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INTRODUCTION

:-

In general, many advances were made in medicine and development
of pharmaceutical industry, but the use of herbal medicine has not been
reduced which is true for the advance countries as well as in under
developed countries. It is some what paradox, therefore, that at a time when
there is unprecedented number of the therapeutic drugs available for the
treatment of disease, that herbal remedies continue to be demanded by the
general public. In fact, this demand is increasing each effective herbal
remedies. WHO has done some work on it and they made some criteria in
respect of evaluation / determination of adverse effect and features of
herbal remedies and that are general information like scientific name,
synonym, vernacular names, geographical distribution, description, plant
part, organoleptic properties, microscopic characteristics, powered plant
material, general identification test, purity test, pesticide residues, heavy
metals, radioactive residue, chemical assay, major chemical constituents
medicinal use supported by chemical data and its pharmacology.

Major problem is the nature of herbal ingredients, which are
complex mixtures of constituents and that varies with environment and
genetic factors. Furthermore, the constituents responsible for the claimed
therapeutic effects are frequently unknown or partly explained. Control of
herbal ingredient in starting material and finished product is also problem
and needs extensive studies and researches. The extracts of Tridax
procumbens have been reported to have various pharmacological effects,
like antimicrobial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, Antidysentery,
Antidiarrhoeal, Hypoglycemic effect, Antibacterial, Antiseptic, Insecticidal
properties and to prevent the falling of hair.

Biological source: -

It consist of dried wholes plants of tridax procumbens belonging to family
Asteraceae.

Leaves:-
Bronchial catarrh, dysentery, diarrhea and hair restorative.

Leaf juice:-

Antiseptic, insecticidal , parasiticidal properties and is used externally to stop
bleeding from cuts.

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Heliantheae
Genus: Tridax
Species: T. procumbens
Binomial name: Tridax procumbens L

PLANT INTRODUCTIONS:-

Photographs
Synonym: - Ekapushpi

Botanical Name: - Tridax procumbens Linn

Family: - Asteraceae

Local name: - Dhaman grass

Diff. Language Name: - Dagadi pala in Marathi, ghamra in Hindi, coat buttons in
English, Jayanti Veda in Sanskrit

Useful Part Used: - Whole plants

PLANT DESCRIPTION: -
A spreading annual herb grows up to 20 cm in height. Leaves simple, opposite,
serrate or dentate, acute, fleshy and pubescent. Flowers in head, long stalked and
whitish. Seeds are numerous, small with tuft of silky hairs on one side for wind
dispersal.

LITERATURE SURVEY:-

Upon literature survey it is found that various extract of different part of this
plant are used in the indigenous system of medicine as antimicrobial activity, anti-
inflammatory activity, Antidysentery, Antidiarrhoeal, Hypoglycemic effect,
Antibacterial, Antiseptic, Insecticidal properties and to prevent the falling of hair. The
leaves are reportedly used to treat bronchial catarrh, dysentery, diarrhoea and as a hair
restorative. A paste prepared from the whole plant is taken orally to relieve diarrhoea.
A fine paste of the leaves is applied externally to reduce swelling of hemorrhoids. The
leaf powder mixed with that of Cicer arietium (fabaceae papilionoideae) in a 2:1 ratio is
taken orally to treat diabetes. Leaf juice possess antiseptic, insecticidal and parasiticidal
properties and is used externally to stop bleeding from cuts. The whole plant and seed
being used to treat a variety of ailments. A large number of Alkaloids, Tannin, Saponin
and Flavonoids are possessing noteworthy biological and pharmacological properties.
They have been isolated from leaves, flowers, stem and seeds.

Diarrhoea

Diabetic

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES
To reduce swelling of haemorrhoids
Antiseptic & to stop bleeding

swe
Distributions: - This plant grows in tropical and subtropical regions of all over India
and it is found in gardens as ornamentals. Fresh leaves of Tridax Procumbens collected
from the botanical garden and villages of Pune district, Maharashtra (India) during the
month of June and July and were identified by the botany department of C. T. Bora
College of Science, Shirur.

PRELIMINARY STUDIES:-

DOSAGE:-

Dose %Inhibition Action
400mg/kg 52.50 Anti-inflammatory

250mg/kg 68.26 Anti-diabetics

500mg/kg 71.03 Anti-diabetics
EXTRACTION PROCESS:-

Material and method:-

a) Infusion

b) Maceration

c) Percolation

T. procumbens was extracted by simple maceration process. 300g of fresh
leaves were ground with the help of mortar and pestle. Juice obtained was filtered
through muslin cloth. The filtrate was evaporated by rotary evaporator (cryochiller).
The extraction was filtrated and dried by rotary evaporator.

