afr ff ica Help Ìnternational
27 Oct 2011 | NGODirectory
Afr ff ican Deve vv lopment and Emerg r ency
Org rr anization
27 Oct 2011 | NGODirectory
Agency fo ff r Coopera rr tion and Research in
Deve vv lopment / Association de Coopéra r tion et
de Recherches pour le Déve vv loppement
27 Oct 2011 | NGODirectory
Association of Christian Resource
Org rr anizations Serv rr i vvng Sudan
27 Oct 2011 | NGODirectory
Fact Sheet
FIood Ai AArdrop in Kenya yy
Dire Times in Dadaab
Home > Where We Work > Africa > East and Horn of Africa > Ethiopia
EthIopIa
2014 UNHCP country operatIons profIIe - EthIopIa
| DvervIew |
WorkIng envIronment
0ue to Its geographIcal posItIon,
as well as envIronmental and
geo·polItIcal developments In
the regIon, EthIopIa Is lIkely to
contInue to receIve asylum·
seekers from neIghbourIng
countrIes In 2014 and 2015. The
country has a hIstory of
receIvIng people dIsplaced by
cross·border movements due to
droughts, conflIcts, polItIcal
events and cIvIl wars In
neIghbourIng countrIes,
IncludIng ErItrea, SomalIa, South
Sudan and Sudan. The Covernment of EthIopIa maIntaIns an open·door·polIcy and has contInuously
allowed humanItarIan access and protectIon to those seekIng refuge on Its terrItory.
EthIopIa receIved over 44,000 new arrIvals In the fIrst eIght months of 201J, leadIng to a total
populatIon of concern of more than 400,000 people, who are maInly accommodated In camps
throughout the country. The Covernment has been generous In allocatIng land for the 18 exIstIng
camps, IncludIng In 0ollo Ado, ShIre, Cambella and Assosa, and for new camps to be opened as the
majorIty of exIstIng camps have reached theIr maxImum capacIty. Ìn addItIon, the Covernment
provIdes polIce forces In the camps and facIlItates customs clearance for InternatIonally procured
Items.
ErItrean refugees, IncludIng unaccompanIed mInors who contInue to arrIve In IncreasIng numbers,
tend to move on from EthIopIa to a thIrd country, a sItuatIon whIch presents a major challenge In
provIdIng protectIon.
There are no provIsIons under EthIopIa's law for local IntegratIon of refugees. WhIle the country
maIntaIns reservatIons to the 1951 ConventIon, notably to ArtIcles 17·19, It supports an out·of·camp
scheme, allowIng refugees to lIve outsIde refugee camps and engage In Informal sector actIvItIes as
lIvelIhood opportunItIes. The maIn benefIcIarIes thus far have been students absorbed Into
unIversItIes, whose fees are paId for by the Covernment (75 per cent) and UNHCF (25 per cent).
EnvIronmental degradatIon around camps, the fragIle ecosystem and scarce resources have led to
tensIons between host communItIes and refugees In some locatIons. UNHCF Is workIng wIth partners
and the Covernment to address and mItIgate the sItuatIon wIthIn the confInes of lImIted resources.
PeopIe of concern
Ìn 2014, the maIn groups of people of concern under the EthIopIa operatIon are: SomalI refugees, lIvIng
In 0ollo Ado and JIjIga camps (eIght camps In total) and a small number In AddIs Ababa, who sought
protectIon In EthIopIa due to InsecurIty In SomalIa or arrIved as a result of the famIne In SomalIa In
2011; ErItrean refugees, IncludIng unaccompanIed and separated chIldren, seekIng asylum In EthIopIa.
ErItrean refugees are maInly located In camps In ShIre, TIgray regIon and Afar regIon, wIth a number of
urban refugees In AddIs Ababa and |ekele; Sudanese refugees fleeIng fIghtIng between the Sudan
People's LIberatIon |ovement·North and the Sudanese Armed Forces In 8lue NIle State of Sudan who lIve
In three camps In the Assosa area In 8enIshangul Cumuz regIon; and South Sudanese refugees In camps
In the Cambella regIon or In host communItIes In Wanthowa Woreda and Faad, most of whom fled
JongleI State to escape Inter·ethnIc conflIct.
PIannIng fIgures
UNHCP 2014 pIannIng fIgures for EthIopIa
0ec 2013 0ec 2014 0ec 2015
advanced search
enter search
Notes * As at January 201+
more documents
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GO
· GET ÌNVOLVED ·
· STAY ÌNFORMED ·
Statistical Snapshot*
Residing in Ethiopia [1|
Refugees [2| +33,936
AsylumSeekers [3| 93+
Returned Refugees [+| 29
Internally Displaced Persons {IDPS) [5| 0
Returned IDPs [6| 0
Stateless Persons [7| 0
Various [8| 1,00+
Total Population of Concern +35,903
Originating fromEthiopia [1|
Refugees [2| 77,118
AsylumSeekers [3| +8,661
Returned Refugees [+| 29
Internally Displaced Persons {IDPS) [5| 0
Returned IDPs [6| 0
Various [8| 3,2+2
Total Population of Concern 129,050
Latest News
Young refugee sisters survive on wild grass
as they trek alone to safety
25 Jul 2014 | News Stories
UN envoy Princess Haya meets South
Sudan refugees in Ethiopia
16 Jul 2014 | News Stories
At least 62 dead in Red Sea Boat tragedy
6 Jun 2014 | Brief ing Notes
Red Sea tragedy leaves 62 people dead in
deadliest crossing of the year
6 Jun 2014 | News Stories
UNHCR Fundraising Reports
UNHCR Global Report 2013 - Ethiopia
1 Jun 2014 | UNHCRFundraising Reports
UNHCR Global Appeal 2014-2015 - Ethiopia
1 Dec 2013 | UNHCRFundraising Reports
UNHCR Global Report 2012 - Ethiopia
1 Jun 2013 | UNHCRFundraising Reports
UNHCR Global Appeal 2013 Update -
Ethiopia
1 Dec 2012 | UNHCRFundraising Reports
Background, AnaIysis and PoIicy
Recommendations of the independant review
of UNHCR's response to the Somali refugee
influx in Dolo Ado, Ethiopia. UNHCR's
management response.
0 Jun 2013 | Evaluation Reports
Pastoral society and transnational refugees:
population movements in Somaliland and
eastern Ethiopia 1988 - 2000, Guido
Ambroso
8 Aug 2002 | PDES Working Papers
The State of The World's Refugees 2000:
Fifty Years of Humanitarian Action - Chapter
5: Proxy wars in Africa, Asia and Central
America
1 Jan 2000 | State of the World's Ref ugees
Refugees Magazine Ìssue 105 (Life in a
refugee camp) - A camp is born
1 Sep 1996 | Ref ugees Magazine
Home > Where We Work > Af AArica > East and Horn of Af AArica > Ethiopia

2014 UNHCP country operatIons profI f Ie - EthIopIa
| DvervIew |
WorkIng envIronment
0ue to Its geographIcal posItIon,
as we ww ll as envIronmental and
geo·polItIcal developments In
the regIon, EthIopIa Is lIkely ll to
contInue to receIve asylum·
seekers from neIghbourIng
countrIes In 2014 and 2015. The
country has a hIstory of
receIvIng people dIsplaced by
cross·border movements due to
droughts, conflIcts, polItIcal
events and cIvIl wa ww rs In
neIghbourIng countrIes,
IncludIng ErItrea, SomalIa, South
Sudan and Sudan. The Covernment of EthIopIa maIntaIns an open·door·polIcy and has contInuously ll
allowe ww d humanItarIan access and protectIon to those seekIng refuge on Its terrItory.
EthIopIa receIved over 44,000 new arrIvals In the fIrst eIght months of 201J, leadIng to a total
populatIon of concern of more than 400,000 people, who are maInly ll accommodated In camps
throughout the country. The Covernment has been generous In allocatIng land for the 18 exIstIng
camps, IncludIng In 0ollo Ado, ShIre, Cambella and Assosa, and for new camps to be opened as the
majorIty of exIstIng camps have reached theIr maxImum capacIty. Ìn addItIon, the Covernment
provIdes polIce forces In the camps and facIlItates customs clearance for InternatIonally ll procured
Items.
ErItrean refugees, IncludIng unaccompanIed mInors who contInue to arrIve In IncreasIng numbers,
tend to move on from EthIopIa to a thIrd country, a sItuatIon whIch presents a major challenge In
provIdIng protectIon.
There are no provIsIons under EthIopIa's law for local IntegratIon of refugees. WhIle the country
maIntaIns reservatIons to the 1951 ConventIon, notably ll to ArtIcles 17·19, It supports an out·of·camp
scheme, allowI ww ng refugees to lIve outsIde refugee camps and engage In Informal sector actIvItIes as
lIvelIhood opportunItIes. The maIn benefIcIarIes thus far have been students absorbed Into
unIversItIes, whose fees are paId for by the Covernment (75 per cent) and UNHCF (25 per cent).
EnvIronmental degradatIon around camps, the fragIle ecosystem and scarce resources have led to
tensIons betwe ww en host communItIes and refugees In some locatIons. UNHCF Is wo ww rkIng wI ww th partners
and the Covernment to address and mItIgate the sItuatIon wI ww thIn the confInes of lImIted resources.
PeopIe of concern
Ìn 2014, the maIn groups of people of concern under the EthIopIa operatIon are: SomalI refugees, lIvIng
In 0ollo Ado and JIjIga camps (eIght camps In total) and a small number In AddIs Ababa, who sought
protectIon In EthIopIa due to InsecurIty In SomalIa or arrIved as a result of the famIne In SomalIa In
2011; ErItrean refugees, IncludIng unaccompanIed and separated chIldren, seekIng asylum In EthIopIa.
ErItrean refugees are maInly ll located In camps In ShIre, TIgray regIon and Afar regIon, wI ww th a number of
urban refugees In AddIs Ababa and |ekele; Sudanese refugees fleeIng fIghtIng betwe ww en the Sudan
People's LIberatIon |ovement·North and the Sudanese Armed Forces In 8lue NIle State of Sudan who lIve
In three camps In the Assosa area In 8enIshangul Cumuz regIon; and South Sudanese refugees In camps
In the Cambella regIon or In host communItIes In Wanthowa w Woreda and Faad, most of whom fled
JongleI State to escape Inter·ethnIc conflIct.
PIannIng fIgures
UNHCP 2014 pIannIng fIgures for EthIopIa
0ec 2013 0ec 2014 0ec 2015
advanced se ss arc rr h
enter search
Note tt ss * As at January 201+
more rr documents
more rr documents

· GET ÌNVOLVED ·
· STA TT Y ÌNFORMED ·
Statistical Snapshot*
Re RR siding in Ethiopia [1|
Re RR fugees [2| +33,936
AsylumSeekers
Re RR turned Re RR fugees
Internally Displaced Persons {IDPS)
Re RR turned IDPs
St SS ateless Persons
Various
Total Population of Concern +35,903
Originating fromEthiopia [1|
Re RR fugees [2| 77,118
Asylum Seekers [3| +8,661
Re RR turned Re RR fugees
Internally Displaced Persons {IDPS)
Re RR turned IDPs [6| 0
Various [8| 3,2+2
Total Population of Concern 129,050

