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Name_______Gurkaran Singh____________ Date ______________ Section #__________

European History Review : Westernizing of Russia, Elite and Masses, etc.
The Struggle for Wealth and Empire

1. elite culture
a. minority within given range of interests; not only wealth but power, fashion, arts,
education, sciences, etc.
b. educated, spoke national language
c. rich food resources – white bread, meat, professional cooks
d. houses – lots of glass, spacious, separate functions for rooms(Salons – France),
furniture with style, china dishes
e. etiquette- manners, private theaters, salon(evening, cultured conversation),
f. read classics
g. called on doctors, but effected by plague
2. popular culture;
a. spoke local vernacular(Patois/Volkssprache) vs. national language which elites
b. oral, difficult to reconstruct  history is largely study of elites beacuase little
written records of popular culture
c. change perspectives more slowly than elites, slow diffusion of ideas
d. food shortages- cabbage, beans, rye, barley, wheat, dark bread(kinda funny
because today elites eat dark bread and populars eat white bread), little food
e. housing- crowded, dark shabby, wooden dishes -> became pewter gradually, no
glass windows, little or no furniture, no specialization of rooms
f. alcoholic drinks spread
g. called on local healers – usually women- effected by plague as much as elite
h. examining stories from middle age, told stories, astrology
3. asymmetrical relationship
a. Elites could share in popular culture by attending public amusements/ interacting
with servancts
b. Populars could not share in elite culture without exceptional transformation-
marriage/eduction- rare
4. Asia market
a. Gold drain – Asians rejected European manufactured goods, all Asians wanted
was gold in exchange for their spice, china, cotton, rugs, silks
5. plantation system of the 18th century
a. economic unit : land + capital investment + forced/slave labor = cheap sugar
6. The transmission of culture
a. Elites – books, word of mouth within favored family and social circles
b. Popular- oral – difficult to reconstruct- more resistant to change perspectives
7. African slaves trade
a. Increased rapidly with development of plantation economy (sugar, cotton)
b. Slaves reached Virginia before pilgrims
c. 610,000 slaves brought to Jamaica 1700-1786
d. Dominated by Britain and New England
e. Fundamental economic institution that led to the rapid growth of trade within the
Britiish empire and the phenomenal rise of British capitalism
8. Mercantilism
a. Opposed guilds
b. Cut down on imports, improved exports
c. Self-sufficiency
9. Education after 1550
a. Met by wide outburst of philanthropy
b. Wide range of social classes
10. In terms of religion
a. Religion served as equalizing agent
b. Everyone subject to same moral obligations that transcended social class
c. Differences existed where separate churches based on class
d. Elite- becoming skeptical
e. Popular- internal mission work, limited access in some areas
11. South Sea Bubble refers to
a. Formed to exploit asiento and other commercial privileges extorted from Spain
b. Held government debts
c. Stocks overvalued
d. Stockholders began to sell, panic
e. Collapse of company – people lose all their money
12. Fairs, carnivals (farewell to meat) were expressions of popular culture
a. Contact with outside world – goods and information from outside
b. Entertainment
c. Place for drinking, merrymaking
d. “World turned upside down”- role reversal  men wearing women’s clothes,
servants ordering masters
i. Revolutionary attitudes possible expressed
e. Proceeded Lent
13. Large tariff-free internal markets;
a. France and Britain had huge tariff- free internal markets
b. Great deal of economic activity domestic, exchange between towns
c. Foreign trade becoming increasingly important
14. The Dutch:
a. Lost political power
b. Remain middle men in trade
i. Led commerce, shipping, finance
ii. Lowest shipping rates in the world
iii. Financed everything
15. British and French won the commercial rivalry of 18th century
a. Shows need for diplomatic, military, capital, and naval support
b. British and French had high levels of domestic production and national
governments that protected mercantile interests
c. Led to immense profits- France leader in Europe and Middle East, Britain in
America and Asia
16. New wealth of Western Europe in the 18th century ;
a. Married with aristocrats
b. Mainly happened if you were a merchant
c. Ex. Thomas Pitt in England, Jean-Jospeh Laborde in France
17. The relationship between the wealthy and national governments during the 18th century :
a. If wealthy supported government by taxes and loans, it was strong (Britain)
b. If wealth did not support government, it failed(France)
18. Merchants who grew wealthy in the global trade of the 18th century:
a. Thomas Pitt in England – worked in India – interloper – traded in defiance of
legal monopoly of East India Company
i. Bought diamond which sold for many time its value
ii. got seat in House of Commons
iii. prominent children – Wiliam Pitt
b. Jean-Jospeh Laborde in France
i. Built vast plantations in Santo Domingo- raised huge amounts of money
to pay for revolutions (American, French)
ii. guillotined
19. Louis XV
a. Got throne at young age, nobles took advantage of weak regent – Duke of
b. Reemergence of aristocracy
c. Indolent, selfish
20. Parliament
a. Different from parlements of France
b. Effective machine for conduct of public business
c. Corrupt, slow, expensive- but effective
d. House of Lords, House of Commons- made up of the wealthy and mainly
representing money interests
21. The custom of status or role reversal
22. The global economy of the 18th century
a. dominated by Dutch, British and French
23. Companies such as the East India Company:
