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Prof. Madhab. Dash,
All forms of life owe their existence to the mother Earth and to the maintenance of
ecological order (ecological balance) in nature. This balance is maintained by:
#"$ R"!h b"o%d"&'rs"t(, #P)ants, An"*a)s, M"!rob's, + Man$
#""$ Int'rd','nd'n!' a*on- th' d"ff'r'nt )"f' for*s,
#"""$ Ssta"n'd ,rod!t"&"t( and food !ha"n r')at"onsh",s,
#"&$ Ma"nt'nan!' of natra) ,ro!'ss's of ntr"'nt !(!)"n-, 'n'r-(, f)o., ho*'ostat"!
*'!han"s*s and '&o)t"onar( ,ro!'ss,
#&$ Ada,t'd ,ot'nt"a)"t( of th' )"&"n- for*s to th' !han-"n- 'n&"ron*'nt.
The biosphere consisting part of hydrosphere (.at'r$, pedosphere #so")$, atmosphere #a"r$
and the living forms #b"o%d"&'rs"t($ have arisen in the evolutionary process.
The living microorganisms, plants and animals have specific reuirements for existence,
continuance and perpetuation. All the living forms including man get their reuirements of
gases, other matter, and energy from the environment where they live.
E!o)o-(, a word derived from the !ree" word O"/os, meaning house is concerned
with the biology of organisms, populations, communities etc. and their functions in natural
surroundings. #n another words, ecology deals with the understanding of the structure and
function of nature$ this includes the living world including man and the nonliving
substances, which are constantly ta"en by the living organisms from their surroundings to
"eep them alive.
As a scientific discipline, ecology is about %&' years old (the !erman (oologist coined the
word Ecology in %)*+), although man is aware of its association with nature , nonliving
matter since the age of -edas.

Th' ,ra!t"!a) "*,ortan!' of '!o)o-( r's)ts fro* th' ,r's'n!' of *an "n th'
.an/s evolution, its dependence on environment, his relationship with nature and the
development of his position from one of struggle against natural forces to the recent
control and use of it are included in ecology.
0re1agricultural human society, agriculture, industriali2ation, the atomic age and the
electronic age have brought the science of ecology to the forefront of human though.
Th' b'at( of '!o)o-( )"'s "n nd'rstand"n- th' natra) ord'r, .h"!h /'',s so *an(
)"&"n- or-an"s*s "n a d(na*"! !o'0"st'n!'.
Th"s ra"s's *an( fnda*'nta) 1'st"ons "n h*an *"nd.
2hat ar' th' fnda*'nta) f'atr's of th's' natra) s(st'*s3
4o. th' ntr"'nts !"r!)at' and 'n'r-( f)o. "n natra) s(st'*s3
4o. 'ff"!"'nt ar' th' natra) s(st'*s "n !o*,ar"son to *an *ad' s(st'*s3
Is th'r' so*'th"n- !a))'d !arr("n- !a,a!"t( of an '!os(st'*3
4o. !an th"s /no.)'d-' b' t")"5'd to "n!r'as' food, fodd'r and f') ,rod!t"on, to
,rot'!t 'n&"ron*'nt #)ands!a,'$ fro* 'ros"on, ,o))t"on 't!. and *ana-' th'
The functioning of natural systems is based on certain basic principles and understanding
of these principles will help man to solve many of its own problems.
In th' *od'rn !on!',t, )a.s of E!o)o-( !an b'6
F"rst La.6 7Noth"n- !o*'s fro* no.h'r', '&'r(th"n- !o*'s fro* so*'.h'r'8. And
S'!ond )a.6 Noth"n- '&'r -o's a.a(, E&'rth"n- -o's so*' .h'r' 7
The science of ecology has three aspects: (i) Theory$ (ii) 0ractical$ (iii) 3ocio1economic1
cultural, Aesthetics.
E!os(st'* Con!',t:
The living microbes, plants and animals of a habitat , their nonliving environment
function together as these are connected to each other through food chain, matter
circulation, energy flow etc. as one unit, which is called as an E!o)o-"!a) s(st'* or
E!os(st'*. .an is part of the ecosystem. This concept is holistic as all component parts
of the ecosystem function together and has functionally obligatory relationship. A natural
pond, 4a"e, 5ay, 6cean, 7orest, !rass land etc. can be considered as ecosystems.
