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EH Review Chapter 1

1. Nature of history
a. definition of history?
b. Historical narratives and conflict?
2. Chapter 1
a. characteristic of modern civilizations
b. Indo-European
i. A new people which emerged around the time of the Iron Age
(1000. BC)
ii. Spoke languages similar to languages to those spoke in the middle
east today
iii. Were the descendents of the Greeks and other European people
c. Caesaropapism
i. A political system in which one person holds religious and
political power
ii. A trait of the emerging Western World brought about by the
Pope’s position in Rome
d. St. Augustine's book, City of God
i. Said there were two worlds
1. God’s city and the earthly city
ii. The earthly city was subordinate to the City of God
iii. Led to dualism and Caesaropapism
e. Donation of Constantine
i. The basis for the pope’s temporal rule in Rome
1. Said that Constantine had endowed the bishop with the
government of the city
2. Was proved to be a forgery
f. Greek thinkers
i. Greek thinkers such as Plato and Aristotle built upon old cultures
g. Roman contributions
h. Christianization of the Roman Empire
i. The empire Constantine accepted Christianity in the 4th century
ii. Up to that point Christians had been persecuted
iii. The 5th century in the empire was one where only Christianity was
i. Christianity as intellectual revolution
i. Rather than explore the powers of the mind like the Greeks,
Christian thinkers explored the soul
ii. They thought many Greek virtues such as beauty to be superficial
iii. Love to Christians was God
j. Germanic invasions of the West
i. Who?
1. Barbarians were non-Greek-Latin speaking peoples who
surrounded the Roman Empire
2. The first wave destroyed the Roman Empire in 476
ii. What contributions and innovations
1. Fighting and valor became more valued
2. Law was an inflexible custom of the tribe
iii. War band
iv. Social organization
1. When these peoples overran the German people’s they
could not maintain any political organization
2. Roaming bands would capture peasants and live off of
their land
a. This led to feudalism
b. Also led to the dark ages
k. Dark Ages and the
i. Church
1. During this time monasteries began to appear
a. These were like an island of peace surrounded by
ii. Barbarian kingdoms
1. Barbarian Kingdoms around Rome such as the Franks
became Christian
2. Offered Rome protection
iii. Pope
1. Peter gave the succeeding bishops of Rome the power to
be pope
l. Charlemagne
i. Restorations
1. Won back all of the original Latin Christian world except
for England and Ireland
ii. Success
1. He revived learning
2. Absorbed a second wave of invaders
a. His people remained divided
m. Feudalism
i. Serfdom
1. Originally had been slavery but transformed to the less
degrading system of serfdom through the influence of the
Christian clergy and the invention of new labor-saving
ii. Fiefs
1. Land in medieval times was broken up into fiefs. A fief was a
trust, rather than an ownership. Your oldest son could inherit the
fief, but you could not sell a fief in early medieval times.
2. A fief meant more than land. Each fief was a complete unit.
That unit included at least one village, huts for the serfs, the
manor house or castle, and areas set aside to grow, feed, or catch
iii. oaths
iv. homage
v. fealty
n. Manoralism
i. Self-sufficiency
1. Manors were places where the nobles offered protection to
serfs who in turn gave them food
2. No money passed hands
ii. Integration with feudalism
o. Why China did not take the lead in technology
p. guilds and towns
q. medieval economy and survival
r. Early parliaments
s. Lay investiture
t. Professor Weber, the Franciscans, and the Dominicans
u. Latifundia: landed estates
v. Primogeniture and entail
w. International law
x. Reciprocal relationships between ruler and ruled.
y. Intolerance of non-believers: concept of heresy
z. Doctrine of higher law
aa. Status for women