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12/14/2009

UNIVERSITY
AT PROJECT 08: COURSE FINAL PROJECT
BUFFALO

Benjamin Bolyard 34672930 | UB
Contents
Contents .................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1.1 Product Descriptions and Picture ........................................................................................................................... 4

1.2 Problem Statement ................................................................................................................................................. 5

1.3 Design Goals ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

2 Research on Existing Products ........................................................................................................................................ 6

2.1 Survey Existing Similar Products ............................................................................................................................. 6

2.2 Product Comparison ............................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Project Management ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

3.1 Gantt Chart.............................................................................................................................................................. 7

3.2 Alternative Designs ................................................................................................................................................. 8

3.2.1 Alternate Design 1........................................................................................................................................... 8
3.2.2 Alternate Design 2........................................................................................................................................... 9
3.2.3 Alternate Design 3......................................................................................................................................... 10
3.3 Pros/Cons of Alternative Designs.......................................................................................................................... 11

3.4 Decision Making Table with Explanations............................................................................................................. 12

3.5 Final Design ........................................................................................................................................................... 13

4 Project Presentation ..................................................................................................................................................... 14

4.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 14

4.2 Survey of Existing Products ................................................................................................................................... 14

4.3 Alternative Designs ............................................................................................................................................... 14

4.4 Final Design/Decision Making ............................................................................................................................... 14

4.5 3D CAD Models/Drawings ..................................................................................................................................... 14

4.6 Animation.............................................................................................................................................................. 14

4.7 Difficulties ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

4.8 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

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5 3D CAD Models ............................................................................................................................................................. 15

5.1 Number of Parts .................................................................................................................................................... 15

5.2 Parts Complexity ................................................................................................................................................... 15

5.3 Assembly Creation ................................................................................................................................................ 15

5.4 Assembled Views/ Exploded Views....................................................................................................................... 16

5.4.1 Assembled Views .......................................................................................................................................... 16
5.4.2 Exploded Views/Cross Section Views............................................................................................................ 17
5.5 Highlight of Difficult Parts and Assemblies ........................................................................................................... 18

5.5.1 Difficult parts................................................................................................................................................. 18
5.5.2 Difficult Sub-Assemblies................................................................................................................................ 23
5.6 Rendered Final Product......................................................................................................................................... 27

5.7 Product Animation ................................................................................................................................................ 28

5.7.1 How the Product is Assembled ..................................................................................................................... 28
5.7.2 How the Product Works ................................................................................................................................ 29
5.8 Overall Modeling Complexity................................................................................................................................ 29

6 Manufacturing Analysis................................................................................................................................................. 31

6.1 Bill of Materials ..................................................................................................................................................... 31

6.2 Cost Analysis/ Estimation ...................................................................................................................................... 35

6.3 2D Parts/ Assembly Drawings ............................................................................................................................... 36

6.3.1 2D Parts Dimension Drawings ....................................................................................................................... 36
6.3.2 Assembly Drawings ....................................................................................................................................... 39
7 Service Analysis ............................................................................................................................................................. 43

7.1 User Manual .......................................................................................................................................................... 43

7.2 Product Life Analysis ............................................................................................................................................. 47

8 Discussion and Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................ 48

9 References .................................................................................................................................................................... 49

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1 Introduction
Outlined in the introduction are three sections. The first section, product descriptions and picture, explains what
product I am redesigning and a picture of the product currently on the market. The second section, problem statement,
explains what I will be doing throughout the project, why I am choosing this particular product, and how I will go about
the redesign of the product. The third section, design goals, explains what the focus of my new design goals will be, and
what exactly I want to change or add to the product.

1.1 Product Descriptions and Picture
The product I am redesigning is a manual push along scooter. These scooters are good for getting around, especially on
places like college campuses. Manual push along scooters are also good for doing tricks and stunts, however this sort of
capability is not focused on in the market. One more thing scooters are great for is exercise.

Figure 1: A Razor® manual push along scooter.

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1.2 Problem Statement
Project 08 is a project of design and fresh, critical thinking. The project requires us to collect data and research a
product or create a new product/design and go through the processes required to put the product into the market. This
involves proposing a design idea, researching, design detail, 3D and 2D CAD models, creating a user manual and bill of
materials, and presenting the finished product to the class.

Scooters today are boring. If by chance they are not boring then they can be unsafe. The goal of my project is to make
the scooter safe and reliable, but have the ability to do tricks, stunts, and have cruising ability as well. In order to
measure the success of this product design, it must have qualities equal to or greater than the pros of many of the
scooters in today’s market.

1.3 Design Goals
The new scooter design will focus on the trick capabilities that scooters have always lacked. More often than I’ve seen
people gliding around on their scooters, I have seen them trying to do tricks with them or falling off of them. The new
scooter design will have better handling, stability and braking. I also plan to add new features to the scooter, making
the scooter more fun and exciting.

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2 Research on Existing Products
This section displays and explains research I have done on existing scooters. The research includes a survey of similar
products, detailed specifications of the products, and a comparison of the products. The purpose of this section is to
provide a basis for design specifications, and to formulate ideas on improvements for these products.