The component parts are (i) th' ab"ot"! #non)"&"n-$ sbstan!'s found in the atmosphere,
water, soil and factors li"e temperature, relative humidity, sunlight, rainfall etc.
associated with the environment. This component changes with time and affects the
activities of living processes,
(ii) -r''n ,)ants called producers or energy transducers, which convert solar energy into
chemical energy stored in plant tissue and this energy becomes the source of energy for
other living organisms including man in the ecosystem,
(iii) Cons*'rs li"e plant gra2ers (grasshoppers, cattle, etc.), flesh eating animals li"e
frogs, sna"es, some birds, and many mammals li"e tigers and omnivores li"e man form
another component part of this system. 0lant gra2ers are called herbivores , animal flesh
eaters are called carnivores, which may be classified under different categories li"e
8arnivore1%, 8arnivore19 so on,
(iv) D'!o*,os'rs form another component. They are detritus eating organisms li"e
bacteria, fungi and some animals li"e Earthworms.
The green plants are the atotro,hs.
The consumers , decomposers are the h't'rotro,hs.
6n the bas"s of 'n'r-( f)o. "n th' '!os(st'*, th'( !an b' !)ass"f"'d into different
categories li"e:

#"$ 9nsbs"d"5'd, so)ar ,o.'r'd natra) '!os(st'*s,(7orests, !rasslands etc)
8oral reefs, :ain forests etc
#""$ Natr' sbs"d"5'd natra) so)ar ,o.'r'd '!os(st'*, #Cora) reefs, :ain 7orests etc)
#"""$ Man sbs"d"5'd bt so)ar ,o.'r'd '!os(st'*s (Agriculture, Auaculture etc)
#"&) Man *ad' foss") f') ,o.'r'd rban%"ndstr"a) '!os(st'*s.
#&$ Man *ad' oth'r art"!"f"!"a) s(st'*s #Aircrafts, :oc"ets, etc)
;atural ecosystems have provided food, fodder, medicine, clothes etc. to man since time
immemorial but now they are under intensive pressure due to many anthropogenic
Th' natra) s(st'*s ar' )ar-')( ,o))t"on fr'' and )'ss 'n'r-( "nt'ns"&' s(st'*s.
Man*ad' '!os(st'*s ar' 'n'r-( "nt'ns"&', ,o))t"on -'n'rat"n- bt h"-h)( ,rod!t"&'
and fra-")'.
A-ro '!os(st'*s, A1a!)tr' s(st'*s, Indstr"a) s(st'*s, rban s(st'*s 't! ar' *an%
*ad' s(st'*s and r'1"r' h-' a*ont of 'n'r-(, r'sor!'s and )abor for th'"r
rnn"n-. These systems, however provide <obs and productive, although th'( -'n'rat'
,o))tants that create health ha2ards.
Any disturbance in the system whether natural or man1made brings unpredictable changes
in the system and may disrupt lin"s and restoration involves money, time etc. =isturbance
in natural system may be unpredictable.
In &"'. of th"s, Th'r' "s n''d of En&"ron*'nta) *ana-'*'nt :th' s(st'* *a( b'
natra) or *an%*ad'
Fn!t"ona) Attr"bt's of th' E!os(st'* !an b' -ro,'d as:
B"o%d"&'rs"t( and *a"nt'nan!' of stab")"t(.
Prod!t"&"t( #both 0lant (primary) and Animal (secondary).
Food .'b r')at"onsh",s.
Matt'r #Ntr"'nt$ !(!)"n-.
En'r-( f)o. ,ro!'ss's.
F''dba!/ *'!han"s*s and 4o*'ostat"! ,ro!'ss's.
D'&')o,*'nt + '&o)t"on of '!os(st'*s.
Ado,t"on of '!os(st'* !on!',t and "d'nt"f("n- !o*,on'nt ,arts and
fn!t"on"n- attr"bt's has h'),'d *an to *ana-' th' natra) and *an *ad'
'!os(st'*s "n an '!o%fr"'nd)( .a( and to "ts o.n ad&anta-' ."thot !r'at"n- *!h
,rob)'* for oth'r /"nds of )"&"n- or-an"s*s.
E!os(st'*s !an b' *od')'d, and "n,ts, ot,ts, 't!. !an b' 1ant"f"'d and
,r'd"!t"ons nd'r d'f"n'd !ond"t"ons !an b' *ad'. Mod')"n- has b'!o*' 'ss'nt"a) for
'!os(st'* *ana-'*'nt.
On th' bas"s of 'n'r-( f)o. "n th' '!os(st'* th'( !an b' !)ass"f"'d "nto d"ff'r'nt
!at'-or"'s )"/'6
#"$ 9nsbs"d"5'd, so)ar ,o.'r'd natra) '!os(st'*s,
#""$ Natr' sbs"d"5'd natra) so)ar ,o.'r'd '!os(st'*,
#"""$ Man sbs"d"5'd bt so)ar ,o.'r'd '!os(st'*s and
#"&$ Man *ad' foss") f') ,o.'r'd rban%"ndstr"a) '!os(st'*s.