sisters rr surv rr i vvve vv on wild gra rr ss
as they tre rr k alone to safe ff ty
25 Jul 2014 | News Stories
UN envo vv y Princess Haya meets South
Sudan re r fu ff gees in Ethiopia
16 Jul 2014 | News Stories
At least 62 dead in Red Sea Boat tra r gedy
6 Jun 2014 | Brief ing Notes
Red Sea tra r gedy leave vv s 62 people dead in
deadliest cro rr ssing of the year
6 Jun 2014 | News Stories
UNHCR Fundraising Reports
UNHCR Global Report rr 2013 - Ethiopia
1 Jun 2014 | UNHCRFundraising Re RR ports
UNHCR Global Appeal 2014-2015 - Ethiopia
1 Dec 2013 | UNHCRFundraising Re RR ports
UNHCR Global Report rr 2012 - Ethiopia
1 Jun 2013 | UNHCRFundraising Re RR ports
UNHCR Global Appeal 2013 Update -
Ethiopia
1 Dec 2012 | UNHCRFundraising Re RR ports
Background, An AA aIys yy is and PoIicy
Recommendations of the independant re rr vi vvew
of UNHCR's re rr sponse to the Somali re rr fu ff gee
infl ff ux in Dolo Ado, Ethiopia. UNHCR's
management re rr sponse.
0 Jun 2013 | Ev EE aluation Re RR ports
Pastora rr l society and tra r nsnational re rr fu ff gees:
population move vv ments in Somaliland and
eastern Ethiopia 1988 - 2000, Guido
Ambro rr so
8 Aug 2002 | PD P ES EE Working Pa PP pers
The State of The World's Refu ff gees 2000:
Fift ff y Years rr of Humanitarian Action - Chapter
5: Pro r xy wars rr in Afr ff ica, Asia and Centra rr l
America
1 Jan 2000 | State of the World's Re RR f ugees
Refu ff gees Magazine Ìssue 105 (Life ff in a
re rr fu ff gee camp) - A camp is born
1 Sep 1996 | Re RR f ugees Magazine
ABOUT US WHAT WE DO WHO WE HELP WHERE WE WORK NEWS AND VÌEWS RESOURCES
Home > Where We Work > Africa > East and Horn of Africa > Somalia
SomalIa
2014 UNHCP country operatIons profIIe - SomaIIa
| DvervIew |
WorkIng envIronment
Ìn 201J, the new Federal
Covernment of SomalIa,
establIshed In 2012, sought to
reassume control over the entIre
country.
The dIstrIbutIon of authorIty and
resources between the Federal
Covernment and the local
admInIstratIons has proven
challengIng. Although the
AfrIcan UnIon |IssIon In SomalIa
(A|ÌSD|) and the SomalIa
NatIonal Armed Forces (SNAF)
pushed opposItIon forces out of
the major cItIes In south·central
SomalIa In late 2011, the latter
remaIn In control of small towns
and large areas of the
countrysIde where conflIct
contInues. The securIty sItuatIon
In |ogadIshu Is lIkely to remaIn
volatIle In 2014. Puntlcnd and
Somclìlcnd are accessIble;
however access to south·central
SomalIa, a prIorIty for UNHCF
operatIons, presents a
challenge.
WhIle a countrywIde legal framework for refugees and Internally dIsplaced people (Ì0Ps) Is beIng
developed by the |InIstry of the ÌnterIor and NatIonal SecurIty, the DffIce has workIng arrangements
wIth varIous local admInIstratIons for the protectIon and assIstance of people of concern, IncludIng
wIth the recently·appoInted HIgh CommIssIoner for Fefugees, Feturnees and Ì0Ps.
UNHCF Is facIlItatIng the ongoIng trIpartIte dIalogue wIth the Covernment of Kenya and the SomalI
Federal Covernment, and a fInal draft agreement governIng the voluntary repatrIatIon of SomalI
refugees lIvIng In Kenya has been agreed upon by the three partIes. The sIgnIng Is expected In early
November 201J.
Formal and cd hoc support programmes to enhance the capacIty of the newly·constItuted CommIssIon
for Fefugees, Feturnees and Ì0Ps, through the InjectIon of knowledge and provIsIon of technIcal
support, wIll be crucIal to the success of the facIlItated group return process.
WIth relatIvely greater stabIlIty antIcIpated In the country, some Ì0Ps and refugees from neIghbourIng
countrIes are spontaneously returnIng to theIr areas of orIgIn. UNHCF has formed the Feturn
ConsortIum, consIstIng of UN agencIes and InternatIonal NCDs In SomalIa. The consortIum wIll set
standards, ensure operatIonal synergIes, joIntly fundraIse, and facIlItate voluntary return, wIth the
aIm of ensurIng the safe and sustaInable reIntegratIon of returnees In SomalIa.
Ìn 2014·2015, In addItIon to the refugees who wIll be assIsted wIth reIntegratIon In theIr areas of
orIgIn, where return Is possIble, refugees In SomalIa wIll mostly contInue to lIve In urban areas, and
the Federal and sub·regIonal Covernments are expected to contInue to allocate land for Ì0P
settlements.
PeopIe of concern
The maIn populatIons of concern planned for In 2014 under the SomalIa operatIon are: refugees
advanced search
enter search
Notes * As at January 201+
more documents
more documents
GO
· GET ÌNVOLVED ·
· STAY ÌNFORMED ·
Statistical Snapshot*
Residing in Somalia [1|
Refugees [2| 2,+25
AsylumSeekers [3| 9,876
Returned Refugees [+| 36,100
Internally Displaced Persons {IDPS) [5| 1,133,000
Returned IDPs [6| 10+,706
Stateless Persons [7| 0
Various [8| 69
Total Population of Concern 1,286,176
Originating fromSomalia [1|
Refugees [2| 1,121,738
AsylumSeekers [3| 35,+72
Returned Refugees [+| 36,100
Internally Displaced Persons {IDPS) [5| 1,133,000
Returned IDPs [6| 10+,706
Various [8| 1,055
Total Population of Concern 2,+32,071
Latest News
The power of radio helps ease the hardship
of Somali refugee granny
12 Jun 2014 | News Stories
At least 62 dead in Red Sea Boat tragedy
6 Jun 2014 | Brief ing Notes
Red Sea tragedy leaves 62 people dead in
deadliest crossing of the year
6 Jun 2014 | News Stories
UNHCR support helps end sleepless nights
for struggling students in Dadaab
2 May 2014 | News Stories
UNHCR Fundraising Reports
UNHCR Global Report 2013 - Somalia
1 Jun 2014 | UNHCRFundraising Reports
UNHCR Global Appeal 2014-2015 - Somalia
1 Dec 2013 | UNHCRFundraising Reports
UNHCR Global Report 2012 - Somalia
1 Jun 2013 | UNHCRFundraising Reports
UNHCR Global Appeal 2013 Update -
Somalia
1 Dec 2012 | UNHCRFundraising Reports
Background, AnaIysis and PoIicy
Recommendations of the independant review
of UNHCR's response to the Somali refugee
influx in Dolo Ado, Ethiopia. UNHCR's
management response.
0 Jun 2013 | Evaluation Reports
Ìn the shelter of each other: notions of home
and belonging amongst Somali refugees in
Nairobi. Ìdil Lambo
14 May 2012 | PDES Working Papers
Asylum and the path to citizenship: a case
study of Somalis in the United Kingdom.
Rebecca Tuck
2 Jun 2011 | PDES Working Papers
The end of history? Conflict, displacement
and durable solutions in the post-cold war
era. Guido Ambroso
0 May 2011 | PDES Working Papers
Home > Where We Work > Af AArica > East and Horn of Af AArica > Somalia

2014 UNHCP country operatIons profI f Ie - SomaIIa
| DvervIew |
WorkIng envIronment
201J, the new Federal
Covernment of SomalIa,
establIshed In 2012, sought to
reassume control over the entIre
country.
The dIstrIbutIon of authorIty and
resources betwe ww en the Federal
Covernment and the local
admInIstratIons has proven
challengIng. Although the
AfrIcan UnIon |IssIon In SomalIa
(A|ÌSD|) and the SomalIa
NatIonal Armed Forces (SNAF)
pushed opposItIon forces out of
the major cItIes In south·central
SomalIa In late 2011, the latter
remaIn In control of small towns
and large areas of the
countrysIde where conflIct
contInues. The securIty sItuatIon
In |ogadIshu Is lIkely ll to remaIn
volatIle In 2014. Puntlcnd and
Somclìlcnd are accessIble;
howe ww ver access to south·central
SomalIa, a prIorIty for UNHCF
operatIons, presents a
challenge.
WhIle a countryw yy I ww de legal framewo ww rk for refugees and Internally ll dIsplaced people (Ì0Ps) Is beIng
developed by the |InIstry of the ÌnterIor and NatIonal SecurIty, the DffIce has wo ww rkIng arrangements
wI ww th varIous local admInIstratIons for the protectIon and assIstance of people of concern, IncludIng
wI ww th the recently ll ·appoInted HIgh CommIssIoner for Fefugees, Feturnees and Ì0Ps.
UNHCF Is facIlItatIng the ongoIng trIpartIte dIalogue wI ww th the Covernment of Ke KK nya and the SomalI
Federal Covernment, and a fInal draft agreement governIng the voluntary repatrIatIon of SomalI
refugees lIvIng In Ke K nya has been agreed upon by the three partIes. The sIgnIng Is expected In early ll
November 201J.
Formal and support programmes to enhance the capacIty of the newly ll ·constItuted CommIssIon
for Fefugees, Feturnees and Ì0Ps, through the InjectIon of knowledge and provIsIon of technIcal
support, wI ww ll be crucIal to the success of the facIlItated group return process.
WIth relatIvely ll greater stabIlIty antIcIpated In the country, some Ì0Ps and refugees from neIghbourIng
countrIes are spontaneously ll returnIng to theIr areas of orIgIn. UNHCF has formed the Feturn
ConsortIum, consIstIng of UN agencIes and InternatIonal NCDs In SomalIa. The consortIum wI ww ll set
standards, ensure operatIonal synergIes, joIntly ll fundraIse, and facIlItate voluntary return, wI ww th the
aIm of ensurIng the safe and sustaInable reIntegratIon of returnees In SomalIa.
Ìn 2014·2015, In addItIon to the refugees who wI ww ll be assIsted wI ww th reIntegratIon In theIr areas of
orIgIn, where return Is possIble, refugees In SomalIa wI ww ll mostly ll contInue to lIve In urban areas, and
the Federal and sub·regIonal Covernments are expected to contInue to allocate land for Ì0P
settlements.
PeopIe of concern
The maIn populatIons of concern planned for In 2014 under the SomalIa operatIon are: refugees
advanced se ss arc rr h
enter search
Note tt ss * As at January 201+
re rr documents
more rr documents

· GET ÌNVOLVED ·
· STA TT Y ÌNFORMED ·
Statistical Snapshot*
Re RR siding in Somalia
Re RR fugees [2| 2,+25
Asylum Seekers [3| 9,876
Re RR turned Re RR fugees
Internally Displaced Persons {IDPS)
Re RR turned IDPs
St SS ateless Persons
Various
Total Population of Concern
Originating from Somalia
Re RR fugees [2| 1,121,738
Asylum Seekers [3| 35,+72
Re RR turned Re RR fugees [+| 36,100
Internally Displaced Persons {IDPS) 00
Re RR turned IDPs [6| 10+,706
Various [8| 1,055
Total Population of Concern 2,+32,071