2.1 Survey Existing Similar Products
The new design will have to compete with the three designs below, and integrate the lightweight and stability of the
Razor Spark Scooter, the handling and rear “wing” design of the Razor Powerwing DLX, and the stability, durability, and
braking of the Diggler Dirt Dawg.

2.2 Product Comparison
The following table outlines three major scooters in the market. The goal of this table is to give a detailed view of the
specifications of each product. Specifications we are mainly interested in are the dimensions, the price, and the
capabilities. Other categories include the ground clearance, weight, and trick capability.

Picture

Name Razor® Spark Scooter Razor® Powerwing® DLX Diggler ®Dirt Dawg

Weight 5 lbs 15 lbs 26.5 lb
Braking Rear Step Brake Front Only, V Type Front and Rear, V-Type
Dimensions L(32.6”) X H(25”) L(26.25”) X H(30”) L(58.5") X H(38”)
Glide/Push Middle, Balanced Rear “Wing” Design Middle, Stable Foot Stand
Foot Stand
Price $59.99 $149.99 $199
Trick Limited, made for gliding and Best of Three, however lacks Mountain Bike type, Terrain
Capability movement. rear braking++ scooter
Ground 2” 5.25” 5"
Clearance
Pros Lightweight, stable, rear step Greater trick capability, V- Rugged, front and rear V-type
brake. type front braking, wing braking, stable middle foot stand
design in rear offers better for gliding.
control.
Cons Low mobility, not durable, only No middle stand for gliding, Very heavy, low mobility, no rear
one brake, in the rear. tiny rear wheels, no front V- step-type break. Too lengthy. No
type braking. Relatively “wing” rear design.
heavy.
Table 1: Table showing the product specifications, pros, and cons of each product.

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Razor® is, and probably will remain the largest retailers of scooters in the market. They have an array of different
scooters, for both children and young adults. The Spark Scooter is the lightest, the smallest, and the cheapest of the
three scooters. The Powerwing DLX has the greatest trick capability, and costs much more than the Spark. It features
front brakes and a rear wing design. The Diggler Dirt Dawg is the most rugged of the three designs. The purpose of the
scooter is likely for rough terrain movement. This scooter costs the most, but has front and rear brakes, and great
stability.

3 Project Management
This section of the report, titled “project management,” has the objective of planning ahead in order to finish early. By
using a Gantt chart for time management, I should never fall behind. By sketching alternate designs and formulating a
final design based on a scoring system, I will not go back and forth between designs during 3D modeling. This planning
ahead portion of the project is crucial if one does not want to fall behind later.

3.1 Gantt Chart
The following table is a Gantt chart. The purpose of the Gantt chart is time management. If each project objective is
started and finished according to the Gantt chart, then the project should be completed thoroughly and on time.
10-Nov
11-Nov
12-Nov
13-Nov
14-Nov
15-Nov
16-Nov
17-Nov
18-Nov
19-Nov
20-Nov
21-Nov
22-Nov
23-Nov
24-Nov
25-Nov
26-Nov
27-Nov
28-Nov
29-Nov
30-Nov

10-Dec
4-Nov
5-Nov
6-Nov
7-Nov
8-Nov
9-Nov

1-Dec
2-Dec
3-Dec
4-Dec
5-Dec
6-Dec
7-Dec
8-Dec
9-Dec
# Objective Start Date Finish Date
1 Proposal 4-Nov 5-Nov
2 Gantt Chart 4-Nov 5-Nov
3 Phase I 5-Nov 12-Nov
4 Report Outline 7-Nov 12-Nov
5 Research Designs 6-Nov 12-Nov
6 Phase II 12-Nov 24-Nov
7 Idea Generation 12-Nov 24-Nov
8 Elimination 14-Nov 25-Nov
9 Detail Design 16-Nov 26-Nov
10 Product Review/Redesign 20-Nov 27-Nov
11 Finalized Design 20-Nov 28-Nov
12 Phase III 24-Nov 1-Dec
13 CAD Models 12-Nov 1-Dec
14 User Manual 17-Nov 1-Dec
15 BOM Drawings 20-Nov 1-Dec
16 Rendered Images 20-Nov 1-Dec
17 Report 29-Nov 10-Dec
18 Presentation 1-Dec 10-Dec
19 Website 1-Dec 10-Dec

Table 2: Gantt Chart showing the time table for the scooter design.

The three most important dates on the Gantt Chart are the start and finish times for each of the three phases. Phase 1
is projected to start by November 5th and by finished by November 12th. Phase 2 is projected to start by November 12th
and by finished by November 24th. Phase 3 is projected to start by November 24th and by finished by December 1st. Each
section of the Gantt Chart has a different color making it easy to distinguish one section from another. If this chart is
followed well, I should be able to finish everything on time, without much stress.

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3.2 Alternative Designs
The three alternate designs had particular goals in mind. The first goal was to give the scooter much more trick
capability. The second goal was to give the scooter better safety features such as stability and braking capability. The
third goal was to make the scooter more aesthetic. The following section outlines three alternate designs whose
purpose was to meet these three main goals.