;atural ecosystems have provided food, fodder, medicine, clothes etc. to man since time
immemorial but now they are under intensive pressure due to many anthropogenic
Th' natra) s(st'*s ar' )ar-')( ,o))t"on fr'' and )'ss 'n'r-( "nt'ns"&' s(st'*s.
Man*ad' '!os(st'*s #A-r"!)tr', A1a!)tr' 't!$ ar' 'n'r-( "nt'ns"&', ,o))t"on
-'n'rat"n- bt h"-h)( ,rod!t"&'.
Ba)an!' of Natr':
All the eco1systems have
(i) A food ,rod!t"on !o*,on'nt,
(ii) A food !ons*'r !o*,on'nt,
(iii) A d'tr"ts%d'!o*,os'r%*att'r r'!(!)"n- !o*,on'nt,

(iv) Ab"ot"! *att'r and "ts *o&'*'nt !o*,on'nt.
A ba)an!' '0"sts b't.''n th's' !o*,on'nts. Th' bas"s of *a"nt'nan!' of th"s ba)an!'
"s '!os(st'* ,ro!'ss's )"/' *att'r !(!)"n-, 'n'r-( f)o. thro-h food !ha"n and *an(
natra) ,ro!'ss's. Ea!h "nd"&"da) d','nds ,on oth'r or-an"s*s for food + for oth'r
r'1"r'*'nt for '0"st'n!', !ont"nan!' + ,'r,'tat"on.
3ince the different forms of living organisms depend upon each other, there exists a
balance in their numbers or biomass and if one is disturbed, the other/s activity is
For '0a*,)', th' n*b'r of d''rs #4'rb"&or's$ "n a for'st and th' n*b'r of t"-'rs
#Carn"&or's$ "n th' sa*' for'st *st *a"nta"n a ba)an!'.
If th' d''r ,o,)at"on "s d'!r'as'd "t .")) aff'!t ad&'rs')( th' t"-'r ,o,)at"on.
A)t'rnat"&')( "n th' abs'n!' of t"-'r ,o,)at"on th' d''r ,o,)at"on *a( "n!r'as'
ra,"d)( to s!h a )'&') that "t .")) d',)'t' th' &'-'tat"on !o*,on'nt "n a &'r( short
t"*' and th'n start star&"n- ; d("n- or *"-rat"n- to anoth'r ,)a!'. In th"s '0a*,)' th'
-rass's ; th' d''r ,o,)at"on and th' t"-'r ,o,)at"on d','nd ,on 'a!h oth'r for
th'"r '0"st'n!', !ont"nan!' and ,'r,'tat"on.
Anoth'r '0a*,)' !an b' that th' *at'r"a) !(!)'s )"/' O0(-'n, Carbon d"o0"d', s),hr,
,hos,hors, !a)!"*, *a-n's"* 't!. o,'rat' "n natr' d' to "nt'ra!t"on of
b"od"&'rs"t( and ab"ot"! !o*,on'nts.
0lants utili2e carbon dioxide in food production during day time and release oxygen.
Animals , man utili2e oxygen for metabolism and release carbon dioxide.
A balance is maintained.
B'!as' of anthro,o-'n"! a!t"&"t"'s )"/' d'for'stat"on, s' of ato*ob")'s "n &'r(
)ar-' s!a)', h'a&( "ndstr"a)"5at"on, rban"5at"on 't!., .' ar' ,rod!"n- *or' !arbon
d"o0"d' #-r''n hos' -as$ than t")"5'd b( ,)ants. Mor' !arbon d"o0"d' "n a"r absorbs
*or' h'at and *a/'s th' ,)an't #tro,os,h'r'$ .ar*'r. Th' ba)an!' of natr' "s not
.an/s interference disrupts ecosystem processes as every ecosystem has a limit to its
carrying capacity for normal functioning.
3'urce:4iving in the Environment by .iller,!.Tyler >r,%??+.
Con!',t of Str'ss and Stra"n6
Environmental 3cientists@Ecologists agree that any environmental factor that is
potentially unfavorable to organism functioning can be called stress. 0ollutants can be
classified as stress factors. An organism/s ability to survive in a particular environmental
complex depends upon its evolutionary history. :esistance to stress is defined as the
ability of living organisms to survive and grow in the presence of unfavorable factors.
#f a body A exerts force on body B, then B must also exert a counter force on A. #n
;ewtonian terms, these two forces are t'r*'d a!t"on and r'a!t"on. Ta/'n to-'th'r,
th'( *a( b' !a))'d str'ss. A bod( r'*a"ns "n a stat' of stra"n "f sb<'!t'd to str'ss.
