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HACCP in brewing production

chain: mycotoxins, nitrosamines
and biogenic amines
M. Erzetti(1), O. Marconi(1), E. Bravi(1), G. Perretti(1), L. Montanari(1), P. Fantozzi(2)
(1)Department of Economic and Food Sciences, University of Perugia,
via S. Costanzo 06126 Perugia, Italy
Tel: +39.075.585.7911 (fax: .7939) e-mail:
(2)Centro di Eccellenza per la Ricerca sulla Birra (CERB) - (Italian Brewing Research Centre)
University of Perugia, via S. Costanzo 06126 Perugia, Italy
Tel / Fax: +39.075.585.7946
The aim of this researchwas to identity the Critical Control Points (CCPs) for
mycotoxins, N–nitrosamines and biogenic amines in malting and brewing
production chain to establish specific hygiene rules to ensure a high level of
consumerprotection with regardtofood safety.
This study reported the preliminary results obtained in the TRUEFOOD
(Traditional United Europe Food) EU integrated project improving quality and
safety, and introduce innovation into traditional European food production
systems through research, demonstration, dissemination and training
The method used is the application of the
basic principles of HACCP, Internationally
accepted and published by Codex Alimentarius
Therefore, the study was conducted adopting
the 852/04ECRegulation requirements.
CCP 1 Mycotoxins: Intake and Storage (Malting &Brewing)
- It is necessary to inspectcereal grains for any possible mould infections
and analyze for any mycotoxins already formed (VLB, 2004).
- Breweries perform careful control of barley and other cereal grains
before acceptance for malting and purpose, because mouldy grains will
spoil the flavour and other aspects of beer quality (Krogh et al., 1974).
- Analytical control isrequested.
Malting diagram
Brewing diagram
CCP 2 Nitrosamines: Kilning (Malting)
- Do not use direct-firedheat sources, but onlyindirectmalt drying techniques;
- Do not use oil but natural gas asthe kiln fuel source;
- Use sulphur dioxide in the kiln air stream seems to reduce, or prevent, the
formation of undesirablenitrosamines in malt;
- High application of bromates at the start of malting, or spraying or steeping green
malt with dilute nitricacidbeforekilning (Briggs et al., 1981; Sen et al., 1996, Izquierdo- Pulido
et al., 1996).
Management Control Point for Nitrosamines: Brewing
To reduce the potential contamination from bacteria formalized management systemare
requested with definedworking proceduresfor GHP.
Management Control Point for BiogenicAmines: Malting
- Good Agricultural Practices (GAP): No malt coming from barley grown in soils with low
potassiumor sodium or withhigh ammonialevels(Izquiedro-Pulido et al., 1994).
- Good Manufacture Practices (GMP): barley variety, storage, germinating intensity and
kiln temperature affect the final amine levels in malt (Halász et al, 1999; Kalac and Križek, 2003).
Management Control Point for BiogenicAmines: Brewing
- To reduce potential contamination from bacteria are request formalized management
systemwith defined working procedures for GHP.
- Washing the pitching yeastwith phosphoric acid lead to the reduction of Pedicocci and
consequentlyreduce the tyramine content in beer (Kalac and Križek, 2003).
* The information in this document reflects only the author’s views and the Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein
Briggs,D.E., Hough, J.S., Stevens, R., Young, T.W., 1981. Malt and Brewing Science. Volume 1 Malt and Sweet Worth, Second edition, Chapman & Hall, London.
Halász,A. , Baráth, A. , Holzapfel, W.H ., 1999. The biogenic amone content of beer; the effect of barley, malting and brewing on amine concentration. Z LebensmUnters Forsch A ,
Izquiedro-Pulido, M., Marinè-Font, A. and Vidal-Carou, M.C., 1994. Biogenic amines formation durino malting and brewing. Journal of Food Science, Vol. 59, n.5, 1104-1107.
Izquierdo-Pulido, M., Barbour, J.F., Scanlan, R.A., 1996. N-Nitrosodimethylamine in Spanish Beers. Fd Chem. Toxic., Vol. 34, n 3, pp 297-299.
Krogh, P., Hald, B., Gjertsen P., Myken, F., 1974. Fate of ochratoxin A and citrinin during malting and brewing experiments. Applied Microbiology, July 1974, p. 31-34.
Kalac,P., Križek,M., 2003. A review of biogenic amines and polyamines in beer. The institute & Guild of brewing, vol. 109, n. 2.
Sen, N.P., Seaman, S.W., Bergeron, C., Brousseau, R., 1996. Trends in the Levels of N-Nitrosodimethylamine in Canadian and Imported Beers. J. Agric . Food Chem., 44, 1498-1501.
VLB(Versuch-un Lehranstalt für Brauerei in Berlin), 2004. Technology brewing and malting. 3rd International edition. Wolfgang Kunze.
TRUEFOOD - Traditional United Europe Food An Integrated Project financed by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme for RTD
Contract Number: FOOD-CT-2006-016264
Web Site: E-mail:
Preliminary information is now available to keep
under control mycotoxins, nitrosamines and
biogenic amines along the malting and brewing
Three Critical Control Points were efficaciously
identified and included with this research in the
HACCP management program for beer brewers.
Moreover, the integration of these CCPs in quality
systems, and tracking and tracing procedures in
brewers’ quality control schemes ispossible.
The definition of a specific management system
(guide-lines) for SMEs brewers will be the aim for the
next part of the research.