3.2.1 Alternate Design 1
This section explains the differences and details in the first alternate design drawing.

Figure 2: The first alternate design
The first alternate design incorporates front disc brakes and a rear step brake. This design also has folding capabilities
and a stable design. A rear step brake offers superior control, and front disc brakes are safe, especially when wet.

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3.2.2 Alternate Design 2
This section explains the differences and details in the second alternate design drawing.

Figure 3: The second alternate design

The second alternate design has front and rear disc brakes, as well as the rear wing design. Having front and rear disc
brakes if fine, however it can be more expensive and you may lose some control.
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3.2.3 Alternate Design 3
This section explains the differences and details in the second alternate design drawing.

Figure 4: The third alternate design
The third alternate design has a suspension system on the front axis, as well as rear disc brakes. Frontal suspension
offers stability and shock absorption when landing a trick.
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3.3 Pros/Cons of Alternative Designs
The following table outlines the better or worse qualities of the preceding three designs. This table is necessary in order
to properly construct the scoring table.

Design Pros Cons

Alternate Design 1 Stable No WingLesser Trick Potential

Rear Step Brake No Suspension System

Frontal Disc Brakes

Collapsible

Alternate Design 2 Rear Wing Design Disc Brakes are Expensive

Front and Rear Disc Brakes No Suspension System

Rear Wing Design

Collapsible

Stable

Alternate Design 3 Rear Wing Design Rear Disc Brakes are Expensive and
Unnecessary
Rear Disc Brakes

Suspension System

Stable

Collapsible

Table 3: Pros and cons of each of the three alternate designs

In the first column one can see which alternate design and a thumbnail of the design. The second column outlines the
pros of each design, and the third column outline the cons of each design. This table will be used in the next section to
help give points and formulate a final design.

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3.4 Decision Making Table with Explanations
The following table is used to make a decision on the final design of the scooter. Each row is scored on a scale of one to
ten and tallied up in the final column. The three columns correspond to each of the three designs.

Alternate Design 1 Alternate Design 2 Alternate Design 3

Appearance 8 9 10

Ease of Use 10 8 8

Weight 9 9 7

Expense 8 6 5

Trick Capability 5 8 9

Stability 7 9 10

Total 47 49 49

Table 4: Scoring table for each of the three alternate designs

Appearance is based on how cool each design looks. For example, a design with shock absorbers would get a higher
score than one without. Ease of use is based mostly on how difficult it is to use. For example, a scooter with a wing
design might be more difficult to use than one without. Weight is based on the number of features on the scooter. The
more features, the more expensive the scooter will be. Expense, like weight, is based on how many features the scooter
has. Trick capability is based on the physical shape, the braking and the shock absorption capabilities. Stability is also
based on the physical shape and on the stability control features. I rated each of the alternate designs on a scale of one
to ten. Then I saw that the three designs were very close to eachother in totals, so I did a combination of the three
designs in the final design. The final design tried to incorporate the highlighted portions of each row, giving it the best
qualities of each design.

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3.5 Final Design
This section of the report will show the final design drawing, incorporating the best qualities of each of the previous
designs. Below the picture a detailed explanation of the features of the final design are explained.

Figure 5: The final design drawing for the scooter

The final design incorporates the best parts of each of the previous alternate designs. The final design has a frontal
suspension system, front cantilever brakes, and a rear brake with the wing design. The rear brake with the wing design
was accomplished through a new design where the two rear wheels were connected to a third, smaller wheel with an
axle. Stepping on the rear brake presses a rubber cube against the smaller wheel (not touching the ground), slowing the
axle and therefore the rear wheels. The final design does sacrifice a bit of cost for the new design; however it saves
money by not using rear disc brakes. Also, the new design is a bit heavier than each of the three previous designs, but
excels in trick capability, stability, ease of use, and appearance, thus making it the best design.

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4 Project Presentation

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Survey of Existing Products

4.3 Alternative Designs

4.4 Final Design/Decision Making

4.5 3D CAD Models/Drawings

4.6 Animation

4.7 Difficulties

4.8 Conclusion

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5 3D CAD Models
5.1 Number of Parts
This project consisted of thirty-four non-repetitive parts, and a total of 133 parts with repetitions. The parts that were
repeated were the two larger rear wheels, the hinges for the two larger rear wheels, the front shocks, the front springs,
the grips, and the front trigger brakes, and the ball bearings. The ball bearings accounted for 62 of the 133 parts. The
project also consisted of three sub-assemblies, and one full assembly. Additionally, I could have made the entire front
wheel brakes, and shocks an assembly, but decided not to early on. Also, the rear axle, hinges, wheels, and braking
system could have been made into another assembly. I will refer to these as the rear wheel assemblies and the frontal
assembly henceforth. Other sub assemblies include the headlight, squeeze ball horn, and ball bearings.