The magnitude of stress can be measured as the force per unit area.
The magnitude of strain is measured as the change in dimensions such as length or volume
of the body.
Each body has certain limits of continuing in a state of strain.
A completely reversible strain is said to be an elastic strain. #f it is partially reversible,
then the irreversible part is called plastic strain or permanent set.
The ')ast"! stra"n ,rod!'d b( a bod( "s ,ro,ort"ona) to th' str'ss a,,)"'d on "t.
Th'r'for', th' *od)s of ')ast"!"t( #M$ of th' bod( "s d'f"n'd as6
M =
A h"-h'r M "*,)"'s -r'at'r ')ast"!"t(.
This is the basis of study of stress biology.
A bod( "s !ons"d'r'd s'ns"t"&' to a str'ss "f a !'rta"n d'-r'' of str'ss "s r'1"r'd to
,rod!' a n"t stra"n. To !ont'r th' str'ss, th' or-an"s* *a( s,'nd *or' 'n'r-( "n
*'tabo)"s*. The stress affects health, activity, reproduction, longevity etc.
To)'ran!' 4(,oth's"s:
An environmental factor such as the temperature of the habitat may be classified
as lethal in extreme conditions (very cold or hot)
7or any single factor, different organisms find optimal conditions of existence at different
points along the range. Thus, they segregate into different habitats.
The threshold of an environmental factor is the minimum uantity of that specific factor
reuired for the functioning of an organism. 7or instance, it may be the lowest
temperature at which an organism remains active, or the minimum amount of soil
moisture, which permits earthworm to remain active.

The rate of physio1chemical processes increases above the threshold value of the factor
until a maximum rate is reached. Above this rate, a decline in activity occurs.
As already discussed, an environmental factor has a certain range within which the
species remain active and performs all functions optimally. The activity of the species is
curtailed at both the maximum and minimum levels of the factor.
Th' ,,'r and )o.'r )"*"ts of to)'ran!' ar' th' "nt'ns"t( )'&')s of an
'n&"ron*'nta) fa!tor at .h"!h on)( >?@ of th' or-an"s* !an sr&"&'.
3pecies vary in their limits of tolerance to the same factor and these limits are
usually difficult to determine.
The prefix st'no means that an individual or a species population has a narrow range of
tolerance, while the prefix 'r( means that it has a wide range of tolerance. Thus, the
terms st'noth'r*a) and 'r(th'r*a) have been developed with regard to temperature,
stenohaline and euryhaline in respect of salinity and stenoecious and euryoecious in the
context of habitat or niche have been developed.
To)'ran!' T'r*"no)o-(
Terminology Environmental 7actor
3tenothermal 1 Eurythermal
3tenohaline 1 Euryhaline
3tenoecious 1 Euryecious
3tenohydric 1 Euryhydric
3tenophagic 1 Euryphagic
3tenobatic 1 Eurybathic
Cabitat selection (niche)
=epth of water @habitat
Th' d"str"bt"on of ,)ants d','nds ,on:
#a$ C)"*at"! !ond"t"ons:
#b$ Eda,h"! fa!tors:
#!$ Abs'n!' of '0!'ss"&' !o*,'t"t"on: and
#d$ Ada,tab")"t( of ,)ants to !han-"n- !ond"t"ons.
C)"*at"! !ond"t"ons d't'r*"n' th' ran-' o&'r .h"!h th' of a s,'!"'s
Po,)at"on !an s,r'ad .h")' 'da,h"! !ond"t"ons d't'r*"n' ho. .')) th' ,)ants
2h'th'r ,)ants sr&"&' or ,'r"sh d','nds ,on th' ran-' of !)"*at"! !ond"t"ons "n
.h"!h th'( -ro.. Th"s "s !a))'d th' ran-' of to)'ran!'.
For '0a*,)', "f a ,)ant "s hab"tat'd to a t'*,'ratr' of A?
C bt !an a)so sr&"&' at
C and C?
C, th'n "ts ran-' of t'*,'ratr' to)'ran!' "s B?
to C?
C. E&'r(
'n&"ron*'nta) fa!tor has a ran-' "n .h"!h a ,)ant !an sr&"&' and -ro..
Th' to)'ran!' ran-'s ar' bas'd on ,h(s"o)o-"!a) r'1"r'*'nts. S"n!' ,h(s"o)o-"!a)
,ro!'ss's ar' )ar-')( d't'r*"n'd b( th' -'n's and 'n&"ron*'nta) "nt'ra!t"ons, th'
to)'ran!' ran-' for an( s,'!"'s "s )t"*at')( d't'r*"n'd -'n't"!a))(.
S'0a) r',rod!t"on br"n-s -'n't"! d"&'rs"t( to a ,o,)at"on and, th'r'for', a s'0a))(
r',rod!"n- ,o,)at"on .")) sa))( ha&' a ."d'r to)'ran!' ran-' than a ,)ant s,'!"'s,
.h"!h r',rod!'s &'-'tat"&')(.
Th"s Pr"n!",)' a,,)"'s "n -'n'ra) to a)) or-an"s*s #P)ants, An"*a)s, and M"!roor-an"s*s$.
La. of M"n"**:
An organism (microorganism, plant or animal) is simultaneously sub<ect to the
influence of many environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity, pressure,
oxygen content, pC of the medium, etc.
3ome factors exert more influence than others.
Dsts Von L"' b"- #EFC?) developed the concept of the law of minimum by evaluating
the relative role of these factors. Th' )a. stat's that an or-an"s* r'1"r's a *"n"**
1ant"t( of a ,art"!)ar ntr"'nt for ,ro,'r
For '0a*,)', ,)ants .")) '"th'r not -ro. at a)) or '0h"b"t ,oor "f an( ntr"t"&'
!o*,on'nt of th' so") or a"r "s d'f"!"'nt. Th' d'f"!"'nt ntr"'nt *a/'s th' oth'r
ntr"'nts *'tabo)"!a))( "na!t"&'.
If th"s ntr"'nt "s *ad' a&a")ab)' "n th' so") "n so)b)' for*, th'n th' oth'r ntr"'nts
a)so b'!o*' a!t"&' and th' ,)ants -ro. ,ro,'r)(.
B)a!/*an and Par"<a #EG?>) developed the concept of the limiting factor, which
includes the deficient and controlling factors. They cited five factors which controlled
photosynthesis$ namely,
(i)th' a*ont of !arbon d"o0"d' a&a")ab)',
#""$ Th' a*ont of .at'r a&a")ab)',
#"""$ Th' "nt'ns"t( of so)ar rad"at"on,
#"&$ Th' a*ont of !h)oro,h()) ,r's'nt and
#&$ Th' t'*,'ratr' of !h)oro,)ast.
A deficiency of these factors will affect the process of photosynthesis, irrespective
of the abundance of the other factors.
3helford (%?E9) pointed out that the limiting effect may be due to two or more interacting
factors, otherwise !a))'d fa!tor "nt'ra!t"on.
Too little or too much of a factor can be limiting.
Thus, the activity of an organism is limited or controlled by an essential environmental
factor or a combination of factors in the least favorable uantity. This is the law of the
minimum, developed originally by 4ie big (%)F') and elaborated upon by 5lac"man (%?'E),
Taylor (%?&F) and 3helford (%?E9).

E!os(st'*6 'n*'rat"on:
The structure of an ecosystem refers to the diversity, distribution, numbers and
biomass of living organisms in the ecosystem, the ualities and distribution of organic
nutrients and the physicochemical conditions characteri2ing the system. Ecosystem
function refers to the energy flow and its rates, nutrient cycling, biogeochemical cycles
and the homeostatic mechanisms that determine the structure and stability of the system.
8ourses in ecology in the senior class of the high school and in the undergraduate
curriculum must include the above aspects.
Or-an"s*, ,o,)at"on and '!os(st'* are three important and convenient levels,
which can provide the most effective basis for the teaching of ecology.
Th' or-an"s* )'&') of the integration deals with the relationship of the individual
organism and its immediate biotic and abiotic environment. The structural and functional
aspects of these systems correspond to the morphological, physiological, biochemical and
behavioral adaptations of the organism and the characteristics of the environment, to
which the organism is exposed and the interactions related to this exposure (8ox %?*').
The speciali2ed fields of the functional morphology, ecophysiology and behavioral ecology
direct much of their attention to relationships at organismal level.
Th' ,o,)at"on )'&') of integration deals with the density, distribution and
dispersion pattern, and sex and age structure of the populations, together with the
descriptions of the biotic and abiotic characteristics of the environment. 7unction in such
systems is characteri2ed by natality and mortality, rates of transfer of nutrients and
energy along trophic levels, and patterns of modifications of environmental conditions and
the operation of mechanisms of population regulation. A community consists of
populations in a specified space.
3tructure in th' '!os(st'* )'&') of integration includes diversity and relative
abundance of species, number, distribution and the biomass of various trophic groups, the
si2es, source and locations of energy and nutrient pools, and the conditions of the physical
environment. 7unction in such system includes rates of energy and nutrient transfer and
the operation of homeostatic mechanisms to maintain the structural stability of the
Non' of th's' )'&')s "s *or' "*,ortant than anoth'r ."th r'-ard to t'a!h"n-
and r's'ar!h "n '!o)o-(.