The power of ra r dio helps ease the hard rr ship
of Somali re r fu ff gee gra r nny
12 Jun 2014 | News Stories
At least 62 dead in Red Sea Boat tra r gedy
6 Jun 2014 | Brief ing Notes
Red Sea tra r gedy leave vv s 62 people dead in
deadliest cro rr ssing of the year
6 Jun 2014 | News Stories
UNHCR support rr helps end sleepless nights
fo ff r struggling students in Dadaab
2 May 2014 | News Stories
UNHCR Fundraising Reports
UNHCR Global Report rr 2013 - Somalia
1 Jun 2014 | UNHCRFundraising Re RR ports
UNHCR Global Appeal 2014-2015 - Somalia
1 Dec 2013 | UNHCRFundraising Re RR ports
UNHCR Global Report rr 2012 - Somalia
1 Jun 2013 | UNHCRFundraising Re RR ports
UNHCR Global Appeal 2013 Update -
Somalia
1 Dec 2012 | UNHCRFundraisin
Background, An AA aIys yy is and PoIicy
Recommendations of the independant re rr vi vvew
of UNHCR's re rr sponse to the Somali re rr fu ff gee
infl ff ux in Dolo Ado, Ethiopia. UNHCR's
management re rr sponse.
0 Jun 2013 | Ev EE aluation Re RR ports
Ìn the shelter of each other: notions of home
and belonging amongst Somali re rr fu ff gees in
Nairo r bi. Ìdil Lambo
14 May 2012 | PD P ES EE Working Pa PP pers
Asylum and the path to citizenship: a case
study of Somalis in the United Kingdom.
Rebecca Tuck
2 Jun 2011 | PD P ES EE Working Pa PP pers
The end of history rr ? Confl ff ict, displacement
and dura rr ble solutions in the post-cold war
era r . Guido Ambro rr so
0 May 2011 | PD P ES EE Working Pa PP pers
ABOUT US WHAT WE DO WHOWE HELP WHERE WE WORK NEWS AND VÌEWS RESOURCES
CAPITAL
UNHCR Country Offce
/ National Offce / Liaison Offce
UNHCR Sub-Offce
UNHCR Field-Offce
UNHCR Planned-Offce
UNHCR Field Unit
Refugee accommodation
Refugee camp
Separation facility /
Transit centre
International boundary
Undermined boundary
Home > Where We Work > Africa > East and Horn of Africa > Somalia
SomalIa
2014 UNHCP country operatIons profIIe - SomaIIa
| DvervIew |
WorkIng envIronment
Ìn 201J, the new Federal
Covernment of SomalIa,
establIshed In 2012, sought to
reassume control over the entIre
country.
The dIstrIbutIon of authorIty and
resources between the Federal
Covernment and the local
admInIstratIons has proven
challengIng. Although the
AfrIcan UnIon |IssIon In SomalIa
(A|ÌSD|) and the SomalIa
NatIonal Armed Forces (SNAF)
pushed opposItIon forces out of
the major cItIes In south·central
SomalIa In late 2011, the latter
remaIn In control of small towns
and large areas of the
countrysIde where conflIct
contInues. The securIty sItuatIon
In |ogadIshu Is lIkely to remaIn
volatIle In 2014. Puntlcnd and
Somclìlcnd are accessIble;
however access to south·central
SomalIa, a prIorIty for UNHCF
operatIons, presents a
challenge.
WhIle a countrywIde legal framework for refugees and Internally dIsplaced people (Ì0Ps) Is beIng
developed by the |InIstry of the ÌnterIor and NatIonal SecurIty, the DffIce has workIng arrangements
wIth varIous local admInIstratIons for the protectIon and assIstance of people of concern, IncludIng
wIth the recently·appoInted HIgh CommIssIoner for Fefugees, Feturnees and Ì0Ps.
UNHCF Is facIlItatIng the ongoIng trIpartIte dIalogue wIth the Covernment of Kenya and the SomalI
Federal Covernment, and a fInal draft agreement governIng the voluntary repatrIatIon of SomalI
refugees lIvIng In Kenya has been agreed upon by the three partIes. The sIgnIng Is expected In early
November 201J.
Formal and cd hoc support programmes to enhance the capacIty of the newly·constItuted CommIssIon
for Fefugees, Feturnees and Ì0Ps, through the InjectIon of knowledge and provIsIon of technIcal
support, wIll be crucIal to the success of the facIlItated group return process.
WIth relatIvely greater stabIlIty antIcIpated In the country, some Ì0Ps and refugees from neIghbourIng
countrIes are spontaneously returnIng to theIr areas of orIgIn. UNHCF has formed the Feturn
ConsortIum, consIstIng of UN agencIes and InternatIonal NCDs In SomalIa. The consortIum wIll set
standards, ensure operatIonal synergIes, joIntly fundraIse, and facIlItate voluntary return, wIth the
aIm of ensurIng the safe and sustaInable reIntegratIon of returnees In SomalIa.
Ìn 2014·2015, In addItIon to the refugees who wIll be assIsted wIth reIntegratIon In theIr areas of
orIgIn, where return Is possIble, refugees In SomalIa wIll mostly contInue to lIve In urban areas, and
the Federal and sub·regIonal Covernments are expected to contInue to allocate land for Ì0P
settlements.
PeopIe of concern
The maIn populatIons of concern planned for In 2014 under the SomalIa operatIon are: refugees
advanced search
enter search
Notes * As at January 201+
more documents
more documents
GO
· GET ÌNVOLVED ·
· STAY ÌNFORMED ·
Statistical Snapshot*
Residing in Somalia [1|
Refugees [2| 2,+25
AsylumSeekers [3| 9,876
Returned Refugees [+| 36,100
Internally Displaced Persons {IDPS) [5| 1,133,000
Returned IDPs [6| 10+,706
Stateless Persons [7| 0
Various [8| 69
Total Population of Concern 1,286,176
Originating fromSomalia [1|
Refugees [2| 1,121,738
AsylumSeekers [3| 35,+72
Returned Refugees [+| 36,100
Internally Displaced Persons {IDPS) [5| 1,133,000
Returned IDPs [6| 10+,706
Various [8| 1,055
Total Population of Concern 2,+32,071
Latest News
The power of radio helps ease the hardship
of Somali refugee granny
12 Jun 2014 | News Stories
At least 62 dead in Red Sea Boat tragedy
6 Jun 2014 | Brief ing Notes
Red Sea tragedy leaves 62 people dead in
deadliest crossing of the year
6 Jun 2014 | News Stories
UNHCR support helps end sleepless nights
for struggling students in Dadaab
2 May 2014 | News Stories
UNHCR Fundraising Reports
UNHCR Global Report 2013 - Somalia
1 Jun 2014 | UNHCRFundraising Reports
UNHCR Global Appeal 2014-2015 - Somalia
1 Dec 2013 | UNHCRFundraising Reports
UNHCR Global Report 2012 - Somalia
1 Jun 2013 | UNHCRFundraising Reports
UNHCR Global Appeal 2013 Update -
Somalia
1 Dec 2012 | UNHCRFundraising Reports
Background, AnaIysis and PoIicy
Recommendations of the independant review
of UNHCR's response to the Somali refugee
influx in Dolo Ado, Ethiopia. UNHCR's
management response.
0 Jun 2013 | Evaluation Reports
Ìn the shelter of each other: notions of home
and belonging amongst Somali refugees in
Nairobi. Ìdil Lambo
14 May 2012 | PDES Working Papers
Asylum and the path to citizenship: a case
study of Somalis in the United Kingdom.
Rebecca Tuck
2 Jun 2011 | PDES Working Papers
The end of history? Conflict, displacement
and durable solutions in the post-cold war
era. Guido Ambroso
0 May 2011 | PDES Working Papers
Home > Where We Work > Af AArica > East and Horn of Af AArica > Somalia

2014 UNHCP country operatIons profI f Ie - SomaIIa
| DvervIew |
WorkIng envIronment
201J, the new Federal
Covernment of SomalIa,
establIshed In 2012, sought to
reassume control over the entIre
country.
The dIstrIbutIon of authorIty and
resources betwe ww en the Federal
Covernment and the local
admInIstratIons has proven
challengIng. Although the
AfrIcan UnIon |IssIon In SomalIa
(A|ÌSD|) and the SomalIa
NatIonal Armed Forces (SNAF)
pushed opposItIon forces out of
the major cItIes In south·central
SomalIa In late 2011, the latter
remaIn In control of small towns
and large areas of the
countrysIde where conflIct
contInues. The securIty sItuatIon
In |ogadIshu Is lIkely ll to remaIn
volatIle In 2014. Puntlcnd and
Somclìlcnd are accessIble;
howe ww ver access to south·central
SomalIa, a prIorIty for UNHCF
operatIons, presents a
challenge.
WhIle a countryw yy I ww de legal framewo ww rk for refugees and Internally ll dIsplaced people (Ì0Ps) Is beIng
developed by the |InIstry of the ÌnterIor and NatIonal SecurIty, the DffIce has wo ww rkIng arrangements
wI ww th varIous local admInIstratIons for the protectIon and assIstance of people of concern, IncludIng
wI ww th the recently ll ·appoInted HIgh CommIssIoner for Fefugees, Feturnees and Ì0Ps.
UNHCF Is facIlItatIng the ongoIng trIpartIte dIalogue wI ww th the Covernment of Ke KK nya and the SomalI
Federal Covernment, and a fInal draft agreement governIng the voluntary repatrIatIon of SomalI
refugees lIvIng In Ke K nya has been agreed upon by the three partIes. The sIgnIng Is expected In early ll
November 201J.
Formal and support programmes to enhance the capacIty of the newly ll ·constItuted CommIssIon
for Fefugees, Feturnees and Ì0Ps, through the InjectIon of knowledge and provIsIon of technIcal
support, wI ww ll be crucIal to the success of the facIlItated group return process.
WIth relatIvely ll greater stabIlIty antIcIpated In the country, some Ì0Ps and refugees from neIghbourIng
countrIes are spontaneously ll returnIng to theIr areas of orIgIn. UNHCF has formed the Feturn
ConsortIum, consIstIng of UN agencIes and InternatIonal NCDs In SomalIa. The consortIum wI ww ll set
standards, ensure operatIonal synergIes, joIntly ll fundraIse, and facIlItate voluntary return, wI ww th the
aIm of ensurIng the safe and sustaInable reIntegratIon of returnees In SomalIa.
Ìn 2014·2015, In addItIon to the refugees who wI ww ll be assIsted wI ww th reIntegratIon In theIr areas of
orIgIn, where return Is possIble, refugees In SomalIa wI ww ll mostly ll contInue to lIve In urban areas, and
the Federal and sub·regIonal Covernments are expected to contInue to allocate land for Ì0P
settlements.
PeopIe of concern
The maIn populatIons of concern planned for In 2014 under the SomalIa operatIon are: refugees
advanced se ss arc rr h
enter search
Note tt ss * As at January 201+
re rr documents
more rr documents

· GET ÌNVOLVED ·
· STA TT Y ÌNFORMED ·
Statistical Snapshot*
Re RR siding in Somalia
Re RR fugees [2| 2,+25
Asylum Seekers [3| 9,876
Re RR turned Re RR fugees
Internally Displaced Persons {IDPS)
Re RR turned IDPs
St SS ateless Persons
Various
Total Population of Concern
Originating from Somalia
Re RR fugees [2| 1,121,738
Asylum Seekers [3| 35,+72
Re RR turned Re RR fugees [+| 36,100
Internally Displaced Persons {IDPS) 00
Re RR turned IDPs [6| 10+,706
Various [8| 1,055
Total Population of Concern 2,+32,071

The power of ra r dio helps ease the hard rr ship
of Somali re r fu ff gee gra r nny
12 Jun 2014 | News Stories
At least 62 dead in Red Sea Boat tra r gedy
6 Jun 2014 | Brief ing Notes
Red Sea tra r gedy leave vv s 62 people dead in
deadliest cro rr ssing of the year
6 Jun 2014 | News Stories
UNHCR support rr helps end sleepless nights
fo ff r struggling students in Dadaab
2 May 2014 | News Stories
UNHCR Fundraising Reports
UNHCR Global Report rr 2013 - Somalia
1 Jun 2014 | UNHCRFundraising Re RR ports
UNHCR Global Appeal 2014-2015 - Somalia
1 Dec 2013 | UNHCRFundraising Re RR ports
UNHCR Global Report rr 2012 - Somalia
1 Jun 2013 | UNHCRFundraising Re RR ports
UNHCR Global Appeal 2013 Update -
Somalia
1 Dec 2012 | UNHCRFundraisin
Background, An AA aIys yy is and PoIicy
Recommendations of the independant re rr vi vvew
of UNHCR's re rr sponse to the Somali re rr fu ff gee
infl ff ux in Dolo Ado, Ethiopia. UNHCR's
management re rr sponse.
0 Jun 2013 | Ev EE aluation Re RR ports
Ìn the shelter of each other: notions of home
and belonging amongst Somali re rr fu ff gees in
Nairo r bi. Ìdil Lambo
14 May 2012 | PD P ES EE Working Pa PP pers
Asylum and the path to citizenship: a case
study of Somalis in the United Kingdom.
Rebecca Tuck
2 Jun 2011 | PD P ES EE Working Pa PP pers
The end of history rr ? Confl ff ict, displacement
and dura rr ble solutions in the post-cold war
era r . Guido Ambro rr so
0 May 2011 | PD P ES EE Working Pa PP pers
ABOUT US WHAT WE DO WHOWE HELP WHERE WE WORK NEWS AND VÌEWS RESOURCES
22
Relevant data with regards to IDPs, asylum seekers and refugees is readily available
on UNHCR web sites by country with maps of refugee camps giving gender and age
distribution, with recent time-trends. The table of forced migrants for the countries of
Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia are shown in the table (right). The fgures represent the
numbers of each type of displaced people by country of origin and residence as of
2013.
Forced Displacement Residing in Originating from
Somalia Kenya Ethiopia Somalia Kenya Ethiopia
Refugees 2,339 550,506 407,646 1,130,939 8,759 73,926
Asylum Seekers 8,931 49,642 1,371 30,086 1,498 41,934
Returned Refugees 7 0 8 7 0 8
Internally Displaced (IDPs) 1,122,559 0 0 1,122,559 0 0
Returned IDPs 10,404 0 0 10,404 0 0
Stateless Persons 0 20,000 0
Various 69 0 1,421 993 0 3,758
Population of Concern 1,144,309 620,148 410,446 2,294,988 10,257 119,626
25
The UNHCR website has projected planning fgures for the next year as well. Details
of each of the refugee camps in the Horn of Africa is also available with UNHCR and
can be obtained from local representatives
26
for the countries in the Horn of Africa.
25 SOURCE: Map & Table, www.unhcr.org, data as of Mid 2013
26 UNHCR representative staff presented the number of refugees in each camp from the countries in Horn of Africa
“Understand people you serve and context of their lives.
Underserved communities respond better to grass root
organizations. Engage local leaders into planning.”
Dr. John Burton,
Senior Public Health Offcer,
UNHCR
23
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
“While it is apparent that countries at sub-national level know these
[mobile] populations and their movement patterns, these are not
clearly documented and readily available for use in micro planning.”
Dr. Sam Okiror,
WHO Polio Outbreak Horn of Africa Coordinator
This information can easily be used for micro-planning as it has both Age and
Gender distribution data updated periodically. Although, the immunization coverage
in the refugee camps is relatively good, it is the period between the supplementary
immunization campaigns that is of concern. During the inter-campaign period, the
refugees continue to come from the insecure and violence affected areas which, very
likely, had low campaign coverage if at all.
Additionally, the IOM relief-web
27
publications give details of internally displaced
populations (IDPs) by administrative regions. The site also provides links in OCHA
and IOM websites showing UNOTAR/UNISAT
28
satellite imagery of new upcoming
IDP settlements. These new settlements need to be cross verifed on the ground. In
fact, these maps are so detailed that they can easily be used to monitor if all the IDP
settlements shown on the map are included in the supplementary immunization or
routine immunization micro plans by cross matching the numbers of such settlements.
For e.g., the map below, shows 26 new IDP shelters (shown in red) that came up
between 11th August 2013 and 5th March 2014 in Kismayo in Somalia.
27 http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/fles/resources/Dimensions-of-Crisis-on-Migration-in-Somalia_0.pdf
28 http://rel i efweb.i nt/si tes/rel i efweb.i nt/fi l es/resources/UNOSAT_A3_Gal kayo_20140420opt_0.pdf,
http://www.unitar.org/unosat/node/44/1741
24

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25
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
29 Source: Bram Frouws an Independent Consultant / Senior Research Associate with the Regional Mixed Migration
Secretariat
“It is critical that planning at national, zonal, and district levels
accounts for and include mobile populations. If this is institutionalized
in the micro plan, then these underserved groups will be covered
and their needs met. If not, how do we ensure that suffcient quantity
of vaccines and teams are made available? If we don’t plan for the
mobile populations, we will fail to reach them!”
Dr. Brigitte Toure,
UNICEF Senior Regional Immunization Adviser

Key transit Hubs
29
for migrants in the Horn of Africa with the potential to be tapped
for immunization Ethiopia
1. Dire Dawa: migrants en route to Djibouti and Somaliland, using the Eastern route
2. Jigjiga: migrants en route to Djibouti and Somaliland, using the Eastern route.
Also: Somaliland migrants on their way to Sudan (so Jigjiga is a major transit
points for routes in two directions).
3. Afar region: migrants en route to Djibouti and Somaliland, using the Eastern route
4. Metema: for migrants on their way to Sudan, using the Western route
5. Gambela or Assossa: other transit points for migrants on their way to Sudan
6. Dolo: main entrance point for Somalis crossing into Ethiopia
7. Benishengul, Gumuz, Gambela: reportedly transit points for Ethiopians going
South using a ‘new’ route to South Sudan (but likely severely restricted after the
unrest that started end of 2013)
8. Addis Ababa: major hub for Horn of Africa migrants (including many migrants
from Somalia/Somaliland). Recently 160,000 Ethiopians deported from Saudi
Arabia.
26
Djibouti
1. Obock: main embarkation point for boats to Yemen. Also: remote coastal locations
in the vicinity of Obock
2. Djibouti city: major hub, where many (mainly Ethiopian) migrants spend some
time.
3. Loyada (or Loya’ade): on the border between Somaliland and Djibouti, major
transit point for smuggling of migrants
4. Ali-Addeh / Hol-Hol: major refugee camps
Somaliland
1. Hargeisa: major hub, different migrant groups often regroup here, before moving
on to Djibouti or Puntland, or to the Somaliland coast (Berbera)
2. Ceel-Gaal: transit point on the way to Djibouti
Puntland
1. Bossaso: main embarkation point for boats to Yemen.
2. Galkaayo: transit point for Somalis from South-Central on their way to Bossaso
(to get on boats to Yemen)
Somalia
1. Mogadishu: large number of Somalis (approx.. 36,000) recently deported from
Saudi Arabia (WHO provides polio vaccinations upon arrival at the airport)
2. Hiraan: transit point for South Central Somalis on the way to Puntland
Sudan
1. Kassala and surroundings: main transit point for Eritreans crossing into Sudan.
Several UNHCR refugee camps. Also an entry point for migrants taking land route
towards Europe
2. El-Gedaref: main transit point for both Eritreans and Ethiopians crossing into
Sudan
3. Khartoum, Dongola and Selima: transit hubs for Horn of Africa migrants on the
way to Libya
27
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
Kenya
1. Kakuma and Dadaab: Kenya’s major refugee camps in the North-West (South
Sudan) and North-East) Somalia).
2. Liboi: (on the Somali border) and
3. Garissa: are major hubs for Somali refugees/migrants travelling between Somalia/
Dadaab/Nairobi
4. Moyale: major border crossing between Ethiopia and Kenya.
5. Isiolo: major transit points between Ethiopian border and Nairobi (for migrants
going south). Irregular migrants are also increasingly found in Nanyuki and Meru.
6. Nairobi: major hub for migrant smuggling. Many Somalis in Nairobi Eastleigh
neighborhood.
7. Namanga: main border crossing between Kenya and Tanzania. However, migrants
use many other unoffcial border crossings between Kenya and Tanzania.
8. Mombasa: If the coastal route is used, many smuggled Somalis and Ethiopians
pass through Mombasa, then move on by boat typically to the Tanzanian coastal
town of Mtwara.
Note: migrants use many routes to avoid checkpoints along the main Moyale-Isiolo-
Nairobi route. Due to the Kenyan crackdown on illegal foreigners, migrants also
increasingly avoid Nairobi and divert their routes around Nairobi, for example passing
through Nakuru or even Eldoret.
28
Additional Resources:
RMMS Publications at www.regionalmms.org
1. Migrant Smuggling in the horn of Africa and Yemen: the political economy and
protection risks
2. Mixed Migration in Kenya: the scale of movement and associated protection risks
3. Going West: contemporary mixed migration from the Horn of Africa to Libya &
Europe
4. Responses to mixed migration in the Horn of Africa & Yemen: policies and
assistance responses in a fast-changing context
• Mobile Africa: Changing Patterns of Movement in Africa and beyond, 2001
• In pursuit of the Southern Dream: Victims of Necessity April 2009, IOM
Web Resources
1. Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat
i. http://www.regionalmms.org/index.php?id=15
ii. http://www.regionalmms.org/index.php?id=37
iii. http://www.regionalmms.org/index.php?id=6
iv. http://www.regionalmms.org/index.php?id=5
2. MIXED MIGRATION FLOWS: SOMALI AND ETHIOPIAN MIGRATION TO YEMEN
AND TURKEY, FINAL REPORT, MAY 2010 Prepared for the Mixed Migration
Task Force by Ray Jureidini, Center for Migration and Refugee Studies American
University in Cairo
3. http://www.imi.ox.ac.uk/pdfs/imi-policy-briefngs/pb-12-11-exploring-the-future-
of-migration-in-the-horn-of-africa-survey-insights
4. https://www.unodc.org/documents/human-traffcking/Migrant_smuggling_in_
North_Africa_June_2010_ebook_E_09-87293.pdf
5. http://www.lse.ac.uk/government/research/resgroups/MSU/documents/
workingPapers/campbell.pdf
6. http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/trans-saharan-migration-north-africa-and-
eu-historical-roots-and-current-trends
7. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001185/118566eo.pdf
8. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R42046.pdf
9. Migration for development in Africa (MIDA)
29
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
10. http: //rel i ef web. i nt/si tes/rel i ef web. i nt/f i l es/resources/Di spl aced%20
Populations%20Report%20Sept%202012%20-%20March%202013.pdf
11. http://www.diffen.com/difference/Immigrant_vs_Refugee
12. IOM
i. http://kenya.iom.int/
ii. http://www.iom.int/cms/en/sites/iom/home/where-we-work/africa-and-the-
middle-east/east-africa.html
13. UNHCR
i. http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49e483a16.html
ii. http://www.unhcr.org/4c7fa45b6.pdf
iii. http://data.unhcr.org/horn-of-africa/regional.php
14. UN Population Information Network http://www.un.org/popin/
15. UN Data base http://www.un.org/en/databases/
16. UNITAR/UNOSAT http://www.unitar.org/unosat/node/44/1741
17. http://WHO.int
18. http://Unicef.org
30
Health Risks
and Services
Publications that describe the migrants going across the Gulf of Aden or towards RSA;
or the publications that describe the displaced populations, suggest that children of
various age groups are a part of the migrant cohort. The proportion of children varies
as per the migrant route and the push & pull factors. For example, registration data
from Migration Resource Centre (MRC) Hargeisa during 2013 suggests 667 (62%)
of registrations were children, whereas MRC Bossasso data registered 511 (15%)
children during the same period. It is however, essential to understand that this data
may not be a representative sample of the migrants. The health assessment centers
for IOM are providing essential health services like immunization for the migrants who
register, similarly, those at the refugee camps are also getting basic health care and
immunization. Nonetheless, a large proportion of IDPs, irregular migrants, migrants
involved in smuggling, traffcking, unaccompanied children may not have any access
to health services. This is well documented in this excerpt from “Health Vulnerabilities
study of Mixed Migration fows from the East and Horn of Africa and the great lakes
region to Southern Africa” by IOM (See below).
30 Source: Communicable Disease Epidemiological Profle: Horn of Africa WHO/CDS/NTD/DCE/2007.1
30
Migrants from all groups face various health risks. Travel in the back of container
trucks – a common means of transport through Tanzania, Mozambique and
Zambia – poses serious health risks to migrants. There have been reported
cases of migrant deaths due to suffocation. Migrants routinely cross forests in
order to enter various countries through unoffcial borders. These unregulated
routes are extremely dangerous because of the physical nature of the journey
and the lack of essentials such as water, food and shelter along the route.
Furthermore, migrants routinely suffer physical violence on these routes. There
are minors from the DRC who regularly travel alone or with an adult who is not
a relative. This has raised concerns on the possible hazards of such travel as it
is not clear whether the minors are travelling on their own free will.
The health vulnerabilities of migrants are discussed in detail in the references mentioned
at the end of the chapter. With regards to polio, it is now well documented from the
outbreaks recently in Chad, 2008 outbreak in Badaun in Uttar Pradesh, India, and
2013 outbreak in the Horn of Africa; that migration plays a big role in spreading the
disease. This is evident in a time series spot map of the 2013 HOA outbreak starting
in Somalia and how the transmission spreads along the migration routes. This is
exactly the kind of disease propagation that is and should be targeted by a robust
transit and border strategy used in supplementary immunization campaigns.
31
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
Additional References:
1. Communicable Disease Epidemiological Profle: Horn of Africa WHO/CDS/NTD/
DCE/2007.1
2. “Health Vulnerabilities study of Mixed Migration fows from the East and Horn of
Africa and the great lakes region to Southern Africa” A study by IOM
3. An Analysis of Migration Health in Kenya, 2011, IOM
4. A Rapid Assessment of access to health care at selected one stop border posts,
Dec 2013 by IOM
5. Pursuit of the Southern Dream: Victims of Necessity, April 2009 IOM Publication
6. http://iom.int/cms/en/sites/iom/home.html
7. http://www.doctorswi thoutborders.org/arti cl e/somal i -regi on-ethi opi a-
thousands-idps-search-food-and-water
8. http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/article/drc-nomadic-herders-repeatedly-
forced-fee
9. http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/article/mali-msf-responds-measles-
epidemic
10. http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/article/galcayo-town-divided-population-
trying-endure
11. http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/article/somalia-crisis-pushing-people-
their-homes-en-masse
12. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/gallery/2009/sep/07/turkana-kenya-
drought-climate-change
13. http://kwekudee-tripdownmemorylane.blogspot.com/2013/07/turkana-people-
kenyas-beautiful-semi.html
14. http://www.unicef.org/education/kenya_67937.html
15. http://www.wanderingnomads.com/region/people/
16. http://www.redcross.int/EN/mag/magazine2009_1/22-27.html
17. http://www.popline.org/node/295437
18. http://www.imi.ox.ac.uk/news/new-partnership-to-study-migration-futures-in-
the-horn-of-africa
32
Pastoralists of
Sub-Saharan Africa
During the desk review and consultation with stakeholders, a fair amount of resources
were identifed and studied on pastoralists in Sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of
the work was academic and certainly lacked a consolidated version of the recent
taxonomy, distribution, health status and access to health services with reference
to pastoralists in the horn of Africa. Many of the studies and publications were too
historical to have relevance to the present mapping of pastoralist clans. Some were
recent, but limited by research on a few sub clans in a small area, thus providing only
bits and pieces of the big picture.
During the review it became clear that the pieces of the puzzle would have to be
joined and the missing information projected with help from the older academic
research, web resources and current publications. Additional information would have
to be obtained through studies that give the relevant perspective to fll gaps. Health
studies for the pastoralists tribal people are also available and provide glimpses of
the health status of the clans. Indeed, the polio outbreak in Chad and the current
data of zero-dose for the Non-Polio Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) cases highlights
that the campaigns have not been able to suffciently cover the nomadic pastoralists,
especially in the in-accessible hard to reach areas.
Although there is signifcant research material, publications and papers available
on the subject, its practical use for reaching the pastoralists for delivering services,
verifcation of the clans and their location on the ground is extremely diffcult. In addition,
deliberations with stakeholders and review of the available resources substantiate the
need for developing a socio-cultural understanding of the pastoralist’s clans. Equally
essential is the need to build a trust-based relationship with the pastoralists’ elders,
for any service delivery mechanism to be planned successfully.
“There are no administrative borders for pastoralists in
Somalia – there is an ecosystem and clan infuence that
drive the movement of pastoralists.”
Dr. Cyprien Biaou,
Coordinator Livestock Sector,
FAO
33
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
The historical taxonomy map
31
(above) of pastoralists describes the location of main
branches or clusters, clans etc. The table below (page 34) of Pastoralists’ Taxonomy
32

showing main branches, language, clans or groups, location and the main livestock
species within each group i.e. camel, goats, sheep, donkeys or cattle. This table
32

forms the basis for the major clusters and clans present as of today in the Horn of
Africa, and is used to understand the relationship between clans and sub-clans.
31 Development amongst Africa’s Migratory Pastoralists by Aggrey Majok and Calvin W Schwabe
32 Source: Pastoralists under Pressure: Roger Blench
UGANDA
RWANDA
TANZANIA
KENYA
ETHIOPIA
SUDAN
SOMALI
SOMALI
Nairobi
Mt. Kenya
Mt. Kilimanjaro
Indian
Ocean
Lake
Victoria
T
a
n
a