5.2 Parts Complexity
The scooter had an array of parts both easy and hard. The shock spring system used helical sweeps attached to two
discs that can move in and out of the “piston” or shock chamber, allowing the springs to compress. The rear brake was a
bit difficult to create as well, because the rubber piece had to line up perfectly with the wheel so good contact could be
made. The tubular part of the handlebar horn was quite difficult, and used I used a similar approach to make the
braking cable that went from the brake handle to the front brakes. In order to make the shape, I used a variable pitch,
and made a variable section. This allowed for the “spring” to move in and out. The cable manages to not touch any part
on the way down, a great achievement for this project.

5.3 Assembly Creation
Creating the assembly was relatively easy. Since several of the bolts go through several different pieces in order to lock
them together, lining up the holes for full and proper insertion of the bolts was a bit difficult. Also, getting the brake pad
on the rear brake to line up with the extra wheel was difficult. One difficulty I ran into was when I was changing the
model appearance and the part materials, the materials seemed to disappear upon reassembling, and the only way to
get the appearances back was to re-constrain the parts.

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5.4 Assembled Views/ Exploded Views
In order to show all of the detail of the final assembled product, different methods were used. The following sections
show six renders. These renders use techniques of advanced rendering, explode views, and cross section views.

5.4.1 Assembled Views
This section shows two final fully assembled renders of the scooter in ARX rendering. Rendering methods and reasoning
behind using the methods follow in this section.

(a) (b)

Figure 6 Renders highlighting the fully assembled scooter at views (a), and (b).

I chose to show the scooter in a three point scene in views (c) and (d) as well because it really highlights some of the
features in the scooter. The three point scene gives the best “animated,” surreal look.

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5.4.2 Exploded Views/Cross Section Views
This section shows four final exploded and cross sectional renders of the scooter in ARX rendering. Rendering methods
and reasoning behind using the methods follow in this section.

(a) (b)

(c) (d)
Figure 7 Renders highlighting the exploded assembly at views (a), and (b); and the cross section at views (c), and (d) in a three point scene.
All four renders in figure 7 are in a three point scene. I chose this scene because exploded views and cross section views
have the purpose of showing detail, and the three point scene shows detail the best. Due to the enormity of the parts,
exploded views (a) and (b) have a lot going on. Further detail on the individual parts can be seen above in the part
picture and sub-assembly renders. The cross sectional views in (c) and (d) show the detail in the wheels, how some
pieces are assembled, and further detail in the headlight assembly.

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5.5 Highlight of Difficult Parts and Assemblies
Throughout the project, as with any project, problems arose and were solved. In any given project, there are usually
easy and difficult parts. The following section describes difficult parts and assemblies. Difficult parts include the brake
handle, brake cable, shock absorbers, and the squeeze horn tube. Difficult assemblies included the front wheel
assembly, the rear wheel assembly, the handlebar assembly, and the headlight assembly.

5.5.1 Difficult parts
The following section describes difficult parts. Difficulty in these parts arose from actual modeling, or design. Difficult
parts in this section are the brake handle, brake cable, shock absorbers, and the squeeze horn tube.

5.5.1.1 Locking Mechanism
The following section describes the difficulty in the locking mechanism, designing the locking mechanism, and modeling
steps necessary to create the features.

(a) (b)

Figure 8 Highlight of the locking mechanism at views (a), and a rendered cross-section (b).

The locking mechanism was difficult for a couple of reasons. First, the section had to taper from a square to a cylindrical
top in order to hold the main shaft. Second, the holes in the mechanism had to line up perfectly in order to secure the
lower assembly and shaft hinge to this mechanism. In order to see the holes for the long bolts better, I have highlighted
them in red. The main features include a protrusion, a blend, and several holes. This part turned out sleek and aesthetic
as well as serving its purpose.

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5.5.1.2 Brake Handle
The following section describes the difficulty in the brake handle, designing the brake handle, and modeling steps
necessary to create the features.

(a) (b)

Figure 9 JPEGS highlighting the brake handle at views (a), and cross-section (b).

The brake handle was designed based on a handle of a bicycle. Since the front brakes of the scooter work exactly like
the cantilever brakes that bikes have, this is a valid assumption. The handle was made with a sweep and a shell. The
pictures above do not contain the bolts that hold the clamp to the actual handle; however the hole for the bolt can be
seen in the handle. The spring keeps the handle in its current position when uncompressed. The handle is aluminum
with a metallic blue paint.

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5.5.1.3 Brake Cable
The following section describes the difficulty in the brake cable, designing the brake cable, and modeling steps necessary
to create the features.

(a) (b)

Figure 10 JPEGS highlighting the brake cable at views (a), and (b).

The brake cable was a unique and integral part of the scooter design. The cable had to span from the brake handle at
the top of the scooter, to the actual brakes in the front wheel assembly. In order to do this, measurements at different
levels of the descent had to be taken so the cable would not intersect any parts. After the measurements were known,
a variable trajectory was made so that it would widen or narrow at different points. In order to make the cable look
realistic and in order to get the cable to fit to the brake cable and brakes, a variable pitch was used. This modeling part
was a very advanced feature in pro/engineer.