The design of a course in ecology, either in undergraduate or post1graduate curriculum
must be a balanced presentation of materials relating to these different levels.
3tudents at the undergraduate level should be given training on ecological concepts, to
handle instruments, to develop interest in field studies and to design and conduct
experiments, and use uantitative methods for analysis and interpretation of results.

Th' '!os(st'*s of th' .or)d "n!)d' Tndra, D's'rt, La/'s, R"&'rs, Ponds, O!'ans,
For'sts #Tro,"!a), Sbtro,"!a), Man-ro&'s, T'*,'rat', A),"n', 't!$, and Grass)ands "n
d"ff'r'nt )at"td's and A)t"td's 't!.
Ind"a "s a *'-a b"od"&'rs"t( !ontr( ha&"n- abot F%G@ of .or)dHs b"od"&'rs"t( a)tho-h
)and ar'a "s on)( B.C@ of th' ,)an't. Th'r' ar' EB *'-a b"od"&'rs"t( !ontr"'s "n th'
Pr'ssr' on th' L"f' S,,ort"n- S(st'*:
As ,'r s!"'nt"f"! '&"d'n!', ho*"n"ds ha&' '0"st'd for th' )ast A to C *"))"on
('ars and *an has '0"st'd for th' )ast E??,??? ('ars. Th' !h"'f sor!' of )"&"n- for
*an .as hnt"n- and -ath'r"n- food and oth'r r'1"r'*'nts fro* th' 'n&"ron*'nt.
Th' 4nt'r %Gath'r'r *an .as no*ad"! and h'n!' family bonding, social commitment
were largely nonexistence.

5ecause of his living manner individual man1woman bonding were wea". Cunter1!atherer
was not able to maintain a large family.
Bt "n !ors' of !)tra) '&o)t"on, *an !o)d )'arn to do*'st"!at' an"*a)s and ,)ants
so*' EB??? ('ars ba!/. Ths th' t'!hno)o-"!a) ad&an!'*'nt start'd "n a b"- .a(,
fa*")( bond"n- b'!a*' stron- and &"))a-'s, to.ns 't!. d'&')o,'d and *an start'd
,rod!"n- *or' food "n a -"&'n ar'a of )and than b( hnt"n- and !o))'!t"n- food.
P'o,)' !o)d s,'nd *or' t"*' at ho*'. Man%.o*an bond"n- b'!a*' *or' "nt'ns'.
The population started increasing.
In th' !ors' of !)tra) '&o)t"on, *an !o)d )'arn s' of *an( too)s and ."th n'.
d"s!o&'r"'s and "n&'nt"ons: *an !o)d *a/' ad&an!'s "n th' s!"'nt"f"! and
t'!hno)o-"!a) f"')d.
Th' "ndstr"a) r'&o)t"on "n Ero,' !a*' "n th' EI
+ EF
!'ntr(. Goods and
s'r&"!'s b'!a*' r'ad")( a&a")ab)'.
2"th th' ad&an!'*'nt "n th' trans,ort s(st'*, th' *o&'*'nt of h*an ,o,)at"on
b'!a*' 'as"'r and due to advances in medical science infant mortality decreased and the
population started growing very fast.
In an a-' of '0,)os"&' ,o,)at"on, nb')"'&ab)' s!"'nt"f"! and
t'!hno)o-"!a) ad&an!'s, th'r' "s "**'ns' ,r'ssr' on th' )"f' s,,ort"n- s(st'*.

B'!as' of anthro,o-'n"! a!t"&"t( of "ndstr"a)"5at"on, rban"5at"on, s' of f'rt")"5'rs
and ,'st"!"d's to ra"s' *or' food and for *an( oth'r a!t"&"t"'s, *an has !)'ar'd
for'sts and ,rod!'d sbstan!'s, .h"!h '"th'r .'r' not th'r' "n th' 'n&"ron*'nt or
"n!r'as'd their concentration in the environment in alarming uantities.
These activities create pollution bringing numerous diseases health problems or other
problems and destroy ecological order. =uring the last 9'' years man has created so much
imbalances in nature that its own survival is in danger.
The greed for more materialistic comfort and to meet the pressure of population
explosion, there has been environmental degradation to such an extent that unless urgent
steps are ta"en with modern technological inputs these adverse factors cannot be
A)tho-h h*an "nt'))"-'n!' and !a,ab")"t( to ada,t to th' !han-"n- s"tat"on "s
,h'no*'na), ('t th'r' "s a )"*"t to th' to)'ran!' and th' natra) f''dba!/
*'!han"s*s ha&' so *!h b''n da*a-'d that th'( r'1"r' r-'nt att'nt"on.