R
i
v
e
r
KIPSIGIS
HIMA
MAASAI
MAASAI
MAASAI
TATOGA
NANDI
TESO MUKUGUDO
ORMA
CHAMUS
POKOT
KARIMOJONG
DODOS
JIE
TOPOSA
MURLE
NYANGATOM
MURSI
DASSANETCH
GABRA
TURKANA
SAMBURU
ARIAAL
RENDILLE
BORAN
BURUNDI
Historical Taxonomy Map of Pastoralists
34
Pastoral people of Sub-Saharan Africa: A historical perspective
32
Branch Language Group Location Main Pastoral Species
Phylum Afroasiatic
Omotic Hamar Hamar S.W. Ethiopia Cattle, sheep, goat
Cushitic Bedauye Beja E. Suda Camels
Somaali Somaali Somalia Camels
Afar Afar Somalia/Djibouti Camels
Borana Borana Ethiopia/Kenya Cattle, sheep, goat
Rendille Rendille Kenya Cattle, sheep, goat
Gabra Gabra Kenya Camels
Chadic Yedina Yedina Lake Chad Cattle
Berber Tamasheq Touareg Central Sahara Camels
Semitic Arabic Baggara/Shuwa N.E Nigeria to Sudan Cattle, sheep, goat
Uled Suliman Lake Chad region Camels
Moors Mauretania Camels
Rashaida Red Sea Coast Camels
Phylum Nilo-Saharan
Saharan Kanuri See Table 2.2 W. and N. of Lake
Chad
Cattle , Camel
Kanembu Kuburi, Sugurti N.E. Borno/Niger Cattle
Teda/Daza Teda (Tubu) Nigeria/Niger/Chad Camels, donkeys
Zaghawa Chad/Sudan Cattle, camels
E. Sudanic
Nilotic
Maa Maasai Kenya/Tanzania Cattle
il-Camus Samburu N. Kenya Cattle
Turkana Turkana N. Kenya Cattle
Karimojong Karimojong N.E. Uganda Cattle
Jie Jie N.E. Uganda Cattle
Shilluk Shilluk S. Sudan Cattle
Anywak Anywak S. Sudan/Ethiopia Cattle
Dinka Dinka S. Sudan Cattle
Nuer Nuer S. Sudan Cattle
Atuot Atuot S. Sudan Cattle
Surmic Didinga Didinga S. Sudan Cattle
Murle Murle S. Sudan Cattle
Phylum Niger-Congo
Atlantic Fullfulde Fulße Senegambia-Sudan Various
Benue-
Congo
Herero Herero/Himba Namibia Cattle
Phylum Austornesian
Barito Bara Bara Madagascar Cattle
Phylum Khoisan
Khoi Khoi Khoi † Southern Africa Cattle
35
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
Major Pastoralists’
Clusters in Horn of Africa
Currently there are four major pastoral clusters in the Horn of Africa, namely the
Borana, Somali, Karamojong and Masai as shown in the map
33
below. All of these
clusters occupy the border areas of the countries in the Horn of Africa highlighting the
very nature of pastoralists. By their socio-cultural context, the pastoralists disregard
the international boundaries as notional.
The Omotic-Cushitic branch of pastoralists migrated to form the Borana
33
cluster on
the border of Ethiopia and Kenya and the Somali
33
cluster on the borders of Ethiopia,
Somalia and Kenya. The historical migration of Nilotic branch of pastoralists in to
the border areas of Ethiopia, South Sudan, Kenya and Uganda currently called the
Karamojong
33
cluster should not be confused with the Karomojong clan of Uganda.
The Karamojong cluster later branched off into the Masai
33
cluster which spreads from
Southern Kenya to Northern Tanzania. A current taxonomy based on these clusters
has been synthesized in the following page which needs validation as regards the
location, nomenclature and nature of these clans.
33 Source: Humanitarian Policy Group (HPG) Report: Pastoralism demographics, settlement and service provision
in the Horn and East Africa commissioned by Helen Bushell, a Regional Advisor with Oxfam GB in Kenya
y
Pastorallst demographlcs
BPC C0MMt55t0k£0 R£P0R1
y
BPC C0MMt55t0k£0 R£P0R1
veterlnary servlces-are not sufflclent to flll the gap and are
unllkely to do so ln the future (Sandford, zoo6).
Moreover, the real prlces of llvestock products have not
lncreased (and are unllkely to do so ln the future, desplte
growlng demand) to compensate for the lower numbers of
anlmals per household (Sandford, zoo6). wlth such small
and decreaslng herd]flock slzes, sales remaln focused on
lmmedlate cash needs rather than on 'commerclal' success.
Pastoral economles remaln poor, wlth llmlted clrculatlon
of cash, and so have llttle opportunlty for growth through
figure :: Pastera|ist c|uster greups in the Creater Bern eI AIrica
Source: keglonal Llvestock Study ln the 0reater horn of Afrlca, lCkC, zooç.
dlverslflcatlon or expanslon to other lncome-generatlng
actlvltles (Sandford, zoo6).
Thls thesls further suggests that llvestock-based productlon
contlnues to be overtaken by cropplng and agrlcultural
actlvltles. lf these non-llvestock-based productlon components
were supported by lrrlgatlon schemes, they would provlde
some rellef at least for pastorallsts, but llmlted opportunlty
for lrrlgatlon exlsts. Thls thesls therefore proposes that exlt
from core tradltlonal llvestock-based pastoral llvellhoods ls
currently the best optlon for pastorallsts, but thls process
CBAB
50BAk
Lkl1kLA
L1Bl0PlA
00AkBA
1AkZAklA
KLk¥A
50MALlA
BjlB001l
1 Karamo|ong cluster
z 8oran cluster
¸ Somall cluster
µ Maasal cluster
z
§
z
q
36
34 East African Pastoralism and Underdevelopment: An Introduction by Leif Manger
35 Taxonomy synthesized from Humanitarian Policy Group (HPG) Report: Pastoralism demographics, settlement
and service provision in the Horn and East Africa by Oxfam, Historical references in the book, Pastoralists under
Pressure by Roger blench & Web resources like the Wikipedia, Ethnic distribution of clans etc.
Frode Storaas
34
also discusses a fuid tribal situation. His paper on the Turkana in
northern Kenya is about how to understand the tribal relationships and identities
among the Nilotic groups in South Sudan, Uganda and Kenya (Karamojong,
Turkana, Toposa, Dodoth, Jie). Storaas’s point is that trying to reify such groups
is not very helpful. His case shows that what appear as “tribes” today might
have a common “origin” within the Karamojong Cluster.
Language: Nilo-
Saharan Circular
Homestead & cattle
rearing. Anwaa &
Nuer also exploit
fsh. Present in parts
of Ethiopia, Uganda
South Sudan &
Nilotic
Karamojong
(Teso) cluster
Semi Nomadic &
Agro Pastoralists
Nyangatom
South Sudan,
Ethiopia
Gabbra
Chalbi N Kenya
il-aiser Samaal
Nomadic
Pastoralists
Saab
Agro-Pastoralist
Merille
Ethiopia
Sakuye
E Kenya
il-makesen Darod
Puntland
Rahanwein/Mirife
S Somalia between
Juba to Shabelle
Turkana
Kenya
Rendille
NE Kenya
Somalia
il-molelian Dir
Somaliland &
S-Cent
Digil Agro &
Costal
Around
Mogadishu
Pokot
Kenya
Orma/Omo/
Kereyu
S.Ethiopia, Kenya
& N.E.Somalia
il-taarrosero Hawiye
S-Cent.
Somalia
Anywaa/Nuer
Gambella,
Ethiopia &
S.Sudan, Uganda
Afar/Danakil
Ethiopia & Djibuti
il-ikumai Isaaq
S Somaliland
Omoro Borana
cluster
Nomadic &
Semi Nomadic
Pastoralists
Masai cluster
Semi Nomadic
Sub cluster of
Nilotic in S.Kenya
N.Tanzania
Somali cluster
Nomadic & Agro Pastoralists
Pastoralists
35

Kenya, Somalia & Ethiopia
Language: Afri
Borana Gabbra,
Sakuye & Rendille
keep camels
whereas Orma &
Afar keep cattle.
Present in Ethiopia
& Kenya
Language: Masai
Samburu. Loaf-
shaped house
(Inkajijik) of mud,
sticks, grass,
dung Kraal(fence)
circular, cattle
rearing present in S
Kenya rift valley & N
Tanzania
Language: Somali language, which is part
of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic
family. Mostly camel and some cattle based
widespread in Somaliland, Puntland, S.Cent.
Somalia, Ethiopia & Kenya
37
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
Additional References:
1. Development amongst Africa’s Migratory Pastoralists by Aggrey Majok and Calvin
W Schwabe
2. East African Pastoralism and Underdevelopment: an Introduction by Leif Manger
Characteristics of nomadic pastoralism
36
:
1. Pastoralism is the predominant economic activity.
2. Extensive – keeping herds of livestock all year round on a system of free-range
grazing.
3. Periodic mobility within the boundaries of specifc grazing territories (as opposed
to migrations).
4. The participation in pastoral mobility of all or the majority of the population
5. Production for subsistence.
• Following this defnition, nomadic pastoralism is a distinct form of food-
producing economy, where mobile pastoralism is the dominant activity, and
where the majority of the population undertakes seasonal movements around
water, feld resources & clan dynamics (see right page 38)
• There are many examples of societies being nomadic (e.g. Gadia Lohar in India)
but not pastoral, and pastoral societies that are not nomadic
Types of pastoralist movements
37
Type Type Characteristic
Nomadic
movement
The strategic mobility of people and/or livestock
Pursued primarily for livelihood purposes and is a matter of choice
Do not stop at internationally recognized state borders
Migration as
adaptation
Steered by the need to adapt to external circumstances (e.g., climatic hazards or
other negative impacts on pastoralists) while trying to maintain a pastoral lifestyle
Still considered ‘voluntary’ but different from nomadic movements due to the
increased pressures on pastoralists
Characterized by movements that traverse or utilize lands belonging to other
pastoral communities, farmers or other private owners
Protected by the constitutional and human right to freedom of movement, as long as
it remains within state borders
Displacement May represent a secondary movement after pastoralists have frst moved as a
means of adapting to a changing environment
Can be a precursor to cross-border displacement
Occurs when traditional forms of rangeland management are insuffcient
Characterized by the collapse of mutual support and assistance structures within
and among pastoralist communities
Can lead to structural impoverishment (‘poverty traps’)
36 http://pastoralism-climate-change-policy.com/2013/09/24/nomadic-pastoralism-a-tentative-defnition/
37 Source: Schrepfer and Caterina, 2014
38
Additional Resources:
1. Changing Pastoralism in the Ethiopian Somali National Regional State (Region 5)
South East Rangelands Project (SERP) By Jama Sugule & Robert Walker A study
commissioned by UNDP
2. Pastoralism demographics, settlement and service provision in the Horn and East
Africa: Transformation and opportunities, May 2010, Humanitarian Policy Group
(HPG), A report commissioned by Helen Bushell, a Regional Advisor with Oxfam
GB in Kenya
3. Pastoralism and Land: Land Tenure, Administration and Use in Pastoral Areas of
Ethiopia, A joint publication by Pastoralist Forum Ethiopia & International Institute
of Rural Reconstruction
4. Clans in Somalia: Report on a Lecture by Joakim Gundel, COI Workshop Vienna,
15 May 2009 (Revised Edition), ACCORD report published December 2009
5. Assessing drought displacement risk for Kenyan, Ethiopian and Somali
pastoralists, May 2014
6. East African Pastoralism and Underdevelopment: An Introduction by Leif Manger
Web Resources
1. World initiative for sustainable Pastoralism http://www.iucn.org/wisp/
2. Thematic Report: Clan Structure in Somalia, August 2011, Civil-Military Fusion
Centre (CFC)
3. http://www.bluegecko.org/kenya/tribes/maasai/family.htm
Water
Field
Resources
Clan
Dynamics
Other e.g.
displacement
39
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
The Pastoralists
in Somalia
The Somali cluster extends from Djibouti in the North through all of Somalia in the
East, spreading up to Ethiopia and Kenya in the West and South respectively as
shown in the fgure below. The major pastoralist clans include the Darod, Dir, Hawiya,
Ishaak, Rahanwein and Digil
38
; the last two being the Agro pastoralists and limited to
Southern Somalia.
38 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somali_people, & Enhanced enrolment of pastoralists in the implementation
and evaluation of the UNICEF-FAO-WFP Resilience Strategy in Somalia by Esther Schelling for UNICEF ESARO,
June 2013
The FAO works closely with the pastoralists in the area and have been exceptionally
successful in livestock immunization. However, it is essential to understand that their
strategy is based on the fact that the pastoralists value their livestock as wealth
and the modern societal concepts of international boundaries, vaccination etc. are
extraneous to them. Their mobility is largely dependent under normal circumstances
on water sources, grazing land within their area along with external factors such as
climate, violence, confict and encroachment. The tribal elders are the key to any kind
of long term relationship. Planning a bottom-up service delivery approach & micro-
plan tailored to the pastoralist’s mobility is simply not possible without winning the
trust by understanding the perceived needs of the pastoralists.
Ethnic Groups
40
In fact, several studies have highlighted the importance of mapping the water points
in an effort to map the path of movement of these pastoral groups with a view to
reach their livestock for vaccination.
The behavioral motivation of the pastoralist clans must be further understood in order
to provide health services to them. The context of socio-cultural and anthropological
understanding is essential for two reasons, the frst being accessibility, e.g. not only
are the pastoralists often on the move across international boundaries in areas without
roads; the women and children often stay in settlements along with older people.
Thus, even if the service delivery teams were to fnd the herders and animals with
the help of livestock vaccination teams, they will fail to reach the targeted of women
and children. Secondly, acceptability of services is a signifcant socio-cultural barrier.
23/7/2014 Changing Pastoralism in Region 5
http://www.africa.upenn.edu/eue_web/past0698.htm 7/21

Breakdown of seasonaI grazing patterns
In each oI the Iive districts we attempted, in interviews with groups oI pastoralists, to discover where stock were watered and
in which areas they grazed in dry and wet seasons in the period up to 1960. The aim was to discover the extent oI changes in
seasonal grazing patterns today compared to the time beIore water points proliIerated.
Previously, stock were watered in the dry season Irom the wells in Bulale, Geladi, Warder and its environs or those in Somalia
such as Burco, Oodweyne, Hargeysa etc (see Map 4) . The areas that could be grazed in the dry season were thereIore
constrained by the need oI stock to return to these wells Ior water at periodic intervals. This is every 2 days Ior cattle and
every 3 days Ior shoats. Camels could stay away Irom the wells Irom 15 up to 30 days. Given the need Ior Irequent watering,
cattle and shoats could not be grazed Iar Irom the wells. Camels could be grazed at greater distances given their ability to stay
longer between waterings. They could be grazed at distances exceeding 100km Irom the wells and spend up to 5 days
journeying back to the wells Irom the grazing area. The area actually grazed in any dry season obviously depended on Iactors
such as where rain had Iallen in the previous season and which areas had good Iodder, Iew parasites etc. Generally, stock
would be grazed as close to the wells as good Iodder could be Iound. In most dry years, Iamily herding units would split in the
dry season. The nomadic hut would be positioned close to the wells with women and children looking aIter the shoats and a
Iew milking camels. The bulk oI the camel herd would be Iurther Irom the wells with boys and young men.
Map of Water points, Ethiopia, Somalia area, 1998
Secondary lean season -
agricultural
Livestock migration
to dry season
grazing areas
Land
preparation,
planting and peak
labor demand
Camel
kidding
Deyr
assessment
Deyr harvest
Goat/sheep
lambing
Off crop season
harvest in reverine
and agropastoral
Secondary lean
season - pastoral
Main hunger season-
agricultural
Main hunger season-pastoral
Gu harvest
Hagal dry season Jilool dry season
Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun
Jul 2010 Jul 2011 Ongoing humanitarian crisis and armed confict in southern and central region expected to continue
Deyr (minor) rainy season Gu (main) rainy season
Gu assessment
41
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
The concept of vaccination is not understood by the pastoralists. However, they
do value treatment or relief from diseases that they suffer from. Thus, a convergent
service delivery system approach is most likely to give results.
The FAO teams set up livestock treatment centers close to the mapped livestock
routes, near water points
39
along the path taken by the pastoralists in close consultation
with the elders (an example of a Somali cluster – Somali region of Ethiopia). These
centers provide them with livestock treatment for various ailments and in exchange,
vaccinate their animals. The issue of availability adds to the planning complexity. Even
if health centers and mobile clinics are set up to move along with the tribes, they have
to be replenished with supplies and logistics.
Nevertheless, it has been proved by the FAO livestock vaccination teams that it is
not impossible to have a good network of non-electrical, or alternative cold-chain,
situated near the settlements on the routes.
The Pastoralists
in Ethiopia
Ethiopia has a vast area where pastoralists can be found (shown in green in the map -
page 42). Most of the south-western half of the country is inhabited by the Afar, Keryu,
Somali and the Omoro-Borana group of pastoralists, The SNNP region has the Bench
Maji and the Omo groups along with Nuer clan in the western part of the country.
40

As can be seen from the distribution of health facilities in the map above, the pastoral
regions have signifcantly larger areas to service per health center. Fortunately, the
Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) along with international organizations like WHO and
UNICEF, seem to have the equity focus on these areas and clans, as is evidenced by
the research & planning documents
41
.
The fndings of the formative and process evaluation of pastoralist Health Extension
Programme commissioned by FMoH and UNICEF is a good guide to the efforts made
and adaptations required for better results. Lessons learned from the workshop
on Pastoralists held in Addis Ababa in 2011 also provided critical and necessary
information.
39 Source: Changing Pastoralism in the Ethiopian Somali National Regional State South East Rangelands Project
(SERP) By Jama Sugule & Robert Walker for UNDP http://www.africa.upenn.edu/eue_web/past0698.htm
40 Source: A Joint Report by FoMH, WHO & UNICEFon Lessons Learned from the Multi-Country Experience-
Sharing Conference on Pastoralist Communities (June 27 - July 1, 2011 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
41 See Annexure: A joint report by FMoH, WHO and UNICEF on a workshop held in Addis Ababa 2011: Lessons
from Pastoralist Conference, Accelerating MNCH in Pastoralist communities UNICEF, Formative and Process
Evaluation of Pastoralist Health Extension Programme in Afar, Gambella, Somali and the Pastoralist areas of
Oromia and SNNP regions, Ethiopia jointly commissioned by FMoH and UNICEF
42
The Borana Cluster (Ethiopia, Kenya & Somalia)
The Boran people live on the border of southern Ethiopia, west Somalia and northern
Kenya. However, their area of pastoralism is dwindling due to due to degradation, bush
encroachments and other factors. Population growth, agricultural encroachments,
blocked migration routes add to their problems and cause conficts due to the
scarce natural resources. This is forcing the Borana people to leave their nomadic-
pastoralism, which by its very nature, ensures the regeneration of the grasslands.
Map of Ethiopia showing Pastoralist areas with the road,
river and Health facilities
23/7/2014 The Borana Community
http://www.boranavoices.org/page5.html 1/14
PeopIe of the South Borana
1 The Land of the Borana

Three hundred and twenty kilometers north of Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya, the road of Addis Ababa takes a
traveller to a dry region of the country. The landscape here is quiet different from the cooler and wetter Kenya highlands.
These two geographical regions are separated by Ìsiolo, a town which serves as a gateway to the large expanse of
land previously called the N.F.D. (Northern Frontier District). This area, which includes the present day of Northern
Eastern Province and a large part of Eastern Province of Kenya (Marsabit, Ìsiolo, Wajir, Garissa and Mandera
Districts), covers 240,000 square kilometers which is forty percent of Kenya.
The land gradually rises northwards towards the Ethiopian Highlands, and is largely made of very ancient sedimentary
and volcanic rocks. The country is mainly flat, though in Marsabit District are found cones and craters which form
mountains such as Marsabit (1705 m), Kulal (2831 m), and the Hurri Hills (1456 m). During the Old Stone Age (about
one million years ago) the Marsabit volcanic flow overran a lake. As a result the lake dried up and its bed formed the
present-day Chalbi Desert. Lying close to this is the Dido Galgallu Desert whose barren and rocky surface is difficult to
travel across.

CIimate
The N.F.D. as a whole has both a semi-desert and a desert climate. Most areas have an average of only 200 or 300
mm of rain a year or even less. There are two rainfall seasons (March to May and October to December) and an
average monthly rainfall of 50 mm or more occurs only in April or May. The rest of the rain in November and December
comes down in heavy storms.
The average temperature is between 22 and 27C, but the temperature range is very wide. The skies are almost always
clear, and this fact, together with the intense heat, means that all surface water evaporates at a great rate. So surface
water is very scarce and the only reliable sources of water are the Webi Daua River on the Kenya-Ethiopia border and
the north Uaso Nyiro River which originates in the Nyandarua mountains and drains into the Lorian Swamp, 530
kilometers away from its source.
Except for the forest round Marsabit and those near rivers, the land is composed of thorn bush, thickets and true desert
scrub and grass.

Map of present-day Borana region






















Most of the bush is deciduous, and some is evergreen. The thin grass cover is so sensitive to water that soon after rain
the sun-burnt bare land is covered by a luxurious sea of greenery. Among other animals, we find here the reticulated
giraffe, common and Grey's zebra, ostrich, gerenuk, oryx, black rhino, elephant, buffalo, dikdik, lion, leopard, hyena and
cheetah. Also occupying a fairly large part of the N.F.D. are the pastoral Borana people who are believed to have
43
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
A map
42
shown below, details the dry and rainy season movement of the Boranas,
with grazing areas and water points.
Additional resources
1. Rangeland Management for Improved Pastoralist Livelihoods: The Borana of
Southern Ethiopia, April 2010 By Djihan Skinner
2. http://web.colby.edu/eastafricaupdate/key-issues-in-ethiopia-2011/chapter-2/
3. http://www.boranavoices.org/page5.html
42 Source: Indigenous Knowledge of Borana Pastoralists in Natural Resource Management By Sabine Homann

6
8


Map 4. Indigenous land use patterns in Borana rangelands, southern Ethiopia.
Source: Author, based on pastoralists` interpretation oI satellite pictures provided by Werner (2001)
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44
23/7/2014 kenya_ethnic_1974.jpg (593×783)
http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/africa/kenya_ethnic_1974.jpg
1/1
The Pastoralists in Kenya
There are several pastoralist tribes in Kenya. Best known amongst them are the Masai
in the southern part of Kenya on the border with Tanzania, and the Turkana near Lake
Rudolf towards the North-Western part of Kenya bordering Ethiopia. Additionally, the
Somali and the Borana tribes are also present on borders with Somalia and Ethiopia
respectively, along with the Sambure and Bantu tribes. It is diffcult to assess if some
of the tribes mentioned here are still nomadic pastoralists or have settled.
A map of the ethnic groups shown below represent their areas. The second map
on the right (page 45), shows the food crisis areas in the pink, food secure areas in
green and the food insecure areas in the off-white color. The dotted areas represent
the nomadic-pastoralist areas broadly. The map also shows the rural-urban migration
with bold arrows.
43
43 Source http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/africa/ & http://www.kenyafoodsecurity.org/
45
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
The description of most of these pastoralist groups is available on websites researched
for this review. However, mobility patterns for these groups are constantly changing
due to the encroachments into their areas in addition to other factors.



Map 2: Map of kenya


46
Socio-cultural dynamics of these tribes
44
The Maasai migrated to Kenya from what is today Sudan, about 1,000 years ago and
constitute about 2% of the total population. Their comparatively small number does
not equate with their reputation and fame outside of Kenya as stoic and brave lion
hunters and warriors. In spite of pressure from the Kenyan government to modernize,
the Maasai have fercely maintained much of their traditional culture and way of life.
They are nomadic cattle and goat herders, and for them cattle is the most important
social, economic, and political factor. Cattle are a sign of wealth, social standing as
well as a food source. Milk and blood, tapped from a cow’s jugular vein, is a staple.
Their traditional homeland is in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania in an area
that has the most visited game parks. Thus many tourists come in contact with the
Maasai morani (warriors) clad in red blankets, red ochre covering their heads and
carrying spears and clubs as well as Maasai women wearing colourful beads. The
Maasai help to manage and maintain the Maasai Mara National Park and receive a
percentage of the park fees.
44 Source : http://ayyaantuu.com/horn-of-africa-news/kenya/
MAGADI
THIKA
NAIVASHA
MAKUYU
NYERI
NANYUKI
NYAHURURU
NANDI HILLS
ELDORET
KITALE
KAKAMEGA
RUMA
NATIONAL
PARK
SERENGETI
NATIONAL
PARK
MAASA MARA
NATIONAL
RESERVE
OL PEJETA
NATIONAL
RESERVE
MT. KENYA
NATIONAL
PARK
LONGONOT
NATIONAL
PARK
AMBOSELI
NATIONAL
PARK
Lake Magadi
Lake Nakuru
Lake Naivasaha
MACHAKOS
NAROK
KERICHO
NJORO
KISUMU
KISII
LIMURU
ABERDARES
NATIONAL PARK
NAIROBI
LAKE
BOGORIA
NATIONAL
RESERVE
KERIO
VALLEY
NATIONAL
RESERVE
MT. ELGON
NATIONAL
PARK
KAKAMEGA
NATIONAL
RESERVE
SULTAN HAMUD
GILGIL
NAKARU
OL DOINYO
SAPUK
NATIONAL
PARK
NAMANGA
HELL’S GATE
NATIONAL
PARK
NDERI
NATIONAL
PARK
47
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
The Samburu are closely related to the Maasai and their traditional homeland is
around Maralal in Northern Central Kenya. Like the Maasai their morani preferred
blankets, use red ochre to decorate their heads and the women wear beaded jewelry.
They also tend cattle and goats, but cattle are the center of Samburu social, political,
and economic life. The Samburu are still nomadic people and when pasture becomes
scarce in this semi-arid land, they pack up their manyattas (small settlements) on
camels and move to better pastures.
The Turkana are closely related to the Maasai and the Samburu. They have a reputation
as ferce warriors. Although they keep goats, sheep and camels, cattle is the most
important component of Turkana life. Their diet consists mainly of milk and blood.
The Turkana live in Northern Kenya, near Lake Turkana on arid land. Like many other
ethnic groups in Africa, Turkana men have several wives. However, the Turkana have
a three year wedding ceremony that ends after the frst child is weaned.
The Maasai, Samburu and Turkana practice cattle rustling. Law enforcement offcials
tend to stay clear of disputes arising between and within groups. Disputes are settled
by elders and often the guilty person is fned cattle, goats, camels, or sheep.
Cushitic speaking people comprise a small minority of Kenya’s population. They
include the following ethnic groups: Somali, El Molo, Boran, Burji Dassenich, Gabbra,
Orma, Sakuye, Boni, Wata, Yaaka, Daholo, Rendille, and Galla. The Somali tend large
herds of cattle, goats, sheep, and camels in the dry, arid lands of Northern Kenya.
They are politically well organized and are united by both family allegiances and
political treaties. The Somali also produce exquisitely carved headrests and woven
artefacts.
44