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5.5.1.4 Shock Absorbers
The following section describes the difficulty in the shock absorbers, designing the shock absorbers, and modeling steps
necessary to create the features.

(a) (b)

Figure 11 JPEGS highlighting the shock absorbers at views (a), and (b).

This difficult part was the shock spring system in the front. I had to figure out a way for this to be stable and effective at
the same time. Also, I wanted this to be an aesthetic selling point for the product s. I made the exterior casing for the
spring clear. I attached the spring to two discs that are inside the chamber, these two discs are also attached to the
shaft on the outside of the chamber. So, as a force is applied above and below the spring, it is free to slide in and out of
the chamber, and stays stable at the same time. The spring shape was achieved with a helical sweep.

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5.5.1.5 Squeeze Horn Tube
The following section describes the difficulty in the squeeze horn tube, designing the squeeze horn tube, and modeling
steps necessary to create the features.

(a) (b)

Figure 12 JPEGS highlighting the squeeze horn tube at views (a), and the cross-section (b).

The squeeze horn tube was complex and challenging. At first, I was unsure how to shell a helical sweep, and then I
remembered that all I had to do was edit the section to be hollow. Attaching the helical sweep at the clamp/ball end
and the horn end was a feat, but was also accomplished with a series of complicated cuts. The air horn, in its final
assembly, turned out great, as seen in figure 12.

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5.5.2 Difficult Sub-Assemblies
The following section describes difficult sub-assemblies. Whether difficulties arose in constraining, modeling, or
appearances, the explanation will follow. Difficult sub-assemblies in this section are the front wheel assembly, the rear
wheel assembly, the handlebar assembly, and the headlight assembly.

5.5.2.1 Front wheel assembly
The following section describes the difficulty in the front wheel assembly, parts included, and steps necessary to create
the assembly.

(a) (b)

Figure 13: Renders highlighting the frontal assembly.

The front wheel assembly consists of the shock spring system, the ball bearings, the brakes, the axle, and the front
wheel. The shock spring system is a spring attached to two discs that are then attached to two cylinders. The disks are
encased in a clear chamber and the cylinders are free to compress inside the chamber. The ball bearings are a simple
bearing with a sphere cutout and a hole for which the balls can protrude and roll inside each individual chamber. The
brakes were easy to construct and constrain, as was the axle. The front wheel was made with a protrusion, two
revolved cuts, and a revolved hole pattern. Assembling the front wheel assembly was relatively easy.

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5.5.2.2 Handlebar Assembly
The following section describes the difficulty in the handlebar assembly, parts included, and steps necessary to create
the assembly.

(a) (b)

Figure 14 Renders highlighting the handlebar assembly at views (a), and (b).

The handlebar assembly consists of the two grips, the brake handle, the t section connector, the handlebar, and the
horn subassembly. Previously discussed in the report were the horn tube and the braking cable, made with a variable
pitch and a variable sweep. Both the brake handle revisions and the horn were requests by the professor, and each
turned out very well. Added to the brake handle was a mechanism allowing the handle to swivel, and a spring by which
it can return to its original position. The horn was a great addition to the scooter as it adds a lot of aesthetic quality to
the scooter. The horn was made with a revolve and a shell, very simple. All of the constraints in this assembly were
fairly easy as long as dimensions were right. Some mate angles were used to give the horn and braking handles a good
orientation. The materials used in this section turned out amazing.

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5.5.2.3 Rear Wheel Assembly
The following section describes the difficulty in the rear wheel assembly, parts included, and steps necessary to create
the assembly.

(a) (b)

Figure 15 Renders highlighting the rear wheel assembly at views (a), and a cross-section(b).

The rear wheel assembly consists of the two large wheels and their corresponding hinges and ball bearings, the smaller
wheel with its corresponding hinge and ball bearings, the axle and the rear brake. The wheels were made with the same
procedure as the front wheel, except at different sizes. The bearings were also made the same way. The brake is a
simple arc with a spring system attached for the purpose of returning the brake to its original position. Attached inside
the arc is the actual brake pedestal with the rubber on the bottom. Constraining this sub-assembly was easy save for
aligning the brake to the small wheel.

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5.5.2.4 Headlight Assembly
The following section describes the difficulty in the headlight assembly, parts included, and steps necessary to create the
assembly.

(a) (b)

Figure 16 Renders highlighting the headlight assembly at views (a), and (b).

The headlight assembly consists of three main components: the lights bulb, the headlight, and the clamp. Difficulties in
this assembly arose primarily from material choices. Creating the right materials which allowed light to pass through the
headlight, view the light bulb, and possibly show some filament was a difficult task. Creating the actual light bulb shape
and the filament inside was a difficult task as well. The headlight assembly turned out to look great. The light bulb in
particular looks very good because it has a thin filament, great threads, and a great metal to glass transition.

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5.6 Rendered Final Product
This section shows two final assembled renders of the scooter in ARX rendering. Rendering methods and reasoning
behind using the methods follow in this section.