Po))t"on Str'ss:
3ome of the global pollution problems are:
(i$ Gr''n hos' -as's + th'"r 'ff'!t,#Cons"d'r Or"ssa s"tat"on "n Ind"an !ont'0t%
Th'r*a) ,o.'r ,)ants, M"n'ra) bas'd Indstr"'s 't!$.
#""$ O5on' ho)'
#"""$ A!"d ra"n, #*a( b' a ,rob)'* "n Or"ssa$
#"&$ Photo!h'*"!a) s*o-, #Ftr' ,rob)'* "n Or"ssa$
#&$ Etro,h"!at"on,# a ,rob)'* "n *an( .at'r bod"'s "n Or"ssa$
#&"$ Land d'-radat"on,# a s'r"os ,rob)'* "n Or"ssa$
#&""$ D'for'stat"on 't!. .h"!h !as' da*a-' to th' 'n&"ron*'nt + br'a/ th'
'!o)o-"!a) ord'r. #A ,rob)'* "n *an( d"str"!ts "n Or"ssa$.
B's"d's so*' oth'r "ss's ar'6
#"$ Th' f)( ash ,o))t"on,
#""$ So)"d .ast' + *n"!",a) .ast' d"s,osa),
#"""$ 4a5ardos .ast' "n!)d"n- *'d"!a) .ast' d"s,osa),
#"&$ Coasta) 5on' d'-radat"on + ,o))t"on ,rob)'*s,
#&$ Po))t"on "n r"&'r s(st'*s,
#VI$ F)or"d' ,o))t"on "n -'n'ra) and An-)%Ta)!h'r ar'a and Jar)a ,at "n
Ja)ahand" d"str"!t "n ,art"!)ar,
#&""$ 4'a&( *'ta) ,o))t"on, #'s,'!"a))( Chro*"* "n S/"nda &a))'($
#V"""$ B"od"&'rs"t( )oss d' to *"n"n- a!t"&"t"'s, ,o))t"on "n a1at"! s(st'*s
#"0$ T'*,'ratr' r"s' "n summer.
.etal based industries are not included
#ndia has about &9) million hectare of land area. 6nly about E'G of it (%+E million
hectare) are under cultivation , forestry and the rest of the land are either wasteland or
not utili2ed for food , material production purpose.
Ind"aHs ,o,)at"on "s arond EB?? *"))"on + th'r'for' th' ,'r !a,"ta )and a))ot*'nt for
a-r"!)tr' + for'str( ,r,os' !o*'s to abot ?.EK ha. Man has to ra"s' food, fodd'r +
a)) oth'r )"&"n- r'1"r'*'nts fro* th"s ar'a of )and.
3ince population is increasing at %.+G rate, the pressure on land to raise food etc. is
considerable. #ncreased provisions of pesticides, fertili2ers, water etc. are to be made to
meet the food etc. reuirements. This leads to causing pollution , health problems.
L't s ta/' anoth'r '0a*,)'. A ,'rson "n Ind"a *a( r'1"r' at)'ast EB? )"tr's of .at'r
'&'r( da( for dr"n/"n-, bath"n-, !oo/"n- + !)'an"n- ,r,os'. Ths Ind"ans r'1"r'
at)'ast #EEB??????? 0 EB? )"t'rs=ECCC?? *"))"on )"t'rs$ of fr'sh .at'r '&'r( da( for
dr"n/"n-, !oo/"n- 't!. ,r,os'.
B's"d's, we r'1"r' .at'r for a-r"!)tr' + "ndstr(. Agriculture reuires huge amount
of water. #n view of this management of fresh water resource is very important.
At present, we store , utili2e less than 9'G of our rainfall.
3ome rain1water recharges the ground water , most of the rainfall goes to the ocean.
The ground water recharge is not adeuate in many places.
2at'r har&'st"n- "s n''d of th' t"*'.
En&"ron*'nt "n Ind"a:
• The total geographical area is &9) million hectare (&.9) million s."m.). The total
forest area is '.*+ million s. "m. (*+ million hectare), which forms 9&.9G of the
total geographical area.
• #ndia has a land frontier of %E9'' "m., seacoast runs to about +%'' "m.
• 5iological diversity is very rich, having F*''' plant species including %E'''
flowering plants and many of them are endemic.
• 5iodiversity will play crucial role in future for survival of man"ind, if it is conserved
with utmost care.