48
Health Status and
Service Delivery to
Pastoralists
There is extensive resource material from various studies, workshops and publications
on the health status and health service delivery strategies and challenges, both on the
web and in print. The most common theme among most of them, highlights the need
to innovate and adapt to the health service delivery to the needs of the pastoralists.
The recommendations and lessons learned from two select resources are highlighted
below.
Polio Outbreak among Nomads in Chad: Outbreak Response and Lessons Learned:
Oxford Journal 2013
Our success was due to:
• Appointment of staff to oversee implementation;
• Engagement of the national government & partners;
• Participation of nomadic community leaders;
• Intersectoral collaboration between human and animal health services;
• Flexibility & capacity of vaccinators to vaccinate when & where nomads were
available.
“Pastoralists do not really know or care much about animal mass vaccination
or disease eradication plan. Rather it is the veterinary treatment for their sick
animals and other demanded services, veterinary advice, access to water
and feeds that is the driving force for them to come for vaccination services.”
Dr. Cyprien Biaou,
Coordinator Livestock Sector,
FAO
49
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
Lessons Learned from the Multi-Country Experience-Sharing: Conference on
Pastoralist Communities (2011 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
The most important lessons included:
• The nomadic clinic system (Tented clinics that move every fortnight following
the movement of pastoralists) which is also linked to static facilities established
at strategic locations from Kenya
• The One health system (synergy between human health and veterinary medicine)
the theoretical basis of which was thoroughly expounded by representative of
the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, from Chad and Mali.
• Extensive community participation and deployment of community health
workers (Accredited Social Health Activists ‘ASHA’ (which means HOPE in the
local language), from India.
• Provision of free of charge medical services during pregnancy, delivery and
postpartum period and pastoralist children to overcome under-utilization due
to unaffordable cost, and the success to reduce maternal mortality rate by
signifcant proportion within a relatively short period of time, from Mongolia.
Learnings from deliberations with various stakeholders and experts are listed below:
1. Understand socio-cultural & anthropological aspects of pastoralists before
planning services
2. Build a trusting relationship with the elders of the pastoralist groups through
regular consultation
3. The pastoralists decide their mobility around water, feld resources and clan
dynamics
4. Bottom-up planning, tailored to the pastoralists’ needs & a convergent approach
is likely to succeed
5. In depth research, relevant training of health workers and social mobilisers is
critical to success
6. Investments in uninterrupted supply in inaccessible areas with minimal stock-outs
is a prerequisite.
50
Resources on the Health Service Delivery to mobile
populations
1. Tropical Medicine and International Health
a. “Where health care has no access: the nomadic populations of sub-Saharan
Africa” by Abdikarim Sheik-Mohamed and Johan P. Velema, October 1999,
Volume 4 no 10 pp 695–707
b. Editorial: Health of nomadic pastoralists: new approaches towards equity
effectiveness by J. Zinsstag, M. Ould Taleb and P. S. Craig, May 2006, volume
11 no 5 pp 565–568
2. Barriers to tuberculosis care: a qualitative study among Somali pastoralists in
Ethiopia http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2853549/ by Abdi A
Gele, Mette Sagbakken, [...], and Gunnar A Bjune
3. Formative and Process evaluation of Pastoralist health extension programme in
Afar, Gambella, Somali and the Pastoralist areas of Oromia and SNNP regions,
Ethiopia, may 2011, by Reach Consult plcLessons Learned from the Multi-
Country Experience-Sharing Conference on Pastoralist Communities, June 27
- July 1, 2011 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, A Workshop Report
4. Networks of Nomads: Negotiating Access to Healthcare among Pastoralist
Women in Chad by Kate Hampshire
5. Learning from the delivery of social services to Pastoralists: Elements of good
practice by Esther Schelling, Daniel Weibel, Bassirou Bonfoh, Nairobi 2008, For
The World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism (WISP), a project of the Global
Environment Facility, Implemented by UNDP and Executed by the International
Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
6. A Multidisciplinary study on health services delivery to Afar Pastoralists by
Getachew Kassa, Nov 2002
7. http://iom.int/cms/en/sites/iom/home.html
8. http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/article/somali-region-ethiopia-thousands-
idps-search-food-and-water
9. http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/article/drc-nomadic-herders-repeatedly-
forced-fee
10. http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/article/mali-msf-responds-measles-
epidemic
51
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
11. http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/article/galcayo-town-divided-population-
trying-endure
12. http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/article/somalia-crisis-pushing-people-
their-homes-en-masse
13. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/gallery/2009/sep/07/turkana-kenya-
drought-climate-change
14. http://kwekudee-tripdownmemorylane.blogspot.com/2013/07/turkana-people-
kenyas-beautiful-semi.html
15. http://www.unicef.org/education/kenya_67937.html
16. http://www.wanderingnomads.com/region/people/
17. http://www.redcross.int/EN/mag/magazine2009_1/22-27.html
18. http://www.popline.org/node/295437
19. http://www.imi.ox.ac.uk/news/new-partnership-to-study-migration-futures-in-
the-horn-of-africa
20. Polio Outbreak among Nomads in Chad: Outbreak Response and Lessons
Learned Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases
Society of America 2013.
52
Regional Consultation
Meeting of Experts
The regional consultation meeting of experts from IOM, FAO, RMMS, UNHCR, USAID,
FHI, Red Cross, CORE Group, WHO, and UNICEF, draw upon a variety of expertise
and operational knowledge of programmes engaging with migrant, nomadic, and
pastoralist population of the Horn of Africa. The purpose of the meeting was to inform
and validate fndings of the desk review, as well as to agree upon the set of follow
up actions to operationalize fexible immunization strategies in the polio affected
countries of the Horn of Africa. The detailed Terms of Reference and agenda are
attached as an Annex to this report. Below is the synopsis of presentations, which
could be downloaded from the online shared drive:
1. World Health Organization (WHO) presentation on challenges in reaching mobile
populations summarized the epidemiology of Wild Polio Virus (WPV) transmission
in the Horn of Africa and its context with reference to mobile populations in the
regions and missed children during SIAs and low routine immunization coverage.
The presentation also gave a description of the security situation and diffculty in
reaching some areas within the region which had contributed to the outbreak in
the Horn of Africa recently. It also outlined the challenges in implementation with
specifc reference to the mobile populations.
2. The Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat (RMMS) presentation gave insights
into mixed migration in the Horn of Africa defning and describing key terms in
the context of migration. It also detailed the factors affecting migration; sources
that provided updated information about migration; trends and data collection
mechanisms; challenges and areas for collaboration.
3. International Organization for Migration (IOM) presented “pull” factors for
migration in the Horn of Africa highlighting key trends with reference to Yemen.
IOM described the key migration routes from the Horn of Africa to the Middle
East, Europe and South Africa. They also detailed the work that the organization
did through their network of Migration Response Centers (MRC) to support the
countries in registering the migrants of different age groups. Specifc examples
from Bosasso and Hargeysa were presented.
4. A presentation from UNHCR reviewed the refugee camp sites and their populations
in the Horn of Africa with details of their origin by camp site, country of origin, and
destination. UNHCR reviewed “push” factors of migration that trigger movement
of IDPs and refugees. The follow up discussion clarifed that the updated age and
gender-wise disaggregated data was freely available on the UNHCR website and
could be used for micro planning.
53
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
5. An exemplary presentation by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Somalia on the strategies used for livestock vaccination was an eye-opener to
many. The success of the animal vaccination programme was acknowledged
by participants both in terms of the achieved results, existing constraints of the
Somalia environment, generated local ownership and trust for animal vaccination
programme. Programme monitoring within the context of Somali Pastoralist clans
was also reviewed.
The pastoralists not only keep moving within Somalia but also cross borders
into Ethiopia and Kenya at will. The presentation generated new ideas on how
to create demand for services by tapping the felt needs of anthropologically and
socially dissimilar group. The presenter talked about the importance of involving
and engaging with the tribe elders to build a long-term and trusting relationship
and the importance of bottom up planning process that involves innovative and
tailored approaches both for program implementation and monitoring.
6. United States Agency for International Development (USAID) presented slides
prepared in conjunction with Family Health International (FHI) on key issues that
affect the immunization services in the context of mobile populations and pastoralists
including the target mobility around water. Some of the issues discussed included
availability of service delivery staff, supply challenges and constraints including
security related challenges. The presenter also gave suggestions resonating with
FAO presentation to involve the elders in planning. The presenter suggested the
use of token giveaways that are valuable to the pastoralist communities as a
means to establish a relationship followed by comprehensive and uninterrupted
service delivery mechanism.
7. Presentation by UNICEF outlined preliminary fndings of the desk review
synthesized on the basis of available resources on mobile populations in the
Horn of Africa. The presentation suggested a taxonomy of mobile populations
with defnitions that were drawn from various sources. The historical basis for the
pastoralist’s classifcation and their current cluster locations with clan distribution
was described as per the available literature in Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia
limited by physical verifcation of the facts on the ground. The presenter also
gave specifc suggestions on the way forward in terms of identifcation of key
focal persons and data sharing, physical verifcation against micro-plans and
other practical steps that could help implementers of the programme on the
ground. The lessons learned from the existing health programs were suggested,
especially with reference on how to establish trust with pastoralist groups and
provide services to them.
54
8. Joint presentations by the WHO and UNICEF country teams in Somalia presented
the efforts that have been made for improving vaccination in the diffcult
areas including challenges faced with providing immunization to pastoralists.
Collaborative efforts with FAO were mentioned. The presenter also described the
transit strategy for vaccination during SIAs and monitoring.
9. The joint presentation from the WHO and UNICEF country teams from Kenya
described the efforts to reach the pastoralists in border areas of Kenya and the
clans present in these regions. The presenter also touched on the children of
pastoralists being missed as evident from the IPV campaign in Dadaab, one of the
world’s largest refugee camps located in Kenya. The presentation also highlighted
the action plan, outreach efforts, challenges and some of the best practices e.g.
prior mapping of nomadic communities.
10. Based on UNICEF Ethiopia inputs, UNICEF ESARO made a short verbal presentation
on the pastoralist approaches in Ethiopia, where the issue of pastoralism is seen
as a broader issue going beyond polio. The institutional approach to equity and
broader service delivery to pastoralist groups was presented, including signifcant
Government outreach efforts to vast nomadic groups in Ethiopia.
“The population movement is not haphazard. In fact, it is very well known.
At any given point of time the location of these pastoral groups are known
to certain community leaders on the ground. Therefore, it is important to
ensure that we include these people into the planning process.”
Dr. Subroto Mukherjee,
Sr. Regional Infectious Disease Adviser,
USAID
55
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
Recommendations
Following the presentations and extensive discussions the participants agreed on
the need to continue the research to fll the gaps identifed through the regional desk
review. Specifcally, it was suggested that the information available through the study
be supplemented with additional information collected as per requirements of each
country.
Implementing partners in countries will make use of the identifed resources for
improved micro planning and also will create stronger connections with their
counterparts concerned with mobile populations. While every country will adopt their
own approach to develop mobile population strategy, it was agreed that country
teams frst will research and synthesize available resources and links as set above in
this report. Further, a periodic mechanism needs to be set up to periodically update
the micro-plans and maintain cross border information sharing.
Regional Recommendations