(a) (b)

Figure 17: Two fully assembled renders of the scooter in a garage in views (a), and (b).
Renders (a) and (b) of figure 17 are set in a garage location, somewhere where you might find the scooter in a day to day
setting. I chose this particular garage because the color scheme matches the scooter well and the scooter looks very
natural in the setting. Rendering techniques used were material selection, lighting, room and environment, and
perspective.

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5.7 Product Animation
This section describes the product animation for the scooter. Two animations were completed, one showing how the
product works, and one showing how the product is assembled. The product animation for the scooter was the single
most difficult part of the project. A large number of parts contributed to slow frame rendering and difficult matching of
orientations to key frames.

5.7.1 How the Product is Assembled
This section of the report shows a screenshot of the video animation of the scooter being assembled.

Figure 18: Screenshot of the video animation of the scooter being assembled.
The most difficult part of the product animation was showing how the product is assembled. This video turned out very
well in the end. The video does a full 360 of the assembled scooter, then each sub-assembly is disassembled as camera
pans from the top to the bottom and then to the back of the scooter. The whole sequence repeats its self for re-
assembly.

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5.7.2 How the Product Works
This section of the report shows a screenshot of the video animation of how the scooter works.

Figure 19: Screenshot of the video animation of how the scooter works.
This video does a full 360 of the assembled scooter, then it shows the handle bars turning, the wheels spinning, the
back brake getting depressed, and the whole assembly getting folded. This video also turned out to be a success.

5.8 Overall Modeling Complexity
The modeling for this scooter was quite complex. My basic design intentions and the shape of the scooter was relatively
easy to model, however adding significant amount of more detail thereafter made the model quite complex. In the 3D
modeling stage, I used skills learned in each of the previous projects. I directed a fair amount of attention on materials,
giving metallic pieces a gleam and the colored clear plastic the right amount of translucency. This project was a very
large assembly, with many sub-assemblies and very many parts. Assembly creation was tedious, but moderate in
difficulty. Photo rendering was a great success, and had many complex parts.
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6 Manufacturing Analysis
The following three sections have the intent of showing the manufacturer for the scooter how the product would be
created, assembled, and how much the scooter will cost. The three sub sections included in this section are the bill of
materials (separated due to enormity of parts), a cost analysis, assembly drawings, and dimension drawings for two-
dimensional parts.

6.1 Bill of Materials
This section contains the bill of materials for the front wheel assembly, the base assembly, the handlebar assembly, and
the rear wheel assembly. The bill of materials had to be separated into four sections because it would be too cluttered
in one sheet.

Figure 20: Bill of materials for the base sub-assembly, including the headlight assembly.

The base sub-assembly contains the headlight assembly, locking mechanism, lock bolts, the main riding board, hinge
bolts, nuts, the rear step brake, and the main board hinge.
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Figure 21: Bill of materials for the front wheel sub-assembly.

The front wheel sub-assembly contains two ball bearings, the front axle, the front brakes, the front wheel, bolts, nuts,
and the two shock absorbers.

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Figure 22: Bill of materials for handlebar sub-assembly.

The handlebar assembly contains the brake handle, the grips, the squeeze horn assembly, the t-section, the handlebar,
and the grips.

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Figure 23: Bill of materials for the rear wheel sub-assembly.

The rear wheel sub-assembly contains the back axle, the hinges for the larger and smaller wheels, six ball bearings, bolts,
nuts, the two larger back wheels, and the middle wheel.

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6.2 Cost Analysis/ Estimation
This section contains the cost analysis for the finished product. This section is an extremely important step, because if
your proposed bill does not pass, then your product will not be manufactured, or your product will have to be revised.

Total
Part Cost(Each) Quantity
Cost
Main Shaft Stock 4.99 1 4.99
Main Shaft Lock 2.99 1 2.99
T-Connector 2.99 1 2.99
Handlebar Stock 3.99 1 3.99
Axle Stock 2.99 2 5.98
Grips 2.99 2 5.98
Brake Handle 7.99 1 7.99
Brake Cable 1.99 1 1.99
Cantilever Brakes 3.99 2 7.98
Poly-urethane Wheels 4.99 4 19.96
Shock Absorbers 14.99 2 29.98
Squeeze Horn Assembly 6.99 1 6.99
Clamps 3.99 3 11.97
Rear Hinges 3.99 3 11.97
Main Hinge 8.99 1 8.99
Rear Step Brake 14.99 1 14.99
Ball Bearings 1.99 8 15.92
Headlight 9.99 1 9.99
Light bulb 1.99 1 1.99
Bolts 0.15 12 1.8
Long Bolts 0.5 2 1
Nuts 0.1 14 1.4
Total(US Dollars) 181.83

Table 5: Cost analysis table containing prices and quantities for each part, and a total cost for the finished product.