a. Set up to trade internationally
b. Became holders of government debt and received monopolies
c. British and French companies succeeded
24. Cardinal Fleury ;
a. Came to power after bubbles in France
b. Aimed at peace like Walpole, drawn into small war
c. Repudiated debts
25. George I
a. House of Hanover
b. King of Britain
c. Supported by Whigs who feared that they would lose money that they had lent to
government if James III came and took over
d. Also feared they might lose principles of Glorious Revolution
26. Walpole- Britain
a. Became principal minister to George I
b. Saved principle institutions
c. Did not default on debts- established a sinking fund by which government
regularly set aside the money to pay interest and principal on its obligations, and
ultimately paid all debts
d. “Let the sleeping dogs lie”
e. Called first prime minister and architect of cabinet government- cabinet
responsibility to majority in parliament
f. Saw to it that majority supported him by rigging
g. Avoided sticky issues
h. Supported Bank, trading compnies, financial interests
27. John Law
a. Scottish financier
b. Founded Bank of France
c. set up Mississippi Company – founded New Orleans, absorbed other trading
companies- monopoly of colonia trade
i. shares rose rapidly, confidence was lost and a crash followed
ii. picked up entire French government debt – proposing to pay debts by
colonial profits and the right to collect all French indirect taxes
28. working cabinet government
a. Set up by Robert Walpole
b. Cabinet government- a system in which the prime minister and the ministers who
head the cabinet department are also members of the legislative body
29. The Whig and Tory parties
a. Parties tended to dissolve after 1714
b. Whigs – government and Anglican bishops close to government, supported
George I of Hanover
c. Tories- against government, suspicious
30. "Mississippi" bubbles
a. See John Law
31. In the aftermath of the "bubbles"
a. Indignation
b. Development of joint stock financing slowed down
c. In France –
i. Bank of France ended
ii. Growth of capitalism retarded
iii. Government repudiated debt  discouraged people from lending to
government, lost credit. Could not tap wealth of subjects
iv. Tax reform prevented
d. Britain responded better-
i. Walpole saved institutions
ii. Did not default on credit – British government gained trust and
confidence of lenders
iii. Bubble Act- forbid all companies except those specifically chartered by
the overnment to raise capital by sale of stock
32. Mountebank
a. Mounted a platform where he sold questionable remedies for various ills while
keeping up a patter of jokes and stories, often accompanied by a clown
b. charlatan
33. bullionism
34. self-sufficiency
a. mercantalism
35. domestic
a. self- sufficient, putting out system
36. free trade
a. large free trade zones in France and Britain promoted internal commerce
37. raw materials
a. only imports needed according to mercantilist economy
b. lots came from Eastern Europe in exchange for finished goods
38. Trading monopoly
a. Government got money by chartering companies, giving them monopokies, and
then receiving large cash reserve as a loan – happened with companies that had
bubbles and collapsed for most part. Ex. South Sea Co.
b. Granted to East India Company and other companies that assumed government
39. the national language
a. national language grammer and spelling regularized
b. spoken by elites/educated- enabled educated to participate in elite institutions of
government, commerce, proessions
c. sign of elite until spread of universal education
40. Local dialect
a. Patois in French,Volkssprache in German
b. Local vernacular
c. Spoken by populars
41. Hogarth
a. Painter of “Gin Lane” depicting popularity and dangers of alcohol in the lives of
Britain’s working classes- shows public drunkenness in streets of london
42. Regency
a. Period of the reign of the Duke of Orleans
b. Aristocratic reemergence
43. Non-jurors
a. Group of Anglican clergy who refused oath of loyalty
b. Outside official church
44. Guinea
a. Gold Coast
b. Became name of a gold coin minted in England
45. putting out system
a. aka domestic system
b. Entrepreneurs created division of labor
c. Gave group tool to do specific job, and then passed on to next specialized group
to create finished good- cottage industry
46. Commercial capitalism
a. Lasted till industrial capitalism
b. Merchants + producers +buyers and sellers
47. the old aristocracy and the new rich of the merchant classes:
a. intermarried
b. women played essential economic role in carefully arranged marriage that both
protected and increased the wealth of upper class families
c. Bourgeois and aristocratic merged
48. James III
a. Called the Pretender
b. Newest in line of exiled Stuart throne
c. Supported by Jacobites
d. Attempted to take throne in 1715 and 1745
49. Chartered private companies
a. Government chartered companies that helped with debt like East India Company,
50. “madness of crowds”
a. possibly related to the frenzies during bubbles
51. 18th century warfare
a. slow, formal, elaborate, indecisive
b. armies consisted of economically worthless in society
c. Weaponry- smooth bore muskets, limited cannon
d. Fought between governments. Fought for power, prestiegem calculated practical
interests, not for ideologies, moral principles, or ways of life
52. The War of Austrian Succession:
a. Frederick the Great of Prussia – invaded Silesia, justified by “reason of state”,
violated Pragmatic Sanction
b. powers(France, Spain, Prussia) united against Maria Theresa of Austria,
supported by Hungarians, Holland, British, Dutch
c. British navy beat French in North America and took control
53. Lower class disturbances in this century;
a. French revolution towards end of the century
b. Otherwise, mostly calm even though peasants had a hard time and bore the
burden of taxes