• At the time of independence from 5ritish rule, agriculture was stagnant,
industriali2ation poor and lopsided, transport communication under developed and
social security scheme non1existent, death rate high, poverty rampant,
unemployment wide spread.
• Economic development plans were set within a framewor" of parliamentary
democracy, guaranting universal franchise. 7irst E year plan started in %?E%. :apid
economic development created enormous pressure on natural resources, forests
became degraded, industriali2ation without pollution control measures lead to
water, air and land pollution. Fro* EG>?%EGI? 'n&"ron*'nta) "ss's .'r'
!o*,)'t')( o&'r)oo/'d.
• #ndia is the 9
most populous country with %+G of world/s population and with 9.FG
of the total geographical area.
• #ndia had &+.% crore people in %?E%, F&.? crore people in %?+%, EF.) crore in %?*%,
+).E crore in %?)%, )F.F crore in %??% and at present about %%9 crore.
• This population may increase to %%+.F crore in 9'%%.
• =emand of food, shelter, water, education, health etc. will put enormous pressure
on natural resources (stoc").
• Cence careful planning and execution of programmes are very important.
Co**n"t( Part"!",at"on:
#ndia is pursuing the western concept of development to enhance the Hstandard of
livingI in terms of material growth and prosperity. The alternate concept of development
(4argely Eastern #ndia) to enhance Hstandard of lifeI in the way of spiritual inner
rehabilitation with minimum material needs and minimum consumerism and ecofriendly
habits, which are largely forgotten. #ndian thought centers around the concept that man is
a partner with nature and this partnership has brought respect@worship for nature. #n
alternative thin"ing, man is the sovereign monarch and can control nature. This concept
has brought more environmental degradation. :apid industriali2ation and technology
progress has constantly increased the negative influence on environment causing reduction
in nature/s capacity of self purification and created more stress to the system and to the

8ommunity participation in any plan of restoring the balance of nature and
environment protection measures becomes easier if people are considered as partners and
they are made conscious of their rights and responsibilities. 8ommunity participation is a
dynamic concept. 0articipation can be (i$ ,art"!",ator( and '*'r-' as a r's)t of th'
,ro!'ss, #""$ "t !an b' b'n'f"t%or"'nt'd to th' ,'o,)' )"/' '*,)o(*'nt -'n'rat"on, food
s'!r"t( 't!. and #"""$ "t *a( b' *an",)at"&' both for th' !as' of ,'o,)'Lnat"on. A))
th's' as,'!ts r'1"r' )'ad'rsh", 1a)"t"'s "n so*' ,'o,)', s')f'n'ss and
!o**"t*'nt to th' !o**n"t(. Th' ,r"*ar( a"* sho)d b' to )"&' "n har*on( ."th
The industry should have the obligation to ta"e an '!ofr"'nd)( att"td', and to
f"nan!' for th' 'n&"ron*'nta) r'storat"on a!t"&"t(. Th' so!"'t( sho)d b' an 'n)"-ht'n
on' to d'*and for "t and to !arr( ot th' 'n&"ron*'nta) ,rot'!t"on ,ro-ra**'s for
th'"r b'n'f"t. Co**n"t( ,art"!",at"on "s /'( to so)&' 'n&"ron*'nta) ,rob)'*s. Non%
-o&'rn*'nt or-an"5at"ons and *'d"a #t')'&"s"on, rad"o, n'.s,a,'rs 't!.$, Pan!ha(ats
!an ,)a( &"ta) ro)' "n br"n-"n- ,'o,)'Hs'n'ss abot 'n&"ron*'nta) ,rot'!t"on.
%. =ash, ..8. %??E 5iodiversity consideration in the context of Environmental
.anagement, p1&%1&*. #n 0rof. 0.;. .ehrotra1 8ommemoration -olume =ept. of
(oology, :anchi Jniversity, :anchi.
9. =ash, ..8. 9''%. 7undamental of Ecology, Tata .c1!raw Cill 0ubl, ;ew =elhi, E9E
pages (second edition).
&. =ash, ..8. (9''F) Ecology, 8hemistry and .anagement of Env. 0ollution, .acmillan
8omp., ;ew =elhi, &99 pages.
F. -allete, >im %??+ (8oordinator) The Dorld 5an"/s >uggernaut, The 8oal fired
#ndustrial coloni2ation of #ndia/s 3tate of 6rissa, ?% page.
E. 8ox, !.D. %?*' lecture and laboratory approaches to the teaching of Ecology, 5io1
science, 9' (%&), *EE1*+'.
+. .iller,!.Tyler >r.%??+.4iving in the Environment,Dadsworth 0ublishing 8ompany,J3A