Most of the prices arranged in this list are actual prices for replacement parts for scooters from Razor’s® website. With
this in mind, most markups in the list are already accounted for. In order to account for markups on stock metal listed,
squeeze horn, headlights, the braking system, and fresh, innovative design, the final marketing price would be set at
$199.99, pre-tax. This yields profits of nearly $30, or 15% when taking into account previous mark-ups. This price is
substantially higher than other scooters. The difference between this scooter and competitors is that this one is
extremely feature rich, is suitable for much larger people, and has a unique design not yet introduced to the market.

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6.3 2D Parts/ Assembly Drawings
This section contains seven two dimensional drawings. The first sub-section contains three dimensional type drawings,
and the second sub-section contains four sub-assembly drawings showing how the assemblies are put together for
manufacturing purposes.

6.3.1 2D Parts Dimension Drawings
This section contains the two dimensional drawings for the headlight assembly, the rear brake, and the shock absorbers.
These three drawings show the dimensions of the parts (in inches), with a general view, and two projection views for
each.

Figure 24: Two dimensional drawing view of the headlight assembly.

The two dimensional assembly drawing for the headlight assembly defines dimensions for the highlight holder, the
socket, the clamp, and the threading of the light bulb itself. Dimensions for the filament are unnecessary as the wire
filament is going to vary light bulb to light bulb.

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Figure 25: Two dimensional drawing view of the rear brake and the rear brake spring.

The two dimensional assembly drawing for the rear brake defines dimensions for the rear brake step, the rear brake pad
and pedestal, and the rear brake spring mechanism. Included is a general view with hidden lines to show what the brake
looks like. Also noted are the dimensions for the spring.

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Figure 26: Two dimensional drawing view of the shock absorber.

The two dimensional assembly drawing for the shock absorbers defines dimensions for the axle holster, the spring
system, and external spring casing. Included is a general view with hidden lines to show what the shocks looks like. Also
noted are the dimensions for the spring.

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6.3.2 Assembly Drawings
This section contains the assembly drawings for the full product, the front wheel assembly, the base assembly, the
handlebar assembly, and the rear wheel assembly. The product is separated into four sections because it would be too
cluttered to assemble all in one sheet.

Figure 27: Assembly view for the base sub-assembly, including the headlight assembly.

The base sub-assembly contains the headlight assembly, locking mechanism, lock bolts, the main riding board, hinge
bolts, nuts, the rear step brake, and the main board hinge. This assembly is connected through a series of mostly bolts,
but some welds as well.

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Figure 28: Assembly drawing for the front wheel sub-assembly.

The front wheel sub-assembly contains two ball bearings, the front axle, the front brakes, the front wheel, bolts, nuts,
and the two shock absorbers. This assembly construction follows. The spring shock system is actually sealed inside the
chamber, not allowing disassembly. The front brakes are clamped to the front shocks, the axle is secured to the shocks
through two lock and nut bolts, and the wheel is secured between the two shocks by two ball bearings with enough
clearance solely for the balls to run along the inside of the wheel.

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Figure 29: Assembly drawing for the handlebar sub-assembly.

The handlebar assembly contains the brake handle, the grips, the squeeze horn assembly, the t-section, the handlebar,
and the grips. The brake handle is pinned to the securing clamp with a nut and bolt. The brake handle and the horn
assembly are both clamped to the handlebar, and the grips are fit snug on the end (force fit.)

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Figure 30: Assembly drawing for the rear wheel sub-assembly.

The rear wheel sub-assembly contains the back axle, the hinges for the larger and smaller wheels, six ball bearings, bolts,
nuts, the two larger back wheels, and the middle wheel. The assembly for this is a bit more complicated, but still not
hard. Each of the hinges is secured to the main riding board by nuts and bolts. The axle slides through the first hinge
hole, then a ball bearing, then the first large wheel, then another ball bearing, then through the hinge again. It slides as
such through the next two wheel systems as well. The axle is then secured on each end with a nut and bolt.

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7 Service Analysis
The following sections are for the purpose of the user, and the company. The first section is the user manual which the
consumer would use to review safety warnings, assembly information, usage instructions, and warranty information.
The second section describes the lifecycle of the product. The manufacturing company would use this to determine how
long the product will last for both the consumer and in the market.

7.1 User Manual
The following is the user manual, minus the table of contents, for the BB Whiplash® scooter.

Safety Warnings
The BB Whiplash® Scooters are meant to be used only in controlled environments free of potential traffic hazards and
not on public streets. Do not ride a scooter in any areas where vehicle traffic is present. The rider must maintain a hold
on the handlebars at all times.

1) Scooter riding can be a dangerous activity. Scooters are moving, riding objects and it is therefore possible to get
into dangerous situations and/or lose control and/or fall. This can cause serious injury, so caution should be
observed.
2) Always wear safety equipment such as helmet, knee pads and elbow pads. Also, be sure to wear shoes at all
times.
3) Be sure to ride on smooth, paved surfaces. Try to avoid objects such as drainage gates, sharps bumps, etc.
because the scooter may come to a full stop, instantly.
4) If riding when dark, be sure to use the headlight.
5) Watch for vehicles and pedestrians.
6) The rear brake may get hot after continual use, so be sure to not touch after extended use.
7) Braking, handling, and vision may be impaired in poor weather conditions, so observe caution during these
times.