METHOD OF PREPARATIONS :-

Uses described in folk medicine, not supported by experimental or clinical data:
Bronchial catarrh, dysentery, diarrhoea, hair restorative, insecticidal and
parasiticidal properties and it is used externally to stop bleeding from cuts.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION:-

(A) Organoleptic character:

Part: - Leaves

Arrangement: - Opposite

Size: - 3-7 cm long, 1- 4 cm wide

Shape: - Lanceolate to ovate

Colour: - Green

Odour: - Characteristic

Taste: - Acrid

Appearance: - Rough & Scabrous

Margin: - Irregularly toothed

Apex: - Acute

Base : - wedge shaped

Texture: - Short

(B) Determination of Ash Value % (w/w)

1. Total ash: - 11.88

2. Acid insoluble ash: - 3.05

3. Water soluble ash: - 2.41

4. Sulphated ash: - 20.11

5. Loss on drying: - 13.00

(C) Determination of Extractive Values

Solvent Value % (w/w)

1. Haxen : - O8.90

2. Ethanol: - 07.17

3. Water: - 28.16
(D) Microbial Study:

(1)Material is free from other than original plant source.

(2) Free from insects, moulds or other animal contamination.

(3) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(E) Quantitative Microscopical studies:-

Leaf constant Upper Lower
epidermis(/mm2) epidermis(/mm2)
Vein islet number 32.33 20.66

Vein termination number 32.66 19.66

Stomatal index 39.12 36.31

Trachoma number 9.66 21.33

(F) Major chemical constituents:

(1) ß-sitosterol-3-0-ß-D-xylopyranoside

(2) Quercetin,

(3) Dexamethasone

(4) Luteolin

(5) Glucolutin.

(G) General identity test:-

Macroscopic and microscopic examination, chemical tests, and thin-layer
chromatography for the presence of the presence of diterpens lactones.

(H) General identification and chemical test:-

1.Saturated picric acid + Plant extract
Yellowish- green
2.Nitric acid + Plant extract
Radish- brown
3.Hydrochloric acid+ Plant extract
Green
4.Sulphuric acid (80%)+Plant extract
Black
5.Glacial acetic acid+ Plant extract
Dark green
6.Iodine solution (N/20) + Plant extract
Dark green
7.Ferric solution (5% W/V aq. Solution) + Plant extract
Yellowish-brown
8.Powder as such+ Plant extract
Green

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING: -
In 2008, Dhanabalan, Doss, Balachandar, Vaidheki and Kalamani reported the
presence of an alkaloid, tannins, saponin, steroid and flavonoid. The Leaf of T.P.
mainly contain crude proteins (26%), crude fiber (17%), soluble carbohydrates (39%)
and calcium oxide (5%) In (Chadha 1976).

INDUSTRIAL APPROACH:-
FUTURE PROPOSED WORK:-

(1) Potential quality & Standardization by means of HPTLC:-

It is a preliminary techniques (analysis of one or group of samples can be
detected) and also combined action of several variables to check the potency of
chemical constituents by using various mobile phases.

(2) Structure activity relationship study:-

In a Structure activity relationship (SAR), a specific biological activity of
structurally related compounds is evaluated. The most active compound with the least
side effects will be selected as a lead structure for further development into a drug
candidate.

Structure activity analysis of the tested compounds will determine the
molecular structures responsible for the interactions with receptors on target organs.

Eventually, a series of compounds related to the most active structure will be
synthesized to improve the desired activity and to reduce or eliminate the unwanted
biological activity. The lead compound in the class will be selected for total synthesis.
(3) Different Pharmacological Activity (In-vivo Analysis):-
Like Pitta, Coagulant, Ulcer, Bronchial catarrh, dysentery, diarrhoea, hair
restorative.

CONCLUSIONS:-

As per the objective of our research, the phytochemical and pharmacological
studies of the plant, Tridax procumbens L. are done which can be of use to future
researchers. Phytochemical study revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such
as Alkaloids, saponin, steroids, tannins, flavonoids. Tridax procumbens L.
(Asteraceae) is known for several potential therapeutic activities like antiviral,
antibiotic efficacies, wound healing activity, insecticidal and anti-inflammatory
activity. The present paper highlights the exomorphology and histomorphology of leaf,
petiole, internode, root, physicochemical evaluation and preliminary phytochemical
study of the whole plants. These observations will enable to standardize the botanical
identity of the drug in crude form.

REFERENCE:- 1. The Wealth of India: Raw materials, VoI.10 (Publication and
Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi) 1988, 87-88.

2. Asima Chatterjee, the Treatise of Indian medicinal plants. (Satyesh Chandra
Prakashan, CSIR, New Delhi) 2001, Vol. 5, 180.

3. Parrota J. A. Healing plants of peninsular India. (CAB International publishing)
2001, 157-158.

4. Vyas. P. Suresh, Tiwari Umesh, Rastogi Bhawna, Singh Paramjit,
Immunomodulatory effects of aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens in experimental
animals, (Journal of Ethnopharmacology 92), 2004, 113-119.

5. Devaki Thiruvengadam, Ravikumar Vilwanathan, Shivashangari S.K,
Hepatoprotective activity of Tridax procumbens against D-
galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatitis.