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# Waveguide based devices

Waveguide Tees
Waveguide components
ECE 430 RF Engineering 2
The waveguide components generally
encountered are:
 Tee junctions – E-plane, H-plane &
Magic Tee
 Attenuators
 Directional couplers
 Waveguide terminating devices
 Slotted sections
Waveguide Tees
ECE 430 RF Engineering 3
 E-plane Tee
 H-plane Tee
 Magic Tee
H-plane Tee
ECE 430 RF Engineering 4
 Cutting a
rectangular slot
along the width of
the main
waveguide &
attaching another
waveguide
Main arm
H-arm /
side arm
Port 3
Port 1
Port 2
Collinear ports
H-plane Tee (Shunt junction)
ECE 430 RF Engineering 5
 Axis of the side arm is parallel to the plane of
the main TL
 All the 3 arms lies in the plane of magnetic
field – magnetic field divides itself into the
arms – CURRENT JUNCTION
 When TE
10
mode is allowed to propagate into
port 3, the electric fields do not change their
direction when coming out of port 1 & 2
ECE 430 RF Engineering 6
S-matrix of H-plane Tee
ECE 430 RF Engineering 7
 S
13
= S
23
due to plane of symmetry at the junction
 Symmetric property
S
12
= S
21
S
23
= S
32
= S
13

S
13
= S
31

 Perfect match at the junction
S
33
= 0

| |
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
S S S
S S S
S S S
S
| |
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
0
13 13
13 22 12
13 12 11
S S
S S S
S S S
S
S-matrix of H-plane Tee
ECE 430 RF Engineering 8
 Unitary property [S] [S]
*
= [ I ]
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 * *
* * *
* * *
0
13 13
13 22 12
13 12 11
13 13
13 22 12
13 12 11
S S
S S S
S S S
S S
S S S
S S S
( ) 1 1
1 * * * ) (
2
13
2
12
2
11
13 13 12 12 11 11 1 1
÷ = + +
= + + ¬
S S S
S S S S S S C R
from (1) & (2)
|S
11
|
2
= |S
22
|
2
S
11
= S
22
÷ (3)
( ) 2 1 ) (
2
13
2
22
2
12 2 2
÷ = + + ¬ S S S C R
S-matrix of H-plane Tee
ECE 430 RF Engineering 9
( ) 4 1 ) (
2
13
2
13 3 3
÷ = + ¬ S S C R
( )
( )
( ) 7
0 * *
0
0 * *
6 0 * * ) (
12 11
12 11
13
12 11 13
12 13 11 13 1 3
÷ ÷ =
= + ¬
=
= +
÷ = + ¬
S S
S S
S
S S S
S S S S C R
( ) 5
2
1
, 1 2
13
2
13
÷ = = ¬ S S
2
1
13
= S
12 11
S S ÷ =
S-matrix of H-plane Tee
ECE 430 RF Engineering 10
Using (3,5,7) in (1)
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
11
2
11
2
11
=
= + +
S
S S
( ) 10
2
1
22
÷ = S
| |
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
0
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
S
( )
( ) 9
2
1
8
2
1
12
11
÷ ÷ =
÷ =
S
S
Power relations
ECE 430 RF Engineering 11
| | | | | |
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
3
2
1
3
2
1
0
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
a
a
a
b
b
b
a S b
2 1 3
3 2 1 2
3 2 1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
a a b
a a a b
a a a b
+ =
+ ÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ =
Power relations
ECE 430 RF Engineering 12
0
2
2
0 , 0 , 0 ) 1 (
3
3
2
3
1
2 1 3
=
=
=
= = =
b
a
b
a
b
a a a
a
3
power input at port 3
Power gets equally divided
b/n the ports (1) & (2)

P
3
= P
1
+P
2
=2 P
1
=2P
2
Amount of power coming out of port 1 or 2 due to i/p at port 3
dB
P
P
P
P
3
2
1
log 10 log 10 log 10
3
2
3
1
÷ = = = =
3 dB Power splitter

Power relations
ECE 430 RF Engineering 13
2 2 2 2
0
2
2 2
0
2
2 2
0 , ) 2 (
2 1
3
3 2 1
2
3 2 1
1
3 2 1
a a a a
b
a a a
b
a a a
b
a a a a
+ = = =
= + + ÷ =
= + ÷ =
= = =
Power output at port 3 is
(1) & (2) in phase – H arm is
also called SUM ARM

E plane Tee – Series / Voltage
junction
ECE 430 RF Engineering 14
 Cutting a rectangular slot along the broader dimension of
the main waveguide & attaching another waveguide
S-matrix of E-plane Tee
ECE 430 RF Engineering 15
 S
13
= -S
23
due to plane of symmetry at
the junction & o/p 180° out of phase
 Symmetric property
S
12
= S
21
S
23
= S
32
= -S
13

S
13
= S
31

 Perfect match at the junction, S
33
= 0

| |
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
S S S
S S S
S S S
S
| |
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷ =
0
13 13
13 22 12
13 12 11
S S
S S S
S S S
S
S-matrix of E-plane Tee
ECE 430 RF Engineering 16
 Unitary property [S] [S]
*
= [ I ]
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 * *
* * *
* * *
0
13 13
13 22 12
13 12 11
13 13
13 22 12
13 12 11
S S
S S S
S S S
S S
S S S
S S S
( )
( ) 2 1 ) (
1 1
1 * * * ) (
2
13
2
22
2
12 2 2
2
13
2
12
2
11
13 13 12 12 11 11 1 1
÷ = + + ¬
÷ = + +
= + + ¬
S S S C R
S S S
S S S S S S C R
from (1) & (2)
|S
11
|
2
= |S
22
|
2
S
11
= S
22
÷ (3)
S-matrix of E-plane Tee
ECE 430 RF Engineering 17
( )
( ) 5
2
1
, 1 2
4 1 ) (
13
2
13
2
13
2
13 3 3
÷ = = ¬
÷ = + ¬
S S
S S C R
( )
( )
( ) 7
0
0 * *
6 0 * * ) (
22 12 11
13
12 11 13
12 13 11 13 1 3
÷ = = ¬
=
= ÷
÷ = ÷ ¬
S S S
S
S S S
S S S S C R
S-matrix of E-plane Tee
ECE 430 RF Engineering 18
Using (3,5,7) in (1)
( )
( ) 9
2
1
8
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
12
11
2
11
2
11
2
11
÷ ÷ =
÷ =
=
= + +
S
S
S
S S
( ) 10
2
1
22
÷ = S
| |
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷ =
0
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
S
Power relations
ECE 430 RF Engineering 19
| | | | | |
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
3
2
1
3
2
1
0
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
a
a
a
b
b
b
a S b
2 1 3
3 2 1 2
3 2 1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
a a b
a a a b
a a a b
÷ =
÷ + =
+ + =
Power relations
ECE 430 RF Engineering 20
0
2
2
0 , 0 , 0 ) 1 (
3
3
2
3
1
2 1 3
=
÷ =
=
= = =
b
a
b
a
b
a a a
a
3
power input at port 3
Power gets equally divided b/n the
ports (1) & (2) with a phase difference
of 180° ÷ 3 dB Power splitter

Power relations
ECE 430 RF Engineering 21
0
2 2
2 2
0 , ) 2 (
3
2
1
3 2 1
=
+ =
+ =
= = =
b
a a
b
a a
b
a a a a
Power output at
port 3 is zero with
equal inputs at
port 1 & 2
2
2
2
0 , 0 , 0 ) 3 (
1
3
1
2
1
1
3 2 1
a
b
a
b
a
b
a a a
÷ =
=
=
= = =
E-H Plane Tee ( Hybrid or Magic Tee)
ECE 430 RF Engineering 22
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
0 0
0 0
14 14
13 13
14 13 22 12
14 13 12 11
S S
S S
S S S S
S S S S
S matrix of Magic Tee
ECE 430 RF Engineering 23
 H-plane Tee section ÷ S
23
= S
13
 E-plane section ÷ S
24
= -S
14
 Geometry of the section ÷ S
34
= S
43
= 0
 Symmetric property
S
12
= S
21
S
23
= S
32
S
13
= S
31

S
24
= S
42

S
43
= S
34

S
14
= S
41
 Port 3 & 4 matched ÷ S
33
= S
44
= 0

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
0 0
0 0
14 14
13 13
14 13 22 12
14 13 12 11
S S
S S
S S S S
S S S S
S matrix of Magic Tee
ECE 430 RF Engineering 24
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 * *
0 0 * *
* * * *
* * * *
0 0
0 0
14 14
13 13
14 13 22 12
14 13 12 11
14 14
13 13
14 13 22 12
14 13 12 11
S S
S S
S S S S
S S S S
S S
S S
S S S S
S S S S
( )
( )
( ) 3
2 1 ) (
1 1 ) (
22 11
2
14
2
13
2
22
2
12 2 2
2
14
2
13
2
12
2
11 1 1
÷ =
÷ = + + + ¬
÷ = + + + ¬
S S
S S S S C R
S S S S C R
S matrix of Magic Tee
ECE 430 RF Engineering 25
( ) 8 0
0
1
2
1
2
1
12 11
2
12
2
11
2
12
2
11
÷ = =
= +
= + + +
S S
S S
S S
Using (3,5,7) in (1)
( )
( ) 5
2
1
4 1 ) (
13
2
13
2
13 3 3
÷ =
÷ = + ¬
S
S S C R
( )
( ) 7
2
1
6 1 ) (
14
2
14
2
14 4 4
÷ =
÷ = + ¬
S
S S C R
| |
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
0 0
2
1
2
1
0 0
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
0 0
2
1
2
1
0 0
S