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EH Review for Chapter 2

1. Luther
a. Monk who pioneered “faith alone”
b. Posted 95 thesis criticizing indulgences + other church practices of penance
c. Leo X did not initiate reform, and luther attacked sacraments, pilgramages, and much of
the church
d. He encouraged german princes to take control of their state religion
e. Lutheranism was in conflict with Charles V eventually policy allowed each state to
choose it’s own religion
2. Vernacular bible
a. Reading in own language hugely liberating from church
b. Could salvation be achieved without church?
3. Reformation and institutions of the modern state;
a. Secularization
b. Modern views on education, progress
4. Erasmus
a. Supported reform through education
b. Made greek and latin new testament, and encouraged reading it
c. Wrote “Praise of Folly” satirizing pretentious clergy
5. weaknesses of the church – simony, plural benefices poor education of priests,
etc
a. Simony = selling of church offices
b. Nepotism = inheriting church offices
c. Indulgences were sold (Tetzel was notorious for this)
d. Church unable to reform in 13th century
6. Black Death – causes and consequences
a. In 1348 half of everyone died. Towns were especially affected.
b. Labor was scarce, but disorganization made job finding hard.
c. Led to peasant insurrections like wat tyler’s rebellion in England in 1381
d. Class upheaval led to better peasant rights in long run
e. Led to some question of justice of wealthy church with poor people
7. The aims of liberal education for Renaissance
a. Separate classes by level of education
b. Manners were valued
c. Well roundedness appreciated
8. Council of Trent
a. Charles V wanted to have reform council, hampered by Francis I
b. Council wanted to define Catholicism without making concessions to Protestantism
c. Avoided expanding powers of councils
d. Justification by a combination of faith and works, contrary to Luther
e. Reaffirmed seven sacraments, trans-substantiation confession, and absolution
f. Latin was to be the language of the Mass
g. Priests were to be celibate
h. Monasticism, purgatory, indulgences, saints, the cult of the Virgin, images, relics, and
pilgrimages were approved
9. Ignatius Loyola
a. Founded Jesuits
b. Organized, missionary force
c. Part of catholic revival
10. New Monarchs" of the 15th century
a. What they did
i. Allied with middle class, defusing feudal power
ii. Developed new foot soldier armies with pikes and longbows
iii. Replaced feudal law with Roman law, and had ultimate ruler decide law
b. Tudor rulers in England began with Henry VII, banned private noble armies
c. In France Louis XI Valois built army and taxed
d. Later Francis I secured Concordant of Bologna, trading money for church offices
e. Ferdinand and Isabella split spain, but it was united by marriage and faith
11. Religious mystics of northern Europe
a. Sought religion without church, more personal
12. Renaissance characteristics of person…
a. Individual achievement was valued
b. Humans were great, everything focused on us
c. Value of scholarship
13. Boniface VIII
a. In 1290 Philip IV (France) and Edward I (England) taxed church
b. Boniface denounced this and declared pope superiority to Kings
c. Philip IV arrested him
d. This led to 70 years of Babylonian Captivity in France, reducing church’s reputation
e. Great Schism from 1378 to 1414 between those following roman and French pope
14. Unam Sanctam
a. Boniface VIII papal bull declaring papal supremacy (see above)
15. Ultramontanism
a. Catholic interpretation placing pope as really important
16. Lorenzo Valla
a. Controversial Italian humanist, rhetorician, and educator
b. Criticized some church higher ups
17. Book of the Courtier
a. Written by Castiglione demonstrating renaissance ideal person, characteristics being:
b. knowledgeable in classical subjects, proficient in sports and arms, and able to dance and
appreciate music
18. Condottiere
a. mercenary soldier leaders
19. Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
a. Issued by Charles VII of France requiring General Church Council superior to pope to
meet once per decade
b. Opposed by popes (obviously)
20. virtu
a. coined by Machiavelli
b. includes pride, bravery, strength
c. qualities desirable for a man
21. "livery and maintenance"
a. Livery referred to mercenary soldier’s uniform showing allegiance to lord
b. Maintenance was payment or legal favors
22. Star Chamber
a. English court of law to convict prominent people
b. Came to represent corruption
23. War of the Roses
a. Picked up where 100 years war left off (1450’s)
b. Private baron armies (see livery and maintainance)
24. Jacqueries
a. French peasant revolt during hundred years war
25. Catholic Reformation
a. Initiated by Charles V After Luther’s split
b. Council of Trent
c. New orders (eg. Jesuits)
d. inquisition
26. John Calvin's theology
a. Similar to Lutheranism but more strict
b. Believed in predestination with “elect” going to heaven
c. Honest work was pleasing to God
27. Sisters and brothers of the common life
a. Took no vows
b. Helped the poor, emphasized Christian values
28. Charles V
a. His reign constitutes the pinnacle of Habsburg power
b. Ruler of HRE from 1519 to 1556
c. Opposed protestant reformation and council of trent
29. Machiavelli
a. Wrote “The Prince”
i. Aimed to convince Italians of need for unity
ii. Stated that “men act in their own political interest”
b. “The end justifies the means”
c. One of many brilliant men in florence