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Required Tools:

Standard Philips head screwdriver:

Figure 31: Standard Philips head screwdriver.

Standard 0.5” adjustable, or non-adjustable wrench

Figure 32: Standard non-adjustable wrench.

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Assembly
BB Whiplash® Scooters are sent partially assembled in the box. Remove contents from box. Inspect the scooter for
scratches in the paint and/or dents that may have occurred during shipping. Because your scooter was nearly fully
assembled and packed at the factory, there should not be any problems, even if the box has a few scars or dents.
Included in the box should be the scooter, along with a headlight, and an air horn. Following are instructions for
assembling the air horn and headlight to the scooter:

Headlight:

1. Remove the handlebar assembly by sliding the main shaft out of the T-Section.
2. Slide the headlight assembly down the main shaft.
3. Fasten the holding clamp.
4. Replace the handlebar assembly by fastening the T-Section to the main shaft.

Air horn:

1. The air horn is attached to the handlebars by the included clamp.
2. Slide the rubber grips off.
3. Slide the air horn on the handlebars
4. Fasten the holding clamp.

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Figure 33: Main Assembly Components Drawing for BB Whiplash® user manual.

Usage and Set-Up Instructions:

Before you ride:

Safety Check:

1) Make sure screws fastening the steering column to the collar, the hinge to the riding board, and the handlebars
to the steering column are tight.
2) Periodically inspect the wheels for wear, and make sure the bearings are well lubricated.
3) Test the front and back brakes for good, clean contact.

Cleaning Your Scooter

1) Wipe with a damp cloth to remove dirt and dust.

How to Ride

1. Place one foot on the baseboard, push forward with the other foot.
2. Steer with the handlebars by rotating clockwise or counterclockwise to turn right, or left, respectively.
3. For wheelies, lean back slightly and pull back on the handlebars.
4. For enhanced “one wheel” wheelies, place one or both feet on the rear wing to the side you want to wheelie.
5. To stop, squeeze the front brake handle, or depress the rear step brake.

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Warranty Information

BB Whiplash® Limited Warranty

BB Manufacturing Inc. warranties this product to be free of manufacturing defects for a period of 6 months from date of
purchase. This Limited Warranty will be void if the product is ever:
1. Used for anything other than recreation.
2. Modified in any way.
3.
BB Whiplash® Extended Warranty Information

BB Manufacturing Inc. does not offer an extended warranty.
If you have purchased an extended warranty, it must be honored by the store at which it was purchased.

Replacement Parts

Replace worn or broken parts immediately. Call 1-800-WHIPLASH (1-800-944-5274) for parts.

7.2 Product Life Analysis
The BB Whiplash® will require very little assembly out of the box. Once the air horn and headlight are attached, the
scooter will be ready to ride. The BB Whiplash® is a complete product. As such, no modifications should, or need be
made to the scooter. This adds a great benefit, as most people who will purchase this scooter will want to get the
scooter and begin riding immediately (after reading the user manual of course!) The scooter will be able to endure
regular wear and tear, but after extended use (~1-1.5years) replacement wheels or ball bearings may be necessary. The
product will likely not receive any additional parts in the future. It is possible that improvements or an alternative
design may be released however. Such a product might be called the BB Whiplash Mark II. The product’s life will be
limited to the maintenance and care given to the product, through cleaning and replacement parts.

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8 Discussion and Conclusion
Overall, this project was a great success. From research and design, to modeling, to realistic rendering and
manufacturing analysis, the project turned out very well. One area that ended up being a disappointment was the cost
analysis section. After crunching the numbers, I discovered that the scooter would cost nearly $200, which is far too
much for a scooter for the average consumer. The only really big problem that I faced was doing the animations. With
the great number of parts in my project, it was difficult to show how the assembly is put together. Orienting the views
with the key animations was difficult, and in retrospect, would have been easier to split it into two or three different
videos. Other than that, most areas of the project went very smoothly. If given more time, I may put more effort into
the design of the scooter to make sure that it is safe and fully functional. I would find people with scooters, test their
scooters, and develop further designs from information obtained. With more time and computer power, I would make
very realistic photo renderings and animations. From this project in particular, I have learned that time management is
crucial. With better organization skills and report writing skills, much of the time spent on the project can be cut. These
skills can be applied to all classes, especially those in which there are large projects or reports.

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9 References
1) Toogood,Roger, Pro|ENGINEER WILDFIRE 4.0. Europe: Schroff Development Corporation 2006.

2) Wrench. (2009) In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved December 5, 2009, from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/wrench

3) Razor® Spark Scooter. Razor USA LLC, (2009) Retrieved November 12, 2009, from
http://www.razor.com/products/spark-scooter.php

4) Razor® Powerwing®. Razor USA LLC, (2009) Retrieved November 12, 2009, from
http://www.razor.com/products/powerwing.php

5) Dirt Dawg®. Diggler, Inc., (2009) Retrieved November 12, 2009, from
http://www.digglerstore.com/products/dirt-dawg.html

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