1. Identifcation of focal person (mobile populations) in each country offce (for both
WHO and UNICEF)
2. Initiate cross-border coordination and periodic information sharing available in the
region on mixed migration trends and known signifcant shifts in routes/scope of
migration
3. Explore innovative collaborations platforms with 4Mi-IOM, RMMS, FAO to tie up
information for children under fve crossing the borders
4. Continue to provide technical support to country offces through consultants or
regional partners
Country Level Recommendations for Migrants
1. Verifcation of micro-plans at country level against the information available
through country offces of UNHCR, IOM, FAO, USAID, RMMS and other sources:
• Stakeholder consultation, data sharing, resource mapping at country level
• Consolidate lists (sites and targets) available with stakeholders
• Validation: refugee camps, IDP settlements, transit/border crossings
2. Periodic stakeholder consultations for:
• Updating these lists (responsible focal persons at country offces)
• Sharing of consolidated lists (intervention sites target groups)
• Reviewing how to /who provides tailored service delivery for new sites
• Review of implementation and monitoring
56
Country Level and Sub-Country Level Recommendations for
Pastoralists
1. Listing and verifcation of clans and sub-clans at country level
• Stakeholder consultation for exchanging information & data they have e.g. List
of refugee camps
• Cross border coordination & information sharing (cross notifcation)
• Consolidate lists of clans & locations available with stakeholders & verify against
micro-plan
• Additional research/literature review will be required to develop understanding
on the social anthropology of specifc pastoralist clans/sub-clans as per
requirements by each country
Specifcally,
i. Will a comprehensive convergent approach be more acceptable vs component?
ii. Women and Infants at settlements, elders role…
iii. Culture, values, beliefs, norms, taboos, religious & traditional barriers to vaccination
iv. Health seeking behaviour
v. Movement patterns
2. Trust-building with elders (establishing & maintaining contact)
• Identifying mediators/infuencers for social mobilization
• Verifcation of movement patterns for families and children
• Consultation on how/when to reach the target groups (denominators)
• Initiating IPC and social mobilization for accepting services
3. Stakeholder consultation (with resource mapping) on service delivery
• Strategy: how best to provide tailored service delivery for new sites
• Assigning responsibilities / allocating tasks : who is to do what and timeline
4. Periodic stakeholder consultations for
• Updating these lists (responsible contact identifcation)
• Sharing of consolidated lists (intervention sites & target groups)
• How to /who provides tailored service delivery & regular follow-up
• Review Implementation progress and monitoring
Specifcally,
i. Identifed tribes through Case Investigation Form (clan/travel history)
ii. Proportion of AFP “0” dose amongst pastoralists v/s resident populations
iii. Proportion of AFP with vaccine virus in stool v/s resident populations
iv. Coverage during SIAs and RI
57
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
References
1. Lessons Learned from the Multi-Country Experience-Sharing Conference on
Pastoralist Communities by FMoH, WHO & UNICEF held in Addis Ababa, Mid
2011
2. Formative and Process Evaluation of Pastoralist Health Extension Programme in
Afar, Gambella, Somali and the Pastoralist areas of Oromia and SNNP regions,
Ethiopia, commissioned by FMoH & UNICEF, May 2011
3. Accelerating MNCH in Pastoralist communities in Ethiopia, UNICEF, 2014
4. Pastoralism and Land: Land Tenure, Administration and Use in Pastoral Areas of
Ethiopia, A joint publication by PFE & IIRR
5. Migrant Smuggling in the horn of Africa and Yemen: the political economy and
protection risks
6. Going West: contemporary mixed migration from the Horn of Africa to Libya &
Europe
7. In Pursuit of the Southern Dream: Victims of Necessity, April 2009 IOM Publication
8. Assessing Drought Displacement Risk for Kenyan, Ethiopian and Somali
pastoralists, Technical paper, April 2014, NRC & IDMC
9. Assessing drought displacement risk for Kenyan, Ethiopian and Somali
pastoralists, May 2014
10. Mixed Migration Flows: Somali and Ethiopian migration to Yemen and Turkey,
R.Jureidini, 2010
11. Smuggling of migrants into, through and from North Africa, UNODC, 2010
12. Dimensions of Crisis on Migration in Somalia, Working Paper, IOM, Feb 2014
13. Communicable Disease Epidemiological Profle: Horn of Africa WHO/CDS/NTD/
DCE/2007.1
14. Where health care has no access: the nomadic populations of sub-Saharan
Africa by Abdikarim Sheik-Mohamed and Johan P. Velema, Tropical Medicine
and International Health, October 1999
15. Following the Afar: Using remote tracking systems to analyze pastoralists’ routes,
Journal of Arid Environments, 2008
16. Mixed Migration in Kenya: the scale of movement and associated protection risks,
IOM, 2013
17. Impact of Confict on Pastoral Communities’ Resilience in the Horn of Africa, FAO,
Feb 2012
58
18. Somali Regional State, Ethiopia: Livelihood Zone (LZ) Map, Field Surveys by
SCUK/DPPB, 2004
19. Vulnerable Livelihoods in Somali Region, Ethiopia, By Stephen Devereux, April
2006
20. Clans in Somalia, Report on Lecture by J. Gundel, COI Workshop Vienna,
ACCORD, May 2009
21. Climate Change and Pastoralism: Traditional Coping Mechanisms and Confict
in the Horn of Africa, Institute for Peace and Security Studies, Addis Ababa
University and University for Peace, Africa Programme Addis Ababa, Ethiopia,
2012
22. ‘You can’t go home again’: Pastoralism in the new millennium, by Roger Blench,
2001
23. East African Pastoralism in Transition: Maasai, Boran, and Rendille Cases by Elliot
Fratkin, 2001
24. East African Pastoralism and Underdevelopment: An Introduction by Leif Manger
25. Pastoralists Under Pressure, R. Blench, 1999
26. On the margin: Kenyan Pastoralists, From displacement to solutions, a conceptual
study on the internal displacement of pastoralists, Published by the NRC, March
2014
27. World Migration Report: Migrant well-being & Development, IOM Report, 2013
28. Health Vulnerabilities Study of Mixed Migration Flows from the East and Horn of
Africa and the Great Lakes Region to Southern Africa, an IOM Publication, 2013
29. An Analysis of Migration Health in Kenya, IOM, 2011
30. A Multidisciplinary study on health services delivery to Afar Pastoralists by G.
Kassa, 2002
31. Where health care has no access: the nomadic populations of sub-Saharan
Africa by Abdikarim Sheik-Mohamed and Johan P. Velema, Tropical Medicine
and International Health, Oct 1999
32. Mixed migration in the Horn of Africa and Yemen, Monthly Publication, RMMS,
Feb 2014
33. Learning from the Delivery of Social Services to Pastoralists: Elements of good
practice by Esther Schelling, Daniel Weibel, Bassirou Bonfoh, 2008
34. Enhanced enrolment of pastoralists in the implementation and evaluation of the
UNICEF-FAO-WFP Resilience Strategy in Somalia by Esther Schelling for UNICEF
ESARO, June 2013
59
Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
Regional Consultation
Meeting
Mobile Population in the Horn of Africa
Comfort Gardens Hotel, 34 UN Crescent, Nairobi
28 May, 2014
Rationale
The Horn of Africa countries have been experiencing an explosive polio outbreak
since May 2013. Over half of all polio cases in the world last year are attributed to the
three countries in the region - Somalia, Kenya, and Ethiopia. Aggressive response
with repeated polio immunization rounds has decreased the intensity of the outbreak.
While the overall response has been adequate, reaching mobile populations, including
migrants, pastoralists, IDPs, and to the lesser extent refugees, has been a challenge.
A macro picture of population movement across the Horn of Africa is largely known
and informed by the research of regional bodies and organizations, including UNHCR,
IOM, Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat of the Horn of Africa and others. There are
also other development interventions and research projects run by various groups
and NGOs engaging mobile populations that can inform the development of fexible
immunization strategies.
Yet this existing body of knowledge requires consolidation, synthesis and validation.
The programme must establish better understanding of what these mobile groups
are - what is their mode, scope, geography, and seasonality of travel; and lastly,
what is the best way to reach them during and between SIAs. The outcome of this
research can further be used for other health and development interventions.
UNICEF Regional offce for Eastern and Southern Africa is leading this process on
behalf of Polio Eradication partners in the Horn of Africa - engaging development
partners and academia in desk review, bilateral and group consultations to create
collective knowledge on mobile population and identify existing research gaps.
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Objectives
Regional partner consultation meeting on mobile population in the Horn of Africa aims
to create a shared understanding of the issue, specifcally:
a) Appreciate challenges in reaching mobile and nomadic population with polio,
routine immunization and other health services (ex. WASH, nutrition, TB and
others).
b) Review and validate existing body of knowledge based on the completed desk
review; identify and agree on critical research gaps, including pastoralist and
nomadic groups.
c) Share best practices in reaching pastoralist and nomadic communities with
services and development interventions.
d) Review country perspectives and ways forward to fll the research gaps.
Expected Outcomes
As the result of this exercise Polio Eradication Partners in the Horn of Africa will have
a) become aware of the existing body of knowledge in mobile population research, b)
agree on research gaps that need to be addressed at regional and/or country levels,
c) initiative development of a roadmap for country offces to apply existing and future
research to deploy fexible immunization strategies reaching mobile population of the
Horn of Africa, and d) initiate discussion around cross-border population movement
information sharing platform.
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Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
Agenda
Time Session
1300 – 1310 Welcome Remarks
Introduction of Participants
Brigitte Toure, Senior Regional
Immunization Advisor, UNICEF
1310 – 1330 Challenges in Reaching Mobile
Population with Polio SIAs in the Horn
of Africa
Polio Outbreak Specifc Q&A
Sam Okiror, Horn of Africa Polio
Outbreak Coordinator, WHO
1330 – 1350 Overview of the Mixed Migration in the
Horn of Africa
Christopher Horwood, Coordination
Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat
1350– 1430 Cross – Border Population Movement
in the Horn of Africa – Pull and Push
Factors
■ International Migration – Pull (20 min)
■ Refugees and Displaced Population – Push (20
min)
Craig Murphy, Project Coordinator on
Mixed Migration, IOM
John Burton, Senior Public Health
Offcer, UNHCR
1430 – 1445 Case Study: Working with Pastoralist
Population for Animal Vaccination
Cyprien Biaou, Coordinator Livestock
Sector, FAO
1445 – 1515 Question & Answers Session
1515 – 1530 Tea Break
1530 – 1545 Case Study: Drought Relief & Nomadic
Health Project in Lower Juba
Anthony Abura, Programme Manager,
World Vision TB
Presented by Subroto Mukherjee,
Public Health Advisor, USAID
1545 – 1615 Overview of the existing body of
knowledge and gaps in mobile
population
Saumya Anand, Mobile Population
Strategist, UNICEF
1615 - 1645 Country refections & next steps:
- Somalia
- Kenya
- Ethiopia
WHO / UNICEF Country Teams
1645-1655 Summary of the Outcomes Rustam Haydarov, Communication
Specialist, UNICEF
1655-1700 Closing Remarks Brigitte Toure, Senior Regional
Immunization Advisor, UNICEF
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List of Participants
Horn of Africa Polio Eradication Coordination Group:
1. Sam Okiror, Horn of Africa Polio Coordinator, WHO
2. Brigitte Toure, Senior Regional Immunization Adviser, UNICEF ESARO
3. Sara Lowther, Horn of Africa Polio Coordinator, CDC
4. Rustam Haydarov, Regional Communication Specialist (Polio), UNICEF ESARO
5. John Burton, Senior Public Health Offcer, UNHCR
6. Subroto Mukherjee, Senior Infectious Disease Adviser, USAID
7. Robert Davis, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Society
8. William Mbabazi, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Society
Resource Persons:
9. Saumya Anand, UNICEF Polio M&E Specialist (on mission)
10. John Tabayi, Senior Regional Public Health Offcer, UNHCR
11. Christopher Horwood, Coordinator, Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat
12. Bram Fouwls, Senior Research Associate, Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat
13. Cyprien Biaou, Livestock Coordinator, FAO Somalia
14. Craig Murphy, Project Coordinator on Mixed Migration, IOM
15. Michela Martini, Regional Migration Health Programme Offcer, IOM
16. Nina Marano, Director Refugee Health Program for Africa, CDC
17. Joel Montgomery, Principal Deputy Director, CDC-Kenya
18. Beatrice Kirubi, Medical Coordinator, MSF
19. Dorothy Muroki, Project Director, FHI360/Roads - II
20. John Adungosi, Director Care and Treatment, FHI-360
21. Kamene Mariita, Head MDR-TB program, National TB Program Kenya
WHO
22. Mulugeta Debesay, Polio Team Lead, WHO Somalia
23. Raoul Kamadjeu, Medical Offcer, WHO Somalia
24. Raffaella Vicentini, Communication Offcer, WHO Somalia
25. Iheoma Ukachi, Polio Team Lead, WHO Kenya
26. Kibet Sergon, Medical Offcer, WHO Kenya
27. Jemimah Mwakisha, Communication Offcer, WHO Kenya
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Overview of Mobile Populations in the Horn of Africa
UNICEF
28. Luwei Pearson, Regional Adviser Child Survival & Development, UNICEF ESARO
29. Rory Nefdt, Community Health Specialist, UNICEF ESARO
30. Deepa Risal Pokharel, C4D Specialist EPI ESARO
31. Chaudhary Mohd Parvez Alam, C4D Specialist UNICEF Somalia
32. Martin Murama, Polio Team Lead, UNICEF Kenya
33. Peter Okoth, Immunization Specialist, UNICEF Kenya
34. Leila Abrar, C4D Specialist Polio, UNICEF Kenya
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